Analyzing the Proofs presented by Qabr Pujaris regarding Solidifying Graves of the Pious and Building Domes over Them

It  has  been  clearly  stated  in  the  Ahaadith  of  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  that  as far  as  possible,  graves  should  not  be  desecrated  and disrespected,  that  is,  one  should  not  sit  on  the  graves,  walk upon  them,  urinate  or  defecate  on  them,  change  their  form, etc.  All  such  acts  are  prohibited  in  the  Shari’ah.  The  grave of  a  believer  is  a  resting  place  in  the  Aalam-e-Barzakh, which  should  be  respected,  and  not  desecrated.  The question  arises  as  to  whether  building  up  of  the  graves  and building  solid  structures  around  them  and  placing  domes  upon  them,  is  included  as  respect  or  not.  The  answer  is simple  and  straight-forward  for  any  Muslim  and  levelheaded  person.  The  answer  is  that  to  build  up  the  graves  is not  any  form  of  respect  neither  is  it  disrespectful  not  to build  up  around  the  graves.  If  the  solidifying  of  graves  and building  domes  thereupon  was  a  form  of  respect,  and  if there  was  any  form  of  Deeni  benefit  therein,  then  our  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  would  most  certainly  not  have  prohibited  therefrom. If  the  matter  was  as  is  claimed  nowadays  by  the  likes  of Maulvi  Abdus  Samee’ Rampuri,  Maulvi  Muhammad  Umar  and  Mufti Ahmad  Yaar  Khaan,  etc.  that  they  advocate  Deeni  benefit therein,  and  they  claim  this  as  permissible  and  worthy  of reward,  and  at  the  very  least  they  claim  it  to  be  Mustahab, then  the  question  arises  as  to  why  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  prevented  the Muslims  from  doing  such??  And  why  did  he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  deprive  the Ummah  from  these  imagined  benefits??  The  fact  of  the matter  is  that  all  the  claims  of  these  Ahle  Bid`ah  in  this regard  are  spurious  and  baatil.  Their  claims  are  not  even worthy of the gutters.

Hadhrat  Jaabir (radhiyallahu anhu) reports,  “Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  prohibited  from solidifying  the  graves  or  to  build  anything  thereupon  or  to sit  on  them.”  [Muslim  Shareef,  vol.  1,  page  312  /  Mishkaat Shareef,  vol.  1,  page  148  /  Tirmidhi  Shareef,  vol.  1,  page 125]

The  leader  of  all  the  worlds,  Hadhrat  Muhammad  Mustafa (sallallaahu alayhi wasaĺam) has  expressly  prohibited  from  such  actions.  Who  then  is there  that  can  overturn  his  expressed  prohibition  and audaciously  claim  benefits  in  what  he  has  prohibited  from?? Hadhrat  Imaam  Nawawi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  comments  on this  Hadith  thus,  “We  do  not  regard  it  as  correct  (sensible) that  more  sand  be  placed  on  a  grave  than  what  was  taken out of it. We  regard  solidifying  grave  as Makrooh…because  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  forbade  building  four  walls around  a  grave  and  solidifying  it.  This  is  our  Math-hab and  this  is  also  the  view  of  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah (rahmatullah alayh).”  [Kitaabul Aathaar pages. 96/97]

Has  anyone  the  right  to  oppose  the  explicit  Hadith  of Hadhrat  Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)?  Has  any  Hanafi  attained  such  a rank  that  he  omits  the  fatwa  of  Hadhrat  Imaam Abu Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh)  which  is  based  on  an authentic  Hadith??  Remember  this  view  of  Imaam  Abu Hanifah  has  been  related  without  any  intermediary  via  his student  Imaam  Muhammad  (rahmatullah  alayh),  who  also held  the  same  view.  Just  take  a  look  at  the  ignorance  and treachery  of  Mufti  Ahmad  Yaar  Khaan,  that  he  cites Imaam  Sha’raani  (rahmatullah  alayh)  [passed  away 973AH],  reporting  from  Hadhrat  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah (rahmatullah  alayh)  that  he  said  it  is  permissible  to  solidify   graves  and  build  domes  thereupon.  Further  on  he  opens  up the  fort  by  claiming,  “It  is  now  confirmed  that  we  have found  reference  of  the  Imaam  of  our  Math-hab,  Imaam Abu  Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh)  that  it  is  permissible  to build domes on graves.” [Jaa-al Haqq, page 274]

Subhaanallaah!  A  sufi  of  the  10th  century  makes  an unsubstantiated  statement  which  clearly  contradicts  the clear  Math-hab  of  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh) as  reported  by  Imaam  Muhammad  (rahmatullah  alayh)! This  view  is  of  no  consequence.  

Although,  after  citing  authentic  Hadith  and  the  view  of Hadhrat  Imaam  Saheb,  there  is  no  need,  but  we  will nevertheless  lay  bare  the  actual  ruling,  in  order  to completely  clarify  the  matter,  by  listing  the  rulings  of various Hanafi Fuqaha-e-Kiraam (rahmatullah alayhim).

