SALAAT – IS YOUR’S CORRECT??

[ By: Sheikhul Hadith Hadhrat  Moulana Fazlur Rahman A’azmi ]

Punctuality  and  correct  performance  of  Salaat

After  ImaanSalaat  is  the  most  important  principle  of  Islam. It  is  thus quite  understandable  why  the  Shariat  has  so  greatly  emphasized  the importance  of  its  correct  performance,  punctuality  with  regard  to  it  etc. It  must  be  clearly  understood  that  Salaat  will  only  be  accepted  if  it  is performed  in  accordance  with  the  Sunnah.  Even  a  slight  deviation  from this  negates  the  value  of  Salaat.  Furthermore  the  foundation  for  the success  of  the  believers  has  been  placed  on  Salaat.  Those  believers who  are  neglectful  or  do  not  perform  their  Salaat  correctly  have  been warned  of  annihilation  and  destruction.

Allah  Ta’ala  says  in  the  Quraan:
Safeguard  your  Salaat  and  (especially)  the  middle  Salaat  (i.e.  Asr Salaat)  and  stand  before  Allah  with  humility. ( Surah  Aal e  Imraan  Aayat  238)

The  word  “Safeguard”  in  the  above  Aayat  refers  to  among  other  things, performing  the  Salaat  on  its  prescribed  time  and  to  be  steadfast  in  the performance  of  Salaat  to  the  extent  that  not  a  single  Salaat  is  missed.   (Tafseer  Baidawi)

Hafiz Isma’eel Ibn  Kathir  (rahimahullah)  explains  “Safeguard”  as:

The  laws  and  performance  of  Salaat  should  be  safeguarded.”        
From  some  narrations  it  has  been  observed  that  some  people  had  been neglectful  and  indolent  in  the  performance  of  Salaat  with  Jamaat (congregation).It  is  regarding  them  that  this  Aayat  was  revealed.  Upon the  revelation  of  this  Aayat,  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  admonished  the  Sahaba  (ridhwanAllahu anhum) and  said:  “People  should  refrain  from  staying  away  from  the  Masjid (and  perform  their  Salaat  at  home)  or  else  I  will  burn  their  homes.”  (Tafseer  Ibn  Katheer)

The  ‘Asr  Salaat  has  been  particularly  stressed  upon  as  this  is  the  time when  people  are  generally  occupied  in  worldly  activities.  As  a  result, they  procrastinate  in  its  performance  or  they  simply  discard  it altogether.

Let alone missing the Asr Salaat completely, strong warnings have been given with regard to the person who delays the Salaat till just before sunset. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has said; “That is the Salaat of the hypocrite. He sits waiting for the sun until it is between the horns of the Shaytaan (i.e. just before it sets). Thereafter, he goes and strikes his head four times on the ground (a reference to the extreme haste with which he performs his Salaat). He (also) does not remember Allah Ta’ala therein, but a little.” (Sahih Muslim Vol.1 Pg.225)

However, with regard to those people who miss their Asr Salaat completely, Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has said: “The person who neglects his Asr Salaat (i.e. he reads it after the specified time), it is as if he has lost his wife, children and his entire wealth. (i.e. the gravity of this can be likened to his losing his near and dear ones.) (Sahih Bukhari Vol.1 Pg.78)

In another Hadith Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is reported to have said: “The example of the person who misses a single Salaat is that of a person who loses his entire family and belongings.” (Fathul Bari Vol.2 Pg.30)

This means that if a person loses his wife, children and his entire wealth, the amount of grief and sorrow he will feel, should also be felt at the loss of one Salaat. He should also consider a great loss in the hereafter.

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has said: “The person who is punctual in the performance of his Salaat, (his) Salaat will be a saviour, a source of celestial light (noor) and proof for him on the day of judgement. The person who disregards it, it would not be a saviour, nor a source of celestial light (noor) or proof for him on the day of judgement. This person will be in the company of Qaroon, Firoun, Hamaan and Ubay bin Khalaf.” (Mishkaat Pg.59)

May Allah protect the entire Ummah.

In another Hadith it is mentioned that a person who totally disregards or omits his Asr Salaat, all his actions are worthless. (Mishkaat Pg.60)

Today, the sheer number of businessmen who, due their involvement in their businesses, read their Asr Salaat during sunset or they make qadha of it afterwards is absolutely shocking. The above Ahaadith should be remembered at such a time. It is due to this negligence that the Quraan has specifically emphasized the importance of the Asr Salaat.

Allah Ta’ala says in the Quraan: “Verily Salaat has been made compulsory on the Muslims on its prescribed time.” (Surah Nisa Aayat 103)

Therefore, to read a Salaat on any time other than the prescribed time, without a valid Shari’ excuse makes a person liable for severe punishment.

In another Aayat it is mentioned: “Destruction awaits those who are neglectful of their Salaat (and do not perform it).” (Surah Ma’oon Aayat 3 & 4)

These verses refer specifically to the Hypocrites. However it is disappointing to note that these examples are found in abundance amongst the Muslims.

Regarding the successful Believers, Allah Ta’ala says in the Quraan: “They are those who are punctual in the performance of their Salaat.” (Surah Mu’miniin Aayat 9)

The importance of Salaat with Jama’at (congregation)

One cannot truly cover any discussion concerning the rights of Salaat without conveying due importance to performing Salaat with congregation. In numerous places we are commanded in the Quraan concerning Salaat. However an interesting point is the fact that Allah Ta’ala does not just command us with performing prayer but the word is ‘Iqaamah’ i.e. the establishment of prayer. `Iqaamah` does not refer to mere performance. Rather it has a very comprehensive meaning. It encompasses the scrupulous performance of Salaat in every aspect. Aside from exercising due care in the performance of the fardh, wajib and Mustahab actions of Salaat, `Iqaamah` also includes constancy and punctuality in Salaat. (Ma’ariful Quraan Vol.1 Pg.111)

Mufti  Muhammed  Shafi’ Uthmani Saheb (rahimahullah)  writes:  “An  eminent  group  of  the SahabaTa’abieen  and  the  Jurists  are  of  the  opinion  that  Salaat  with jamaat  is  compulsory  and  to  omit  it  is  a  sin.  In  fact  a  group  among  the Sahaba  negate  the  validity  of  the  Salaat  performed  individually  without a  valid  Shari’  excuse. (Ma’ariful  Quraan)  

The  Ahaadith  are  replete  with  warnings  for  those  who  deliberately (without  a  valid  Shari’  excuse)  forego  Salaat  with  jamaat.  In  one Hadith  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  reported  to  have  said:  “By  that  Being  who  has control  over  my  life,  I  intend  gathering  some  firewood.  I  would  then instruct  somebody  to  call  out  the  Azaan  and  perform  the  Salaat  while  I go  and  set  fire  to  the  homes  of  those  people  who  perform  their  Salaat in  their  houses  without  any  proper  excuse.” (Sahih  Bukhari  Vol.1  Pg.89)

