The State of the Educational System in the Muslim World

[By Mufti Taqi Uthmaani (with comments from The Majlis)]

The  following  are  extracts  from  a  bayaan  (lecture)  by Hadhrat Mufti  Taqi Uthmaani:

“………We  need  a  different  educational  system  —  a  system  which   comes from our predecessors (Salaf). ……..  

It  is  not  a  requisite  of  the  Shariah  for  every  individual  to  become  an Aalim,  that  is,  it  is  not  Fardh-e-Ain,  rather  it  is    Fardh-e-Kifaayah.  In a  town  or  a  country  if  there  are  enough  Ulama,  it  will  suffice  to  fulfil the  Fardh-e-Kifaayah  injunction.  However,  it  is  Fardh-e-Ain or compulsory  on  every  individual  to  learn  the  basic  obligations  of  the Deen.  Therefore,  the  educational  system  (during  the  era  of  the  Salaf) was  such  that  every  Muslim  would  receive  the    necessary  Fardh-e-Ain  quota  of  Deeni  education  to  enable  him  to  fulfil  his  individual obligations.  Thereafter, if  he  wanted  to  pursue  higher  studies,  he  could do  so.  If  a  student  wanted  to  pursue  higher  studies  in  the  Deeni sciences,  then  the    opportunities  were  available.    On  the  other  hand,  if a  student  wanted  to  pursue  higher  studies  in  the  worldly  sciences,  then  too he had the  opportunity to pursue  such branches of knowledge.

A  few  days  ago,  my  elder  brother  Mufti  Rafi  Uthmaani  was  in Morocco.  Last  year  I  visited  and  this  year  my  brother  did.  There  are two  major  cities  in  Morocco  —  Marrakesh  and  Fez.  I  was  in  the  city  of Fez  last  year,  and  my  brother  visited  it  this  year.  In  Fez  there  is  a university  called  University  of  Qayrawan  that  is  still  operational.  If  we are  to look into our  history,  we  find four  major universities:

The  University  of Qayrawan in Fez, Morocco

The  University  of  Zaytuna  in Tunis, Tunisia

The  University  of Al-Azhar in Cairo, Egypt

The University of Daarul Uloom in Deoband, India.

Qayrawan  University  was  established  in  the  3rd  century  Hijri  (i.e. 9th  century  CE)  in  the  city  of  Fez.  It  is  recorded  in  its  history,  and  I have  not  found  anything  to  the  contrary,  that  it  is  not  only  the  oldest university  of  the  Muslim  world,  rather  it  is  the  oldest  university  in  the entire  world!  What  does  this  mean?  It  means  that  in  Qayrawan University,  the  curriculum  then  included  the  religious  sciences  like TafsirHadithFiqh,  along  with  Medicine,  Mathematics,  Astronomy and  all  the  secular/  worldly  sciences  that  are  now  called  the  Asri Uloom.

Ibn  Khaldun,  Ibn  Rushd  (Averroes),  and  Qaadhi  Iyaadh    had  taught there,  along  with  a  long  list  of  our  predecessors  (Aslaaf).  Their teaching  spots  are  preserved  to  this  day!  The  spot  where  Ibn  Khaldun and  Ibn  Rushd  taught,  the  spot  where  Qaadhi  Iyaadh  delivered lectures,  and  the  spot  where  Ibn  al-Arabi  al-Maaliki  taught,  are  still preserved.  This  is  one  of  the  oldest  universities  of  the  world.  The smaller  Madaaris  would  certainly  have  existed,  but  the  Qayrawan University  existed  as  a  university  where  all  the  religious  and  worldly sciences  were  taught  under  one  roof.  Even  today,  the  University  has replicas  of  the  scientific  inventions  that  were  developed  in  the  3rd  and the  4th  century  Hijri  from  that  university.  Legendary  Islamic  religious scholars  learned  from  this  university,  and  even  the    philosopher  Ibn Rushd and major scientists of that era.

The  system  was  designed  as  such  to  provide  obligatory  education  to everyone,  and  then    higher  Deeni  studies as well  as  secular  sciences such  as  mathematics,  medicine,  etc.  were  pursued  at   the  same Qayrawan  University.  Similar  was  the  case  in  Zaytuna  University  (in Tunis) and Al-Azhar University (in Egypt).

These  three  of  our  oldest  universities  had  such  an  educational  system that  you  would  see  Qaadhi  Iyaadh  who  was  the  Imaam  of  Hadith  and Sunnah,  and  Ibn  Khaldun,  who  was  the  Imaam  of  History,  both appearing  the  same.  One  would  not  be  able  to  distinguish  who  is  the scholar  of  religious  sciences  and  who  is  the  scholar  of  worldly sciences  from  their  appearances.  Their  appearance,  their  clothing,  their culture,  their  manner  of  speaking  was  similar.  If  you  look  at  our scientists  like  Farabi,  Ibn  Rushd,  and  al-Biruni,  their  appearance  was the  same  as  our  MufassireenMuhadditheen  and  Fuqaha.  Both    groups  performed  Salaat,  both    were  cognizant  of  the  issues  of    Salaat  and Saum.  So  the  basic  foundational  knowledge  that  is    Fardh-e-Ain (obligatory  upon  every  Muslim),  was  known  to  all  the  Muslims,  and  it was taught to all the pupils across the board.

The  separation  occurred  when  the  British  came  with  their educational  system  and  according  to  a  well  thought  out  plan  and conspiracy,  they  effaced  the  Deen  from  the  land.  Facing  this  grievous scenario,  our  Akaabireen  (elders)  were  compelled  to  react  to  safeguard the  Fardh-e-Ain    knowledge,  hence    they  established  Daarul  Uloom Deoband.  However,  our  true  educational  system  was  that  which  had existed  in  the  Qayrawan  University,  Zaytuna  University  and  in  the preliminary  days  of  Al-Azhar  University.  (Not    what  exists  today  – The Majlis)

If  Pakistan  had  been  truly  a  Muslim  state,  then  as  my  father (Hadhrat  Mufti  Muhamamd  Shafi’  –  Rahmatullah  alayh)  had  stated, we  would  not  have  needed  Aligarh,  Nadwa  or  Daarul  Uloom Deoband.  On  the  contrary  we  would  need  Qayrawan  and  Zaytuna University  (as  they  had  existed  during  the  early  epoch  of  Islam  –  The Majlis).  Our  educational    institutions  should    have  been    the  centres  of learning  for  all  of  the  various  sciences  and  all  of  its  graduates,  having the  same  foundation  of  the  Deen  whether  they  become  engineer, doctor, or tread the path in any other field.    

The  educational  system  that  was  imposed  upon  us,  only  taught  us  to be  intellectually  enslaved.  It  made  us  veritable  slaves  of  aleins. ………..It  completely  destroyed  the  rich  history  and  tradition  of  the Muslims.  The  result  of  this  is  the  great  divide  evident  among  Muslims,  where  one  group  that    graduates  from  this  system  does  not even  know  the    obligations  which  are  Fardh-e-Ain.  They  are  unaware  of  their  individual  obligations.  Secondly,  they  have  been  conditioned to  think  that  if  you  want  progress  and  enlightenment,  then  you  must look  towards  the  West.  Thirdly,  their  entire  culture  has  been overturned.  Thus  they  have  been    indoctrinated  to     believe  that progress  can  only  be    achieved  in  the  environment  and  in  the  manner of the West.

It  is  sad  to  see  that  those  who  graduate  from  such  an  educational system  (i.e.  the  western  university  system  –  The  Majlis),  or  earn  their doctorate  or  become  professors,  criticize  the  Students  of  Deeni  Knowledge  (i.e.  the  molvis  –  The  Majlis).  In  fact,  it  has  become  a hobby  to  them.  They  chant  that  we  have  closed  the  doors  of  Ijtihad  as it  used  to  have  a  significant  place  in  the  Qur’âan, Sunnah  and  Fiqh. However,  (they  fail  to  understand  that)   there  were  fields  where  the doors  of  Ijtihad  were  wide  open.  For  example,    in  science,  technology, mathematics  and  other  worldly  sciences.  No  one  had  closed  the  doors of  Ijtihaad  for  them  in  such  fields.  Why  did  they  not  prepare  mujtahids who  could  have  done  Ijtihaad  in  the  field  of  medicine,  for  example,  to blaze    new  trails  of  development  in  that  field?  Or  they  could  have employed  Ijtihaad  to  contribute  in  the  field  of  astronomy!  These secular  fields  were  wide  open.    But,  they  did  not  do  Ijtihaad  in  these secular  fields.  They    contributed  nothing.  But  when  it  comes  to  the Qurâan  and  the  Sunnah,  where  Ijtihaad  has  to    be  exercised  within  its prescribed limits, then they complain that Ulema do not do Ijtihaad.

A  few  days  ago,  a  fellow  forwarded  me  a  clip  in  which  an  Aalim was being  questioned:

“Mawlana  Sahib, the  contribution of  Ulema  is known but why  is  it  that there  has  not  been  any  scientist  or  doctor  or  new  invention  from  the Ulema? What do you have to say about this?”

Oh  servant  of  Allah!  You  should  have  questioned  yourself  in  this regard.  From  the  education  that  you  have  received,  has  there  been  a mujtahid  (in  your  ranks)  who  has  invented  a  new  thing?  Here  (in  the secular  field),  the  doors  of  Ijtihaad  are  sealed  in  such  a  manner  that whenever  anything  that  is  said  by  Englishmen,  it  is  accepted  without any  checking  (i.e.  Blind  taqleed  is  made  –  The  Majlis).  If  the  West says  that  something  is  harmful  to  your  health,  then  so  it  is,  and  if  they say  otherwise  then  so  it  becomes?  For  a  couple  of  years,  it  was  being said  that  egg  yolk  increases  cholesterol  and  thus  is  harmful  for  the body.  But  now  suddenly  all  the  doctors  are  saying  that  egg  yolk  is  fine to  consume  and  there  is  no  harm.  What  is  the    reason  for  this  turnabout?    It  is  so  because  the  West  said  that  it  is  fine  to  consume  it, so  you    (blindly,  without    resorting  to  ijtihaad  swallow  what  your English  bosses  say  –  The  Majlis).  It  is  blindly  accepted  that  it  must  be true.  There  are  plenty  of  herbs  across  our  lands,  why  have  you  never researched  them  to  find  their  medicinal  use?  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam)  mentioned  the  benefits  of  black  cumin  (kalonji),  why have  you  never  researched  on  it?  Here  the  doors  of  Ijtihaad  have  been sealed  shut  (by  the  westerm    bootlicking  intelligentsia  –  The  Majlis), instead  they  demand  why  (Ulema  do  not  do)  Ijtihaad  in  the  Qurâan and  the  Sunnah.  So  this  is  the  system  of    (intellectual)  enslavement that has brought us to this stage.

Acquiring  knowledge  once  used  to  be  a  respectable  venture.  It  (i.e. secular  knowledge)  was    for  serving  mankind,  and  that  was  the  actual objective  of  learning  (secular  knowledge).  If  through  this  venture    (of knowledge)  a  person  would  acquire  any    monetary  gain,  it  would  have been  a  side  benefit.  Today,  the  sole  and  primary  objective  of  seeking (secular)  knowledge  is  for  monetary  gain.  (The  lamentable  reality  today  is  that    monetary  gain  has  become  the  objective  of  even  Deeni knowledge  imparted  in  the  Darul  Ulooms  –  The  Majlis)  Learn  as much  as  you  can  so  that  you  can  take  as  much  wealth  out  of  other people’s  pockets.  Your  knowledge  is  only  beneficial  if  you  can  earn more  than  other  people.  Look  around  and  observe  how  many  people are  studying  and  graduating  with  Masters  degrees  and  PhD  degrees. (And  also  look  at  the  molvis  and  the  ulama-e-soo’  in  general.  You  will find  them  competing    with  their   westernized  secular  counterparts  in the  pursuit  of  monetary  and    other  nafsaani  objectives.  –  The  Majlis) Look  at  their  thinking  as  to  why  they  are  studying.  They  are  studying so  that  they  can  have  a  good  secular  career,  so  that  they  can  get  a  good job,  and  so  that  they  can  earn  more  money.  (That  is  precisely  why Wifaaqul  Madaaris  in  Pakistan  had  clamoured  and  howled  to  have the    noble  Aalim-Faadhil  Certificate  equated  and  debased  to  the  level of    the  scrap  donkey  MA.  Degree,  to  enable  molvis  to  get  cheap  jobs  in the  Middle  East  and  elsewhere.  Thus,  they  betray  their  souls,  their Deen,  the  Ummah,  the  Rasool  and  Allah  Azza  Wa  Jal  for  the  jeefah- carrion  of  this  dunya.  Indeed,  they  have  brought  humiliation  to  the  Ilm of  Wahi  which  originated  in  Ghaar-e-Hira,  not  in  Qayrawan university or Zaytuna or Al-Azhar.- The Majlis)

The  concept  of  education  has  been  overturned  by  making  the objective  of  learning  monetary  gain.  (We  differ  with  the  Honourable Mufti  Sahib  on  this  score,  The  objective  of  secular  education  in  reality is  the  dunya.  It  is  not  the  Aakhirat.  The  objective  has  thus  not  been “overturned”  by  the  Western  educational  system.  The  world  being  the objective  of  secular  knowledge  is  perfectly  legitimate.  A  man  does  not become  a  shoemaker  for  the  Aakhirah,  nor  a  plumber  nor  does  a  man  clean  sewerage  drains  for  the  Aakhirat,  nor  does    a  blacksmith  or  a doctor  or  an  engineer  engage  in   their  respective  occupations  for  the Aakhirat.  All  of  them  are    legitimately  pursuing    their  Rizq.  As  long  as they  retain  their  pursuits  within  the  confines  of  the  Shariah,  they  will be  rewarded,  and    they  act  in  fulfilment  of  the  Hadith:  ‘After  Salaat, the  search  for  halaal  Rizq  is   incumbent.’  Thus,  the  concept  of  secular education  is  on  course.  However,  it  has  acquired    the  new  dimensions of   oppression,  exploitation,  mass  murder,  genocide  and  the  worst  of evil  and  villainy  which  leave  even  Shaitaan  aghast.  It  is  only  the  Knowledge  of  the  Deen  which  has  altruistic  objectives  stemming  from the  primary  Objective  of    gaining  the  Pleasure  of  Allah  Wa  Jal  –  The Majlis.)

The  purpose  is  only  money.  There  is  no  concept  of  serving  the community  and  humanity  in  this  western    educational  system.  (This  is applicable  equally  to    those  who  pursue  secular  education  as  well  as Deeni  education  in  the  Madaaris  of  this  age.  –  The  Majlis)  The  result is  that  everyone  is  engaged  in  a  (rat)  race  to  earn  more  and  more,  and they  do  not  have  any  concern  for  their  country  or  their  nation,  or  a desire  to  serve  the  people  or  humanity.  They  are  engrossed  day  and night  in  earning  as  much  money  as  they  can,  so  much  so  that  people have  resorted  to  deceit,  theft,  and  murder.  From  the  people  who  have graduated  from  this  system,  how  many  have  served  humanity  and benefited the people?

We  were  taught  by  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (Salallahu  alayhi wasallam),  not  to  engross  ourselves  in  this  dunya,  and  not  to  make  this dunya  our  sole  objective.  However,  this  (western)  educational  system flipped  that  worldview.  So  my  respected  father  used  to  say  that  we need  to  re-overturn  this  post-colonial  mindset,  and  go  back  to  tread  the path  that  was  shown  to  us  by  Qayrawan  University  and  Zaytuna University  and  the  path  that  was  shown  to  us  during  the  early  days  of Al-Azhar  Madrasah.  That  system  has  also  been  overturned  and eliminated.

Since  we  could  not  get  that  system  established  at    government  level (in  Napakistan  –  The  Majlis),  we  at  least  tried  to  preserve  the  system of  Daarul  Uloom  Deoband,  hence    Madaaris  were  established. Since we  do  not  trust  these  politicians,  their  governments,  and  their  laws, and  for  the  near  future  we  don’t  even  have  any  hope  of  having  such  trust,  we  shall  defend  these  Madaaris,  In shaa-Allah,  and  we  shall continue  them  along  the  path  that  our  Akaabireen  (Elders)  of    Daarul  Uloom  Deoband  had  established.  (Alas!  Almost  all  the  Madaaris  have been  deflected  from  that  Path  established  by  the  Akaabireen.  the  path  today is the jeefah of the dunya! – THE MAJLIS)

However,  we  desire  our  people  to,  step  by  step,  move  towards  that system  that  we  once  had,  and  towards  that  end,  you  have  watched  the presentation  that  preceded  this  lecture  of  mine.  By  the  grace  of  Allah, we  have  Madaaris  spread  across  the  country  and  they  are  fulfilling  the communal  obligation  of  Fardh-e-Ain.  These  Madaaris  are  probably just  1%  of  the  nation.  The  99%  of  the  nation  is  subservient  to  the prevalent  system,  and  intellectually  enslaved  to  the  Englishman.  I often  speak  to  the  teachers  of  the  Hira  Foundation  that  for  Allah’s  sake  they  should  take  this  generation  out  of  this  intellectual enslavement,  and    give  them    the  understanding    that  we  are  a  free people  and  a  free  nation  and  possess  freedom  of  thought,  and  that  we follow  the  teachings  of  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (Sallallahu  alayhi wasallam).  This  is  why  we  had  established  the  Hira  Foundation.  (As long  as  the  Ulama    pursue  the  dunya,  there  does  not  exist  even  the ghost  of  understanding  who  and  what we,  the  Ummah  of  Muhammad  Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) – are. – The Majlis)  

Not  everything  that  comes  from  the  West  is  bad,  as  there  are  things that  are  also  good.  So  take  the  good  that  the  West  has,  and  leave  the bad.  If  we  act  on  this  principle  then  we  can  reach  our  desired destination.”  (This  is  empty  rhetoric  –  a  worn  out  cliché  devoid  of Islamic substance.  –  The  Majlis)

IJTIHAAD  –  ARE  ITS  DOORS  CLOSE?