Allamah  Halbi  Hanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  states,  “It  is Makrooh  to  solidify  the  graves  and  to  plaster  them.  This  is the  ruling  of  three  Imaams…Imaam  Abu  Hanifah (rahmatullah  alayh)  states  that  to  build  anything  on  a grave,  like  a  dome,  etc.  is  Makrooh.  The  mentioned  Hadith is a proof for this.” [Kabeeri, page 599]
Imaam  Sirajuddeen  Al-Hanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  [passed away  700 A.H.]  writes,  “It  is  Makrooh  to  build  anything  on the grave.” [Fatawa Siraajia, page 24]

Imaam  Qaadhi  Khaan  (rahmatullah  alayh)  [passed  away 592  A.H]  writes,  “Graves  should  not  be  plastered  as  has been  narrated  by  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  that  indeed  he  has  prohibited from  solidifying  graves,  placing  pebbles  and  building around  graves.”  [Qaadhi  Khaan,  vol.  1,  page  92]

Haafidh  Ibn  Humaam  Hanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  [passed away  861  A.H.]  writes,  “Indeed  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  has  prohibited building  around  graves  and  plastering  (solidifying)  them.” [Fat-hul Qadeer, vol. 4, page 472]

It  is  stated  in  Fataawa  Aalamgiri,  “The  grave  should  be heightened  to  (the  size  of  a)  hand-span  like  a  camel’s hump,  and  should  not  be  built  up  or  plastered.  It  is Makrooh  to  build  on  a  grave.”  [Aalamgiri,  Misri  print,  vol. 1, page 176]

Allamah  Ibn  ‘Aabideen  Hanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  states, “I  am  not  aware  of  anyone  who  has  consented  to  building around graves.” [Shaami, vol. 1, page 101]

Note: The  general  term  ‘Makrooh’  according  to  Imaam Abu  Hanifah  and  other  Salf-e-Saliheen  refers  to  Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.  In  this  regard,  Allamah  Abul  Makaarim  AlHanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  [passed  away  860  A.H.]  writes, “(The  term)  ‘Makrooh’  means  At-Tahreem  (Haraam), according  to  Imaam  Saheb.”  Abul  Makaarim,  vol.  3,  page 159]

Nawaab  Siddiq  Hasan  Saheb  (rahmatullah  alayh)  writes, “Haafidh  Ibn  Qayyim  (rahmatullah  alayh)  has  explained in  I’laamul  Muwaqqi’en  that  in  the  terminology  of  the  Salf, the  usage  of  the  word  ‘Makrooh’  indicates  Tahreem (Haraam).” [Ad-Daleelut Taalib, page 502]

Hadhrat  Mullah  Ali  Qaari  (rahmatullah  alayh)  states  in  the commentary  of  the  Hadith,  ‘Whosoever  initiates  a  bid`ah dhalaalah…’,  “A  bid’ah-e-dhalaalah  is  that  which  the Aimmah  of  the  Muslims  have  refuted,  like  building  upon graves and solidifying them.” [Mirqaat, vol. 1, page 246]

From  this  we  gauge  that  the  Ulama-e-Muslimeen  have strongly  refuted  and  opposed  the  building  up  of  graves  and solidifying  them,  such  they  have  branded  such  acts  bid’ah-e-dhalaalah.

Qaadhi  Thanaaullah  Saheb  Hanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh) [passed  away  1228  A.  H.]  writes,  “That  which  is perpetrated  at  the  graves  of  the  Auliyaa,  like  building  them high  and  being  illuminated  by  lamps,  and  other  such accretions  which  take  place  there  are  all  Haraam.”  [Maala Budda Minh, page 95]

This  proof  is  sufficient  for  any  sincere  seeker  of  the  truth, as  for  the  stubborn,  even  floods  of  proofs  would  not suffice.  As  for  the  citations  of  Molvi  Abdus  Samee’  and Mufti  Ahmad  Yaar  Khaan  of  the  likes  of  Sheikh  Abdul Ghani Naablusi,  author  of  Roohul  Bayaan,  Imaam Khaskafi  and  Tahtawi  (rahmatullah  alayhim),  that  it  is permissible  to  build  domes,  etc.  on  the  graves  of  the Auliyaa  and  Ulama,  is  spurious  and  baatil.  A  concise  and effective  reply  to  them  is  that  these  personalities  are neither  sinless  nor  mujtahids.  Also  who  will  listen  to  an opposing  view  to  that  of  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  and  the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen??  There  remains  now  the  claim  of  Mufti Ahmad  Yaar  Khaan  etc.  that  existing  narrations  to  the effect  that  tents  were  placed  in  the  graves  of  Hadhrat  Umar and  Aishah (radhiyallahu anhum)  and  Hadhrat  Muhammad  bin  Hanafiyya (rahmatullah  alayh).  Firstly,  the  reply  to  this  is  that  these narrations  are  without  origin  or  sanad,  and  are  most certainly  not  acceptable.  Secondly,  even  if  we  assume  that they  were  authentic,  it  still  does  not  detract  from  the authentic Hadith of Nabi Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).

Similarly,  Mufti  Ahmad  Yaar  Khaan  claims  that  the  wife of  Imaam  Zainul  Aabideen  (rahmatullah  alayh)  placed  a tent/sail  over  her  husband’s  grave.  This  is  another treachery  by  the  Mufti  Saheb.  Had  he  narrated  the  entire narration  in  its  totality,  the  truth  would  have  been  revealed. This  episode  explains  clearly  that  by  way  of  dialogue  an unseen  caller  had  announced  a  distaste  to  this  action. [Mishkaat, vol. 1 page 152] 

And  then  their  proving  the  building  of  domes  etc.  on graves  by  citing  the  incident  of  Hadhrat  Uthmaan  bin Madhoon (radhiyallahu anhu),  where  a  stone  was  placed  on  his  grave  merely as  a  means  of  identification,  can  only  be  the  result  of  the intellect of Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khaan and his ilk.

In  summary,  there  is  no  authentic  narration,  neither  aqli nor  naqli  proof  of  building  up  and  constructing  domes  on the  graves  of  the  Auliya-e-Kiraam  (rahmatullah  alayhim). In  fact  there  is  a  flood  of  proof  to  the  contrary.    

The ruling to demolish domes

It  has  been  reported  of  Imaam  Shafi’i  (rahmatullah  alayh) that  he  instructed  the  demolishing  of  the  domes  on  the graves of the Aimmah-e-Kiraam.