Another  Hadith  declares:  “Had  it  not  been  for  the  women  and  children, I  would  have  had  someone  perform  the  Salaat  and  instructed  some  of the  youngsters  to  go  and  burn  down  their  homes.” (Mishkaat  Pg.97  from  Musnad  Ahmed)

In  yet  another Hadith  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  reported  to  have  said:  “The  most  difficult  Salaats on  the  hypocrites  are  Esha  and  Fajr.  However,  had  they  known  the reward  of  performing  those  Salaat  with  jamaat,  they  would  have performed  them  even  if  they  had  to  crawl  to  the  Musjid.” (Sahih  Bukhari  Vol.1  Pg.90)

In  a  narration  of  Abu  Dawood,  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  to  reported  to  have  said: “  He  who  hears  the  azaan  but  fails  to  go  the  Musjid,  without  a  valid (Shari’)  excuse,  the  Salaat  that  he  has  performed  (at  home)  is  not accepted.”  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  was  asked:  “What  is  a  valid  excuse?”  He replied:  “Illness  or  fear.” (Mishkaat  Pg.97)

The  illness  and  fear  mentioned  above  refers  to  such  fear  and  illness that  actively  prevents  one  from  joining  the  congregation  for  Salaat.

Once  a  blind  man  came  to  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  and  said:  “O  Rasul  of  Allah ,  I have  no  guide.  Can  I  perform  my  Salaat  at  home.”  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) permitted  him  to  do  so.  When  the  blind  man  turned  to  leave, Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  called  him  back  and  asked:  “Can  you  hear  the  azaan  (at home)?”  He  replied  in  the  affirmative.  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  then  said:  “In  that case  you  must  attend  the  jamaat  (regardless  of  your  situation).” ( Sahih  Muslim  Vol.1  Pg.232)

The  sheer  importance  of  jamaat  is  clearly  highlighted  in  this  Hadith. How  can  the  lacksadaisical  attitude  which  we  entertain  in  this  regard  be tolerated!?

Ibn  Masood (radhiyallahu anhu)  says;  “The  one  who  wishes  to  meet  Allah  Ta’ala  as  a Muslim  on  the  day  of  judgement,  should  be  punctual  in  the performance  of  his  Salaat  on  hearing  the  azaan.  Allah  Ta’ala  has prescribed  the  clear  ways  of  guidance  for  his  Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)   .  These  Salaat  too are  among  those  ways  of  guidance.  If  you  too  will  adopt  the  way  of those  who  perform  their  Salaat  at  their  homes,  you  will  be  abandoning the  way  of  Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ,  hence  you  would  be  led  astray.  The  one  who performs  wudhu  and  leaves  for  the  Musjid,  for  every  step  he  takes  he gets  one  reward,  one  of  his  sins  are  forgiven  and  his  stages  are elevated  in  Jannah.  In  the  time  of  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  only  an  open  hypocrite would  not  join  the  jamaat.  Even  the  sick  person  would  be  carried  by two  people  and  brought  to  the  Musjid  to  perform  his  Salaat  with jamaat. (Ibid)   

Let  us  read  these  authentic  Ahaadith  repeatedly  and  let  us  then  reflect upon  the  condition  of  the  Ummah.  These  Ahaadith  should  imbibe  within us  a  strong  will  to  make  an  all-out  effort  towards  self-rectification  as well  as  towards  attempting  to  improve  the  condition  of  the  Ummah,  the first  and  immediate  focus  of  our  efforts  being  our  families.

While  the  warnings  are  severe  for  neglecting  Salaat  with  jamaat, likewise  the  rewards  for  performing  Salaat  with  congregation  are  also tremendous.

The  Salaat  performed  with  jamaat  is  twenty  seven  times  more  superior than  the  Salaat  performed  individually. (Sahih  Bukhari  Vol.1  Pg.89)  Similarly,  the  one  who performs  his  Esha  Salaat  with  jamaat  gets  the  reward  for  having  spent half  the  night  in  ibaadat (worship).  If  he  then  performs  his  Fajr  Salaat with  jamaat,  he  gets  the  reward  for  spending  the  entire  night  in ibaadat. (Sahih Muslim Vol.1 Pg.232) A little effort will not only save one from the excruciating punishment of the hereafter but will also earn one great reward.

The Memo of Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)

The importance accorded to Salaat by the Sahaba (radhiyallahu anhum) can be ascertained from a letter of Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) to his governors. He writes; “Among all your affairs and matters, the most important in my eyes is Salaat. He who safeguards his Salaat and is punctual in its performance, has safeguarded his Deen. On the contrary, the person who forsakes his Salaat, will neglect the (other) commandments of Deen to a greater extent.” (Mishkaat Pg.59)

From the above it becomes explicitly clear that, the person who is negligent with regard to his Salaat cannot expect to safeguard his Deen

Correct recitation of the Quraan

Let me reiterate, guarding one’s Salaat includes the proper fulfillment of the fardh, waajib, sunnah and mustahab actions. Recitation of the Quraan is also among the fundamental aspects of Salaat without which the Salaat is null and void. Having understood this it is also vitally important to know that it is compulsory to recite the Quraan with Tajweed. (i.e. proper pronunciation of the letters and observing the various rules which pertain to the recitation of the Quraan.) The Salaat will be incomplete if the Quraan is recited without observing the rules of Tajweed. Hence it is compulsory for every person to learn to recite at least those parts of the Quraan with Tajweed that he will recite in the Salaat. The person who will not endeavour to learn to recite the Quraan with Tajweed and continues to recite incorrectly will be sinful. His Salaat too will not be properly discharged. Arabic is a very delicate language. At times a slight change in the letter causes the entire meaning to change. A change in the meaning nullifies the Salaat. (Shaami Pg.462 & 592) This is the fatwa (verdict) of the Hanafi jurists of the early centuries. However the latter day Jurists have stated that the Salaat will be valid. Nevertheless, despite the verdict of the latter day Jurists, if one does not endeavor to correct his recitation, he will be sinful.

Moulana  Ashraf  Ali  Thanwi  (rahimahullah)  writes:  “To  pronounce  the  letters correctly  to  the  best  of  one’s  ability  as  well  as  to  take  into consideration  the  places  of  stopping,  so  that  one  does  not  stop  at  the incorrect  place,  hence  changing  the  meaning…;  these  aspects  are “waajib  alal  ain”  (compulsory  on  every  person). (Fataawa  Imdadia  Vol.1  Pg.305) Special  attention  should  be  paid  to  the  pronunciation  of  the  ض and  ظ since  it  is  difficult  for  many  people  to  distinguish  between  the  two letters.

Hadhrat  Thanwi  (rahimahullah)  writes  in  this  regard:  “The  Salaat  of  such  a person  who  cannot  distinguish  between  these  letters  (in  its pronunciation)  due  to  lack  of  practice  will  be  correct.  He  will  be excused  in  this  matter.  However,  the  validity  of  the  Salaat  does  not necessarily  mean  that  a  sin  will  not  be  incurred.  It  is  compulsory  to endeavour  to  pronounce  the  letters  correctly. (Ibid)  What  this  simply  means is  that  if  one  does  not  make  an  effort  to  learn  to  correctly  pronounce the  ‘P’  and  ‘B’,  one  will  be  sinful  for  the  incorrect  recitation,  even though  the  Salaat  will  be  valid. 