In  his  bayaan,  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Uthmaani  Sahib  has  made  an extremely  pertinent  observation  regarding  Ijtihaad.  The  juhhaal western  intelligentsia  –  the  bootlickers  of  the  West  –  having  been thoroughly  brainwashed  by  their  orientalist  masters  who  have  hermetically  sealed  their  brains  with  the  hogwash  of  their  theories and  concepts  of  kufr,  monotonously  chant  the  song  of  the  Ulama having  closed  the  doors  of  Ijtihaad  thereby  stifling  progress  and enlightenment.

A  little  or  a  superficial  scrutiny  of  this  chant  shows  the  stupidity  of these  bootlicking  chanters  of  rubbish.  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Sahib  has drawn  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  doors  of  science,  technology  and secular  sciences  have  always  been  wide  open  –  so  wide  that  a  herd  of elephants    can  comfortably  rush  through  without  stampeding.  Ijtihaad in  these  secular  fields    has  always  been  welcomed.  Yet,  the  reality  is that  not  a  single  one  among  the  myriad  of    western  bootlickers  in  this Ummah  has  ever  taken  up  the  challenge  with  Ijtihaad  to  vie  with    the West  and  to  excel  the  atheist  scientists  at  whose    impure  feet  the Muslim  bootlicking  intelligentsia  lay  sprawling  in  abject  humiliation and  subservience.  Why  did  they  not  and  why  do  they  not    resort  to Ijtihaad  in the  secular  sciences?

Technological  progress  and  scientific  superiority  are  not  reliant  on Ijtihaad  in  the  sphere  of  the  Aqaaid  and  Ahkaam  of  the  Shariah pertaining  to  moral  reformation  and  spiritual  elevation.  These  are domains  apart  from  the  secular  field.  The  closure  of  the  door  of Ijtihaad  in  the  realm  of  Aqaaid  and  Ahkaam  pertaining  to  Ibaadaat  in no  way  whatever  inhibit  ijtihaad  in  the  secular  sciences.  So  what  has   impeded  these  western  bootlicking  morons  from  blazing  trails  in science  and technology  with  ijtihaad?

The  reality  of  their  chant  and  charge  is  the  attempt  to  find  a scapegoat  for  their  own  miserable  failure  in  the  fields  in  which  they have  devoted  years  of  study,  but  ultimately  emerged  as  zombies bootlicking  their  atheist  masters  whose  najaasat  they  lick  up  with relish  as  if  it  is  halaal  and  tayyib. How  did  the  closure  of  the  door  of Shar’i  Ijtihaad impede  Muslim  progress  in  the  secular  fields?  We  say that  there  are  four  Faraaidh  in  Wudhu,  and  we  say  that  there  are  six Faraaidh  in  Salaat,  and  we  say  that  to  fast  in  Ramadhaan  is  Fardh, and  we  say  that  riba  is  haraam,  and  we  say  zina  is  haraam,  and  we  say Purdah  is  Waajib,  and  we  say  Lahw-La’b is  haraam,  and  we  say  that music  is  haraam,  and  we  say  liquor  is  haraam,  and  we  say  that  all  the teachings  and  beliefs  confirmed  by  the  Sahaabah  are  the  Haqq  and Fardh to  accept and believe.

In  regard  to  all  of  this,  we  say  that  the  doors  of  Ijtihaad  are  closed  – sealed  –  welded  closed,  never  to  re-open  ever  again  until  the  Day  of Qiyaamah.  Let  the  bootlickers  now  explain    how  does  this  closure  of Ijtihaad   inhibit  them  from  progressing  scientifically  and technologically.  How  does  this  closure  enslave  them  to  the  Western kuffaar?     It  is  a  humiliating  self-imposed  enslavement  which  is  in reality  a  form  of  Allah’s  Athaab  for    rebellious  and  immoral  people who  have   cast  aside  their  heritage  of  Islam  for  the  miserable  carrion of  the dunya  doled out to  them by  their   colonial masters.

Closing  the  door  of  Ijtihaad  pertaining  to  AqaaidIbaadat  and Mansoos Ahkaam,  the Qur’aan Majeed  announces:

This  Day  have  I  (Allah  Azza  Wa  Jal)  perfected  for  you  your  Deen, and  completed  for you  My  Favour,  and I  have  chosen Islam   for you  as  your Deen.”

The  perfection  and  completion  of  the  Deen  by  Allah  Azza  Wa  Jal Himself,  preclude  opening  the  door  of  Ijtihaad,  interpretation  and  reinterpretation  which  are  all  ploys  and  snares  of  shaitaan  to  scuttle  the perfect  Deen  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  There  is  no  licence  for  anyone  in  this day,  whether  laymen  or  Ulama,  to  meddle  with  the  Ahkaam  of  the Deen.  No  one  has  the  right  to  dig  from  the  Kutub  a  Hadith,  subject  it to  his  opinion  and  formulate  theories  and  stupid  rulings  which  are  in conflict with the  Shariah’s  Ahkaam   which  are  all  cast in  solid rock.

The  moron  bootlicking  western  intelligentsia  should  explain exactly  how  does  this  closure  adversely  affect  scientific  and technological  progress.  When  it  is  said  that  it  is  not  permissible  for women  to  attend  the  Musjid  or  to  bare  their  faces  in  public  or  to remain  at  home,  etc., how  does  it  inhibit  scientific  progress?  The modernist  juhhaal  are    knowingly  and  deceptively    singing  the  song  of closure  for  the  sake  of  giving  impetus  to  their  nafsaani  and  bestial desires.  But  in  justification  of  their  nafsaaniyat  they  present    the smokescreen of  closure  of  the door  of  Ijtihaad  by  the Fuqaha.

Secular  universities  and  institutions  abound  in  all  Muslim  countries. Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  has  pointed  out  that  only  about  1%  of  Pakistan’s population  are  related  to  the  Madaaris  which  believe  in  the  closure concept.  How  does  this  prevent  the  99%  from    resorting  to  Ijtihaad  in the  fields  of  science  and  techniology?  Ijtihaad  has  several  doors.  The Ulama  have  never  closed  all  doors.  The  only  door  of  Ijtihaad  which has  been  closed,  is  the  Door  closed  by  Allah  Azza  Wa  Jal,  and  that pertains  to  Aqaaid  and  Mansoos  Ahkaam.  The  door  of  Ijtihaad  in secular  matters  is  open  –  wide  open.  No  one  has  ever  been  prevented from plunging  through this open avenue.  

As  far  as  expediencies  and  new  developments  are  concerned,  and these  are  daily  developing  issues,  the  Ulama    have  always  resorted  to Ijtihaad.  But  Ijtihaad  is  not  unbridled    operation  of   personal  opinion, reasoning  and  nafsaaniyat.  It  is  fettered   and  regulated  by  conditions evolved  from  the  Qur’aan  and  SunnahJuhala  may  not  attempt  to traverse  this domain.

New  issues  are  constantly  evolving  and  developing,  and  all  of  this require  the  operation  of  Ijtihaad  for  the  application  of  the  correct Shar’i  ruling.  By  means  of  valid  Ijtihaad,  such  rulings  acquire  Shar’i legality  and  force.  Thus,  the  claim  that  the  Ulama  have  closed  the  door of  Ijtihaad  is  a  massive  and  a  deceptive  canard  monotonously   chanted to  find  a  scapegoat  for  failure.  As  for  the  Aqaaid  and  Mansoos Ahkaam,  the  door  has  been  shut  to  prevent  interpolation,  distortion  and mutilation of  the Shariah  perfected by  Allah Ta’ala.

BACK TO QAYRAWAN, ZAYTUNA AND AL-AZHAR?

In  his  bayaan,  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Sahib  said:  “We  need  to  go  back  to the  path  shown  to  us  by  Qayrawan  University,  Zaytuna  University  and the early path of  Al-Azhar.”

This  is  indeed  a  grave  misunderstanding  which  is  the  basis  of  a massive  miscalculation.  It  is  not  a  solution  for  the  degenerate condition of the  Ummah  incrementally  sinking   further and  further into the  quagmire  of  humiliation  and  enslavement  which  gross  rebellion and treachery  against  Allah  Ta’ala   have  created.  The misunderstanding    is  the  erroneous   idea  that  our  history  –  the  history of  the  Ummah  –  commenced  in  the  third  Islamic  century,  hence  we should  take  our  directive  from  Qayrawan  and  from  the  other  entitities which   came  into  existence   much  later.  Based  on  this misunderstanding,  the  solution  for  the  ills  of  the  Ummah  is  believed  to be  Qayrawan,  as  if  that  ever  was  the  fountainhead  of  Islam  and  its rapid advance  and domination over the  world.

The  history  of  the  Ummah  was  initiated  with  the  advent  of  the proclamation  of  Tauheed  by  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam). Thus,  the  history  of  the  Muslim  Ummah  commenced  from  the  Makki era,  not  even  from  the  Hijri  time.  We  have  to  find  the  solutions  for  our problems  and  our  rot  in  the  entire  history  of  the  Sunnah  which includes  the  pre-Hijrat  Makki  era.  In  fact,  today  this  Ummah wandering  aimlessly  in  a  raging  ocean  of  humiliation,  degeneration, immorality  and  impotency  is  more  in  need  of  the  Sunnah  which prevailed during  the Makki era.

Relative  to  the  Sunnah  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam), Qayrawan,  Zaytuna  and  Azhar  have  no  significance.  The  cure  for  the ills  of  the  Ummah  is  not  in  a  reversion  to  whatever  educational  system was in vogue  at the  time  in these  institutions.

The  honourable  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Sahib  has  not  correctly  applied his  mind  to  fathom  the  diseases  besetting  the  Ummah,  nor  has  he correctly  understood  the  solution,  hence  he  believes  that  our  history commenced  with  Qayrawan. The  solution  is  never  “back  to Qayrawan”.  The  one  and  only  solution  is  “Back  to  the  Sunnah”,  and the  Sunnah  commenced  three  centuries  prior  to  the  advent  of Qayrawan.  The  system  of  Qayrawan  was  not  the Sunnah  system  which was  revealed  by  Allah  Ta’ala  for  the  guidance,  success  and  victory  of the Ummah.

The  philosophers,  Ibn  Rushd  and  Farabi  were  kufr  mongers.  They have  nothing  to  offer  the  Ummah.  They  spread  satanism  in  the Ummah.  Our  true  Teachers  are  the  Sahaabah  and  the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen  of  the  Khairul  Quroon  epoch  about    whom  Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

Honour  my  Sahaabah,  for  verily  they  are  your  noblest,  then  those who  come  after  them,  then  those  who  will  come  after  them.  Thereafter falsehood (KITHB)  will become  prevalent.”  

In  another  Hadith,  it  appears:  “Then  will  come  people  who  will  love obesity.”  Their  love  for  the  jeefah  (carrion)  of  the  dunya  will  make their  bodies  obese  and  diseased,  and  their  souls  will  become emaciated, bereft of  Roohaaniyat.  

Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  commanded  and    greatly emphasized  obedience  to  his  Sunnah  which  presupposes  obedience  to his  Sahaabah  who  were  the  Asaatizah  of  the  first  wrung  of  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen  in  the  ladder  of  Shar’i  Uloom.  This  Sunnah  was  greatly on  the  decline  during  the  age  of  Qayrawan  and  worse  during  the  time of  Zaytuna  and  Azhar.  Whilst  these  institutions  were  undoubtedly Madaaris of  higher  academic  learning,  we  have  to  go  back  to  the Sunnah  –  three  centuries  before  Qayrawan.  That  is  where  the  solution for  our  malady  is  to  be  found.  It  cannot  be  found  in  the  kufr  imparted by  Ibn  Rushd  (Averroes),  Farabi,  Ibn  Sina  and  other  ‘Muslim’ scientists and  philosophers  who  are  unthinkingly  extolled  by    the Ulama.  Their  beliefs  were  corrupt,  lapped  up  from  the  kufr  of  Aristotle and  Plato.  The  focus  is  on  the  dunya,  not  on  the  Aakhirat.  That  is  why the  mind  is  not  correctly  applied.  The  dunya  has  its  false  glitter  which appears  attractive.

Furthermore,  the  importance  of  Qayrawan  and  Zaytuna  relevant  to the  preservation  and  impartation  of  the  Fardh  Ain  obligation  has  been grossly  exaggerated  or  misunderstood  by  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Sahib.  It is  incorrect   to  contend  that  these  institutions  of  higher  learning secured  the  bastion  of  Fardh  Ain  obligations  for  the  Ummah.  The contention  that  these  institutions  were  established  for  the  purpose  of  imparting   the  Fardh Ain  obligations  is ludicrous.  

The  bastions  for  the  Fardh  Ain  obligations  are  the  primary Makaatib  where  little  children  acquire  the  basic  knowledge  of  the Deen.    By  the  age  of  ten,  the  Muslim  child  who  attends  the  Maktab  masters  the  Fardh  Ain  quota  of  Ilm.  He  does  not  have  to  wait  to  go  to a  university  after  becoming  an  adult  to  gain  the  Fardh  knowledge which he  requires incumbently  from the age  of buloogh.  

The  process  of    imparting  the  Knowledge  of  Fardh  Ain  was  not initiated  by  Qayrawan.  The  Ummah’s  children  were  not  reared  in ignorance  of  their  Fardh  Ain  obligations  during  the  Khairul Quroon and  for  the  three  century period  prior  to  Qayrawan.  All  the  branches of  Shar’i  Uloom,  both  of  the  Fardh  Ain  and  Fardh  Kifaayah categories  were  imparted  par  excellence  during  the  era  of  Khairul Quroon  which  were  the  golden  and    noblest  ages  of  Islam. We  are required  to  turn  back  to  the  Khairul  Quroon  when  the  Sunnah  had flourished.  The  bastions  for  Fardh  Ain  were  the  primary  Makaatib which  were  the  original  institutions  for the  preservation  and dissemination  of  the  Knowledge  of  the  obligations  of  every  individual Muslim.

It  is  also  ludicrous  to  contend  that  Qayrawan  had  catered  for  the Fardh  Ain  Knowledge  of  the  Ummah.  When  Qayrawan  was established,  there  were    millions  of  Muslims  in  the  Islamic  empire which  stretched  from  the  shores  of  the  Atlantic  in  the  West  to  right  within  China  in  the  East.  Much  of  Europe  too  was  under  Islamic domination  by  the  time  Qayrawan  sprang  up.  How  could  this  one Madrasah  specializing  in  academic  learning  cater  for  the  Fardh  Ain Ilm  of  millions  of  Muslims  spread  out  in  dozens  of  countries?  The claim  that  Qayrawan  fulfilled  this  objective  is  baseless.  The  primary Makaatib  which  had  existed  from  centuries  before  Qayrawan  in  their thousands,  catered for  the  Fardh Ain  Knowledge.

It  should  be  remembered  that  the  conquests  of  Islam  had  been completed  more  than  two  centuries  before  Qayrawan.  By  the  year 715 C.E.  the  entire  Spain  came  under  Muslim  domination.  That  is, within    about  80  years  from  the  inception  of  Khilaafat-e-Raashidah, the  Islamic  Empire  had  attained  its  zenith  and  limits  of    expansion. Qayrawan,  Zaytuna  and  Azhar  had  played  no  role  in  the  spread  and domination of  Islam.  

The  Islamic  Empire  was  the  product  of  the  Men  of  the  Sunnah whose  greatest  Ruler,  Sayyiduna  Umar  Ibn  Khattaab  (Radhiyallahu anhu)  was  a  shepherd.  Leave  alone  science,  he  had  not  acquired  even a  primary  level  of  secular  education. But,  the  Roman  and  the  Persian empires  –  the  two  world  powers  of  the  time  –  lay  prostrate  at  his  feet within  a  decade  of  his  Khilaafate.  He  was  not  in  need  of  science  and technology  to  achieve  the  mind-boggling  successes  and  victories,  and to  establish  the  best  governmental  systems for  all  the  lands  in  the Islamic  Empire.  He  had  Allah’s  Nusrat  –  the  Nusrat  which  has  been uplifted  as  a  consequence  of    the treachery  and  immorality  of  the Ummah.

The  goal  was  the  Aakhirat  and  the  focus  was  on  the  Qur’aan  and Sunnah,  hence  the  fulfilment  of  the  Divine  Promise  stated  in  the Qur’aan Majeed:

Allah  has  promised  those    among  you  who  believe    and  practise righteousness  that  He  will  most  assuredly  make  them  the  rulers  on earth  as  He  had  made    rulers  of  those  before  them.  And  He  will  most certainly    strengthen  their  Deen  which  He  has  chosen  for  them,  and  certainly,  He  will  replace  their  fear  with  peace.  They  worship  ME. They  do  not  ascribe  any  partner  to  ME.  Whoever  commits  kufr thereafter, verily  they  are  the faasiqoon (flagrantly  vile).”