Hadhrat  Abul  Hayaaj  Asadi  (rahmatullah  alayh),  who  was an  army  officer  narrates,  “Ali (radhiyallahu anhu)  said  to  me  I  do  not  depute you  except  with  that  which  Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  has  deputed  me and  that  is  you  don’t  leave  any  picture  or  statue  without having  destroyed  it,  and  you  don’t  leave  any  raised  grave except  that  you  level  it.”  [Muslim  Shareef,  vol.  1  page  312/ Mishkaat  Shareef,  vol.  1  page  148/  Tirmidhi  Shareef,  vol. 1 page 125]

The  meaning  of  ‘to  level’  graves  does  not  mean  flattening them  completely like the deviant Salaf’s did.  It  implies  making  them  all  of  the  same height  (hand-span),  which  is  what  the  Shari’ah  desires. Allaamah Alaahuddeen Al-Marooni Al-Hanafi (rahmatullah  alayh)  [passed  away  745  AH)  writes,  “The meaning  of  levelling  the  graves  implies  making  all  the graves  of  the  same  height  in  accordance  to  what  the Shariah  desires.”  [Al-Jawharun  Naqi  Alal  Baihaqi,  vol.4 page 3]

Hadhrat  Imaam  Bayhaqi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  reports  that the  height  of  the  grave  of  Nabi  ρ  was  about  a  hand-span above the ground. [Sunanul Kubra vol.3 page 410]

Imaam  Nawawi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  writes,  “Indeed  the Sunnah  is  that  the  grave  not  be  raised  above  the  surface  of
the  earth  excessively-in  fact  it  should  be  raised  about  a hand-span.” [Sharah Muslim vol. 1 page 312]

From  this  authentic  and  clear  narration  we  understand  that Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  instructed  the  razing  of  high  graves  and  that  he deputed  Hadhrat  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) with  this  task.  During  the  Khilaafat of  Hadhrat  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu)  he  deputed  this  task  to  an  army  officer serving  under  him.  This  prohibition  is  categorized  as  being an  integral  part  of  the  Shariah  and  not  as  averred  by  Mufti Ahmad  Yaar  Khaan  as  being  a  matter  of  Zuhd  and  Taqwa. [Jaa-al  Haq,  page  278]  Even  if  we  assume  this  to  be  a matter  of  Zuhd  and  Taqwa,  then  how  come  you  don’t implement it??

Allaamah  ibn  Hajar  Makki  Shaafi’  (rahmatullah  alayh) [passed  away  974  AH]  writes,  “It  is  Waajib  to  raze  the high  graves  and  demolish  any  dome  or  structure thereupon.” [Kitaabuz Zawaajir, page 163]

Hadhrat  Mullah  Ali  Qaari  (rahmatullah  alayh)  has  gone  as far  as  saying,  “Its  demolishing  is  Waajib  even  if  it  be  a Masjid.”  [Mirqaat,  vol.2  page  372]  That  is,  even  if  some smart-aleck  decides  to  build  a  Masjid  around  a  grave,  and places  a  dome  upon  it,  then  too  its  demolishing  is  Waajib, because  even  Masjid-e-Dhiraar  was  constructed  in  the name  of  a  Masjid,  and  every  reciter  of  the  Qur’aan  knows its  fate. Allaamah  Sayed  Mahmood  Aaloosi  Hanafi  (rahmatullah alayh)  [passed  away  1270  AH]  writes,  “There  is  consensus that  amongst  the  worst  of  Haraam  acts  and  a  means  of shirk  is  to  perform  Salaat  at  a  graveside,  or  constructing  a Masjid  upon/  around  it  (graves).  It  is  Waajib  to  demolish such  high  graves  upon  which  domes  are  constructed, because  these  are  even  more  harmful  than  was  Masjid-e-Dhiraar  which  was  build  in  opposition  to  Nabi  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  Nabi  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  instructed  the  levelling  of  high  graves.  It  is  Waajib  to remove  any  lantern  or  lamp  placed  upon  it  and  it  is  not permissible  to  make  it  waqf  or  nadhar.”  [Roohul  Ma’aani, vol.15
page 219]

Haafidh  ibn  Qayyim  Hambali  (rahmatullah  alayh)  [passed away  751  AH]  writes,  “It  is  not  permissible  to  leave  them be  and  it  is  Waajib  to  demolish  them.”  [Zaadul  Ma’ad,  vol. 3  page  28]  Similar  is  narrated  from Haafidh  ibn  Taymiyya  (rahmatullah  alayh),  in  Kitaabul Istighaatha,  page  278.  You  have  noted  that  the  Hanafis, Shaafis  and  Hambalis  have  all  given  the  instruction  to  level high  graves  and  demolish  domes  and  structures  which  have been  constructed  on  graves.  This  they  have  all  deemed Waajib. Note:  Most  Ahl-e-Bid’ah  degrade  and  revile  Haafidh  ibn Taymiya  and  Haafidh  ibn  Qayyim  (rahmatullah  alayhim), and  they  assail  their  lofty  status. 

However,  Hadhrat  Mullah Ali  Qaari  Hanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  praises  them,  saying, “The  two  of  them,  (Haafidh  ibn  Taymiya  and  Haafidh  ibn Qayyim  –  rahmatullah  alayhim)  are  amongst  the  Akaabir of  the  Ahl-e-Sunnah  Wal  Jamaah  and  Auliya  of  this Ummah.”  [Jam’ul  Wasaa-il,  vol.1  page  28]

Honourable  readers,  you  have  noted  that  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  has,  in  an authentic  narration  instructed  Hadhrat  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu)  to  level  high graves  and  that  the  Ulama-e-Kiraam,  especially  Mullah  Ali Qaari  Hanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh),  Sayyid  Mahmood Aaloosi  Hanafi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  etc  have  ruled  it Waajib  to  demolish  domes  and  structures  on  graves. However,  Mufti  Ahmad  Yaar  Khaan  Saheb  has  rendered  a great  disservice  to  the  Deen  by  stating,  “If  there  graves have  been  built  up,  then  it  is  Haraam  to  demolish  it.”  [Jaa al  Haqq,  page  229]  By  saying  this  he  implies  that  Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) had  perpetrated  a  Haraam  act  and  that  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  had instructed  an  act  which  is Haraam— Nauthubillah!—and the Fuqaha-e-Kiraam  have  also  ruled  something  which  is Haraam—Nauthubillah!