Similarly  it  is  incumbent  to  distinguish clearly  between  the  ز  and  ; ذ س   and  ص ; ق and  ك etc.    Much  more  attention  has  to be  paid  to  these  aspects.  One  solution  to  the  problem  is  the establishment  of  adult  Tajweed  classes  in  our  Masaajid.  In  the Haramain  in  Makkah  and  Madinah,  daily  halqaas  (groups)  are  formed and  the  correct  recitation  of  the  Quraan  is  taught.  May  Allah  Ta’ala make  this  the  feature  of  our  Masaajid  too.  A’ameen. Similarly,  the  Duaas  that  are  recited  in  Salaat  must  be  pronounced correctly.  Also,  one  should  have  a  basic  understanding  of  the  meaning of  the  Duaas  and  those  parts  of  the  Quraan  that  one  recites  regularly  in Salaat.  This  will  aid  greatly  in  developing  concentration  and  devotion  in Salaat  without  which  the  Salaat  is  lifeless.

For  the  acceptance  of  this  Salaat,  it  is  necessary  to  be  fully  acquainted with  the  masa’ail  (laws)  of  Salaat.  A  thorough  knowledge  of  the  Fardh, WaajibSunnah  and  Mustahab  actions  is  also  necessary.  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said:  “Perform  your  Salaat  in  the  manner  you  observe  me  performing my  Salaat.”  (Sahih  Bukhari  Vol.1  Pg.88)

The  Salaat  of  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)   included  the  Sunnah  and  Mustahab  acts. Hence  we  have  to  follow  suit.  Therefore  it  is  necessary  that  every person  should  carefully  study  any  authentic  book  that  deals  with  the details  of  Salaat.  Hereunder  follows  a  brief  discussion  regarding  certain important  aspects  of  Salaat.

The  correct  method  of  the  TAKBEER-E-TAHRIMA (Allahu  Akbar) and  the  QIYAAM (standing  posture) 

⚫ At the  time  of  saying  the  Takbeer-e-tahrima,  one  should  not lower  the  head.  The  head  should  be  kept  upright.  Both  the  hands should  be  raised  up  to  the  ears. Some  people  only  make  a  slight upward  sign  with  the  hands.  This  is  contrary  to  the  Sunnat method. (Shaami) 

⚫ When raising  the  hands,  the  palms  should  face  the  Qiblah.  Some people,  instead  of  facing  the  palms  towards  Qiblah,  point  their fingers  towards  their  ears.  This  is  incorrect. 

⚫ When raising  the  hands  at  the  time  of  saying  Allahu  Akbar,  the fingers  should  not  be  completely  closed  together  nor  should  they  be completely  spread  apart.  Instead,  the  fingers  should  be  moderately kept  in  their  normal  position. 

⚫ After  saying  Allahu  Akbar,  fasten  both  hands  beneath  the  navel without  first  dropping  them.  Some  people  first  drop  the  hands  to the  sides  and  then    tie  it  below  the  navel.  This  is  also  incorrect. 

⚫ The right  palm  should  be  placed  on  the  left  palm.  Then  grasp  the wrist  with  the  thumb  and  small  finger  and  spread  the  remaining three  fingers  on  the  back  of  the  left  hand.  This  method encompasses  practice  on  many  Ahaadith.

⚫ Some people  leave  the  palm  to  hang  down  and  merely  place  the fingers  of  the  right  hand  on  the  left  arm.  This  is  incorrect. 

⚫ It is  preferable  that  both  the  feet  be  kept  near  each  other.  There should  be  a  gap  of  four  fingers  between  the  two  feet.  This  method is  the  closest  to  khushoo’  (humility). (Shaami)  By  keeping  the  two  feet  like this,  one  does  not  need  to  move  a  lot  in  order  to  keep  the  two  heels together  when  making  sajdah,  which  is  Sunnat. (Sahih  Ibn  Khuzaimah  Vol.i  Pg.328  &  I’ila’us  Sunan  Vol.3  Pg.32  &  Shaami  Vol.1  Pg.364) 

⚫ One should  avoid  swaying  and  moving  the  body  while  standing  in Salaat.  Some  Imaams  sway  their  bodies  whilst  reciting  Quraan  in the  standing  posture. 

⚫ Both  feet  should  face  the  Qiblah.  They  should  not  be  turned away  from  the  direction  of  the  Qiblah.  Similarly  both  feet  should  be in  a  straight  line  –  not  one  behind  the  other. 

⚫ Whilst  in  the  standing  posture,  the  sight  should  be  focussed  at the  place  of  sajdah.  Avoid  looking  around  or  even  in  front  of  you.

⚫ Avoid  scratching  as  far  as  possible.  If  there  is  a  dire  need  to scratch,  use  only  one  hand  with  minimul  movements.

Rectification  of  the  Ruku  posture 

⚫ In ruku,  grasp  both  the  knees,  with  the  fingers  spread  apart. Merely  placing  the  palms  on  the  knees  is  not  the  Sunnat  method. 

⚫ The head,  back  and  the  posterior  should  be  at  one  level.  Do  not lower  the  head  nor  raise  it. 

⚫ The arms  should  be  seperated  from  the  sides.  The  arms  should not  be  tucked  into  the  sides  nor  should  the  arms  be  bent.  They should  be  kept  straight. (Shaami)

⚫ The feet  should  also  be  kept  straight.  Do  not  bend  the  knees. (Shaami  Vol.1  Pg.365) 

⚫ Read    three  times  with  ease.  To  read  less  than  this  is makrooh  (detestable)  It  is  better  to  read  more  than  three  times. Some  Scholars  regard  reading  the  Tasbeeh  thrice  in  ruku  and sajdah  as  Waajib  (compulsory).  However  the  correct  view  is  that  it is  Sunnat.  Pronounce  the  complete  Tasbeeh  correctly.  Take  special care  in  pronouncing  the  ظ properly. ( Shaami) 

⚫ In ruku  as  well,  the  feet  should  face  the  Qiblah  and  the  ankles should  be  parallel  to  each  other. (Ibid) 

⚫ In ruku,  the  sight  should  be  on  the  feet.

Performance  of  RukuQaumahSajdah  and  Jalsa  calmly

The  standing  posture  after  ruku  before  going  into  sajdah  is  termed  as Qaumah  whilst  the  sitting  posture  between  the  two  sajdahs  is  termed as  Jalsah.