Sovereignty  on  earth,  domination  and  power  for  Muslims  are  not dependent  on  science  and  technology  as  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Sahib mistakenly  believes.  He  therefore  cites  the  faasiq  poet  Iqbal  as  daleel for  this  corrupt  view. Iqbal  said:  “The  power  of  the  West  comes  from science  and  technology.”  That  is  for  the  kuffaar.  Our  power  comes from  Imaan  and  A’maal-e-Saalihah  which  Allah  Azza  Wa  Jal  has  stipulated  as  the  fundamental    condition  for  sovereignty  on  earth  for Muslims. It  is  indeed  perculiar  to  present  an  errant  poet  as  daleel when in fact, his ‘daleel’  has no relevance  for  Muslims.  The cause and  factors  for  the  success  and  victory  of  the  Sahaabah,  three  centuries prior  to  Qayrawan,  should  be  searched  for  in  the  Qur’aan  and  the Sunnah,  not  in  the  nonsensical   verses  of  miscreant  poets  dwelling  in deception.

Iqbal’s  poetry  may  be  appealing  and  soothing  to  the  ear  and  even  to the  mind,  but  he  was  not  a  man  of  baseerat.  The  basis  of  kuffaar power  is  not  valid  for  the  Mu’mineen  just  as  pork  and  carrion  are  not  valid  food  for  the  Muslims.  Whilst  the  kuffaar  may  derive  nourishment  and  strength  therefrom,  it  does  not  have    the  same application  for  Muslims.  The  army  of  the  kuffaar  marches  on  its stomach.  When  they  are  hungry,  they  cannot  fight  nor  think.  But  the Army  of  Allah  marches  on    its  Imaan.  Thus,  Iqbal’s  diagnosis  is baseless  for  the  Ummah,  and  it  does  not  befit  Ulama  to  present  the drivel of  fussaaq as solutions for  the ills of the  Ummah.

The  solution  is  in  the  Qur’aan  and  the  Sunnah.  But,  to  excise  the Qur’aan  and  the  Sunnah  from  the  equation,  and  to  present  as  the primary basis  for  our  reformation  a  third  century    institution  at  which even  kufr  was imparted  under  guise  of  Islam,  is  tantamount  to rebuffing  the  Qur’aan  and  comes  within  the  scope  of  the  Qur’aanic Aayat:

The  Rasool  will  say  (on  the  Day  of  Qiyaamah):  ‘O  my  Rabb!  Verily, my  people have  rebuffed  this Qur’aan.”

They  look  elsewhere  for  direction  and  directive,  casting  aside  the Kitaab  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  The  solutions  for  the  diseases  of  the  Ummah are  to  be    searched  for  in  the  Qur’aan  and  the  Sunnah,  and  in  the adoption  of  the  life-style  of  the Sahaabah  is  the  Cure. Qayrawan  offers  no refuge.  

Yes,  Daarul  Uloom  Deoband  did  offer  a  solution  and    some  succour in  the  vortex  of  the  raging  storm  of  bid’ahfisqfujoorbaatil  and kufr  which    had  engulfed  the  Ummah.         Darul  Uloom  Deoband  was the  only  Institution  which  had  expended  great  and  wonderful  effort  in the  noble  Plan  of  restoring  the  Sunnah.  Its  primary  objective  was  the revival  and  restoration  of  the  Sunnah. The  attempt  and  efforts  of  our Akaabireen  of  Deoband  were  to  revive  and  disseminate  the  Sunnah. They  were  interested  only  in  Allah’s  Pleasure.  They  were  Auliya. They  were  Sufiya,  hence  they  had  no  affinity  with  science  and technology.  They  constituted  an  insignificant  force  numerically speaking.  They  posed  no  impediment  to  science  and  technology. If Muslims  had  desired  to  acquire  expertise  in  these  fields,  there  was  no obstacle posed by  Deoband.  

Understanding  well  that  one  academic  institution  of  higher  learning  of  the  Fardh  Kifaayah  kind  –  or  even  a  number  of  such  institutions,  are not  adequate  for  the  Imaan  of  the  masses,  Hadhrat  Shaikhul  Hind Maulana  Mahmudul  Hasan  (Rahmatullah  alayh),  after    returning  from his  exile  in  Malta,  said  that  the  only  way  of  preserving  Islam  in  the Indian  subcontinent  was  to  establish  a  primary  Maktab  for  children  in every  village  of  the  land.  This  holds  good  for  the  entire  world.  The Makaatib  are  the  only  bastions  guarding  and  disseminating  the  Fardh Ain  dimension  of  Knowledge.  In  fact,  this  is  the  noblest  and  the highest  form  of  Shar’i  Knowledge.  It  is  for  this    purpose  that  the Qur’aan was revealed.      

Our educational system  should  be  the  original  system  –  the  system which  existed  during  Khairul  Quroon.  The  Sahaabah  may  not  be deleted  from  the  equation  of  Muslim  progress  and  success. By beginning  with  an  institution  established  three  centuries  after  the Sahaabah,  and  at  a  time  when  the  seeds  of  decline  had  already germinated  in  the  Ummah,  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Sahib  had  deleted  from the  equation,  the  noblest  of  mankind  whose  nobility  was  attested  to  by Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam):

The  best  of  ages  is  my  age,  then  the  next  age,  then  the  next  age, (Sahaabah,  Taabi’een  and  Tab-e-Taabi’een).  Then  shall  come  people who  will    (hasten)  to  testify  whilst  they  will  not  be  asked  to  testify. They  will  pledge,  but  not  fulfil.  They  will  abuse  trust  and  will  not  be trusted. …….Then will  come  people who love  obesity…

Qayrawan belongs  to  that  age  of  ‘obesity’  and  falsehood,  hence  some of  its teachers  were  kufr  mongers.  They  had  created a  gigantic  crises  in the  Imaan of the  Ummah. While    our  orthodox  educational  system  of  Deoband,  which  has  the closest  resemblance  to  the  system  in  vogue  during  Khairul  Quroon,  is no  impediment  for  those  who  desire  to  pursue  higher  scientific knowledge  or  any  branch  in  the  secular  field,  we  make  it  abundantly clear  that  for  the  success,  domination  and  victory  of  Islam  and  the Ummah,  we  are  not  in  need  of  science  and  technology. Allah  Azza  Wa Jal is our Aid.

Verily,  We  shall  most  assuredly  aid  Our  Rasul  (Messengers)  and the  People  of  Imaan  in  this  worldly  life and  on  the  Day  of  when  the Witnesses will  stand (to testify).” 

And, no one  knows  the Armies of  your Rabb, except He.”

THE THREE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

In  his  bayaan  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Sahib  said: “Before  the  creation  of Pakistan,  there  were  three  major  education  systems  that  were  in effect  in    South  Asia:  The  system  of  Darul  Uloom  Deoband,  the  system of  Aligarh  Muslim  University,  and  the  system  of  Darul  Uloom Nadwatul  Ulama.

In  1950  or  1951,  my  father  said  that  after  the  creation  of  Pakistan, we  do  not  need  Aligarh,  Nadwa    or  Deoband  educational  systems. Rather,  we  need  a  different  education  system  that  follows  through from our predecessors  (Aslaaf).”

Regarding  Aligarh  University,  it  is  a  travesty  to  describe  it  as  a “Muslim”  university.  It  is  an  institution  of  kufr  which  had  produced western bootlickers  from  its  inception.  It  was  established  to  undermine Islam.  Nadwa  on  the  other  hand  is  a  hybrid  institution  drifting  away from  the  Sunnah.  The  Hadhrat  Mufti’s  statement  is  correct  as  far  as these  two  systems  are  concerned.  They  were  never  needed  in  the Ummah  nor are  they  in need today.

But,  it  is  a  gross  misunderstanding  to  say  that    there  is  no  need  for  the  system  which  our  Akaabireen  had  established  at  Darul  Uloom Deoband. The  system  of  our  Akaabireen  was  designed  to  strengthen the  bond  with  Allah  Ta’ala,  and  to  correspondingly  weaken  the  relationship  with  the  dunya.  Deoband  was  the  Institution  established for  the  moral  reformation  and  spiritual  elevation  of  Muslims.  It  had  no ulterior  motive.  As  far  as  the  worldly  success  of  the  Ummah  is concerned,  it  is  a  natural  consequence  of  moral  reformation  and spiritual  elevation  although  the  intention  in  the  pursuit  of  the Knowledge  of  the  Deen  should  never  be  worldly  perfection  and material  acquisition.  These  are  by-products  and  bestowals  of  Allah Ta’ala  to  an  Ummah  whose  focus  is  riveted  on  the  Aakhirat  which  is the Objective  of life  on earth.

Hadhrat Mufti Sahib’s  mentioning  of  ‘Aslaaf’  is  ambiguous. He has not  clarified  to  whom  the  reference  is.  However,  from  his  bayaan  it  is manifest  that  by  ‘aslaaf’  is  meant  the  intellectual  luminaries  from  the third  century  onwards  whilst  in  reality  our  Aslaaf  are  prior  to  the  third century.  The  genuine  Aslaaf   are  the  SahaabahTaabi’een  and  Tab-e-Taabi’een.  Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sina, Farabi and the  like  are  not our  Aslaaf.  

Mention  has  been  made  of  the  educational  system  of  our predecessors.  It  is  that  system  which  we  should  introduce  and  adopt. In  elaborating  this  point,  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  Sahib  has  presented  the system  of  Qayrawan,  Zaytuna  and  Azhar,  thus  conveying  the  corrupt idea  that  the  systems  of  these  institutions  were  the  systems  of  our genuine  Aslaaf.  This idea  is baseless. The  system  in  vogue  at  Darul  Uloom  Deoband,  despite  the  spirit  of the  Deen  having  been  extinguished  even    over  there,  has  the  closest resemblance  to  the  educational  system  of  the  genuine  Aslaaf.  What was  their  system?  A  Shaikh/Aalim  of  the  Aslaaf  would  take  up position  in  a  Musjid  and  initiate  Dars  (Teaching).  Students  from  far and  wide  would  flock  to  the  Musjid  and    sit  in  his  Halqah  (Circle)  to listen  to  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  narration  and  exegesis.  This  was  the system  of  the  Sahaabah  and  the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen  who  were  the students of the  Sahaabah.

These  Ulama  did  not  impart  any  secular  knowledge  in  their educational  system.  Their  system  of  Ta’leem  was  restricted  to  Qur’aan and  Hadith.  There  was  no  worldly  contamination  in  their  system.  In  all the  lands  of  Islam  during  Khairul  Quroon,  well  prior  to  Qayrawan,  the system  was  the  same  –  pure  Ta’leem  of  the  Qur’aan  and  Sunnah, unadulterated   with secular   education.

The  misunderstanding   by  Hadhrat  Mufti  Sahib   is indeed lamentable.  The  idea  of    teaching  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  in  Deoband in  the  style  of  the  genuine  Aslaaf  being  redundant  and  no  longer  in need  is  repugnant  in  the  extreme.  Wallaah!  There  is  no  other  way  or better  way  of  imparting  the  Knowledge  of  the  Qur’aan  and  Sunnah than  the  Deobandi  system  which  is  a  replica  of  the  system  of  the Salafus  Saaliheen  of  the  Khairul  Quroon  era.  It  is  the  system  in  which the  Isnaad  of  Shar’i  Uloom  is  securely  attached  to  Rasulullah (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).  We  fail  to  understand  which  other  better system  of  teaching  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  Hadhrat  Mufti  Taqi  has  to offer.  If he  has, he  should present it for  examination.

The  only  reason  for  the  corrupt  averment  is  that  the  educational system  of  Darul  Uloom  Deoband  is  restricted  to  spirituality  and  the Aakhirat.  It  does  not  cater  for  the  mundane  sciences.  But  this  reason  is  corrupt  and  baseless.    Deoband’s  Deeni  educational  system  does  not preclude  any    entity  from  the  pursuit  of  the  mundane  sciences.  The suggestion  that  the  mundane  sciences  should  be  taught  under  the same  roof  where  the  sciences  of  the  Aakhirat  are  imparted  is erroneous.  It  stems  from  a  lack  of  understanding  of  the  goals  and objectives of the  two kinds of  knowledge.

The  sole  objective  of  Qur’aanic  Ilm  is  Allah’s  Pleasure  and  Najaat  in the  Aakhirat.  On  the  contrary,  the  sole  objective  of    mundane (worldly/secular)  education  is  the  stomach.  It  is    worldly  acquisition. When  the  two  types  of  knowledge  have    vastly  different  goals,  it  is  not possible  to  accommodate  the  mundane  sciences  in  a  Madrasah  of  the Aakhirat.  There  is  no  objection  to  learning  the  mundane  sciences, becoming  plumbers,  shoemakers,  masons,  engineers,  doctors,  etc., etc. As  long  as  these  worldly  branches  of  education  are  pursued  within  the confines of the  Shariah, it  will  be  permissible.

It  devolves  on the  secularists and  Ulama such  as Hadhrat Mufti  Taqi Sahib  who  are  engrossed  in  worldly  pursuits  to  set  up  secular institutions  where  ijtihaad  in  these  spheres  could  be  pursued.  There  is no  need  to  seek  the  support  of  the  kufr  government  of  Napakistan.  We are  required  to  operate  within  the  confines  of  our  abilities.    Hadhrat Mufti  Taqi  Sahib  has    sufficient  financial  backers  to    initiate  a  secular  institution  to  cater  for  worldly  sciences.  It  is  within  his  means  to establish  a  university  where  the  secular  sciences  could  be  pursued within  the  confines  of  the  Shariah. If  such  a  model  is  set  up,  In sha-Allah, others will  follow  its  direction.  

The  need  for  the  Deobandi  educational  system  will  remain  until the  Last  Day  of  this  dunya.  It  is  a  ghastly  miscalculation  to  contend that  the  educational  system  of  Darul  Uloom  Deoband  is  no  longer needed.  What  needs  to  be  done  is  a  massive  overhaul  of  the  ruinous secular  system  which  transforms  Muslims  into  zombies  and  western bootlickers,  and  even  bootleggers.  The  secular  institutions  produce  the worst  of  exploiters,  thugs  and  humbugs.    The  prime  example  is medical  doctors.  There  is  no  profession  more  callous  and  brutal  than the  western  medical    occupation.  One  becomes  a  doctor  in  this  system to  suck  the  blood  of  patients.  They  put  the  capitalist  riba  bankers  to shame.

The  understanding  that  the  Deobandi  educational  system  is  a reaction  to  the  British  educational  system  introduced    during  the  British  Raj  of  the  Indian  subcontinent,  is  incorrect.  Our  Akaabireen had  merely  reintroduced  on  a  systematic  basis  the  methodology  of Deeni  Ta’leem  of  the  Fardh  Kifaayah  dimension  which  had  existed during  Khairul  Quroon.  Having  suffered  defeat  upon  defeat  on  the battlefields,  it  finally  dawned  on  the  Akaabireen  that  the Ummah  was  rotten  to  the  core.  Minus  moral  reformation  and  spiritual elevation  there  was  not  a  ghost  of  chance  for  the  attainment  of  victory against  the  British  whom  Allah  Ta’ala  had  imposed  on  the  Ummah  as His  Athaab.  Allah’s  Chastisement  cannot  be  thwarted.  The  only  way of  extricating  the  Ummah  from  the  morass  of  filth  and  humiliation  is moral  reformation  and  spiritual  elevation.  The  Akaabireen  had therefore  set out on this mission.

The  prescription  of  displacing  the  original  educational  system  of Islam  by  substituting  it  with  a  new  hybrid  system  will  only  produce illegitimate  products  –  scholars  for  dollars  –  and  extinguish  whatever little  there  remains  of  Roohaaniyat  in  the  system  of  our  Akaabireen. The  stipulation  of  changing  the  methodology  of  teaching  Qur’aan  and Hadith  as  a  prerequisite  for  scientific  and  technological  progress  is not only  extremely  myopic,  it is downright stupid.

There  is  no  other  valid  educational  system  which  caters  for  the Fardh  Kifaayah  dimension  of  Deeni  Ilm  other  than  the  system  which our  Akaabireen  had  established  at  Deoband.  If  it  had  not  been  for  that noble  system,  who  would  there  have  been  today  to  ward  off  the  fraud and  fabrications  of  the  mudhilleen  and  zanadaqah?  Alhamdulillah!  We are  grateful  unto  Allah  Ta’ala  for  the  enlightenment  which  He  has bestowed  to  many  who  had  acquired  the  Fardh  Kifaayah  Knowledge  from  the  Bastion  in  Deoband.  These  are  the  Deobandi  Ulama  who  are holding  aloft  the  Standard  of  the  Haqq  –  the  Standard  of  the  Sunnah and  fighting  the    deluge  of  baatil  and  dhalaal  which  is  engulfing  the Ummah.

Even  senior  Ulama  err  in  their  understanding  and  judgment.  We assign  Hadhrat  Mufti  Sahib’s    view  to  a  misunderstanding.    There  is today  a  greater  need    for  maintaining  the  educational  system  of  Darul Uloom Deoband.

SECULAR EDUCATION IN ISLAM

Below  appears  an  article,  “The  Need  for  Muslim  Oriented  Schools.” This is an article  prepared by  a  concerned sister  from Nairobi, Kenya.   The  criticism  of  the  Ulama  of  the  current  craze  of  so-called  Islamic Schools  in  South  Africa  should  not  be  construed  as  negatory  of  the views  expressed  by  the  article.  The  Ulama’s  condemnation  of  the “Islamic  Schools”  craze  in South Africa  is not in  conflict with the view advocating  the  pursuit of  secular  education. While  criticising  the  South African  craze,  the  Ulama  do  not  imply  that  the  pursuit  of  secular education  —  necessary  secular  education  –  is  unlawful  or  haraam. Opponents  of  the  Ulama  and  proponents  of  the  “Islamic  School”  craze are  at  pains  to  disseminate  the  idea  that  the  Ulama-e-Haqq  are proclaiming  that  secular  education  is  haraam.  Ignorant  and  unwary Muslims  are  confused  by  such  claims  deviously  traded  by  those  hellbent  on  smothering  and  displacing  the  sacred  Madrasah/Maktab system  which  the  Ummah  has  inherited  from  the  early  ages  from  the illustrious Salf-e-Saaliheen.  