Hadhrat  Maulana  Rashid  Ahmad  Gangohi  (rahmatullah alayh)  [passed  away  1323  AH]  had  so  aptly  and  succinctly stated  in  reply  to  a  question  asked  regarding  the  building  of structures  and  domes  on  graves,  “Answer:  From  every angle,  the  Ahaadith  have  prohibited  such  acts  hence  they can  never  be  rendered  permissible  by  anyone. Consideration  will  only  be  given  to  Qur’aan,  Hadith  and statements  of  Mujtahiddeen,  and  not  to  the  opponents  of the  Shariah.  If  the  Arabs  in  Haramain  initiate  and  practice upon  any  act  which  is  not  prescribed  in  the  Shariah  and  is contrary  to  the  Sunnah,  it  will  never  be  acceptable.  If  there is  none  to  prohibit  them  from  these  customs  then  this  will never  be  a  proof  in  the  Shariah.  Silence  should  not  be maintained.  They  should  be  opposed  and  prevented  in  the light  of  the  Kitaab  and  Sunnah.”  [Fatawa-e-Rashidiya  vol. 1 page 100]

The objection of the opposition

The  crux  of  what  Mufti  Ahmad  Yaar  Khaan  has  written regarding  this  Hadith  is  that  the  instruction  to  level  and demolish  graves  was  issued  with  regard  to  the  graves  of the  Mushrikeen.  In  substantiation  of  this  view  he  forwards the  Hadith  wherein  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  had  instructed  the  demolition  of the  graves  of  Mushrikeen.  He  states  that  Sheikh  Ibn  Hajar Makki  (rahmatullah  alayh)  states  in  Fat-hul  Baari,  vol.  2, page  260,  (this  is  the  translation  Mufti  Ahmad  Yaar offers),  “The  graves  of  the  Mushrikeen  of  the  times  of ignorance  were  demolished.  He  says,  that  is,  besides  those of  the  Ambiyaa (alayhissalaam)  and  their  followers,  because  levelling their  graves  would  be  a  dishonour.”  [Jaa-al  Haqq,  page 280]  The  second  reasoning  he  offers  is  that  why  is  the mentioning  of  pictures  coupled  with  graves??  No  Muslim has  photos  on  their  graves.  From  this  it  is  obvious  (he  says) that  here  is  meant  the  graves  of  the  Mushrikeen,  because they  place  the  photos  of  their  deceased  on  the  grave. Thirdly,  the  instruction  is  to  level  the  high  graves,  and  the Sunnat  for  the  graves  of  Muslims  is  that  it  be  a  hand-span high. [Jaa-al-Haqq, page 280]

Reply

All  these  things  are  the  result  of  Mufti  Ahmed  Yaar Khaan’s  ignorance  and  non-acquaintance  to  true knowledge. 

Firstly,  because  he  mentions  the  name  of  the author  of  Fat-hul  Baari  to  be  Ibn  Hajr  Makki,  whereas  the author  is  Ibn  Hajr  Asqalaani  (rahmatullah  alayh),  who  is  a predecessor  and  much  more  knowledgeable  than  Ibn  Hajr Makki  (rahmatullah  alayh).  But  alas  in  this  14th  century such  people  have  gained  title  of  Mufti  who  don’t  even have  proper  knowledge  of  Kitaab  authors.  We  are surprised at such Muftis. 

Secondly,  Mufti  Saheb  is  not  even  aware  that  exhumation of  graves  is  one  thing,  which  is  what  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  ordered regarding  the  graves  of  the  Mushrikeen  and  according  to Mufti  Saheb’s  statement  Sheikh  Ibn  Hajr  Makki (rahmatullah  alayh)  has  commented  on  in  Fat-hul  Baari, and  levelling  of  the  graves  is  another  thing.  There  is  a world of difference between the two.

Thirdly,  the  research  of  the  Mufti  Saheb  is  also  surprising when  he  says  that  photos  are  mentioned  with  the  graves and  that  where  will  one  find  photos  on  the  graves  of Muslims??  Subhaanallah!  It  is  as  though  the  Mufti  Saheb has  understood  it  that  the  photo  and  graves  are  together whereas  the  order  to  level  the  graves  is  a  separate  one  to the  order  of  destroying  pictures.  They  should  be  destroyed  wherever  they  are.  In  Nisai  Shareef,  vol  1  page  221  this narration  appears  thus,  “And  (do  not  leave)  any  picture  in the  house.”  Mufti  Saheb  tell  us,  are  there  photos  and pictures in the homes of Muslims nowadays or not?? 

Fourthly,  Mufti  Saheb  has  himself  mentioned  that  high graves  be  levelled  to  the  ground  ,  whereas  we  have  quoted from  Allamah  Maarooni  (rahmatullah  alayh)  that  the objective  is  not  to  level  it  to  the  ground,  but  rather  to  make them the same Shar’i prescribed height. 