It  is  waajib  (compulsory)  to  perform  the  rukuqaumahsajdah  and jalsah  calmly.  To  perform  these  postures  of  Salaat  calmly  means  that after  performing  the  ruku  for  instance,  one  should  not  hasten  towards the  sajdah  until  the  entire  body  is  at  ease.  Once  the  body  is  in  this condition  of  calm  and  ease,  to  remain  in  that  posture  for  the  duration of  one  ‘Tasbeeh’  (the  duration  of  reciting  subhaanallah  once)  is  waajib. To  perform  these  postures  in  the  above  mentioned  manner  (calmly)  is termed  as  ‘Itminaan’.  The  omission  of  ‘Itminaan’  intentionally, necessitates  the  repetition  of  the  entire  Salaat,  since  a  waajib  has  been omitted.  However  if  the  omission  was  unintentional,  a  sajdah-e-sahw (remedial  prostration)  has  to  be  made.  If  the  sajdah-e-sahw  was  not performed,  the  Salaat  is  not  valid  and  must  be  repeated.  ( Shaami  Vol.1  Pg.433)

Itminaan’  is  generally  observed  in  ruku  and  sajdah,  since  the ‘tasbeehaat’ (Subha-na-rabial-azeem  etc.)  are  recited  therein.  Very  few people do not perform these postures (ruku and sajdah) calmly. However, many people do not fulfil the condition of ‘Itminaan’ in Jalsah and Qaumah, since the Masnoon duaas that are to be recited in these postures are completely omitted. Sadly the ‘Khawaas’ (learned) as well as the ‘Awaam’ (general public) are guilty of this omission.

Duaas to be recited in Qaumah

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi  wasallam) used to recite the following duaa in Qaumah:

Sami Allahu liman Hamidah, Rabbana Lakal hamd  (Sahih Muslim Vol.1 Pg.190)

Imaam Muslim has recorded many similar Ahaadith narrated by Abdullah bin Abi Awfa, Abu Saeed Khudri and Abdullah bin Abbas (radhiyallahu anhum) In fact many lengthier duaas have also been narrated.

In his Jami-us-Sahih, Imaam Tirmizi has narrated the following duaa from Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu): Sami Allahu liman Hamidah rabbanaa lakal hamd  (Tirmizi Vol. 1 Pg.61)

In another narration of Tirmizi, it is reported that Rasulullah (sallaĺlaahu alayhi wasallam) used to recite the above mentioned duaa in the FARDH SALAAT. Imaam Tirmizi  has evaluated this Hadith as  sound and authentic. The term ‘FARDH’ is also clearly mentioned in a narration of Abu Dawood. Hence, these duaas can also be recited in the FARDH SALAAT.  (Tirmizi Vol.2 Pg.180)

Duaas to be recited in Jalsa

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to recite the following duaa in Jalsa:

Allaahum maghfirlee  warhamnee wa ‘aafinee wahdanee warzukhnee

After narrating this Hadith in his Mustadrak, Haakim writes: (i.e. this Hadith has been narrated by an authentic chain of narrators). (Mustadrak lil Haakim Vol.1 Pg. 271)

Allamah Shaami (rahimahullah) has quoted the following regarding this Hadith: (Imaam Nawawi has evaluated this Hadith as sound, and Haakim has attested to its authenticity). (Raddul Mukhtar Vol.1 Pg.472)

Therefore thses duaas should be recited in Qaumah and Jalsa, since it is a Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). The recitation of these duaas in the sunan, nawaafil and individually performed fardh salaat is also unanimously accepted to be Sunnah. It is also permissible for the Imaam to recite these duaas in the fardh salaat. In fact nowadays it will be mustahab (preferable) for the Imaam to recite these duaas due to the general shortcoming in the performance of the Qaumah and Jalsah correctly. Allamah Shaami (rahimahullah) has also adopted this view.     (Raddul Mukhtaar Vol.1 Pg.472)

Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (rahimahullah) writes: “The duaas recited in Qaumah have been reported in Sahih Bukhari and in Sahih Muslim while the duaas recited in Jalsa have been reported in the Sunan (i.e. Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah and Nisaai). According to Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullah) it is fardh (compulsory) to recit Allahum Maghfirlee once in Jalsa. I am of the opinion that the Hanafis should also recite these duaas. The ruku and sajdah are performed correctly (i.e. with I’tminaan: the body being at ease) because of the forms of zikr such as Subhana Rabbiyal Azeem – Subhana Rabbiyal A’la but the Qaumah and Jalsah are performed haphazardly. This is the reason of my emphasis that the duaas of Qaumah and Jalsah must also be recited.    (Faidhul bari  Vol.2 Pg.309)

A similar statement of Allamah Kashmiri (rahimahullah) has been mentioned in Ma’arifus Sunan. (Vol.3 Pg.68)

Qaadhi Thanaaullah Panipati (rahimahullah) has also stated that the above mentioned duaas should be recited in Qaumah and Jalsah.  (Maa Laa Budda Minhu Mutarjam Pg.62)

By  reciting  these  duaas  in  Qaumah  and  Jalsah,  Insha  Allah  our  Salaat will  be  rectified.

Correction  of  Sajdah

⚫ Whilst  going  into  sajdah  from  qaumah,  do  not  bend  the  chest forward.  Keep  it  straight.  Only  the  knees  should  be  bent  while  going down.  Some  people  heave  the  chest  due  to  which  an  extra  ruku  is created.  This  is  forbidden. (Shaami  Vol.1  Pg.334)  Until  the  knees  have  not  been  placed on  the  ground,  avoid  bending  the  top  half  of  the  body  as  far  as possible. 

⚫ Whilst  going  into  sajdah,  first  place  the  hands  on  the  knees,  then place  the  knees  on  the  ground.  Thereafter,  place  the  hand  and finally  place  the  forehead.  The  nose  should  also  touch  the  ground with  the  forehead. (Sunan  Baihaqi  Vol.2  Pg.100  &  Shaami) 

⚫ In sajdah,  the  fingers  of  both  the  hands  should  be  kept  close together. 

⚫ There  should  be  no  space  between  the  fingers.  (Sahih  Ibn  Khuzaima  Vol.1  Pg.324  &  Shaami  Vol.1  Pg.252) 

⚫ The tips  of  the  all  the  fingers  should  face  the  Qibla,  including  the thumb.  Special  care  should  be  taken  regarding  it. (Shaami) 

⚫ Perform  the  sajdah  brazenly  (openly)  i.e.  keep  the  arms seperated  from  the  sides.  The  sides  should  be  apparent.  Similarly keep  the  thighs  away  from  the  belly.  The  belly  should  not  be supported  by  the  sides.  (Tirmizi  &  Shaami) 

⚫ The forearms  should  not  be  placed  on  the  ground.  Only  the palms  should  touch  the  ground.  The  forearm  will  be  raised. ( Tirmizi)

⚫ In the  fardh  salaat,  do  not  spread  the  arms  out  towards  the  left or  right  to  such  an  extent  that  people  performing  salaat  on  either side  are  inconvenienced.  Spread  the  arms  only  as  much  as  one  can.
⚫Place  the  head  between  the  hands  in  such  a  way  that  the  tip  of the  thumbs  are  in  line  with  the  earlobe. 