In  the  stand  against  the  “Islamic  school  craze,  the  Ulama  are cautioning  the  community  to  beware  of  a  grave  danger  which  these  so-called  Islamic  schools  pose  to  true  Deeni  Ta’leem  and  Tarbiyat  of Muslim  children.  The  shaitaani  hidden  element  in  the  hidden  agenda of  the  proponents  of  this  craze  is  the  total  displacement  of  true  Islamic education  —  ta’leem  of  the  basic  Deeni  ilm  necessary  for  sustaining the  Imaan  of  Muslims.  Since  the  latest  brand  of  “Islamic”  schools  have in  its  agenda  the  destruction  of  the  Maktab/Madrasah  system,  there looms  a  grave  danger  for  the  Imaan  of  the  children  being  educated  in these  hybrid  schools  which  make  a  mockery  of  Deeni  Ta’leem  by bringing  down  the lofty  pedestal  of  Qur’aanic  ta’leem  to  a  level  lower than  even  the  mundane  level  of  worldly  education.  The  sanctity  and Nooraaniyat  which  have  always  accompanied  Deeni  Maktab  Ta’leem are  eroded  and  ravaged  in  these  kuffaar  oriented  miserable  “Islamic” schools.

Secular  education  is  among  the  needs  of  this  worldly  life.  However,  it is haraam  to pursue  it  at  the cost of sacrificing  Imaan and  Akhlaaq.  If  a Mu’min  has  to  choose  between  Imaan  and  secular  education,  his Waajib  choice  is  obviously  the  preservation  of  his  Imaan,  which  is  his indispensable  capital  for  his  salvation  in  the  Aakhirah.  If  an  institution is  corruptive  of  Akhlaaq  (Islamic  moral  character),  such  an  institution will  be  satanic  and  it  has  to  be  compulsorily  shunned  irrespective  of the  worldly  benefits  it  offers.  The  Imaan  of  the  Believer  dictates  that Allah  Ta’aala  is  the  sole  Raaziq  and  that  Rizq  has  already  been predetermined. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi  Wasallam) said:  

Rizq is sealed and the one  of greed is deprived.”

Pursuit  of  higher  secular  education  will  NEVER  increase  one’s  Rizq by  one  iota.  It  is  indeed  a  shaitaani  deception  and  a  foul  promise  of shaitaan  that  a  comfortable  and  respectable  worldly  life  is  inextricably interwoven  with  the  acquisition  of  University  degrees  or  with  secular education,  hence  its  pursuit  even  if  it  leads  to  Jahannum,  is  necessary. This is a satanic  myth.  

Secular  education  has  been  with  mankind  from  the  very  advent  of Hadhrat  Aadam  (Alayhis  Salaam).  When  Hadhrat  Aadam  (Alayhis Salaam)  was  sent  to  earth,  he  did  not  acquire  his  Rizq  miraculously,  or in  the  way  in  which  it  was  given  to  him  in  Jannat.  Here  on  earth  he had  to  toil  and  labour  to  procure  his  pre-determined  Rizq.  For  this acquisition  he  had  to  work  the  land  and  plant  wheat.  Hadhrat  Jibraeel (Alayhis  Salaam)  taught  him  how  to  manufacture  the  necessary implements  for  tilling  the  land.  The  modern  tractor  does  exactly  the same  work  which  Hadhrat  Aadam’s  plough  did,  albeit  more  swiftly and  efficiently  —  perhaps!  The  modern  gun  and  rifle  accomplish  the same  objectives  of  the  sword,  arrow  and  spear,  albeit  in  different  and more  effective  ways.  Hadhrat  Dawood  (Alayhis  Salaam)  was  a blacksmith  and  welder  who  made  armour.  Once  a  button  welded  on the  armour  was  out  of  alignment,  Allah  Ta’ala  sent  Jibraeel  (Alayhis Salaam)  to  instruct  Hadhrat  Dawood  (Alayhis  Salaam)  to  rectify  the error.  He  was  ordered  to  perfect  his  work.  Hadhrat  Idrees  (Alayhis Salaam)  was  a  tailor.  These  few  examples  will  suffice  to  indicate  that Islam  is  not  inimical  to  secular  knowledge  for  the  purpose  of  acquiring the necessary  education  needed for worldly  pursuits.  

Similarly,  in  the  medical  field,  there  never  was  nor  will  there  ever become  a  medical  practitioner  who  can  excel  Hadhrat  Luqmaan (Alayhis  Salaam).  While  the  medical  knowledge  of  everyone  else  is secondary  and  defective  and  even  downright  dangerous  and  farcical, much  of  the  medical  expertise  of  Luqmaan  (Alayhis  Salaam)  was  the product  of  ilhaam  (Inspiration  from  Allah  Ta’ala).  Numerous  home-remedies  and  prescriptions  of  Hukama  are  in  fact  part  of  the inheritance  acquired  from  Hadhrat  Luqmaan  (Alayhis  Salaam)  and from other  Ambiyaa  (Alayhimus  Salaam).

Secular  education,  as  the  aforementioned  examples  will  illustrate  is nothing  new.  Above  all,  it  is  not  the  preserve  of  Westernism.  It  is  not the  invention  of  the  West.  However,  the  West  has  improved  on technology,  which  originated  with  Hadhrat  Aadam  (Alayhis  Salaam). Muslims  having  abandoned  this  branch  of  knowledge  on  account  of their  engrossment  in  worldly  and  haraam  luxuries  lapsed  into  crass decadence  and  degradation.  The  western  kuffaar  continued  to  build  on the  structures  left  unfinished  by  the  decadent  Muslim  community. Furthermore,  they  added  their  immoral  and  libertine  nafsaani  culture to  secular  education.  With  their  theories  of  kufr  and  fabrication  they presented  secular  education  in  the  hues  of  kufr.  The  great misconception  of  secular  education  and  technology  being  integral constituents  of  western  culture  became  firmly  planted  in  the  minds  of ignorant  and  decadent  Muslims  wallowing  in  mental  inferiority imposed  on  them  by  their  western  masters.  It  is  precisely  for  this reason  that  all  these  so-called  “Islamic”  schools  deem  it  imperative  to orientate these  schools  with western liberalism. Thus haraam  practices, haraam  institutions  and  haraam  extra-curricular  activities,  which  go along  with  kuffaar  secular  institutions,  are  compulsorily  adopted  by these  hybrid  schools  which  misguided  Muslims  and  short-sighted Molvis are  spearheading.  

While  Islam  does  not  prohibit  secular  education  —  in  fact  it encourages  it  as  long  as  it  does  not  interfere  with  Imaan  and  Akhlaaq — the  Shariah  proscribes  its  pursuit  violation  of  the  Commands  and Prohibitions  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  If  the  choice  is  between  worldly progress  /  perfection  and  Falaah  (Success)  in  the  Aakhirah,  the Muslim  conscious  of  the  Maqsad  (Purpose  and  Goal)  of  life,  will  not bat  an  eyelid  in  his  rejection  of  secular  education  which  is  falsely regarded to be vital for  worldly  progress.  

The  thrust  of  the  Ulama’s  stand  against  these  “Islamic”  schools  is  not against  secular  education.  Rather,  it  is  directed  against  the  ruin  of Imaan  and  Akhlaaq,  which  are  natural  consequences  of  schools  and institutions,  which  operate  along  kuffaar  lines.  By  all  means  pursue secular  education,  but,  keep  the  hands  off  from  the  Makaatib  and Madaaris.  The  acquisition  of  secular  education  does  not  require  the displacement  of  the  Maktab  system.  Why  then  are  these  proponents  of these  shaitaani  schools  so intent on displacing  the  age-old holy  Maktab system  which  has  safeguarded  the  Imam  of  the  Ummah  throughout  the history  of  Islam?  What  has  motivated  and  prompted  the  votaries  of these  schools  to  be  so  insistent  in  their  plot  to  displace  the  Maktabs? They  are  playing  right  into  the  hands  of  the  western  kuffaar.  Their short-sightedness  does  not  permit  them  to  see  that  they  have  become entangled in the meshes  of  a  dastardly  trap laid by  shaitaan.  

The  Muslim  community  has  sufficient  resources  to  operate  purely Islamic  secular  schools.  The  schools  should  be  thoroughly  painted with  Islamic  colours.  All  vestiges  of  kufr  and  fisq  —  the  products  of western  liberalism  —  have  to  be  eliminated.  Western  kufr  theories, which  permeate  even  the  technological  branches  of  secular  education, must  be  eradicated.  And,  above  all,  the  Maktabs  should  not  be incorporated  into  these  secular  schools.  The  Maktabs  should  function and  operate  in  the  age-old  style.  Islamic  education  cannot  be  made  the handmaid  of  secular  education.  If  the  kufr  and  fisq  are  weeded  out  of these  schools  and  if  the  Maktabs  are  not  infringed  on,  there  can  be  no objection  then  to  secular  institutions.  But,  secular  institutions  should never  be  given  preference  over  Deeni  Ta’leem  because  the  former  is only  for  the  duration  of  this  fleeting  worldly  life,  while  the  latter  is imperative  for  the  everlasting  Falaah  of  the  Aakhirah.  And  about  this ephemeral worldly  life, the  Qur’aan Majeed says:  

“And, the  life  of this world is but play  and amusement while  the Abode  of the  Aakhirah  is best for those who fear (Allah). What,  have you  no intelligence?”

THE  NEED FOR MUSLIM ORIENTED SCHOOLS

[By  A  Sister from  Kenya]

Acquisition  of  knowledge  is  considered  to  be  an  act  of  worship  and hence  greatly  encouraged  by  Islam.  The  Ahadith  are  replete  with  good tidings  for  both  the  student  and  the  teacher.  The  very  first  verse  to  be revealed  to  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  was  to  read. From  then  on  Muslim  have  always  been  encouraged  to  learn  how  to read  and  write.  The  Madrasahs,  which  have  been  greatly  replaced  by the  western  kuffaar  schools,  fulfilled  the  role  of  equipping  the  Muslim children  with  the  basic  knowledge  of  how  to  read  and  write  in  the early  ages  of  Islam.  It  was  the  work  of  the  Madrasahs  to  impart Islamic  knowledge  to  the  child  when  his  brain  was  still  fresh  which enabled  them  to  produce  great  and  eminent  Scholars  of  Islam  like Sheikh Bukhaari and Sheikh Muslim, among others. 

It  was  much  later  when  the  revolution  took  place  in  the  Western world  that  schools  for  children  were  introduced.  We  should  not  forget that  Muslims  were  the  pioneers  of  development  of  sciences.  The kuffaar  have  just  polished  them  for  which  they  do  not  deserve  the credit  that we  attribute  to  them. The  Missionaries  used  these  schools  as a  means  to  introduce  the  Christian  religion  and  their  own  kufr  culture to  the  indigenous  tribes  of  the  localities,  which  were  colonised.  The colonialist  gave  full-fledged  support  to  these  institutions  because  he saw  it  as  a  way  of  mentally  colonising  the  people  and  giving  them  an inferiority  complex  indirectly.  It  proved  to  be  very  effective  as  it mentally  handicapped  those  who  attended  these  schools  into  believing that  the  ways  of  the  kuffaar  were  much  better.  Somehow  the  Muslim parent  was  also  fooled  into  believing  that  the  school  was  an indispensable  tool  which  his  child  needed  if  he  was  to  become proficient  in  the  ways  of  this  world.  Gradually  the  Madrasahs  were substituted with the Kuffaar schools. 

Today  we  can  see  that  Muslims  who  take  up  professional  courses have  very  little  or  no  time  at  all  for  religious  studies.  When  we  study under  people  who  do  not  fear  and  revere  Allah  we  also  become  like them  because  it  is  easier  to  acquire  vices  then  to  acquire  virtues.  Most of  these  so-called  ‘Muslim’  professionals  are  so  very  wrapped  up  in their  life-styles  that  they  do  not  resemble  Muslims  at  all.  The  love  of the world has blinded  us  so much that today  Muslim  parents can afford to  send  their  daughters  away  to  an  alien  Kuffaar  country  without  a Mahram  just  for  the  sake  of  acquiring  some  mundane  profession  of this  world  in  complete  violation  of  the  law  of  Allah.  Some  Muslim parents  find  it  difficult  to  send  their  child  to  Madrassah  because  they feel  that  their  beloved  child  is  too  exhausted  from  school  studies  to now  devote  his  time  to  religious  studies .  What  is  more  important,  —is it  the  Big  Bang  theory,  which  negates  the  very  existence  of  Allah?  Or is  it  imparting  of  filth  like  sex  education  to  innocent  children  in  a mixed  class,  which  is  part  of  the  syllabus?  -just  to  mention  a  few  of the  teachings  of  the  Kufr  school  that  the  Muslim  parents  are  so  fond  of sending  their  child  to.  The  fact  is  we  are  giving  priority  to  worldly knowledge  and  placing  the  mastering  of  Islamic  knowledge  on  the back shelf, which is very wrong. 

It is no  wonder  that  our  youth  today  have  scant  or  no understanding  of  our  religion.  The  type  of  knowledge  for  which  the Muslims  have  been  promised  immense  reward  has  been  beautifully summarised  in  one  of  the  Hadith  where  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  states:  “Knowledge  consists  of  three  things:  (1)  The Definite  Book  i.e.  the  Holy  Qur’aan.  (2)  The  established  Sunnah  and every  Divine  command  (Farizah).  (3)  Whatever  besides  it  which  is  to a  degree  of  virtue”  The  Qur’aan  says  in  Surah  Nisa:  “O  Nabi (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)!  Say:  The  benefit  of  this  world  is  very little;  but  the  life  of  Aakhirah  is  much  better  for  those  who  fear Allah.”  Another  Hadith  states:  “Foolish  is  that  Community  that avoids  that  thing  which  their  Prophet  may  have  brought  to  them  or inclines  towards  a  book  which  the  Book  of  Allah  did  not  prescribe for  it.”  It  is  truly  unfortunate  that  Muslims  today  have  misunderstood the worldly  education to  be  a  type  of knowledge  that is indispensable.   In  these  times  of  kuffaar  domination  we  need  our  children  to  equip themselves  with  the  necessary  professional  careers.  We  are  in  need  of Doctors,  Engineers  and  other  such  professionals  in  the  Ummah.  We also  need  to  shake  ourselves  from  this  state  of  slumber  and  realise  that we  cannot  afford  to  send  our  innocent  children  to  schools  of  the kuffaar  where  their  very  way  of  thought  is  completely  polluted.  We need  institutions,  which  will  advocate  the  child’s  moral  and  spiritual growth  as  well  as  impart  the  necessary  professionalism  to  our  child. Allah  Ta’ala  has  granted  us  children  as  an  Amaanah  and  tomorrow we  will  be  held  accountable  to  Him  for  their  moral  and  spiritual deterioration. 
We  desperately  need  to  come  together  as  an  Ummah  with  one common  objective  and  that  is  to  have  our  children’s  welfare  at  heart. We  need  schools  which  are  going  to  be  strictly  in  conformity  with  the laws  of  Islam  and  whose  teachers  are  Allah  fearing  Muslims  and  not the  kuffaar  teachers  who  are  at  the  helm  of  the  schools  to  which  we send  our  children  today.  We  need  schools  which  will  teach  our children  to  give  priority  to  the  principles  of  our  religion  and  not  to  our Nafs as  the  kuffaar schools advocate.  It is not  an  easy  task but  if we  set our  minds  on  it  and  if  our  intentions  are  sincere  then  nothing  can  deter us  from  achieving  this  very  noble  task.  It  is  what  we  really  need  to restore  the  strength  of  this  dwindling  Ummah.  Insha’Allah,  if  we  are able  to  accomplish  this  then  there  will  be  no  fear  for  the  future  of  the generation of  this Ummah.

Prohibition on Photography, Pictures, Images etc.

Photography and some modernist-Ulama

Have mercy on the Deen !
     
Do not destroy the masses !

[By Hadhrat Mufti Sa’eed Palanpuri d.b]

Hadhrat Maulana Shaykh Hakeem Fadhlul-Kareem Al-Hussaini, Mufti A’zam Madani of Daarul Iftaa, Assam, enquired from Hadhrat Mufti Sa’eed Ahmad Palanpuri about the ruling regarding the permissibility & impermissibility of photography, due to its widespread indulgence nowadays. Hadhrat Mufti Sa’eed Ahmad Palanpuri issued the following Fatwa in response:

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

Revered & Respected Brother! May your piety increase.

Assalaamu’alaikum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh.

You have enquired regarding  photography, whether it is permissible or impermissible, and if it is impermissible than why is the actions of seniors contradictory to it?

Generally in the gatherings & conferences well known personalities get their photos taken without the slightest hesitation. Moreover some well know personalities have now started to appear on television too.

