Necessary Technical Terms of Fiqh

There are eight kinds of Divine laws regarding the deeds and action of man:

(1)Fardh (2)waajib (3)sunnat (4)musstahab (5)haraam (6)makrooh tahrimi (7)makrooh tanzihi (8)mubah

FARDH

Fardh is a Divine Command Which is established by such proof kbown as Daleel Qat’i (Absolute proof), one who neglects a fardh injunction without any valid islamic excuse is termed by the Shari’ah as Faasiq.

One who rejects a Fardh injunction is termed a kaafir and is beyond tbe pale of Islam

Fardh is divided into two classes 1) Fardh Ayn and 2) Fardh Kifaayah

Fardh Ayn is a duty which is compulsory upon every muslim. Neglect of fardh ayn without a valid (Islamic) reason validates a punishment, and such a person is described as a Faasiq.

Fardh Kifaayah is a compulsory duty, which, if discharged by a few members in a community. However, if not a single person in a community executes it then the entire community will be liable and sinful.

WAAJIB

Waajib is a Divine command established by proof known as Daleel Zanni (or such proof which is almost very strong, but of a lower category than Daleel Qat’i), one who neglects or rejects a waajib injunction is termed a Faasiq

SUNNAT

Sunnat refers to such deeds as practiced by Rasulullah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) or his Sahaaba (alaihim ur ridhwan). Sunnat is divided into two classes.

1. Sunnatul Muak-kadah
2. Sunnatul Ghair Muak-kadah

Sumnatul Muak-kadah is an action which was steadfastly upheld by Rasulullah or his Sahaaba (The Companions) and was not left off without valid reason. One who constantly rejects it is also termed as a Faasiq

Sunnatul Ghair Muak-kadah is an act which was practiced by Rasulullah or his Sahaaba, but which they left off without any excuse.

Execution of Sunnatul Ghair
Muak-kadah warrants a great sawaab (reward), and failure to carry it out does not warrant punishment.

It os also known as Sunnatul Zaa-idah and Sunnatul ‘Aadiyah

MUSTAHAB

Mustahab is an act which Rasulullah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) and his Sahaabah did occasionally. One who fulfills a Mustahab act deserves Sawaab. There is no sin in not doing it.

HARAAM

Haraam refers to a prohibition which is established by proof known as Daleel Qat’i (Absolute Proof). The perpetor of Haraam is termed a Faasiq and one who rejects a haraam becomes a Kaafir.

MAKROOH TAHRIMI

Makrooh-Tahrimi is a prohibition established by proof known as Daleel Zanni (or such a proof which although very strong, is of a lower category than Daleel Qat’i). One who commits Makrooh-Tahrimi is a Faasiq, and the one who rejects it is also a Faasiq.

MAKROOH-TAHZIHI

Makrooh-Tanzihi refers to such an act which if not done will warrant Sawaab, and if done then it will not be a punishable offence.

It should be remembered that commission of Makrooh-Tanzihi onlu OCCASIONALLY will not be a punishable offence. However, committing Makrooh-Tanzihi contantly becomes a punishable offence.

MUBAAH

Mubaah is an act which if not done does not warrant Sawaab amd if not done then it will not be a punishable offence. In other words it is an act which it merely permissible.

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