⚫ In sajdah  the  knees  should  be  kept  close  together.  (Ibn  Khuzaima  Vol.1  Pg.328  & I’laaus  Sunan  Vol.3  Pg.32) 

⚫ The toes  should  be  bent,  facing  the  Qibla.  To  keep  the  toes upright,  facing  the  ground  is  contrary  to  the  sunnah.  The  toes should  face  the  Qibla.  ( Sahih  Bukhari) 

⚫ Some  people  face  the  toes  in  the  opposite  direction  of  the  Qibla. This  is  also  incorrect. Some  people  keep  both  the  feet  raised  off  the  ground  in  sajdah.  If this  was  done  during  the  entire  sajdah,  it  will  nullify  the  Salaat. 

Sajdah  should  be  performed  in  accordance  to  the  sunnat method. 

⚫ Another  sunnat  of  sajdah  is  that  the  heels  should  be  kept together. (Ibn  Khuzaima Vol.1  Pg.328  &  I’laaus  Sunan Vol.3  Pg.32) The  way  to  achieve  this  is  that  both  feet  should  be  kept close  together  and  the  heels  and  ankles  should  be  joined.  Both  feet should  be  kept  upright  with  the  toes  facing  the  Qibla. 

⚫ As in  ruku,  it  is  also  sunnat  to  read  subhaana  rabbiyal A’la    thrice  in sajdah. (Shaami)  One  may  read  more  than  three  times  but  not  less  than that.

The  method  of  sitting  in  the  Jalsah  and  Qa’adah  postures

The  importance  of  sitting  with  ease  in  the  jalsah  posture  has   been  highlighted here. Take  special  care  of  that.  Furthermore  read the  duaa  as  well.  By  doing  so  this  posture  will  be  performed  correctly with  ease. 

⚫ Place  the  left  foot  down  and  sit  on  it,  whilst  keeping  the  right foot  upright  with  the  toes  facing  the  Qibla.   (Sahih  Bukhari  & Shaami) 

⚫ Some people  keep  both  feet  upright  and  sit  on  their  heels. Others  cross  their  feet.  This  is  all  contrary  to  the  sunnat. 

⚫ The method  of  sitting  in  the  first  and  second  qa’adah  (sitting posture)  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  jalsah  posture.  Many  people  err in  these  postures  also. 

⚫ The common  method  of  placing  the  hands  in  the  two  qa’adahs and  in  jalsah  is  that  the  hands  should  be  placed  on  the  thighs  with the  fingers  facing  the  Qibla.  The  fingers  are  not  bent  towards  the knees,  which  means  that  the  tips  of  the  fingers  are  kept  on  the  tip of  the  knee. (Shaami)  However,  in  a  narration  recorded  in  Sahih  Muslim reported  by  Hadhrat  Abdullah  bin  Zubair (radhiyallahu anhu),  it  is  reported  that Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used  to  make  the  knee  a  morsel  of  the  left  hand.  (i.e. He  used  to  cup  the  knees).  Thus  some  Scholars  are  of  the  opinion that  the  fingers  of  the  left  hand  should  cup  the  knee. (Sahih  Muslim Vol.1  Pg.216) This  is  the view  of  Imaam  Tahawi  (rahimahullah)  as  well. (Shaami  Pg.375) 

⚫ When commencing  the  qa’adah,  the  right  hand  will  be  placed  on the  thighs  or  knees.  However  when  reading  At  –Tahiyaat,  one reaches  the  words  Ash-hadu-alla-ilaaha-illallaah  form  a  ring  with the  thumb  and  middle  finger  and  join  the  small  and  ring  finger attaching  the  tips  of  it  to  the  palm.The  index  finger  will  then  be lifted  towards  the  Qibla.  It  will  be  lifted  when  reading  Ash-hadualla-ilaaha  and  dropped  when  reading  illallahu.  The  other  fingers will  remain  as  they  are  till  the  end  of  the  salaat

⚫ The index  finger  will  not  be  raised  towards  the  sky.  It  will  only  be pointed  towards  the  Qibla.    (Mufti Taqi Uthmani)

Correction  of  the  Salaam  and  Duaa

⚫ Turn  to  the  right  and  left  to  such  an  extent  that  the  person  at the  rear  can  see  one’s  cheeks. 

⚫ After  making  salaam  to  the  right,  first  turn  the  face  to  the  Qibla, then  from  here  commence  the  left  salaam.  Some  people  commence the  left  salaam  whilst  the  face  is  still  turned  towards  the  right.  This is  not  correct  as  explained  by  Hadhrat  Moulana  Abrarul  Haq  Saheb of  Hardoi. 

⚫ When making  salaam  to  the  right  and  left,  make  the  intention  of greeting  the  humans  and  angels.    (Shaami) 

⚫ At the  time  of  making  duaa,  the  hands  should  be  lifted  until  they are  in  line  with  the  chest.  There  should  be  a  slight  gap  between  the two  hands.  The  hands  should  not  be  placed  touching  one  another nor  should  one  hand  be  placed  on  top  of  the  other  nor  should  the hands  be  placed  on  the  face  while  making  duaa.

Correct  attire  in  Salaat

To  cover  the  satr  is  a  condition  of  salaat.  Disregarding  this  will invalidate  the  salaat.  In  addition  to  this,  one  should  take  note  that clothes  made  of  silk  are  not  worn  by  men.  Similarly,  clothes  with pictures  of  animated  objects  are  not  permissible.  Kurtas  and trousers  should  not  cover  the  ankles  since  this  will  render  the  salaat makrooh.

Once  a  person  performed  his  salaat  with  his  trousers  covering  his ankles.  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  ordered  him  to  repeat  his  wudhu  and  salaat  and admonished  him  by  saying:  “Allah  Ta’ala  does  not  accept  the  salaat of  a  person  whose  trousers  flow  below  the  ankles.”   (Mishkaat  Pg.73)

It has been stated in many authentic Ahaadith that a person who lets his trouser flow below his ankles out of pride, Allah Ta’ala will not even look towards him due to anger on the day of judgement.  (Mishkaat Pg.373)   

In another Hadith it is mentioned that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) warned a Sahabi by saying: “Refrain from letting your trouser flow below your ankles for this is pride and Allah Ta’ala does not love proud people. (Mishkaat Pg.169)  Yet in another Hadith it is stated: “Whatever flows below the ankles will be in the fire of hell”. (i.e. this will be the fate of the one who wears such a trouser that flows below the ankles).      (Mishkaat Pg.373)

It is clearly stated in a Hadith that a proud person will not enter Jannat. Hence extra care should be taken to ensure that no clothing is worn below the ankles. Unfortunately most people are negligent in this regard. The warning in the Ahaadith is general and pertains to wearing the clothing below the ankles in Salaat as well as outside Salaat. When one performs Salaat while dressed in the manner disliked by Allah Ta’ala, how can one expect the Salaat to be accepted. Many people fold their trousers up during Salaat but once the Salaat is over, they once again undo the folds and allow the trousers to flow below the ankles. Such people should take note that to dress in this manner is disliked by Allah Ta’ala whether one is in Salaat or outside Salaat.