Fifthly,  the  research  of  the  Mufti  Saheb  is  also  surprising that  the  grave  be  one  hand-span  above  the  ground.  We don’t  know  whether  this  is  a  translation  of  a  Hadith  that  the graves  be  one  hand-span  high.  This  has  been  cited  in Sunnan ul  Kubra  and  from  Alamgiri  that  the  grave  should be  one  hand-span  high  [Ghunyatut  Taalibeen,  page 640/Ruknuddeen,  page  208/Fataawa-e-Radwiyya,  vol.  4 page 14/Malfoozaat, part 3, page 328]

Sixthly,  take  note  that  we  are  quoting  one  authentic narration  which  refutes  Mufti  Ahmed  Yaar  Khaan  and  his ilk,  who  claim  that  the  Hadith  of  Hadhrat  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) relates  to the  graves  of  the  Mushrikeen.  In  this  regard  the  famous and  renowned  Taabiee  Hadhrat  Thumaama  bin  Shafee (rahmatullah  alayh)  narrates,  “We  were  with  Hadhrat Fudhaala  bin  Ubaid (radhiyallahu anhu)  in  Rome,  at  the  place called  Roodis,  where one  of  our  companions  passed  away.  Hadhrat  Fudhaala (radhiyallahu anhu) instructed  that  his  grave  be  levelled  in  line  with  the  others. And  then  he  said,  ‘I  have  heard  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam  order  the  levelling of  graves.’”[Muslim  Shareef,  vol.1  page  312/Nisai,  vol.1 page 221/Abu Dawood, vol.2 page 105]

This  narration  has  been  reported  by  Imaam  Bayhaqi (rahmatullah  alayh)  in  more  detail,  “It  has  been  reported from  Thumaama  bin  Shafee  that  during  the  era  of  Ameer Mu’aawiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) we  set  out  on  an  expedition.  Fudhaala  bin Ubaid (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  our  leader.  My  cousin  by  the  name  of  Nafi’ bin  Abd  passed  away.  After  we  had  buried  him  Hadhrat Fudhaala (radhiyallahu anhu) said,  ‘Place  little  sand  lightly  on  the  grave because  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) instructed  us  to  level  the  graves.’” [Sunnanul Kubra, vol.3 page 411]

This  authentic  narration  proves  that  the  instruction  of levelling  the  graves  was  not  a  reference  to  the  graves  of  the Mushrikeen,  otherwise  the  high-ranking  Sahaabah (alayhim ar ridhwan) of Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  would  most  certainly  not  have  implemented  it  for Muslims. 

In  summary  the  Sahaabah (alayhim ar-ridhwaan) accepted  without  any  qualms that  this  instruction  pertained  to  the  graves  of  Muslims.  As for  making  Qiyaas  of  the  grave  of  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) to  substantiate the  building  up  of  graves  and  placing  domes  thereupon,  is incorrect  because  when  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) passed  away,  “Some  people suggested  burying  him  next  to  the  mimbar  whilst  others suggested  Jannatul  Baqi.  In  the  midst  Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) said  that  he  heard  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  say  that  a  Nabi  is  buried  at  the place  where  he  passes  away.  Hence  his  grave  was  dug right  there.”  [Muwatta  Imaam  Maalik,  page  80/Shimaa’il-e-Tirmidhi, page 28]

Since  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) demise  was  in  the  room  of  Hadhrat  Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) hence  in  accordance  to  this  narration  he  was  buried  there. Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr  and  Umar (radhiyallahu anhum) were  granted  the  honour  of being  buried  next  to  him.  If  he  was  buried  out  of  this  place then  the  Sahaabah (alayhim ar ridhwaan)  would  most  certainly  have  not  built around  it.  Just  as  the  graves  of  Hadhrat  Uthmaan,  Hadhrat Ali  and  countless  other  Sahaabah   neither  have  domes  nor are  built  upon.  After  many  centuries  the  Turks  have constructed  domes  on  some  of  the  graves,  however,  this action  of  theirs  is  not  a  Shar`i  proof,  since  Nabi (sallalaahu alayhi wasallam)  has expressly  forbidden  this.  Any  action  which  Nabi (sallalaahu alayhi wasallam)  has forbidden  can  never  be  made  permissible  by  the  action  of anyone.  In  summary,  it  was  not  that  the  grave  of  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) came  first  and  the  building  around  it  thereafter.  As mentioned  previously,  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  was  buried  in  the  room  of Hadhrat  Aishah (radhiyallahu anha).  According  to  the  research  of  Shah Abdul  Haqq  Dehlwi  (rahmatullah  alayh),  etc.  mentioned that  around  the  year  557  A.H.  Sultaan  Nuruddeen  Shaheed Mahmood  bin  Zangi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  constructed  a very  deep  wall  around  the  blesses  grave  of  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  which he  secured  and  solidified.  [see  Jazbul  Quloob  Ila  Diyaaril Mahboob,  page  86]  and  then  in  the  year  678  after  Hijri Sultaan  Qalaawoon  Saalihi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  constructed a  green  dome  which  stands  to  this  day.  Mufti  Ahmed  Yaar Saheb accedes to these facts [see Jaa-al Haqq, page 272]

Note:  It  has  been  established  from  authentic  Ahaadith  and from  the  Fuqaha-e-Kiraam  (rahmatullah  alayhim)  that domes  and  structures  on  graves  be  demolished.  However, this  much  should  be  kept  in  mind  that  this  is  the  duty  of  the Sultan  and  Islamic  government.  This  does  not  apply  to every  individual  and  layman.  Therefore  the  masses  should not  take  the  law  into  their  own  hands.