Regarding this issue, the unanimous ruling of all the Muftis of South Asia (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) is:

  “All photos are haraam. The prohibitions sounded in the Saheeh Hadeeth for pictures are equally applicable to these photos. Some ‘Ulamaa of Egypt and ‘Arabia have differed on this. But the ‘Ulamaa of South Asia have no difference of opinion regarding this matter whatsoever, i.e. they all unanimously agree that whether the pictures are digital, non-digital or hand-made, all pictures of living beings are haraam.”

 However, the seniors of the Ummah practically flout the verdict of their Muftis. There no longer exists aversion for the camera photos in their minds. This is a big tragedy. I often say to the Akaabireen that if the ruling has changed & the camera photos have become permissible than ask all the Darul Iftaa’s to issue the ruling of its permissibility first. Thereafter may they have photos taken.

The present state of affairs is in fact a mockery of Deen. Common people say:

     ‘Look! Muftis issue the Fatwaa (of prohibition) while the Hadhrats who have their photos taken in gatherings act in conflict.‘

If importance and significance concerning even one Deeni matter is eliminated from the hearts of the masses, then all the other Deeni matters will suffer the same fate.

Moreover some businessmen without thinking of the consequences have started   selling photos of the seniors. Now the photos of Hadhrat
Thanwi, Hadhrat Madani, Maulana Zafar ‘Uthmani and many more other Buzurgs are being flagrantly sold. What will be the result of this ?? Everyone can understand this. It is my request to the seniors, for the sake of ALLAH have mercy on the Deen. If you don’t have any value left in your hearts for Deen then at least please do not destroy the masses.” 

[End of the Fatwa]

COMMENT BY MAJLISUL ULAMA

The photos of Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi,  Hadhrat Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani ,etc.”: This should not be misconstrued. These true Akaabireen NEVER  indulged in the Kabeerah (Major) sin of photography. Their photos are either passport pictures or snaps taken by some misguided miscreant without the knowledge of these noble Ulama.

Those who  have been referred to as ‘seniors’, but who  stoop to the despicable  level of  intentionally having their photos taken, or not taking measures to prevent  their  photos  being taken or act like dumb devils feeling pleased with their  photos, hence their silence – they are not Seniors in the true sense of the term. On the contrary, they are  mudhilleen (those who mislead the masses). About these mudhilleen  ‘seniors’, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

   “Verily, I fear for my Ummah the aimmah mudhilleen.”

When a  person  constantly dwells in an environment of najaasat, he becomes desensitized to its abhorrent stench  and  harm. The stench
of faeces then becomes ‘fragrant’  as a consequence of the imbalance in his olfactory sense. This is the fate  which these misguided ‘seniors’ are suffering. Najaasat has become fragrant to them, hence not a semblance of revulsion for the major sin of picture-making remains in their hearts. They belong to the fraternity of the ulama-e-soo’.

Some opinions of the ‘Ulama on Pictures

Shaikh Mustafa’ Humaami (Rahmatullah alayh) of Egypt writes: “The photographers of our time regard picture-making as a great skill and as a branch of the ‘fine-arts’.. this means that these people regard picture-making as lawful without any qualms. Now, what does the Law state regarding  a person who regards a forbidden practice as lawful, and this too, when he has knowledge of its prohibition? We seek Allah’s protection. Alas! Muslims today have been encircled by this great evil (of photography) to such an extent that there hardly remains a Muslim home without being full with photos. Ponder! Should  Rasulullah صلى الله عليه والسلم make an appearance today and observe this evil, what will be his attitude? The great misfortune of the situation is that this fitnah (the evil of photography) prevails in those cities where the inhabitants regard themselves to excel in knowledge.”

Pictures are generally worshipped by the idolaters, and are therefore  detested by the angels as well as despised by the Prophets صلى الله عليه والسلم and the makers of them will be duly punished on the Day of Resurrection, because they are the cause of providing materials for idolatry. It is manifest that those ignorant people who keep pictures of the Prophets (Alayhis Salaam), Imams, saints, peers and pay them every respect and preserve them, from a belief of their auspicious influence, have gone most astray and are deeply involved in the crime of SHIRK. It is therefore necessary to take the pictures out of good homes, as impure things.. Hence the crime of making pictures. Is very great, greater even than the crimes of that of Yaz’id and Shimar…” – TAQWIYATUL IMAN, SHAH ISMA’IL SHAHEED (Rahmatullah Alayh).

“The second  main constituent of their (Muslim) culture is the creed of Monotheism. Belief in the Oneness of God is manifest in all their activities from spiritual conviction to practical conduct and from worship to festivals and ceremonies. Their homes and studios are expected to be free from every trace of idolatry and polytheism – photographs, statues, images having been prohibited to them by their religion. The same principle has to be followed even while making or buying toys for their children.. wherever Muslims will be honest in their loyalty to Islamic civilization, they will remain strictly removed from such practices.”

“It (Islam) frowns severely upon certain forms of self-indulgence and sensuality to which the West has given the imposing label of “Fine Arts” some of these are dancing, painting and photography (of living beings) and sculpture.” – MAULANA ABUL HASAN ALI NADWI (Rahmatullah Alayh)

“.. indulgence in picture-making opens the door to the worship of idols. In most communities idol-worship started with picture-making.” – HADHRAT SHAH WALIULLAH MUHADDITH (Rahmatullah Alayh)

“It is prohibited by Sharia’h to prepare, print and publish images of living things. By Shari’ah, this is sinful indeed. “In fact, to prepare imaginary images of the Sahaba (radhiyallahu anhum), print and publish them is a far greater and extremely grievous sin.”

“ISLAM strictly prohibits pictures and images of all animate things; whether these pictures are drawn by hand or photographed, it is an indisputable fact that they are pictures and photos of living things… it is un-Islamic and strictly prohibited to print history books in the form of picture-stories, more especially of the Sahabahs and the righteous predecessors.”

–MAULANA C.M. SEMA, Jamiatul Ulama, Natal

Why Pictures of Animate Objects have been Prohibited

By AL-HAJ MAULANA FAZLUL KARIM (M.A., B.L.)

Objects of Prohibition

The Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه والسلم was commissioned by the Almighty to eradicate idolatry, root and branch, from the world. Previously, prophets were raised who preached the unity of Allah. As each prophet passed away, his followers took some form of idolatry. For instance, the followers of Jesus Christ (Isa alayhis salaam) introduced images in their churches. The Protestant vehemently protested and established different churches, abolishing all images therefrom. They, however, upheld Trinity as opposed to unity, bidding good-bye to pure monotheism preached by Isa alayhis salaam. The Holy Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه والسلم came to purge the evils from the old truths and introduced new ones conformable to the new society. Therefore perceiving the baneful effect that pictures and images would have on his followers in future, he abolished them wholesale. He demolished the tree of idolatry as well as eradicated its possible roots from Islam. This is one of the reasons why life-pictures have been made unlawful. The second reason is that the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه والسلم prohibited mourning the death of a man for more than three days. If there is a picture of a dead family member near someone, it will give him constant mental anxieties and sorrows, thereby making him indifferent and incapable of active work. The third thing to be noticed is that the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه والسلم whose principles are now shining in full glory after 14 centuries has not established this law without any rhyme or reason. The reasons given above may not extend so far as to those of the Prophet صلى الله عليه والسلم. These are after all comparatively quite insignificant. Only Allah and His Apostle know best about the reasons. Taking the opposite view, it is evident that if pictures were allowed in Islam, the result would have been disastrous to the cause of perfection of the unity of Allah. Pictures of saints, prophets and holy men of Islam and other religions would have been hung up in mosques, houses, in the Prophet’s mosque at Madinah and in the Holy Ka’aba. “The truth has come” would have disappeared and people would imperceptibly have put wreaths of flowers by way of homage to the deceased great men and saluted them. This practice would have led ultimately to idolatry. Thus with true foresight, Islam the religion where only truth prevails, held pictures as unlawful.

Placing the Knees before Hands while proceeding to Sajdah

WHEN PROCEEDING to Sajdah, what should be placed on the ground first – the hands or the knees??  According to the Salafis, the hands should be placed first on the ground. For this view they cite the following Hadith narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu):

When any of you prostrates, he should not kneel as a camel does (placing its knees on the ground first); instead, he should place his hands on the ground before his knees.”

This Hadith according to the Salafis is authentic and is narrated in a number of kitaabs.

According to the Hanafi, Shaafi’ and Hanbali Math-habs, the knees should be placed on the ground first, then the hands. According to the Maaliki Math-hab, the hands should touch the ground first, then the knees. The following is mentioned in Al-Fiqhul Islaamiyyu Wa Adillatuhu, Vol.1, page 663:

The Sunnah method of Sujood according to the Jamhoor (i.e. the three Math-habs) is that the Musalli should first place his knees on the ground then his hands, then his forehead, then his nose……in view of the Hadith of Waa’il Bin Hujr (radhiyallahu anhu) who said: ‘I saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) when he made Sajdah placing his knees (on the ground) before his hands.’

Al-Khattabi said: ‘This (Hadith) is more authentic than the Hadith of Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) which is cited in the Maaliki Math-hab.”

At the outset it should be clarified that the objective of this article is not to refute the Math-hab of Imaam Maalik (rahmatullah alayh). All Four Math-habs are the Haqq and they comprise the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah. Our aim in this dissertation is to refute the drivel of the deviant Salafis sect whose members revile the followers of the Math-habs, in general, and in particular the Hanafi Math-hab.

The Salafis graze on falsehood hence they are at pains to convince the ignorant and the unwary that the rulings of the Hanafi Math-hab in particular lack Qur’aanic and Hadith basis. This particular mas’alah of the knees or hands is explained in refutation of the Salafis and to show the solid Shar’i basis for the view of the Hanafi, Shafi and Hanbali Math-habs on this issue.

In addition to the authentic Hadith of Waail Bin Hujr (radhiyallahu anhu), Alqamah and Aswad (radhiyallahu anhuma) narrated: “Of the Salaat of Umar (Hadhrat Umar Ibn Khattaab) – radhiyallahu anhu – we remember that after Ruku’ he went down on his knees as a camel goes down, and he placed his knees down before his hands.”  – Narrated by Tahaawi. Its Isnaad is Saheeh [Aathaarus Sunnan, Vol.1, page 117]

The Hadith of Waail Bin Hujr (radhiyallahu anhu) is recorded in Tirmidhi, Vol. 1, page 36 as follows: “I saw that when Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), made Sajdah he would place his knees (on the ground) before his hands, and when he rose, he raised his hands before his knees.’  He (Tirmizi) said: ……….  ‘The amal (practice) is according to this Hadith by the majority of the Ahl-e-Ilm (Ulama) whose view it is that a man should place (on the ground) his knees before (he places) his hands.”

In An-Nail he (the author) says: “This is the view of the Jamhoor. Al-Qaadhi Abu Tayyib narrated this (view) from the majority of the Fuqaha.  Ibnul Munthir narrates it from Umar Bin Khattaab (radhiyallahu anhu), Nakh’i, Muslim Bin Yasaar, Sufyaan Thauri, Ahmad, Ishaaq and the Ashaabur Raai. He added: ‘And, I too say so.”
(Vol. 2, page 145)……….Al-Ya’maree said: ‘It is of the style of Tirmidhi to authenticate a Hadith of this Isnaad.

It is also mentioned in I’laa As Sunan

The narration of Anas which is Marfoo’ according to Haakim, strengthens this view, and there is no blemish in this narration. Furthermore, narrations of the Sahaabah corroborate it. Of these is the narration that “Verily, Umar Bin Khattaab (radhiyallahu anhu) would place his knees before his hands (on the ground).” In Zaadul Ma-aad, Ibn Qayyim states: ‘It has been preserved from Umar Bin Khattaab (radhiyallahu anhu) that he would place his knees before his hands. Abdur Razzq, Ibnul Munthir and others besides them have narrated it.
Tahaawi has narrated with a Saheeh Isnaad from Ibraaheem An-Nakh’i that he said: ‘It is recorded from Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) that his knees would reach the ground before his hands. Then he (Tahaawi) said: ‘Mugheerah said: ‘I asked Ibraaheem about a man who begins with his hands before his knees when he makes Sajdah. He (Ibraheem Nakh’i) said: ‘It is only an ignoramus or an insane man who does so.’
“I say: ‘The narrators are authentic. Thus, the Hadith of Waa’il is more preferable in this issue than the Hadith of Abu Hurairah.
With regard to the Hadith of Abu Hurairah, Haafiz Ibn Qayyim said: ‘Verily, Bukhaari, Tirmizi and Daaruqutni have found defect in it.’
Al-Khataabi said: ‘The Hadith of Waa’il Bin Hujr is stronger (more authentic) than the Hadith of Abu Hurairah.’  Ibn Qayyim said: ‘Verily, the text (matan) of the Hadith of Abu Hurairah is mudhtarab (confused) because some have narrated  the text (which is attributed to Abu Hurairah as follows): “He (the musalli) should  place his  hands (on the ground) before his knees.’ Others have narrated the opposite (i.e.  the knees before the hands).’ Others again narrated:  ‘He should place his hands on his knees.’  Others again have completely excised this sentence.”
(Furthermore), even if it (the view of placing the hands first) is proven, then a group of the Ulama has claimed that it is mansookh (abrogated). Ibnul Munthir said: “Some of our Ashaab have opined that placing the hands before the knees is mansookh.’ [I’laa As Sunan, Vol.3, pages 34 – 37]

With regard to the prohibition of kneeling like a camel, it should be noted that the forelegs of the camel are said to be its ‘hands’. Explaining this aspect, the following is mentioned in I’laa As Sunan, Vol.3, page 36:

Furthermore, the first portion of this Hadith (i.e. Abu Hurairah’s narration) conflicts with the last portion, for verily, when a camel kneels, it places its hands first (on the ground) whilst its legs (the two hind legs) remain erect. When it rises, then verily, it rises with its (hind) legs first whilst it keeps its hands on the ground.”

“It is  mentioned in the haashiyah (margins) of Tirmizi: ‘It is not hidden that the first part of this Hadith (of Abu Hurairah) is in conflict with the last part because when he (the musalli) places his hands  before his knees, then  certainly he  has knelt like the kneeling of a camel.”      

And, this is precisely what the Hadith prohibits.

>From the aforegoing discussion, the following facts emerge:

1)    There are Hadith narrations for both views.
    
2)    The overwhelming majority of the Fuqaha and the Three Math-habs (Hanafi, Shaafi’ and Hanbali) are of the view that it is Sunnah to place the knees on the ground first, then the hands.

3)    The Hadith of Waail Bin Hujr (radhiyallahu anhu) is stronger and more authentic than the Hadith of Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu).
    
4)    There are conflicting versions attributed to Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu).

5)    The evidences, namely, the aathaar of the Sahaabah are more in corroboration of the knees first view. 

6)    It is narrated that Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) would place his knees first on the ground. 

7)    A group of Fuqaha has claimed that the hands first practice is mansookh (abrogated).

8)    Placing the hands first is in fact kneeling like a camel. A person going down  first with his hands, then with his knees resembles the mode of a camel when it goes  down to kneel.

As mentioned at the beginning of this dissertation, it is not our objective to disprove the Maaliki Math-hab. There is no need for such futility. The aim of this exercise is to refute the baseless accusation of the deviant Salafis who claim that the view of the Hanafi Math-hab is a product of opinion and lacks Hadith substantiation. Alhamdulillah, this brief article dispels the slander of the Salafis.

The Authority of Hadeeth, Ijma’, Qiyaas etc and their rejection by the Deviant Sects [Part 2]

For Part 1, click here➡The Authority of Hadeeth, Ijma’, Qiyaas etc and their rejection by the Deviant Sects

The Difference between Hadeeth and Sunnah

The meaning of and 4 things that constitute Hadeeth

4 things make up Hadeeth

1. The Aqwaal (sayings) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

2. The Af’aal (actions) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

3. The Taqreer i.e if a Sahaabi did something in the presence of Nabi υ and he did not express displeasure or prevent him. (consent) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

4. The physical traits and habits of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

The meaning of Sunnah

And  Sunnat  means:  At-Tareeqatul  Maslookah  fid  Deen  –  The followed path in Deen.

The  Nisbat  (link)  between  Hadeeth  and  Sunnah  is  Aam-Khaas  min Wajhin.

i.e.  they  are  similar  (Muttafiq)  in  one  way  and  different  (Muftariq) in two ways:

Maaddatul  Iftiraaq  (differences)  are  two:

1.  Those  Ahaadeeth  which  deal  with  the  Khaasiyaat (specialities)  of  the  Nabi  e.g.  marrying  more  than  4  wives. This  is  Hadeeth  but  not  Sunnah.

2.  Those  things  which  were  implemented  by  the  4  Khaleefahs. These  will  be  Sunnah  even  if  there  is  no  Hadeeth  in  support of  it  e.g.  the  2nd  Azaan  for  Jumu’ah  which  was  implemented by  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu)

The Sunnats of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu):

Like  this,  there  are  3  Masaa’il  which  came  about  in  the  time  of  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu) when  two  groups  of  Muslims  fight  against  each  other:

1. Regarding  those  who  are  killed:  will  they  go  to  Jannat  or Jahannum;

2. Will  the  goods  of  the  defeated  party  be  treated  as  Ghaneemat (spoils  of  war);

3. Will  the  captives  be  treated  as  slaves;

4.  The  answers  to  these  3  Masaa’il  were  stipulated  by  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu). This is Sunnah even though there is no ‘Hadeeth’.

