Taqdeer and Human Limitations

Question:  What  is  the  actual  meaning  of  Qadr/Taqdeer?? Is  the  fate  of  everyone  predestined??  If  so,  it  follows  that   no one  has any free choice of action.

ANSWER

(Majlisul Ulama of South Africa)

Belief in  Taqdeer/Qadr is an  integral constituent of Imaan, Its  Denial is kufr. Qadr is beyond  human comprehension. Many  who had dived into this  bottomless ocean were drowned  in a  cesspool of iniquity losing their Imaan and destroying their  Najaat (Salvation) in the Aakhirah.

Once  when  Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) observed a  group of Sahaabah debating  the mas’alah  of  Taqdeer, his mubaarak face went red with  anger, and he commented:  “Nations before you who had    probed this issue were destroyed.”

Qadr can never be satisfactorily  and logically explained. The more  it is probed, the greater the  intricacies, and the more it will defy comprehension. Thus, we  see  among  the  early Muslims  those becoming Zanadaqah  (heretics) in their endeavours to  predicate this Mas’alah with  rationalism. It simply defies  man’s intellectual grasp. And, this  should not at all be surprising.

Qadr is directly related to the Zaat  (The  Being) and Sifaat (Attributes)  of Allah Ta’ala, and Allah Azza Wa Jal is The Uncreated, Eternal  Being bereft of finitude and  limitations. In direct contrast,    puny  man  is  a  created being  handicapped with finitude and limitations which pervade his  entire being. The inability of a created entity with extreme limitations in every faculty to  comprehend the Zaat and Sifaat of  The Uncreated Eternal Being  devoid of the slightest semblance  of limitation is a rational  imperative which should be  simple to comprehend.

Man’s physical abilities and  faculties, as well as his sensual  faculties are all limited in their  respective functions. The  limitation of his physical strength  does not allow him to lift a ton. He cannot consume an entire ox. He  cannot remain awake for years  without a wink of sleep. His power  of endurance in every field is limited.

Consider man’s eyesight. His  vision is extremely limited and so  is its scope of focus. He cannot  look behind, and his focus  sideways is limited. Even in a straight line, an object depending  on its size cannot be seen at a distance. While he can see a star  situated billions of miles away, he cannot see an ant a few metres  away in front of him. The star is  visible due to its massive size.  Even in relation to hearing,  eyesight has greater limitations.  While hearing is multi-facetted having the ability to hear sounds  from all directions, the scope  of  vision is vastly inhibited.

Similarly, his faculty of hearing is  extremely limited. He cannot hear  sounds at a certain distance  beyond the scope of his sense of hearing. He cannot hear sounds in  another city or another suburb or  in the room next to his room. Nor can he hear whispering in his close proximity.

Every faculty and sense in man  is  fettered by extreme limitation,  and this limitation applies to his  intellect as well. However, whilst everyone understands and readily  accepts man’s limitation in every field, many refuse to concede the  limitation of the intellect. This  irrational attitude  –  the  irrationality of a limited intellect  being able to comprehend what is  unlimited and infinite  –  has led  to atheism. Thus, many early  Muslim philosophers falling into  the snare of Greek philosophy,  sub scribed to such irrational and  bizarre beliefs which stripped  Allah Azza Wa Jal of the Attributes which are imperative for the Belief of Tauheed.

They fell into the trap of denying  whatever was beyond their  rational comprehension. The    effect of such corrupt rationalism  led to the fabrication of the  supposition of beings/entities which are co-eternal with Allah  Azza Wa Jal. It led to reducing  Allah Azza Wa Jal to  an  inanimate object creating
without volitional power and  without awareness of what flows  from Him by way of creation.  Such corrupt beliefs of stupid  rationalism reduced  the Powerful, Glorious Majestic Allah to an  impotent entity such  as  the  sun  for example. While the sun  is  a  source of heat and energy, it  exercises no volitional control  over whatever emanates from it. Similarly, Allah Azza Wa Jal,  according to the rationalists  whose brains were convoluted by  shaitaan, postulated the theory/belief of  the Divine Being being a creative energy/force which  creates without  will, understanding  and  control  – Na’ audhubillaah!

A little reflection will confirm the  deficiencies and limitations of the intellect.

The disparity between the intelligence of an illiterate rustic  or  village-dweller and that of a  scientist, for example, is vast.  The reach of comprehension of  the former is extremely limited in relation to the comprehension of  the scientist. There are great  differences in the intellects of  people. The incidences of  amnesia, insanity, old-age,  imbecility, disease, etc. inhibit and even obliterate the functioning of  the intellect. Death finally extinguishes the ability of the  intellect to function in any way  whatsoever. This variety of  defects afflicting intellect  adequately demonstrates the  extreme limitation of the intellect  which some misguided people  believe has unfettered, indefinable  ability and scope of  comprehension. Yet, the  intellect’s inability to comprehend  innumerable material and  terrestrial objects and issues  bounded by finite attributes, is an  indisputable fact. Despite this,  the atheist man believes that  what his rational mind fabricates  is the final word in reality and truth. But this is the great deception of rationalism spawned by shaitaan.  

Since the ultimate consequence  of probing the mas’alah of Taqdeer  is  kufr, the  Shariah  prohibits  delving into it.

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