Few more “proofs” to be refuted

The Ahle Bid’ah usually quote this Qur’anic aayah to justify placing  domes over the Graves: “Thus did We make their case known to the people, that they might know that the promise of Allah is true, and that there can be no doubt about the Hour of Judgment. Behold, they dispute among themselves as to their affair. (Some) said, “Construct a building over them”: Their Lord knows best about them: those who prevailed over their affair said, “Let us surely build a place of worship over them.” (Surah al Kahf 18:21)  

Isma’eel Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah) mentions: 

. ابن جرير في القائلين ذلك قولين: [أحدهما] أنهم المسلمون منهم [والثاني] أهل الشرك منهم، فالله أعلم، والظاهر أن الذين قالوا ذلك هم أصحاب الكلمة والنفوذ، ولكن هل هم محمودون أم لا؟ فيه نظر، لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: ” لعن الله اليهود والنصارى اتخذوا قبور أنبيائهم وصالحيهم مساجد ” يحذر ما فعلوا، 

“Imam ibn e jarir al Tabari quoted two sayings regarding the aayah , first is  that this saying was from Muslims the other is that was saying from Ahlul Shirk Allahu Alam, Apparently it seems that was saying from Muslims as for there saying is good or bad?? so the hadith of Prophet says (ibn e kathir supported his stance with hadith and athar of Umar (radhiyallahu anhu): Allah has cursed the Jews and the Christians who took the graves of their Prophets and righteous people as places of worship

then he went on and said:

 وقد روينا عن أمير المؤمنين عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه: . 

It is narrated from Ameer al Mu’mineen Umar bin al khattab (radhiallahu anhu)

  أنه لما وجد قبر دانيال في زمانه بالعراق، أمر أن يخفى عن الناس، وأن تدفن تلك الرقعة التي وجدوها عنده، فيها شيء من الملاحم وغيرها. 

When he found the grave of Danyal (alayhissalaam) (Daniel) in Iraq during his period of rule, he gave orders that news of this grave should be withheld from the people, and that the inscription containing mention of battles etc.,    

So Therefore, even if they were Muslims their act was not evidence according to the ahadith, plus the amal of previous generations are not evidence for Shariyah al Muhammadiyah, hope that the Ahle bid’ah will never present evidence from Qur’an to observe Sabbath next time!   

Ibn e Katheer (rahimahullah) himself said under the Biography of Sayyidah Nafeesah in Al Bidaya wal Nihaya
 
والذي ينبغي أن يعتقد فيها ما يليق بمثلها من النساء الصالحات، وأصل عبادة الأصنام من المغالاة في القبور وأصحابها، وقد أمر النبي بتسويه القبور وطمسها، والمغالاة في البشر حرام

The i’tiqaad (creed) of people regarding her is not applicable for righteous women like her, Idol worship is started due to ghuloo for graves and its dweller, That is why Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ordered to leveling and Obliterating the graves, Making Ghuloo for any person is Haraam [Al Bidaya wal Nihayah Vol: 10 page 287 under the Biography of Sayyiyadah Nafeesah]

Mahmud Al-Alusi hanafi said :

واستدل بالآية على جواز البناء على قبور الصلحاء واتخاذ مسجد عليها وجواز الصلاة في ذلك. وممن ذكر ذلك الشهاب الخفاجي في «حواشيه على البيضاوي» وهو قول باطل عاطل فاسد كاسد، فقد روى أحمد وأبو داود والترمذي والنسائي وابن ماجه عن ابن عباس قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ” لعن الله تعالى زائرات القبور والمتخذين عليها المساجد والسرج ” ومسلم ” ألا وإن من كان قبلكم كانوا يتخذون قبور أنبيائهم مساجد فإني أنهاكم عن ذلك ” وأحمد عن أسامة وهو والشيخان والنسائي عن عائشة، ومسلم عن أبـي هريرة: ” لعن الله تعالى اليهود والنصارى اتخذوا قبور أنبيائهم مساجد ” وأحمد والشيخان والنسائي ” إن أولئك إذا كان فيهم الرجل الصالح فمات بنوا على قبره مسجداً وصوروا فيه تلك الصور أولئك شرار الخلق يوم القيامة ” 

“And people have taken this as a proof for permitting building on graves of saints and turning them into mosques and praying in them Shahab Khafaji mentioned this in “Hashiyah Beydawi” This saying is pure falsehood, corruption and evil. Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasai, ibn Majah narrated from ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “May Allah curse the women visiting graves, those who make graves upon them and put lamps upon it” (Ruh al-Ma’ani Tafsir of Surah al-Kahf verse 21)  

Hafiz Ibn Rajab Hanbali (rahimahullah) said

وقد دل القران على مثل ما دل عليه هذا الحديث، وهو قول الله عز وجل في قصة أصحاب الكهف: {قَالَ الَّذِينَ غَلَبُوا عَلَى أَمْرِهِمْ لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَسْجِداً}

[الكهف: 12] ، فجعل اتخاذ القبور على المساجد من فعل أهل الغلبة على الأمور، وذلك يشعر بان مستند القهر والغلبة واتباع الهوى، وانه ليس من فعل أهل العلم والفضل المتبعين لما انزل الله على رسله من الهدى.

The prohibition of making the graves of Prophets into masjid is not only proven by this hadith but it is also proven by Qur’an when Allah says regarding Ashaab al Kahf “(then) those who won their point said: “We verily, shall build a place of worship over them.” [18:21] In this verse It is shown that the making of masjid on the grave is the practice of people who are in authority. This is the evidence that it was not the order of Shari’ah and they wanted to make it by following their whims and desires because they were in authority. This practice was not the practice of people of knowledge [Fath ul Bari by Ibn Rajab 3/19]

Imam al Qurtubi commented:

فاتخاذ المساجد على القبور والصلاة فيها والبناء عليها، إلى غير ذلك مما تضمنته السنة من النهي عنه ممنوع لا يجوز؛ 

Taking places of worship over graves and praying therein and constructing over them and other such affairs all come under that which the Sunnah has forbade, it is prohibited, impermissible. [al-Jaami’ li Ahkaam il-Qur’an surah al araaf verse 21]

so this is clear deception of these people quoting half of the commentaries. and lastly We follow the shari’ah Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and not previous Prophets so this is not their evidance even if this is saying of Muslims. 