Short sleeves and the Topee (headgear) in Salaat

Concerning attire in Salaat, Allah Ta’ala has commanded:

O children of Adam (mankind), adopt dignified attire at the time of Salaat.”    (Surah A’araaf Aayat 31)

It must be appreciated from the choice of words used in this command, that not only is covering one’s body implied but implicit reference is made towards a distinctive category of attire. Since Allah Ta’ala has used the word ‘zeenat’ (i.e. dignified or appropriate attire) when referring to dressing for Salaat. This fact is affirmed by Mufti Shafi Saheb (rahimahullah) who writes; “During Salaat, merely covering one’s satr (that part of the body, the concealing of which is compulsory at all times) is not sufficient but clothes of dignity (zeenat) which is befitting the sanctity of Salaat will have to be adopted. Thus for a male to perform Salaat bareheaded or with his elbows exposed (with short-sleeves) will be Makrooh (reprehensible) and a contradiction of ‘zeenat’. The Shariat views performing Salaat with short-sleeves as Makrooh, whether the shirt itself is short-sleeve or one has folded the sleeves.

Likewise it would also be Makrooh to perform Salaat wearing demeaning attire that one would be ashamed to wear in public.

The ruling of Makrooh that has been attached to performing Salaat bareheaded or with short-sleeves is not only derived from the word ‘zeenat’ appearing in the aayat but also has been supported by the Ahaadith of Rasulullah.         ( Ma’ariful Quraan Vol.3 Pg.544)

At the time of Salaat, Hasan Basri (rahimahullah) used to adorn himself with the most beautiful and dignified clothing and used to exclaim that Allah Ta’ala likes beauty. Therafter he used to, by way of clarification, recite the aforementioned Aayat.     (Durrul Mukhtaar Vol.1 Pg.599)

Wearing tight fitting clothes in Salaat

The wearing of such constricting and tight fitting attire that clearly outlines one’s physical features, especially the more private parts of one’s body, is completely contrary to the laws governing the concealment of the satr. It is thus quite apparent that Salaat should not be performed in such attire. In fact, one should not even appear in public in such attire.   (Ahsanul Fataawa Vol.3 Pg.403)

Salaat with pictures of animate objects

Performing salaat wearing such clothes upon which pictures of animate objects appear is also Makrooh.   (Shaami Vol.1 Pg.606)

Clothing  with  inscriptions

To  wear  such  clothes  during  Salaat,  upon  which  inscriptions  appear is  also  Makrooh.  The  reason  being  that  there  is  a  strong  possibility that  one’s  glance  or  the  glance  of  a  fellow  Musalli  may  fall  upon  the inscriptions  and  he  may  become  absorbed  in  them,  thus  distracting him  from  his  Salaat.  Once  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  wore  a  garment  which  was decorated  and  he  performed  Salaat  with  it.  After  the  Salaat, Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) removed  the  garment  and  remarked  that  it  had  almost disturbed  him  during  his  Salaat.  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  returned  it  to  the Sahabi (radhiyallahu anhu)  who  gave  it  to  him  and  opted  for  a  plain  garment  instead.   ( Sahih  Bukhari Sahih  Muslim  &  Mishkaat  Pg.72  & Durre  Mukhtaar Pg.593)  

Correction  of  one’s  appearance

Allah  Ta’ala  loves  his  servants  in  such  an  appearance  which  is pleasing  to  Him.  If  a  person  shaves  his  beard  or  shortens  it,  or  he lengthens  his  moustache  (i.e.  he  allows  it  to  overlap  his  lip)  then how  can  he  expect  Allah  Ta’ala  to  pay  attention  to  him.  Once  two non-Muslim  envoys  came  to  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  Their  beards  were  shaven and  their  moustaches  were  overlapping  their  lips.  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) greatly  disliked  even  looking  at  them  and  clearly  stated  his  aversion for  their  appearance.     (I’faul  Lihya)

Salaat  is  a  means  of  drawing  the  mercy  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  However when  a  person’s  appearance  is  in  direct  conflict  with  the  Shariat, how  can  the  mercy  of  Allah  Ta’ala  be  directed  towards  him.

Concentration  and  Devotion  in  Salaat

Generally  the  aspect  lacking  most  in  our  Salaat  is  concentration  and devotion  whereas  the  Quraan  has  promised  success  for  that  person who  performs  his  Salaat  with  proper  concentration  and  devotion.  The remedy  for  this  dreadful  condition  has  been  prescribed  in  a  Hadith.

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  reported  to  have  said:  “Perform  your  Salaat  as  if  it  is  a ‘farewell’  Salaat.”  (i.e.  as  if  this  is  the  last  Salaat  of  your  life)  (Mishkaat  Pg.445)

Every  person  should  perform  his  Salaat  with  this  in  mind  that  he  might not  live  to  perform  another  Salaat.  He  should  imagine  himself  in  the presence  of  Allah  the  Almighty  who  even  knows  the  thoughts  that  go through  his  mind.  He  should  say  to  himself  that  if  I  do  not  pay attention  to  Allah,  then  how  can  I  expect  Him  to  pay  attention  to  me.  I am  dependant  on  him  while  He  is  independent  of  me.  Hopefully  this  will create  the  desired  concentration  and  devotion.

Hadhrat  Moulana  Ashraf  Ali  Thanwi  (rahimahullah)  writes:  “  ‘Khushoo’ (concentration)  refers  to  tranquility.  Among  the  requirements  of  Salaat is  that  all  the  limbs  should  be  in  a  tranquil  state.  The  Musalli  must refrain  from  any  unnecessary  movement.  He  should  keep  his  gaze  at the  required  place  and  not  look  around  or  turn  his  head  in  any  direction whatsoever.  Neither  must  he  straighten  his  hair  or  clothes  nor  should he  scratch  his  body.  Unnecessary  coughing  and  clearing  of  the  throat should  also  be  avoided.

Concentration  means  that  one  should  refrain  from  intentionally  thinking of  anything  that  is  not  related  to  the  Salaat.  If  some  stray  thoughts  do enter  the  mind  unintentionally,  it  would  not  be  regarded  as  being contrary  to  concentration.  Concentration  is  within  a  person’s  control and  hence  it  is  possible  to  develop  and  strengthen  it.

An  easy  way  to  develop  concentration  is  to  ponder  over  every  word recited.  When  special  attention  is  given  to  every  word  then automatically  other  thoughts  will  vanish.  This  concentration  should  be maintained  throughout  the  Salaat.  If  the  above  is  observed,  Insha  Allah stray  thoughts  will  not  hinder  one.  However  if  some  stray  thoughts  still come  to  mind,  then  fretting  over  them  (by  thinking  that  these dangerous  thoughts  have  come  again)  in  Salaat  is  also  against concentration.  Instead  one  should  again  turn  one’s  attention  to  what  is being  recited.  In sha  Allah,  the  stray  thoughts  will  disappear  and concentration  will  once  again  be  achieved      (An  extract  from  Islaah-e-Qalb  by  Hadhrat  Thanwi  (rahimahullah)

If  one  does  not  achieve  the  desired  concentration  and  devotion,  one should  not  be  disillusioned  and  totally  discard  Salaat.  Instead  continue to  endeavour  to  obtain  the  cherished  goal.  If  the  Salaat  is  totally forsaken  due  to  a  lack  of  concentration,  the  sin  of  foregoing  the  Fardh will  also  be  incurred.  Salaat  has  to  be  performed  in  all  circumstances, with  concentration  or  without  it.