The  Battle  of  Jamal  was  fought  between  Ali  and  Aa’ishah’s (radhiyallahu anhuma) parties. Ali’s (radhiyallahu anhi)  group  was  victorious.  Questions  2  and  3  came  up.  Some Muslims  wanted  to  take  the  spoils  as  theirs.  Ali (radhiyallahu amhu) said:  “Which wretched  person  will  take  Aa’ishah (radhiyallahu anha)  as  a  slave?  There  is  no  booty, nor  any  slavery!”  So  all  the  prisoners  were  set  free  and  all  the  goods of the Shuhadaa (martyrs) was returned to their families.

Then  the  Battle  of  Siffeen  came  along  between  Ali  and Mu’aawaiyah (radhiyallahu anhuma).  Some  people  raised  the  first  question.  Ali  said: “ours and theirs are in Jannah

This  is  such  a  Mas’alah  that  no  one  could  have  solved  since  no Hadeeth  was  present,  nor  anything  similar  by  which  a  Shari’  analogy could have been extracted (Qiyaas).

Ignorant  people  (the noisy ‘La Madh-habi’s)  generally  make  a  huge  noise  about the  2nd  Azaan  and  the  Rak’ats  of  Taraweeh.  We  have  presented  the Sunnah  of  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) here  because  their  knowledge  has  not  yet  reached this  level.  When  they  come  to  know  about  this,  they  will  have  an extra Mas’alah to shout about.

The  basic  point  is  that  the  decrees  (Fatwahs)  and  rulings  of  the Khulafaa e Raashideen  are  accepted  as  Sunnah  by  the  Muslims  even if  perchance  there  is  no  Hadeeth  in  support  thereof.  This  has  always been  the  standpoint  of  the  Ahlus  Sunnah  till  the  emergence  of  this group. 

We  will  discuss  the  name  ‘Ahlus  Sunnah  wal  Jama’ah’  shortly In shaa’Allaah  –  suffice  for  now  that  we  are  Ahlus  Sunnah  not  Ahle Hadeeth.        

The  Similarity  between  Hadeeth  and  Sunnah (Maaddatul Ijtimaa’):

Those  Ahaadeeth  which  are  accepted  as  Ma’mool  Bihaa  (practiced upon)  and  are  not  Mansookh  (abrogated)  or  Khaas  (special)  are  also Sunnah.

We  accept  all  the  Ahaadeeth  in  this  category  and  we  practice  upon them. We also follow the Sunnah of the Sahaabah

Being  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  is  not  good  enough  for  two  reasons:

1.  Hadeeth  includes  Mansookh  and  Khaas  matters.  It  is  not correct  to  practice  on  this  even  though  it  is  Hadeeth.  e.g. Marrying  more  than  four  and  temporary  Nikaah  –  both  these are  Baatil.

2.  Hadeeth  does  not  cover  the  Sunnah  of  the  Khulafaa.  For  this reason  the  Salafis  are  in  Dhalaalat  (error).  We  have  been clearly  commanded  to  follow  the  Sunnat  of  the  Khulafaa  in Hadeeth  just  as  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  the  Sunnah in the Qur’aan!   

The  ‘Ahle  Quraan’  rejects  Sunnah.  The  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  also  reject  it in practice yet when confronted, neither of them will admit to it. 

This  is  the  deception  of  the  Ghair  Muqallid/  Salafi/  Ahle  Hadeeth sect.

A Challenge:

We  place  a  challenge  to  all  the  self-styled  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth  –  present a  single  Hadeeth  where  we  have  been  commanded  to  follow  the Hadeeth. Hadeeth is a technical term, an academic classification.

In  the  Hadeeth,  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  the  Sunnah:  The Sunnah  of  the  Rasul  everyone  accepts  –  we  have  been  clearly ordered  by  the  Rasul  himself,  in  a  Saheeh  Hadeeth  to  follow  the Sunnah of the Khulafa as well and this too, with no distinction!

In  our  discussion,  this  is  the  matter  that  separates  the  truth  from falsehood.  We  follow  Hadeeth  –  they  claim  to  follow  Hadeeth.  A claim  that  is  

a)  false  and  

b)  deceptive.

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said: “You  must  follow  my  Sunnah and  the  Sunnah of  the  rightly guided  Khulafaa!  Hold  firmly  onto  it  and  grip  it  with  your teeth!”

In  another  Hadeeth  He  said:

Whoever  holds  on  to  my  Sunnah  during the time of evil…

And:

I  am  leaving  behind  two  things.  You  will  never  go  astray  so long  as  you  hold  on  to  them:  The  Kitaab  of  Allaah  and  my Sunnah

There  are  great  virtues  for  memorizing  Hadeeth  and  passing  it  on  to others  –  But  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  Sunnah.

The Sunnats of Abu Bakr (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

So  we  have  touched  on  the  Sunnah  of  the  other  Khulafaa. Sayyidinaa  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) has  also  given  us  certain  Sunnahs.  In  fact  He was  the  first  to  present  certain  Sunnahs  (since  he  was  the  first Khaleefah). 

If  any  townspeople  collectively  leave  out  any  important  command of  Islaam  (e.g.  Zakaat),  the  Ameer  can  wage  Jihaad  against  them. When  one  group  refused  to  pay  Zakaat,  He  said:  “If  they  with  hold even  one  piece  of  string  which  they  used  to  pay  in  the  time  of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  I  will  fight  them!”  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  did  not  understand  this verdict.  He  felt  that  there  were  more  pressing  matters  like  dealing with the renegades and the threat against Madinah itself. 

This  was  a  very  important  decision  taken  by  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu).  The  entire stability of the Muslim nation depends on it. 

He  named  a  successor  (i.e.  Umar radhiyallahu anhu)  He  wrote  an  order  to  this  effect, and  then  told  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu)  to  gather  the  Muslims  in  the  Masjid  and take Bay’at on Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu) hand. The Sahaabah accepted this. 

These  were  two  Masaa’il  which  only  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) could  have  enacted, because  this  was  the  era  of  the  Sahaabah.  They  were  people  of understanding  and  Ita’at  (obedience).  The  very  next  generation  was one  of  turmoil.  That  is  why  we  see  that  in  the  period  of  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu) and  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu),  non-Sahaabah  created  great  anarchy.  They  were  not prepared to accept the decisions of the Khaleefah

A  person  once  asked  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu)  why  the  first  2  eras  were  of  unity  and peace  while  the  2nd  two  were  of  turmoil  and  strife.  He  said: “Because  of  the  change  in  Ra’iyyat  (the  general  public)”  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) led  people  like  Ali,  Uthmaan,  Abu  Ubaidah  and  the  others (radhiyallahu anhum).  The latter  period  saw  a  death  of  men.        
The name: Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah:

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said  that  the  Yahood  and  Nasaara  were  split  into  71 and  72  sects…  and  that  this  Ummat  will  be  split  into  73  –  all  of them  but  one  will  enter  Hell.  On  being  asked  who  they  were,  he said:  

Maa  Ana Alaihi  wa  Ashaabee” “Those who follow the path that I am on and my Sahaabah

My Path: this is the Sunnah

My  Sahaabah:  this  is  Al-Jamaa’ah.  From  this  comes  the  Ijmaa’ (consensus of the Mu’mineen)

Ibn Taymiyyah has supported this in “Minhaajus Sunnah” 

The  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  scholar  Nawaab  Waheeduz  Zamaan  in  “Nazlul Abraar”  has  also  affirmed  it.

The  group  who  are  on  Haqq  (truth)  and  that  will  gain  Najaat (salvation)  are  those  who  follow  the  Sunnah  and  accept  the  Ijmaa’ of  the  Ummat.

The 3 Usools of Deen:

The  3  principle  sources  of  Sharee’at  are:  The  Kitaab  of  Allaah;  the Sunnah; Ijmaa’.

The  fourth  Usool  is:  Qiyaas  (analogical  reasoning)  based  on  these three Usools.

The  Masaadirul  Asliyyah  (principle  sources)  are  3.  Qiyaas  is  the  4th (source) but it is not in the category of the first 3.

Qiyaas  is  Muzhir  (makes  apparent  the  hidden)  of  Sharee’at  not Muthbit  (proof  of  itself)  of  Sharee’at  i.e.  Qiyaas  is  a  means  of understanding  the  laws  of  Sharee’at  from  Qur’aan,  Sunnah  and Ijmaa’.  Qiyaas  is  not  used  to  create  laws  of  its  own  type  in  conflict of  the  3  UsoolsQiyaas  is  not  contradictory  to  them.  

Ijmaa’ is also linked to Qur’aan and Hadeeth 

These  are  now  the  4  Usools  of  Deen.  The  first  3  are  on  a  higher level.  Qiyaas  is  of  a  ‘lower’  level.  But  all  4  are  interlinked.  Deen  is the  command  of  Allaah  –  Allaah  is  the  Shaari’  (The  one  who revealed  Sharee’at).  This  Sharee’at  is  manifested  through  these Usools.  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) expounded  the  commands  of  Allah.  He conveyed  and  taught  them  to  us  in  full.  He  did  not  alter  them  in  any way  or  present  anything  on  his  own  account  [Na’oodhu  Billah].  The Sahaabah then conveyed this to us. 

Their  Ijmaa’  strengthened  the  foundation  of  Islaam  and  protected  it from  being  tampered.  They  did  not  alter  anything.  This  is  how  Deen was  established  on  a  firm  –  watertight  –  tamper-proof  foundation. The  A’immah  then  codified  it  to  its  finest  detail  through  Ijtihaad and  Qiyaas.  They  did  not  alter  Deen  or  present  anything  of  their own. This completed the matter. 

The  Shee’ahs  tried  to  alter  Deen.  The  Khawaarij  tried  to  alter  Deen. The Mu’tazilah tried.

Many  groups  have  come  and  gone.  ‘Kulluhum  fin  Naar’  –  All  are  in Hell. They are not part of us. 

Then  the  ‘Ahle  Qur’aan’;  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’;  ‘Ghair  Muqallid’; ‘Salafi’;  ‘Maudoodi’  etc.  sprang  up.  They  changed  things.  They created  confusion.  Some  of  them  went  very  far  –  right  out  of  the fold  of  Islaam;  others  will  be  classed  as  Muslim  but  not  part  of  the Ahlus  Sunnah.  Some  on  something,  others  on  something  else… All of this is nothing but Dhalaalat (waywardness) and confusion.

We  have  a  straight,  clear  road.  Our  Deen  has  come  to  us  generation by  generation  from  the  best  of  people  from  every  age.  May  Allaah keep  us  on  this  and  raise  us  on  this.

All Ahaadeeth are linked to Qur’aan:

Hadhrat  Abdullaah  ibn  Mas’ood  (radhiyallahu anhu) once,  while  delivering  a  sermon, mentioned  a  Hadeeth  that  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  cursed  the  person  who lengthens  her  hair  by  joining  other  hair  to  hers  as  well  as  the  person who  carries  this  out.  He  also  cursed  the  tattooer  and  the  person  who gets  himself  tattooed…

After  the  sermon,  a  woman  said  to  him:  “You  narrate  Ahaadeeth about such matters that we find no mention of in the Qur’aan.” 

He  said  to  her:  “If  you  recited  the  Qur’aan,  you  would  have  foundTake  that  which  the  Rasul  gives  you  and  abstain  from  all  that  he has  prohibited  you’”  [Surah  Hashr].      

Ijmaa’  (consensus  of  opinion)  is  also  linked  to Hadeeth and Qur’aan

Ijmaa’  has  to  be  Mustanad  (based  on  something  in  Qur’aan  or Hadeeth).  The  question  then  arises  that  what  is  the  need  for  Ijmaa’ then, when the Qur’aan and Hadeeth are there??

The  answer  is  that  sometimes  the  Aayat  or  Hadeeth  only  makes Ishaarah  (an  indication)  to  the  matter.  Ijmaa’  makes  it  clear.  Ijmaa’ is a Hujjate Qat’i (a definite proof) in Deen.

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  did  not  nominate  a  successor.  In  his  last  days,  He appointed  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  the  Imaam  for  14  days!  After  his  demise, the  Ansaar  met  at  Saqeefah  Bani  Saa’idah.  They  proposed  two Ameers  –  one  from  the  Ansaar  and  one  from  the  Muhaajireen.  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  said  that  this  is  the  person  who  the  Rasul  of  Allaah  appointed  as Imaam  in  his  lifetime.  All  the  Sahaabah  then  took  Bay’at  to  him. This is the 1st Ijmaa’ of this Ummat.

Abu  Bakr’s (radhiyallahu anhi)  appointment  as  Imaam  was  an  Ishaarah  (indication). Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu) understanding  this  as  appointment  as  Khaleefah  was Istidlaal  or  Qiyaas  (extracting  a  proof/  deeper  reasoning). Sahaabah’s unanimously accepting it was Ijmaa’.

Ijmaa’  is  a  Hujjate  Qat’i.  An  absolute  proof.  To  oppose  it  is Dhalaalat  (misguidance).  If  anyone  rejects  the  Khilaafat  of  Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu),  one  will  be  in  the  wrong.

Similar  is  the  case  with  20  Rak’ats  of  Taraweeh.

How Qiyaas is linked to the 3 Usools

The  example  of  Qiyaas  is  like  3  huge  pots  of  steaming  food.  A person cannot take this food out by hand. He needs a big spoon. 

Like  this,  you  have  Qur’aan,  Hadeeth  and  Ijmaa’.  To  extract  the Masaa’il  (laws)  of  Deen,  the  Imaams  use  Qiyaas.  Call  it  Qiyaas  or Ijtihaad,  it  is  the  same  thing.  The  Qiyaas  of  the  Imaams,  contrary  to the  propaganda  of  the  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  is  not  personal  opinion  or reasoning  in  the  matters  of  Deen.  The  Imaams  were  people  of Allaah and were far beyond such evil.

So  now  we  have  proven  these  four  Usools  of  Deen.  The  Madh-hab of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah is based on this.

Let  us  conclude  with  the  two  Aayats  that  we  began  with:

The  first  Aayah  (115  of  Surah  Nisaa)  has  been  discussed  in  detail in Part 1.

The  2nd  Aayah  is  from  (Surah  An-Nahl  Aayah  44) in Part 1

The proof of Qiyaas from Surah An-Nahl

The  Kuffaar  of  Makkah  objected  to  the  Risaalat  of  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). They  reasoned  that  if  Allaah  really  wanted  to  send  a  message,  He would  have  sent  an  angel  or  some  other  supernatural  being.  In  reply, this Aayat was revealed. 

Throughout  history,  Allaah  had  sent  messengers.  All  of  them  were human  men.  No  Nabi  was  a  female  and  no  angel  was  ever  sent  for this purpose.

Allaah  Says:

“…and  We have revealed  the  Reminder  (Qur’aan)  to  you,  so that  you  may  explain  to  the  people  all  that  has  been  revealed  to them, and so that they may reflect.

The  Qur’aan  is  Allaah’s  message  to  mankind.  Allaah  has  the  power to  do  anything  He  wills.  Yet  Allaah,  by  His  wisdom,  takes  the temperament  of  man  into  account.  For  this  reason,  Allaah  did  not send  the  Qur’aan  directly.  He  sent  it  with  His  Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  so  that  the Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) can  explain  it  to  them.  He  can  guide  them  and  assist  them. They can relate to the Nabi since the Nabi is a human among them. 

A  human  cannot  relate  to  an  Angel  or  to  any  other  supernatural being.  Allaah  took  man’s  weakness  into  account  and  sent  a  Nabi.  The actions and commands of the Nabi are an exposition of the Qur’aan. 

This  is  Hadeeth.  So  in  this  Aayah,  the  Hujjiyyat  of  the  Qur’aan  and Hadeeth  has  been  established.  Ijma’  has  not  been  mentioned  here. Ijmaa’ has been mentioned in the other Aayah.

Then  Allaah  says:  “…so  that  they  may  reflect” i.e.  so  that  they  may  ponder  on  the  deep  meanings  of  the  Qur’aan and  as  and  when  the  need  or  situation  arises,  they  may  seek guidance  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadeeth.  In  their  respective  periods, the  Khulafaae  Raashideen  extracted  guidance  in  this  way.  Then  in every  age,  the  Fuqahaa  have  extracted  and  will  extract  guidance  like this. 

Whenever  any  new  Mas’alah  arises,  the  Ulamaa  will  show  the  right path through Qur’aan and Sunnah

Daily  we  are  faced  with  new  questions  –  in  the  business  field,  in  the field  of  commerce  and  medicine.  As  technology  advances,  the Muslim  is  faced  with  new  conditions.  Hidaayat  (guidance)  through all of this is in Deen. The Ulamaa will show the way. 

The  work  of  the  Ulamaa  in  these  instances  is  through  Ijtihaad  and Qiyaas. There is no avoiding it. 

Here  the  big  question  arises  as  to  who  has  the  right  of  Ijtihaad  and Qiyaas.  Every  common  layman  will  not  have  the  right  to  voice  his feeling.  This  is  ‘self-opinion’,  which  is  Haraam  in  Deen.  This  is  a topic of its own.

The  last  part  off  this  verse  is  the  proof  for  Qiyaas. One  cannot  avoid  Qiyaas.  The  ‘Ghair  Muqallids’  of  our  belated  age are  allergic  to  the  word  Qiyaas.  But  just  as  in  the  Mas’alah  of Taqleed,  here  too  they  are  even  more  ‘guilty’  of  Qiyaas  than  us.  We follow  set  rules  in  Qiyaas.  They  are  free  thinkers  –  without studying  the  Usools  of  Qiyaas,  they  go  about  it.  They  have  thrown the  flood  gates  open.  All  and  sundry  are  allowed  to  decide  for themselves  what  they  wish.  They  bring  loads  of  the  strangest  types of Istimbaat (deductions) and Qiyaas.