“Proof” 2

Ahlul Bid’ah quote this: “Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) wish to get buried Beside Tomb of Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) in a Room, Why did Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) wanted to get buried in a room and not outside , Why was Hadrat Abu Baker (radhiyallahu anhu) buried in a Room , A tomb is also a room built around the grave ,and it proves its a sunnah”

Reply
When `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was stabbed he sent his son `Abd Allah (radhiyallahu anhu) with a message to `A’isha (radgiyallahu anha) to “Ask her if I can be buried with my two companions,” that is, in her room, next to the Prophet and Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) where did he said make tomb on me??

And Aisha (radhiyallahu anhu) made a will that Do not bury me with Prophet as she didn’t want to look better then she really was, If the hadith of Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) can be used for making tomb (according to the faulty logic of Qabr Pujari’s) then we can say this (saying of Aisha radhiyallahu anha) is the proof that (Aisha radhiyallahu anha) is against making dome. this is the Athar.

Bukhari Volume 2, Book 23, Number 474: Aisha (radhiyallahu anha) narrated that she made a will to ‘Abdullah bin Zubair (radhiyallahu anhu), “Do not bury me with them (the Prophet and his two companions) but bury me with my companions (wives of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) ) in Al-Baqi as I would not like to be looked upon as better than I really am (by being buried near the Prophet).”

So its clear that was Love of Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) with Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) not that he wanted to make dome on his grave nor there was any dome or shrine at that time if someone says Hujrah of Aisha (radhiyallahu anha) is like dome and shrine then he is ignorant see the reply of 3rd proof 

“PROOF” 3

Then Ahle Bid’ah aver: “why there is structure on Prophet’s grave and graves of other Jurists and muhadiththins??” 

Reply: 

It should be noted that until the year 678 AH, there was no dome over the chamber which contains the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), rather it was built by the king al-Zaahir al-Mansoor Qalawoon al-Saalihi in that year (678 AH), when this dome was built. (Juhood ‘Ulama’ al-Hanafiyyah fi Ibtaal ‘Aqaa’id al-Qubooriyyah (3/1660-1662).  

Hafiz al-San’aani (rahimahullah) said in Ta-theer al-I’tiqaad:

“فإن قلت : هذا قبرُ الرسولِ صلى اللهُ عليه وسلم قد عُمرت عليه قبةٌ عظيمةٌ انفقت فيها الأموالُ . قلتُ : هذا جهلٌ عظيمٌ بحقيقةِ الحالِ ، فإن هذه القبةَ ليس بناؤها منهُ صلى اللهُ عليه وسلم ، ولا من أصحابهِ ، ولا من تابعيهم ، ولا من تابعِ التابعين ، ولا علماء الأمةِ وأئمة ملتهِ ، بل هذه القبةُ المعمولةُ على قبرهِ صلى اللهُ عليه وسلم من أبنيةِ بعضِ ملوكِ مصر المتأخرين ، وهو قلاوون الصالحي المعروف بالملكِ المنصورِ في سنةِ ثمانٍ وسبعين وست مئة ، ذكرهُ في ” تحقيقِ النصرةِ بتلخيصِ معالمِ دارِ الهجرةِ ” ، فهذه أمورٌ دولية لا دليليةٌ 

“If you say: A great dome has been built over the grave of the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), costing a great deal of money, I say: This is in fact great ignorance of the situation, because this dome was not built by him or by his Sahaabah or by those who followed them, or by those who followed the Taabi’een, or by the scholars and imams of the ummah. Rather this dome was built over his grave on the orders of one of the later kings of Egypt, namely the Sultan Qalawoon al-Saalihi who is known as King Mansoor, in 678 AH, and was mentioned in Tahqeeq al-Nasrah bi Talkhees Ma’aalim Dar al-Hijrah. These are things that were done on the orders of the state and not on the basis of shar’i evidence” (the same applies to the tombs over Imam’s and muhadiththins as well)

2nd reason ‘Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) said: “The only reason the grave of Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, was not made prominent was to stop people from turning it into a mosque.”  

3rd reason Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (radhiyallahu anhu)  said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) say, ‘No prophet was ever buried except in the place where he died. 

“Proof” 4

‘Eesa (alayhissalaam)  Will Be Buried Next to Our Prophet’s (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) Tomb

Reply: Does this prove making  tomb?? and again i would like to say tomb never existed at the time of Companions It is mentioned in Fusool min Tareekh al-Madeenah al-Munawwarah (p. 127, 128).

In 1253 AH, an order was issued by the Ottoman Sultan ‘Abd al-Hameed to paint the dome green. He was the first one to colour it green, and the colour has been renewed whenever necessary until the present. It became known as the green dome after it was painted green. It was previously known as the white dome or the fragrant dome or the blue dome

To light lanterns on the graves 

There  is  absolutely  no  substantiation  in  the  Shariah  for lighting  lanterns,  lights,  scented  sticks  etc.  at  the  graveside. In  fact,  the  Shariah  opposes  this  abominable  practice. Hadhrat  Abdullaah  Ibn  Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) reports  that  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said, “Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  has  cursed  those  women  who  visit  the graves  and  make  it  a  place  of  Sajdah  and  place  lanterns thereupon.”  [Abu  Dawood,  vol.  2,  page  105  /  Muwaaruz Zamaan,  page  200  /  Nisai,  vol.  1,  page  222,  Tayaalisi,  page 357 / Mishkaat, vol. 1, page 71]

A  similar  narration  has  been  reported  by  Hadhrat  Abu Huraira  (radhiyallahu anhu).  [See  Muwaariduz  Zam’aan,  page  200  /  Sunanul Kubra, vol. 4, page 78]