Shaytaan  will  try  to  mislead  a  person  in  every  possible  way.  At  times he  prompts  a  person  to  think  that  the  condition  of  his  Salaat  is  so  poor that  it  will  make  no  difference  if  he  does  not  perform  it  at  all.  However, one  should  not  fall  prey  to  these  thoughts.  The  Salaat  must  be performed  at  all  times  even  if  the  desired  concentration  and  devotion  is not  achieved.

Nevertheless,  if  mistakes  do  happen  or  stray  thoughts  do  occur,  one should  repent  sincerely  and  make  a  firm  intention  to  improve  one’s Salaat.  In sha  Allah,  Allah  Ta’ala  will  ease  the  task  of  performing  Salaat with  concentration  and  devotion.

The  Salaat  of  Women

In  the  Shariat,  although  certain  forms  of  Ibaadat  (worship)  are  done both  by  men  and  women,  yet  the  manner  in  which  these  forms  of Ibaadat  are  fulfilled  differ.  This  is  especially  apparent  in  Salaat.  Many postures  of  the  Salaat  of  women  differ  to  that  of  men  in  order  to maintain  the  very  important  principle  of  modesty  and  concealment. Many  narrations  substantiate  this  fact.
Hadhrat  Abdullah  bin  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  reports  that  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said:  “When  a woman  sits  in  Salaat,  she  should  place  the  thighs  (of  one  leg)  upon  the other  and  when  she  makes  sajdah,  she  should  attach  her  belly  to  her thigh  so  that  it  is  as  concealing  as  possible.  For  indeed  Allah  Ta’ala looks  at  her  saying:  ‘O  my  angels  I  make  you  witness  that  I  have indeed  forgiven  her’.”      (Baihaqi  Vol.2  Pg.223)

Waa’il  bin  Hujr (radhiyallahu anhu)  says  that  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said:  “O  Waa’il,  when  you commence  the  Salaat,  lift  your  hands  in  line  with  your  ears  and  women should  (only)  lift  it  in  line  with  the  chest  (shoulders).”          (Kanzul  Umaal  Vol.7  Pg.307)

In  another  narration,  it  is  stated  that  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  passed  by  two women  who  were  performing  Salaat.  He  said:  “When  you  make  sajdah, attach  your  body  to  the  ground.  Indeed  women  are  not  like  men  in  this matter.”  (i.e.  they  differ  in  the  posture  of  sajdah)         (Maraasil  of  Imaam  Abu  Dawood)

The  Imaams  of  all  four  Mazaahib  (schools  of  thought)  attest  to  the differences  between  the  Salaat  of  men  and  women.

Thus,  we  will  now  discuss  a  few  aspects  pertaining  exclusively  to  the Salaat  of  women. 

⚫ Before  commencing  the  Salaat,  a  woman  must  ensure  that besides  her  face  and  wrists,  all  other  parts  of  her  body  should  be concealed.  Some  women  perform  Salaat  with  their  hair  exposed, others  with  their  ears  exposed,  while  the  forearms  of  others  are completely  open.  Some  wear  such  a  thin  burqa’ (head  covering)  that  the  hair  can  be  seen  through  it.  All  this  is incorrect  and  not  permissible 

⚫ If  any  limb,  besides  the  face  and  wrists  are  exposed  for  the duration  it  takes  to  read  subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem  thrice,  the  Salaat  will  be rendered  null  and  void.  If  it  is  exposed  less  than  that,  the  Salaat will  be  valid.  However  it  will  be  makrooh  and  she  will  be  sinful. 

⚫ It is  best  for  women  to  perform  Salaat  in  a  place  that  is  most concealing.  Thus  to  perform  Salaat  in  an  inner  room  of  the  house will  be  better  than  performing  it  in  the  front  room  or  lounge  etc. Similarly  performing  the  Salaat  in  the  lounge  will  be  preferred  to performing  it  in  the  courtyard  of  the  house. 

⚫ Whilst  saying  the  Takbeer-a-Tahrima  (Allahu  Akbar),  women  will only  lift  their  hands  till  the  shoulders  and  not  till  the  ears  like  men. They  will  lift  the  hands  under  the  burqa  (veil).  They  should  not  take their  hands  out  of  the  burqa.

⚫ Women will  put  their  hands  on  the  chest  by  placing  the  palm  of the  right  hand  over  the  back  of  the  left  wrist.  The  fingers  should  be kept  close  together.  Women  will  not  adopt  the  method  of  men  in placing  of  the  hands      (Tahtawi  Pg.141)

⚫ Women should  stand  with  both  feet  close  together.  There  should be  no  gap  between  the  two  feet.  In  ruku  also,  the  same  position  of the  feet  should  be  maintained.       (Bahishti  Zewar  &  Mufti  Taqi  Uthmani) 

⚫ First  make  the  intention,  then  say  Allahu  Akbar.  Thereafter  place the  hands  on  the  chest.  Then  read  Thanaa,  A’uzu,  and  Bismillah after  which  you  will  commence  with  Surah  Fateha.  On  completing Surah  Fateha,  say  A’meen.  After  that,  read  Bismillah  again  and read  a  Surah.  After  completing  the  Surah,  say  Allahu  Akbar  and  go into  ruku. 

⚫ A woman should  only  bend  so  much  in  ruku  that  she  is  able  to place  the  hands  on  the  knees.  Women  will  not  make  ruku  like  men by  straightening  the  back.  Their  bending  for  ruku  should  be  less than  that  of  men.  Place  both  hands  on  the  knees  while  keeping  the fingers  closed  together.  Do  not  spread  the  fingers  apart.     (Tahtawi  Pg.141  &  Bahishti  Zewar)

⚫ Keep the  forearms  close  to  the  sides  and  keep  the  ankles together  in  ruku.   (Ibid) 

⚫ In ruku,  women  will  not  keep  the  feet  completely  upright,  but rather  they  will  bend  the  knees  slightly  forward.  (Shaami  &  Mufti  Taqi  Uthmani)

⚫ Read Subhana Rabbiyal Azeem  three  or  five  times  in  ruku.  Ensure  that  the  ظ  is pronounced  correctly. 

⚫ After  saying sami’ Allahu liman hamidah,  lift  the  head  and  stand  with  ease and  read Rabbanaa Lakal hamd

⚫ Women will  make  sajdah  in  such  a  way  that  the  belly  will  touch the  thighs  and  the  forearms  will  touch  the  sides.  The  forearms  will be  placed  on  the  ground.    (Bahishti  Zewar)

⚫ Place  the  head  between  the  hands  in  sajdah.  Place  the  forehead and  the  nose  on  the  ground.  The  fingers  should  be  kept  close together,  facing  the  Qibla. The  thumb  should  also  face  the  Qibla. 

