Question: What is the actual meaning of Qadr/Taqdeer?? Is the fate of everyone predestined?? If so, it follows that no one has any free choice of action.
(Majlisul Ulama of South Africa)
Belief in Taqdeer/Qadr is an integral constituent of Imaan, Its Denial is kufr. Qadr is beyond human comprehension. Many who had dived into this bottomless ocean were drowned in a cesspool of iniquity losing their Imaan and destroying their Najaat (Salvation) in the Aakhirah.
Once when Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) observed a group of Sahaabah debating the mas’alah of Taqdeer, his mubaarak face went red with anger, and he commented: “Nations before you who had probed this issue were destroyed.”
Qadr can never be satisfactorily and logically explained. The more it is probed, the greater the intricacies, and the more it will defy comprehension. Thus, we see among the early Muslims those becoming Zanadaqah (heretics) in their endeavours to predicate this Mas’alah with rationalism. It simply defies man’s intellectual grasp. And, this should not at all be surprising.
Qadr is directly related to the Zaat (The Being) and Sifaat (Attributes) of Allah Ta’ala, and Allah Azza Wa Jal is The Uncreated, Eternal Being bereft of finitude and limitations. In direct contrast, puny man is a created being handicapped with finitude and limitations which pervade his entire being. The inability of a created entity with extreme limitations in every faculty to comprehend the Zaat and Sifaat of The Uncreated Eternal Being devoid of the slightest semblance of limitation is a rational imperative which should be simple to comprehend.
Man’s physical abilities and faculties, as well as his sensual faculties are all limited in their respective functions. The limitation of his physical strength does not allow him to lift a ton. He cannot consume an entire ox. He cannot remain awake for years without a wink of sleep. His power of endurance in every field is limited.
Consider man’s eyesight. His vision is extremely limited and so is its scope of focus. He cannot look behind, and his focus sideways is limited. Even in a straight line, an object depending on its size cannot be seen at a distance. While he can see a star situated billions of miles away, he cannot see an ant a few metres away in front of him. The star is visible due to its massive size. Even in relation to hearing, eyesight has greater limitations. While hearing is multi-facetted having the ability to hear sounds from all directions, the scope of vision is vastly inhibited.
Similarly, his faculty of hearing is extremely limited. He cannot hear sounds at a certain distance beyond the scope of his sense of hearing. He cannot hear sounds in another city or another suburb or in the room next to his room. Nor can he hear whispering in his close proximity.
Every faculty and sense in man is fettered by extreme limitation, and this limitation applies to his intellect as well. However, whilst everyone understands and readily accepts man’s limitation in every field, many refuse to concede the limitation of the intellect. This irrational attitude – the irrationality of a limited intellect being able to comprehend what is unlimited and infinite – has led to atheism. Thus, many early Muslim philosophers falling into the snare of Greek philosophy, sub scribed to such irrational and bizarre beliefs which stripped Allah Azza Wa Jal of the Attributes which are imperative for the Belief of Tauheed.
They fell into the trap of denying whatever was beyond their rational comprehension. The effect of such corrupt rationalism led to the fabrication of the supposition of beings/entities which are co-eternal with Allah Azza Wa Jal. It led to reducing Allah Azza Wa Jal to an inanimate object creating
without volitional power and without awareness of what flows from Him by way of creation. Such corrupt beliefs of stupid rationalism reduced the Powerful, Glorious Majestic Allah to an impotent entity such as the sun for example. While the sun is a source of heat and energy, it exercises no volitional control over whatever emanates from it. Similarly, Allah Azza Wa Jal, according to the rationalists whose brains were convoluted by shaitaan, postulated the theory/belief of the Divine Being being a creative energy/force which creates without will, understanding and control – Na’ audhubillaah!
A little reflection will confirm the deficiencies and limitations of the intellect.
The disparity between the intelligence of an illiterate rustic or village-dweller and that of a scientist, for example, is vast. The reach of comprehension of the former is extremely limited in relation to the comprehension of the scientist. There are great differences in the intellects of people. The incidences of amnesia, insanity, old-age, imbecility, disease, etc. inhibit and even obliterate the functioning of the intellect. Death finally extinguishes the ability of the intellect to function in any way whatsoever. This variety of defects afflicting intellect adequately demonstrates the extreme limitation of the intellect which some misguided people believe has unfettered, indefinable ability and scope of comprehension. Yet, the intellect’s inability to comprehend innumerable material and terrestrial objects and issues bounded by finite attributes, is an indisputable fact. Despite this, the atheist man believes that what his rational mind fabricates is the final word in reality and truth. But this is the great deception of rationalism spawned by shaitaan.
Since the ultimate consequence of probing the mas’alah of Taqdeer is kufr, the Shariah prohibits delving into it.