It  is  clear  and  obvious  that  any  act  which  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  had cursed  can  never  under  any  circumstances  be  made permissible  or  Mustahab.  There  can  also  not  be  any  good or  benefit  in  such  an  act.  Neither  can  a  label  of  necessity  or non-necessity  be  placed  thereupon.  When  the  Ahle  Bid`ah extract  all  sorts  of  interpretations  and  proofs  for  the permissibility  of  such  acts,  then  the  burden  is  on  their shoulders.  As  for  their  sources,  we  need  to  realise  that none  of  them  are  sinless  or  Mujtahids.  It  is  also unfathomable  how  they  classify  an  act  which  Nabi  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) had cited  as  being  cursed,  to  be  Mustahab  and  worthy  of reward??  It  is  also  a  point  worthy  of  note  that  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) did  not differentiate  between  the  graves  of  a  pious  person  or ignoramus.  It  is  apparent  that  to  light  a  lantern  on  the  grave of  any  person  is  cursed  by  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  And  then,  they  aver  that the  Hadith  uses  the  word  ‘alaa’  which  denotes  above, hence  to  place  the  lantern  on  the  sides  of  the  grave  is permissible.  This  claim  of  theirs  is  wholly  ignorant.  The word  ‘alaa’  denotes  both  meanings. 

Will  Mufti  Ahmad Yaar Khaan and his ilk translate the Aayat, as  meaning  that  Hadhrat  Uzair (alayhissalaam)  passed  by  the  villages  walking on top of the peoples homes??

It  is  stated  in  the  Hadith  of  Mi`raaj,  where  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said, “And  I  passed  by  Moosa (alayhis salaam)”  

In  essence,  the  word  ‘alaa’  means  ‘by’  ‘next  to’,  etc.  As Allaah Ta`ala states: 

And do not stand by their (munaafiqeens) graves

Does  this  mean  that  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  should  not  stand  above  the graves  of  the  Munaafiqeen,  but  he  can  stand  beside  them and make dua’ for them??

In  essence,  it  is  impermissible  and  accursed  to  place  and light lanterns etc. above and besides graves. 

The  great  Sahaabi,  Hadhrat  ‘Amr  bin  ‘Aas (radhiyallahu anhu)  said,  “When  I pass  away,  do  not  bring  for  me  (professional)  mourners  or fire.” [Muslim Shareef, vol. 1, page 76] Hadhrat 

Asmaa  bint  Abi  Bakr (radhiyallahu anha)  made  the  following bequest,  “Do  not  light  any  fire  by  me.”  [Muwatta  Imaam Maalik, page 78]

Imaam  Nawawi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  writes,  “To  light  a  fire by  the  deceased  is  Makrooh,  according  to  the  Hadith.  It has  been  said  that  the  reason  for  the  Karaahat  is  that  it  is a  sign  of  the  days  of  ignorance.  Ibn  Habeeb  Maaliki (rahmatullah  alayh)  said  that  the  Karaahat  is  due  to  the ill-omen attached to fire.” [Sharah Muslim, vol.1, page 76]

Just  take  note  that  the  Sahaabah (alayhim ar- ridhwan) had  made  special bequests  that  no  fire  be  brought  near  them  after  their demise,  but  alas,  nowadays  the  ignorant  Ahle  Bid`ah  place the  fire  right  at  the  gravesides  of  the  saints,  etc.  They proffer  all  sorts  of  ridiculous  excuses  for  doing  this,  like  it is  done  out  of  respect  for  the  inmate  of  the  grave,  for  ease of  the  passer-bys,  ease  for  those  reciting  Qur`aan  Majeed, etc.,  etc.  If  the  respect  and  honour  of  the  Auliyaa  is accomplished  by  acting  contrary  to  the  words  of  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and  if  love  for  them  can  be  found  in  that  which  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  had cursed,  then  we  say  to  the  likes  of  Mufti  Ahmad  Yaar Khaan  &  Co.  that  they  can  keep  their  lot!  For  us,  the  only respect  which  can  be  shown  to  the  Auliyaa-e-Kiraam  is  to follow  what  has  been  instructed  by  Allaah  Ta`ala  and  His Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).

Haafidh  Ibn  Qayyim  (rahmatullah  alayh)  writes,  “Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has  prohibited  from  making  Sajdah  at  the  gravesides  and lighting  lanterns  beside  it.”  [Zaadul  Ma’aad,  vol.  1,  page 146]

It  is  stated  in  Fataawa  Aalamgiri,  “The  lighting  of  fires  by the  grave  is  amongst  the  customs  of  the  ignorance.” [Fataawa Aalamgiri, vol. 1, page 178]

Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) had  mentioned  that  amongst  the  most  detested  acts in  the  Sight  of  Allaah  Ta`ala  is  following  the  customs  of ignorance. [Mishkaat, vol. 1, page 27]

Hadhrat  Shah  Rafeeuddeen  (rahmatullah  alayh)  writes, “That  is  to  perpetrate  Haraam  acts,  such  as  lighting lanterns  at  the  gravesite,  spreading  a  cloth  over  it  and  to use  instruments  of  music  there  are  all  acts  of  detestable bid`ah.  It  is  strictly  forbidden  to  present  oneself  at  such functions.” [Fataawa Shah Rafeeuddeen, page 14] As  you  can  see,  right  from  the  time  of  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ,  right  until the  present  day,  all  the  Ulama-e-Haqq  have  unanimously maintained  that  to  light  lanterns  etc.  by  the  gravesite  is accursed, Haraam, Makrooh and an evil bid`ah.

Note:  If  due  to  a  real  need,  like  if  the  funeral  takes  place  at night,  then  to  light  a  lamp,  light,  etc.  for  the  purpose  of burying  the  deceased,  is  even  proven  from  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). This  is no  point  of  contention.

Related Article: Analyzing the Proofs presented by Qabr Pujaris regarding Placing Cloth-Sheets (Chadar) and Flowers over the Graves

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