The  safest  route  for  all  today  is  that  of  the  pious  people  gone  by. Every  new  matter  in  Deen  is  as  dangerous  as  it  is  misleading.  May Allaah protect all of us in these trying times. 

The Authority of Hadeeth, Ijma’, Qiyaas etc and their rejection by the Deviant Sects

[By Maulana Saeed Palanpuri d.b]

And  whoever  opposes  the  Rasul  after  the  guidance  has  become clear  to  him,  and  he  follows  a  way  contrary  to  that  of  the Mu’mineen,  we  shall  allow  him  to  do  what  he  is  doing  and  then enter  him  into  Jahannam.”  (Surah  An  Nisaa  115)  

“…And we have revealed  the  reminder (Qur’aan)  to  you  so  that you  may  explain  to  mankind  that  which  has  been  revealed  to them  and  so  that  they  may  reflect”   (Surah An Nahl 44)

This  is  an article on  the  Hujjiyyat  (proof/authority)  of HadeethIjmaa’  and  Qiyaas.  The  Ahlus  Sunnah  have  accepted  all three  as  proofs  in  Deen.  There  are  other  groups  however,  who  reject one  or  more  of  these.

In  the  first  Aayah  the  Hujjat  of  Qur’aan  has  been  mentioned together with that of Hadeeth and Ijmaa’.

In  the  second,  the  Hujjat  of  Hadeeth  has  been  mentioned  with  that  of Qiyaas.

Deen is one Sharee’at varies:

For  the  guidance  of  mankind,  Allaah  Ta’alah  revealed  to  them  His Deen and Sharee’at. These are two things: Deen and Sharee’at.

From  Aadam (alayhissalaam)  to  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  the  Deen  of  all  the  Ambiyaa  has remained  one.  This  Deen  is  Islaam. All  the  Ambiyaa  came  with Islaam.  The  Sharee’ats  of  the  Ambiyaa  varied  with  time.  So  all  of them  came  with  one  Deen  i.e.  Islaam  while  their  Sharee’ats  changed from  time  to  time.

Only this Ummat is Muslim:

Then  by  the  Fadhl  of  Allaah,  the  Ummat  of  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  has  been given  the  title  of  Muslim.  This  was  in  answer  to  the  Du’a  of Ibraaheem [(alayhissalaam  (Surah  Hajj)].  Muslim  means  ‘One  who  has  submitted to Allaah’.

Moosa  (alayhissalaam),  on  behalf  of  the  Jews  said:  “Innaa  Hudnaa  Ilaik”  –  (we have  turned  to  you)  and  they  were  thus  named  Yahood  (those  who turned to Allaah).

Eesa (alayhissalaam)  said  to  his  disciples:  “Man  Ansaaree  ilallaah”  –  (who  will assist  me  for  the  sake  of  Allaah?).  Those  who  responded  were  called Nasaara  (the  helpers).

Usool and Furoo’:

The  link  between  Deen  and  Sharee’at  is  one  of  Usool  and  Furoo’.   Deen  is  the  Asal  –  fundamental  element  or  basis. Sharee’at  is  its  Fara’  –  it  is  derived  from  the  Asal.

Ri’aayat (concession) in Deen and Sharee’at:

In  Sharee’at  there  is  a  certain  amount  of  Ri’aayat  (consideration) depending  on  the  age  [Zamaan]  or  circumstance  [Haal].  In  Deen there  is  no  Ri’aayat.  For  this  reason,  there  is  no  difference  in  Deen. From  the  inception,  Deen  has  remained  one.  The  Sharee’at  of  the different  Ambiyaa  has  varied  from  the  time  of  one  Nabi  to  another according  to  the  various  Ahwaal  (circumstances).

Why?

There  are  three  fundamentals  in  DeenTauheed  (the  oneness  of Allaah),  Risaalat  (believing  in  the  Messengers)  and  Ma’aad  (the belief  of  the  Aakhirat  (hereafter)).  This  was  found  in  the  Da’wat  of all  the  Ambiyaa.  There  is  no  concession  in  this.  Rejecting  even  part of this is Kufr. These are the Usools of Aqaa’id

Then  in  Sharee’at,  there  was  some  variation.  In  the  time  of  Aadam (alayhissalaam),  all  the  humans  were  his  children.  At  that  time,  it  was  permissible to  marry  one’s  sister  since  there  were  no  other  women  in  the  world. This  is  now  Haraam.  In  some  Sharee’at,  3  Salaats  were  Fardh,  now 5  are  Fardh.  This  is  called  Ri’aayat.  These  are  just  a  few  examples of  it.

Now, The Deviancies:

The Ahle Qur’aan:

Now  we  come  back  to  the  topic:  we  have  to  understand  the  Usools and  Daleels  (principles  and  proofs)  of  Deen  and  Sharee’at.  There  are 3  fundamental  sources  of  Islaam:  The  Qur’aan,  the  Hadeeth,  and Ijmaa’. 

The  Qur’aan  is  the  fountainhead  of  Deen  and  Sharee’at.  Rejecting the Qur’aan is Kufr. No one can reject it and claim to be a Muslim. 
The  first  group  we  will  deal  with  call  themselves  the  Ahle  Qur’aan. They  accept  the  Qur’aan  and  nothing  else.  They  reject  the  Hadeeth. Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  had  informed  us  about  this  group.  They  manifested for the first time in the very early period. 

Hadhrat  Miqdaam  ibn  Ma’dikarib  (radhiyallahu anhu) reports  that  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Listen!  I  have  been  given  the  Qur’aan  and  other  commands  like  it as  well.  Soon  you  will  find  an  obese,  carefree  person,  who  while reclining  on  his  couch  will  say:  ‘follow  the  Qur’aan  in  all  that  it declares  Halaal  and  Haraam’”  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam further  said:  “Listen!  All  that the  Rasul  has  declared  (of  Halaal  and  Haraam)  is  as  if  Allaah  has declared it so!” [Mishkaat no 163]

Hadhrat  Irbaadh  ibn  Saariyah (radhiyallahu anhu)  reports  that  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said: “Will  a  non-chalant  person  among  you,  while  laying  on  his  couch  say that  Allaah  has  only  revealed  the  Qur’aan?  Listen!  By  Allaah!  I have  given  orders,  and  I  have  advised,  and  I  have  prohibited  certain things.  These  are  like  the  Qur’aan  and  at  times  even  more!” [Mishkaat no. 164]

The  claim  of  these  people  is  erroneous-it  is  false.  These  people made  their  first  appearance  in  the  1st  century  in  the  time  of  the Sahaabah  and  Taabi’een.  They  are  still  present.  You  will  find  many thousands  in  Pakistan.  They  say  that  the  Qur’aan  alone  is  sufficient. They  call  themselves  ‘Ahle  Qur’aan’.  Even  the  name  is  deceptive. The  entire  Ummat  accepts  the  Qur’aan.  The  entire  Ummat  is  ‘Ahle Qur’aan’.  The  correct  name  for  this  group  is  Munkireen-e-  Hadeeth  – Rejectors  of  Hadeeth.  So  we  have  to  establish  the  Hujjat  (proof)  of Hadeeth

The Shee’ah – the greatest rejectors of Hadeeth:

Here  the  Shee’ah  come  in.  Generally  we  do  not  consider  them Munkireen  of  Hadeeth  whereas  they  are  on  top  of  the  list.  They reject  all  the  Hadeeth  of  the  Sunnis.  They  have  their  own  collections of  fabricated  Hadeeth.  They  believe  that  that  after  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), Khilaafat  and  Imaamat  was  transferred  to  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu).  Then  to  Haasan  and then  to  Hussain (radhiyallahu anhuma).  In  this  way,  there  are  12  Imaams.  These  Imaams used  to  receive  Wahy  (Divine  revelation).  This  Wahy  is  equal  to  the Qur’aan!  The  Wahy  of  the  Imaams  can  even  abrogate  that  of  Nabi  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). These  are  their  beliefs.  They  do  not  call  the  Imaams as  Nabis,  but  they grant them all the authority of the Ambiyaa!! 

Their  most  important  book  on  Hadeeth  is  Al  Kaafi  of  Ya’qoob Kulaini.  10%  of  the  Kitaab  are  the  ‘sayings’  of  Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  The  other 90%  are  the  Ahaadeeth  (saying)  of  the  Imaams.  These  are  but  a  few of their beliefs in brief.

These  two  groups  do  not  accept  Hadeeth  as  Hujjat  in  Deen.  The  rest of  the  Ummat  does.  Usools  of  Deen  and  other  Shar’i commandments  are  proven  from  Hadeeth  just  as  they  are  from Qur’aan.

The  Ahle Hadeeth  and  Inkaar  of  Ijmaa’ (consensus  of the believers): 

After  Hadeeth,  we  accept  Ijmaa’  as  Hujjat  in  Deen.  Just  as  one group  rejects  Hadeeth,  one  group  rejects  Ijmaa’.  This  is  a  more ‘recent’  group.  They  made  their  appearance  during  the  British  rule of  India  and  Arabia.  They  had  themselves  registered  with  the  British government  as  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’.  Like  this  they  differentiated themselves from the ‘Ahle Qur’aan’.

What is the correct name for the Ahle Hadeeth: 

But this name is also deceptive. As with the other group they got stuck on level two and could not progress to the next. We call them ‘Ghair Muqallid’ but strangely both names do not fit. We are ‘As-haabul Hadeeth’ followers of Hadeeth and they are the staunchest of Muqallids. They fight tooth and nail against the Taqleed of our Imaams, yet they blindly and rigidly follow their own Imaams in all that is correct and incorrect.  

Some people call them ‘Ahluz Zaahir’ because their Ilm is very shallow and transparent. They do not like this name for themselves.  
That is why they had their name registered with the Kaafir government as ‘Ahle Hadeeth’. Then when the British-Saudi-American government came into existence, the lure of petrol-money was too strong. So the ‘Ahle Hadeeth’ aligned themselves with the Saud Najdis and changed their name to Salafi. Salafi means followers of the predecessors, but this name also does not fit! Their path is far off the way of the Salaf e Saaliheen.  

We cannot call them Ghair Muqallid because they are the worst Muqallids. We accept all the Imaams as being on Haqq. At times we even accept the Fiqh of the others. They blindly follow their Imaams and Ulamaa only. They consider all others as astray. 

We follow the rightly guided Imaams. They follow their own confused self-styled Imaams like Nasiruddeen Albaani.

Can they be called Laa Madh-habiyyah? 

Among the Arab Ulamaa, this sect is known as ‘Laa Madh-habiyyah’ – those who do not follow a correct Madh-hab. In Urdu this name cannot be used.  

Madh-hab in Arabic means School of thought (Maslak). In Urdu it means Deen or religion.  

So the Urdu meaning of Madh-hab cannot be taken since they are not Non-Muslim. They are Muslims but they do not follow any of the Imaams in Hidaayat.

The True Essence of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah: 

In Hadeeth we are told to follow the Sawaade A’zam [great multitude] of the Ummat. We are on this path. We are the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah.  

We follow the Qur’aan; then we follow the Sunnah, not just Hadeeth; and we follow the way of the Sahaabah and the Mu’mineen and their Ijmaa’ – this is ‘Al-Jamaa’ah’ 

THE SINISTER TURKISH GULEN MOVEMENT

[By The Majlis]

The Yahood and the Nasaara (Jews and Christians) will never be satisfied with you as long as you do not follow their cult. Say: verily, the Guidance of Allah is the only Guidance. And, if you ever would follow their base desires after the Ilm (Islam) has come to you, then you shall have neither friend nor helper Against Allah.” (Baqarah, aayat 120)

The kufr interfaith movement is as old as Islam. During the time of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasalam), the Yahood and Nasaara had set in motion this kufr movement. The pivot of this kufr movement is compromise – compromise Islam so that there remains a mere shadow of the Islam command in the Qur’aan and Sunnah. Since the interfaith movement was initiated more than fourteen centuries ago to undermine and eliminate Islam, the Yahood and Nasaara conspired to lure Muslims into their snare. While not asking to renounce Islam, Muslims were expected to compromise the Haqq of Islam – to compromise its principles, beliefs and teachings to achieve a false harmony and unity.

Initiating the interfaith movement, the Yahood and Nasaara requested Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) to enter into a settlement with them and to establish
peace and harmony on condition that he compromises certain principles of the Deen of Islam. In fact, they contended that such compromise will pave the way for their entry into Islam. This ayat was revealed to warn Muslims of compromising the Deen, and to reject the deceptive overtures of the kuffaar. Allah Ta’ala clarifies in this aayat that the only option which of the Yahood and Nasaara is abject subservience to them – to accept their cult of life and to be accept their domination. The interfaith movement over the centuries has appeared in a variety of forms and movements. The West has been perennially conspiring and inventing ways of
subjugating Muslims, and pirating the natural resources of their lands. The ultimate objective of the interfaith plot is the elimination of Islam, for in the wake of Islam’s
annihilation, the West will be the sole master to control the lands of Islam. The orientalist centres attached to western universities have relentlessly engaged in conspiracies to undermine Islam. These centres have been renamed and are called ‘Islamic Studies’ whereas they constitute an anti-Islam, anti-Muslim network of institutions and scholars operating under the banner of ‘Islamic Studies’ Dr. Ahmad Ghorab who was a professor at a number of universities have adequately exposed the ‘Islamic Studies’ conspiracy in his book, Subverting Islam – The Role of the Orientalist Centres.

In this article we propose to warn Muslims of another insidious crusader-plot, which has become an important cog in the kufr interfaith movement whose satanic
objective it is to neutralize the spirit of Imaan which pulsates in the hearts of Muslims. The crusader-plot which has reference here has largely escaped the attention of Muslims. Its subtle modus operandi has ensnared numerous Muslims world-wide, in its tentacles, and it is executing its dark agenda in the very name of Islam. This plot is the Turkish brand of eviscerated ‘islam’ propagated by a movement called the Gulen Movement. Fethullah Gulen is a modernist Turk who currently lives in the U.S.A. The methodology of this movement is to undermine Islam via such educational institutions which impart a smattering of elementary Islamic
teaching pertaining to ritual acts of worship. However, the emphasis is twofold:

(a) Total modernization/westernization of Islam, and

(b) Western secular education.

The objective of westernizing Islam is to kill the spirit of Imaan. This killing is imperative for the subjugation of the Ummah and for establishing the hegemony of the western world over the lands of Islam. The educational system of the Gulen Movement combines religious and secular education, and the religion is supposedly
Islam, and this is the attraction for secular, unwary and unsuspecting Muslims. In almost every country of the world this insidious movement has established its schools. The system of education of these Turkish institutions subtly and gradually erodes Imaan until the stage is reached that the student understands Islam to be
a religion of ambiguous moral values and a smattering of worship rituals – a religion bereft of the Code of life with which the Qur’aan and Sunnah deals in minutest and meticulous detail.

The educational system is designed to abolish the Sunnah. The consequence of this abolition is the total destruction of the identity of the Muslim. Students are trained to be the serfs of the West. Piping Bush’s theme of ‘terrorism’, the emphasis of the Gullen Movement with its myriad of schools is the creation of a ‘moderate’ ‘islam’ – an ‘islam’ which is palatable to the Western American master – an ‘islam’ which will ensure that Muslims remain the serfs and camp-followers of the western kuffaar – the Yahood and Nasaara in whose holes Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) predicted Muslims would crawl in. In total emulation of the Yahood and Nasaaraa, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that Muslims will follow them “into the lizard’s hole”. Turkish ‘islam’ offered by the Gulen Movement has been spawned by dark, sinister forces of the West. Sight should not be lost of the fact that the Gulen Movement with its myriad of so-called ‘madrasahs’ was flourishing in Turkey several decades ago when Turkey was in the iron grip of the kaafir military of that country. It is most significant that whilst the Turkish military had banned teaching of the Qur’aan Majeed to children under the age of 16 years, the ‘madrasahs’ of the Gulen Movement were flourishing and are on the increase in Turkey and elsewhere. In fact, when the civilian government of Turkey relaxed the law and legalized Madrasahs – true Madrasahs – not the fake ‘madrasahs’ of subversion operated by the Gulen Movement – the army promptly took to the streets with columns of tanks and warned the government to rescind its decision
otherwise suffer the consequences of a coup. The government was constrained to renege and the law of prohibition remained. The army decreed that only at the age of 16 may a child decide to learn the Qur’aan if he/she so wishes. Yet, Gullen’s satanic institutions called ‘madrasahs’ operated with the full blessing of the army and all western governments and the sinister forces of the West.

A former American president, Bill Clinton had this to say about the Gullen Movement: “You are contributing to the promotion of ideas of tolerance and interfaith dialogue inspired by Fethullah Gulen in his transnational social movement. You are truly strengthening the fabric of our common humanity, as well as promoting the on-going cultural and educational bind that ties our world together.” A Madrasah is anathema to America and the West. But Gulen’s ‘madrasahs’ are applauded,
funded and promoted by the sinister forces of Western countries. They have realized that the brand of ‘islam’ which Gulen propagates will ensure and entrench western, specially American, domination. The Gulen Movement is a sinister front for the U.S.A.. Its dangerous veneer is its system of kufrmadrasahs’ designed to eliminate the Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Shariah. Why would Bill Clinton praise this movement? The orientalist enemies of Islam without exception are lauding the Gulen Movement and piling on the accolades. One orientalist enemy of Islam, Prof John Esposito of George Town University, says
in praise of the Gulen Movement: “The Gulen Movement has become a very influential voice in the world in both dialogue or religions and civilization of societies.” Why would the enemies of Islam who are actively engaging in plots to undermine Islam, praise a movement of ‘madrasahs’?