⚫ In sajdah  both  feet  will  be  placed  on  the  ground  facing  the  right. The  feet  should  not  be  kept  upright.  However,  the  toes  should  face the Qibla. Subhana rabbiyal A’la should  be  read  three  or  five  times. 

⚫ Thereafter  say  Allahu  Akbar  and  sit  with  ease.  Sit  on  the  left posterior  with  both  feet  protruding  to  the  right.  Place  the  right  thigh on  the  left  thigh  and  the  right  shin  on  the  left  one.    (Tahtawi  Bahishti  Zewar)

⚫ Place  both  hands  on  the  thighs  with  the  fingers  closed  together. This  is  the  method  for  women.  In  rukusajdah  and  qa’adah,  the fingers  will  be  kept  close  together  without  any  gap  in  between, while  the  law  for  men  is  that  in  ruku  they  will  keep  the  fingers  apart and  in  sajdah  they  will  keep  it  closed  together.  In  all  the  other postures,  the  fingers  will  be  kept  in  their  natural  position. 

⚫ In jalsah  the  following  duaa  should  be  read,  whether  performing a fardh, sunnah or nafl Salaat: Allaahum maghfirlee  warhamnee wa ‘aafinee wahdanee warzukhnee
Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  used  to  read  this  duaa.    (Tirmizi  &  Abu  Dawood  &  Haakim)

⚫ Thereafter  the  second  sajdah  should  be  made  in  the  same manner  as  the  first  sajdah  was  done.  Thereafter  stand  up  whilst saying  Allahu  Akbar.  Do  not  take  support  with  the  hands  while standing  up.  Then  read  Bismillah  and  Surah  Fatiha.  Upon  ending Surah  Fatiha,  say  A’ameen.  Thereafter  Bismillah  and  a  Surah  will be  read.   ( Behishti  Zewar) 

⚫ Sit  in  the  qa’adah  posture  after  completing  two  raka’ats.  The manner  of  sitting  is  the  same  as  that  of  jalsah.  Read  At-Tahiyat  and when  reaching  Ash-hadu-al  laailaaha  illallaahu,  join  the  small  and ring  finger  and  and  attach  their  tips  to  the  palms  and  form  a  ring with  the  middle  finger  and  the  thumb.  Lift  the  index  finger, indicating  to  the  oneness  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  Drop  the  index  finger when  reaching  illallaahu.  However  the  other  fingers  will  remain  as  is. 

⚫ If  it  is  a  Salaat  of  two  raka’at,  then  maintain  this  posture  till  the end.  Read  the  Salawaat  (durood)  and  duaa  and  thereafter  make salaam.  If  it  is  a  Salaat  of  four  raka’at,  stand  up  immediately  after completing  the  At-Tahiyaat. 

⚫ In the  third  and  fourth  raka’at  also,  read  Bismillah  before commencing  Surah  Fatiha.  If  it  is  a  Fardh  Salaat,  go  into  ruku  after completing  Surah  Fateha.  However  in  the  WitrSunnat  or  Nafl Salaat  one  will  read  a  Surah  after  Surah  Fatiha. 

⚫ After  completing  the  final  qa’adah,  say  the  salaam  while  turning the  head  towards  the  right.  Commence  the  salaam  with  the  face  in the  direction  of  the  Qibla.  Complete  the  salaam  when  the  face  is fully  turned  to  the  right.  Then  bring  the  face  back  towards  the  Qibla and  commence  the  second  salaam  from  there.  Turn  the  face towards  the  left  as  you  say  the  second  salaam.  Do  not  commence the  second  salaam  whilst  the  head  is  turned  towards  the  right.  Face the  Qibla,  then  commence  the  second  salaam.  Whilst  making  both the  salaams,  make  the  intention  of  greeting  the  angels. 
⚫ It is  Makrooh  (reprehensible)  for  women  to  perform  Salaat  in jamaat  (congregation).  They  should  perform  their  Salaat individually.  However  if  the  Mahram  males  (i.e.  those  men  with whom  one  cannot  get  married  eg.  brothers,  father,  grandfather etc.)  are  performing  Salaat  with  jamaat  in  the  house,  a  woman  can join  that  jamaat.  She  will  stand  behind  the  men.  She  should  not stand  in  line  with  the  men.   (Mufti  Taqi  Uthmaani)

⚫Women should read their five daily Salaat, Taraweeh and Witr Salaat individually. It is Makrooh Tahrimi for them to perform Salaat with jamaat.   (Shaami Vol.1 Pg.418 & Fataawa Rahimia Vol.1 Pg.347)

Duaas to be read after the Fardh Salaat

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was once asked: “Which duaa is most readily accepted by Allah Ta’ala .” Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied: “The duaa that is made in the last portion of the night and the duaa that is made after every FARDH Salaat” (Tirmizi Vol.2 Pg.187)

Mughira bin Shu’ba (radhiyallahu anhu) wrote to Muaawiya (radhiyallahu anhu) that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to read (the following) after every Fardh Salaat: laa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahu laa shareekalahu lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shay’in Qadeer, Allahumma la ma’nia lima’ tayta wa la mu’tiya lima mana’ata wa la yanfa’au zal jadda mink al Judd.          (Sahih Bukhari Vol.2 Pg.937)

Thauban (radhiyallahu anhu) says: “When Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to complete his Salaat, he used to recite astaghfirullah thrice. Thereafter he used to read Allaahumma Antas Salaamu Wa Minkas Salaamu Tabaarakta Yaazal Jalaali Wal Ikram.                 (Tirmizi Vol.1 Pg.40)

Ka’ab bin Ujrah (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The person who reads subhan Allah thirty three times, Alhamdulillah thirty three times and Allaahu Akbar thirty four times after every Fardh Salaat will never be at a loss.”                (Sahih Muslim Vol.1 Pg.219)

Muaaz bin Jabal (radhiyallahu anhu) says that I once met Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). He said to me: “O Muaaz, I have love for you. Thus do not forget to read (the following) after every Fardh Salaat: Allahumma innee ‘alaa dhikrika wa shukrika wa husni ‘ibadatika           (Amal-al-youm wal laylah of Ibn Sunni Pg.106)

Our Responsibility

In conclusion, one must understand that besides performing Salaat regularly himself, it is incumbent upon every person to encourage his wife, children, brothers, sisters, neighbours, relatives and others to also perform their Salaat regularly.

Every Ummati is responsible for the whole of mankind. He therefore has to make an effort to the best of his ability to establish Salaat among the Ummah. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) too was commanded by Allah Ta’ala: “Command your family members to perform their Salaat and you too be punctual with it.” (Surah Taha A’ayat 132) Similarly another A’ayat commands: “O you who believe, save yourselves and your family from the fire.” (Surah Tahreem A’ayat 6) Hence every person must become aware of his responsibility and make an effort to fulfil it. It is reported in a Hadith that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Each one of you is a shepherd and he will be questioned regarding his flock.
(Sahih Bukhari Vol.2 Pg.1057)

May Allah Ta’ala grant us and the entire Ummah the awareness of our responsibility and the ability to fulfil it A’ameen.

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