The emaciated ‘islam’ imparted by the ‘madrasahs’ of the Gulen Movement is western indoctrination, the objective of which is to ensure the colonization of the brains of the Ummah. Muslims should beware of these schools. It is indeed lamentable that Muslims in South Africa are supporting the Turkish schools and Turkish ‘islam’ in increasing numbers. It is infinitely better to send your children to a non-Muslim secular school than to a Turkish ‘madrasah’ school. Contrary to the claims made
by the Movement that its funds are the contributions of small Turkish businessmen, there are sinister forces who are funding the billions of dollar world-wide operations of the Gulen Movement. This movement has no shortage of funds. Its schools are housed elaborately in expensive buildings, and they are found in almost
every country on earth. They don’t have any problem with permits and visas regardless of a country being war-torn. This fact speaks volumes for understanding the dark forces directing the operations of the Gulen Movement.

For the sake of the Imaan of their children, Muslims should beware of Turkish ‘islam’. Muslims should not admit their children to these ‘madrasahs’ and schools of conspiracy whose ultimate objective is the destruction of Islam, enslavement of the Ummah and siphoning off the natural resources of the Muslim lands. The ‘islam’ the Gulen ‘madrasahs’ impart is an ambiguous concept of ‘tolerance’, ‘respect’ and ‘moderation’. The Islam which Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) imparted is called ‘terrorism’ or ‘militant’ Islam in the Gulen Movement. The products of these Turkish schools are real zombies who take pride in licking the boots of the U.S.A.
The engineers of the Gulen Movement are the devotees of the arch-Kaafir and Shaitaan, Attaturk whose mission it was to destroy Islam. The Gulen Movement is the other side of the Attaturk coin. Attaturk had utilized the coercive power of the state to suppress and eliminate Islam. The Gulen Movement is utilizing educational
institutions with a thin veneer of Islam to achieve the very same satanic objective. But Allah Ta’ala will protect his Deen. Says, the Qur’aan: “If you have sabr and taqwa, never ever will their plots harm you.

THE KUFR AND SHIRK OF GULEN’S TEMPLE ‘MOSQUE’ AND HIS TURKISH SCHOOLS

A very concerned Brother provides the following shocking information regarding Gulen’s Temple in Midrand, and his Turkish schools: 

I wanted to bring to your attention something very serious and important. The Turkish ‘Mosque’ in Midrand has been pulling crowds of people for their ‘entertaining’ programs from its inception. It is supported by the many Turkish schools in the country too.

However, this is a serious issue as these Turkish schools and those running the Turkish ‘Mosque’ do not believe in the finality of the Nubuwwah of Rasulullah sallalaahu alayhi wa sallam.

They believe in a saint by the name of Sulayman Hilmi who was from Hungary. Students at the Turkish schools are taught that he is their prophet and saviour and they are all given a picture of this saint and are told to ask him for their needs and du’a should be made to him.

The students in the school are told to keep this information confidential and to leak it out. If this information is leaked out by any student, then the student will be expelled.

This issue is very serious and must be treated as such. These Turkish schools and this Turkish ‘Mosque’ is nothing but centres for spreading kufr. Please review this and publish your findings and reponse (without my name). All the information provided here is correct and these Turkish agents cannot deny it. Jazakallah u Khayran (End of letter)

 Since the inception of the scourge of Turkish schools in South Africa, we have been warning the Muslim community of the danger of these schools of Gulen, the interfaith kaafir Turk masquerading as a Muslim, and who has been granted asylum by the U.S.A. where he has amassed a huge fortune. From the U.S.A. with the  support and connivance of the C.I.A., Gulen has established schools in the guise of ‘madrasahs’ all over the world with the  sinister motive of undermining and destroying Islam. 

WE CALL ON THE MUSLIM COMMUNITY TO WAKE UP BEFORE IT IS TOO LATE – BEFORE THEIR CHILDREN WILL BE SACRIFICED AT THE ALTAR OF KUFR. THE GULENIST MOVEMENT IS OUT TO DESTROY ISLAM. IT IS PART OF THE WESTERN PLOT AGAINST ISLAM.

Taqleed Made Easy

[By Mufti Afzal Hoosen Elias]

What is the Literal Meaning of Taqleed

The literal  meaning  of  Taqleed  according  to  the  dictionary is  “to  follow“.  And  according  to  the  dictionary,  Taqleed it’tiba; Ita’at;  and  Iqtida  are  all  synonyms.    The  word  taqleed  originates  from  “Qa  la  da”,  i.e.:  a  collar  (necklace)  when  this  collar  is placed  on  the  neck  of  men  it  is  called  a  necklace  and  when  it  is placed  on  the  neck  of an  animal  it  is called  a  collar.  We will now explain only that meaning which refers to men because we are humans. 

The Shar’ii Meaning of Taqleed

Hakimul  Ummat Hadhrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (Rahmatullah Alayh) while defining Taqleed writes: “that Taqleed is to  accept  the  view  or  saying  of  an  individual,  and  to  entertain  a  positive  belief  that  his  view  is  authentic.  Without scrutinizing (investigating) its authority.”  (Al-Iqtisaad Page 5).

According  to  the above-mentioned  definition  of  taqleed, we  understand that  to  accept  the  narration  of a narrator  is taqleed of ‘Riwayah‘ and to accept the disposition of a Mujtahid is ‘Taqleed fid Dirayat‘.

The  Correct  and  Incorrect  Taqleed:  

According  to  the  dictionary,  the  milk  of  a  dog  is  called  milk  and  the  milk  of  a  cow  is  also  called  milk,  but  according  to Shariat there is a difference of it being Halaal and haraam. In the same way there are two types of Taqleed:

1.  If  you  follow  anybody  in  going  against  Shariat,  then  this  is  wrong,  just  like  how  the  non-believers  follow  their  own  evil ways,  instead  of  following  Allaah  and  his  Rasul  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).

2.    If  you  follow anybody in  acting according to Shariat  and  that  you  have this belief  that  the  Mujtahid  is  more  learned  than in the Qur’aan and Sunnat and that is why we follow him, then this is the correct and Wajib (necessary) Taqleed.

On Which Masa’il (laws) Taqleed is Made?

Only  on  these  Mas’alas  which  need  deep  thought  (Masa’il  Ijtihadia).  In  the  Hadith  of  Muadh  bin  Jabal  (radhiyallahu anhu),  the  law  of Ijtihaad  is  established,  that  in    those  mas’alas  the  Mujtahid  will  adopt  Ijtihad  which  are  not  found  in  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith, and these are corroborated from the Qur’aan and Hadith.

N.B. It  is  also  the  Ijtihaad  of  the  Muhadditheen,  to  make  the  rules  of  Hadith.  To  say which Hadith  is correct, which is weak and to say whether the author is reliable or not. 

Who Should Taqleed be Made of?

It  is  a  known  fact,  in  that  those  Mas’alas  which  require  deep  thought  (Ijtihaad)  then  the  Mujtahid  should  be  followed  and  it is the declaration of the Mujtahid, That  we do not take out Mas’alas from our own  whims and fancies.  But it  is taken from the Qur’aan, Hadith and on Ijma (i.e. Unanimous  consent  of  Ummah).    And  this is also the  declaration  of  the  Mujtahids  that  we  first  search  in  the  Qur’aan,  if  no clear  answer  is  found,  then  we  look  in  the  Sunnah,  and  if  it  is  not  found  therein,  then  the  unanimous  agreement  of  the Sahaabah  (Radiyahallahu  Anhum),  if  there  is  difference  of  opinion  among  the  Sahaabah  (Radiahallahu  Amhum)  then  it  is taken  from  the  Khulafa-e-Rashideen,  and  it  is  not  found  here  also,  then  they  pass  such  a  ruling  through  their  undertaking which  is  not against  the  commandments of Allaah  Ta’ala and  the  teachings of Nabi (Sallallahu  alayhi wasallam) and  in  this way they search for the answers. 

If  you  wish  to  know  the  truth  about  what  we  have  stated,  then  summarise  the  teachings  of  Ibrahim  and  his  cohorts  as recorded  in  the  following  works:  Al Athar  traditions  by Muhammad al Shaybani, the Jami “The Compendium” of Abu al Razzaq  and  the  Musannaf  “Compilation”  of  Ibn Abu Shaybah,  and  compare  with  Abu  Hanifah’s  (rahmatuplah alayh)  formal  opinions.   Indeed,  you  will  find  that  Abu  Hanifah    (rahmatullah alayh)  departs  only rarely from  their  way,  and  even  then  his  opinion  will  not  differ from the opinions of the Jurists of Kufah.

I  follow  the  book  of  Allaah,  and  if  I find  no solution  there,  I follow  the  Sunnah of the Nabi (Sallaahu alayhi Wasallam). If I find  no  solution  in  either  the  Qur’aan  or  the  Sunnah,  I follow  whichever  of  the  pronouncements of the Sahabah  I prefer, and leave  whichever  I  wish.  If  there  is  a  pronouncement  on  a  particular  matter  by  any  of  the  Sahabah,  I  would  not  adopt  any other  opinion  made  by  any  other  scholar.  But,  if  I  found  a  solution  only  in  the  opinions  of  Ibrahim,  al  Sha’bi,  Ibn  Sirin, Hasaan  al  Basri,  Ata  or  Sa’di  Ibn  al  Musayyab,  I  would  make  Ijtihad  just  as  they  did“. [See Tarikh Baghdad Vol. XXXI, p 368, al Intiqa, p 142, and Mashayikh Balkh al Hanafyah].

When some people tried to turn the Khalifah, al Mansur against Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayb), he wrote to the Khalifah:

The situation  is  not  as  you  have heard,  O  Amir  al Mu’minin! I work according  to the  Book of Allaah, then according to the Sunnah  of  the  Nabi  (Sallahu  Alayhi  Wasalaam),  then  according  to  the  judgements  of  Abu  Bakr,  Umar,  Uthman  and  Ali (radhiyallahu anhum),  then  according  to  the  judgements  of  the  rest  of  the  Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum).Then  if    there  are  any  differences  between  their pronouncements,  I resort  to  al  Qiyas (deduction by analogy).  No  one  of  Allaah’s  creatures  is  inherently closer  to  Him  than any  other“. [See al Samarqandi, Mizan al Usul, 152, taqi al Din-al Ghazzi, al Tabaqat al Saniyah I, 43; and Mashayikh, Balkh, p. 193]. 

Just  like  an  accountant  has  to  look  up  in  the  laws  of  accounting  for  every  new  question  and  not  from  his  own  whims  and fancies.

Moreover  the  general  impression  created  is  that  Imams  of  Fiqh,  especially  Imam  Abu  Hanifa  (rahmatullah alayh)  only formulate  using Qiyas  and  discard  the  Quraan  and  Ahadith.

Also  know that  following  the  Sunnat  one  will  be  adhering  to  the  Ahadith  as  well.  But  by trying  to  only follow  the  Ahadith one  will  not  necessarily  be  following  the  Sunnat

Understand  carefully  this  difference.  For  those  opposing  Taqleed  try  to decieve  the  simple  Muslim by stating  that  you  are  not  following  the  Ahadith  and  thereby implying  that  one is  not following the  Nabi (Sallahu  Alayhi  Wasalaam)  of  Allaah.

Furthermore  Sunnat  came  before  Ahadith,  so  the  one  acting  upon  the  Sunnat  is  closest  in  Pleasing  the  objects  of  Allaah. Also,  the  Aima-e-Araba – the  Four  Imams  of Fiqh  had  access to the  Sunnat  which  includes  the Ahadith whilst the objectors of Taqleed are further away from the era of Nabi (Sallahu Alayhi Wasalaam) and only have the Ahadith in front.

Who Makes Taqleed?

It  is  a  known  fact that  when  a  question  is  put  forward  to  an  accountant,  then  he would  give  an  answer  according  to  the rules of  accounting  and  those  who  do not  know the rules of  accounting,  will  ask  the accountant for an answer.   In the same way in Masa’il-e-Ijtihadia there are  two ways in practicing on the Qur’aan and Sunnah.

1.  That  person  who is a Mujtahid  will  search  of  Mas’alas  himself,  from the rules  of  Ijtihadia  and  will practice on  the Qur’aan and Hadith.

2.  And  a ‘Ghair  Mujtahid‘  (non-Mujtahid)  knows  that  he  does  not  have  the  capability of  searching  for  the  Mas’ala  from  the Qur’aan  and  Hadith  that  is  why he  will  ask the  Mujtahid  for the  Mas’ala according to the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith.  To practice in this  way is  called  Taqleed  and  a  Muqallid-follower  cannot  practice  on any law on his own opinion and when he know that a Mujtahid will inform him according to the purport of Allaah and his Rasul (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

Who is a Mujtahid?

These  conditions  include:  (a)  mastery  of  the  Arabic  language,  to  minimise  the  possibility of  misinterpreting  Revelation  on purely linguistic  grounds;  (b)  a  profound  knowledge  of  the  Qur’aan  and  the  Sunnah  and  the circumstances  surrounding  the revelation  of  each  verse  and  Hadith,  together  with  a full knowledge of the Qur’aanic and  Hadith  commentaries, and a control of  all  the  interpretative  techniques  discussed  above;  (c)  knowledge  of  the  specialised  disciplines  of  Hadith,  such  as  the assessment  of  narrators  and  of  the  matn;  (d)  knowledge  of  the  views  of  the  companions, followers and the great Imams, and of  the  positions  and  reasoning  expounded  in  the  text  books  of  Fiqh,  combined  with  the  knowledge  of  cases  where  a consensus  (Ijma)  has  been  reached;    (e)  knowledge  of  this  science  of  judicial  analogy  (qiyas,  its  types  and  conditions;    (f) knowledge  of  one’s  own  society  and  of  public  interest  (maslaha);  (g)  knowing  the  general  objectives  (makasid)  of  the Shari’ah;  (h)  a  high  degree  of  intelligence  and  personal  piety,  combined  with  the  Islamic  virtues of compassion,  courtesy and modesty.

A scholar  who has fulfilled  these  conditions  can  be  considered  a  mujtahid fi’l-shar,  and  is not  obliged,  or  even  permitted,  to follow  an  existing  authoritative  madhhab.  This  is  what  some  of  the  Imams  were  saying  when  they  forbade  their  great disciples  from  imitating  them  uncritically.  But  for  the  much  greater  number  of   scholars  whose  expertise  has  not  reached such  dizzying  heights,  that  is,  a  scholar  who  remains  broadly  convinced  of  the  doctrines  of  his  school,  but  is  qualified  to differ  from  received  opinion  within  it,  there  have  been  a  number  of  example of  such method,  for  instance  Qadi Ibn  ‘Abd al-Barr (rahimahullah) among  the  Malikis,  Imam  al-Nawawi (rahimahullah) among  the  Shafi’is,  Ibn  Abidin (rahimahullah) among  the  Hanafis  and  Ibn  Qudama (rahimahullah)  among  the Hanbalis. 

Other  categories  of  mujtahid  are  listed  by  the  usul  scholars;  but  the  distinctions  between  them  are  subtle.  The  remaining categories  can  in  practice  be  reduced  to  two:  the  muttabi  (follower),  who  follows  his  madhhab  while  being  aware  of  the Qur’aanic  and  Hadith  texts  and  the  reason  underlying  its  positions,  and  secondly  the  muqallid  (emulator),  who  simply conform to the  madhhab because of his confidence in  its  scholars,  and  without necessarily knowing  the  detailed  reasoning behind  all  its  thousands  of  rulings.  

The Definition of a ‘Ghair Muqallid

We have already understood  the  meaning of a Mujtahid  and  a Muqallid (follower),  now we have  to understand the meaning of  a  ‘Ghair  Muqallid‘  i.e.  that  person  who  cannot  make  Ijtihaad  and  who  does  not  follow  anybody,  meaning  he  is  not  a Mujtahid  nor  is  he  a  Muqallid.  Just  like  how  in  Salaat  with  Jama’ah,  there  is  only  one  Imaam  and  the  rest  are  Muqtadis (followers).    But  that  person  who  is  not  an  Imaam  nor  a  Muqtadi,  or  he  sometimes  speaks  ill  of  the  Imaam  or  fights  with  the Muqtadis,  is  known  as  a  Ghair  Muqallid,  or  just  like  how  in  countries  there  is  a  ruler  and  the  rest  are  all  his  subjects,  but that  person  who  is  not  a  ruler  nor  is  he  a  subject,  then  he  is  a  traitor  of  that  country.  So  this  is  the  position  of  a  ‘Ghair Muqallid‘.  (Non-follower).

These  days  the  ‘Ghair  Muqallid‘  has  termed  himself, “Ahl-e-Hadith‘, whereas  in  reality  he  is  far  away  from  the  Ahadith. Another name commonly used these days is “Salafi“.

TAQLEED IN THE QUR’AAN

1)  “Ask  the  people  of  knowledge  (those  who  know)  when  you  do  not  know”   [Nahl: 43, Ambiyaa: 7].          

2)  “These  are  those  whom  Allaah  had  guided  so  you  also  follow  their  path”   [Surah An’aam]        

3)  “Oh  Muslims,  obey  Allaah  and  obey  the  Rasul  and  those  in  authority”   [Surah an Nisa’: 89]]             

4)  “When  news come to them, either of security or of fear,  they divulge  it,  but  if  they had  refined  it  to  the Rasul and to those who are in authority among them, those among them who investigate the matter, they could have understood it“.  [Surah An Nisa’: 83].

5)  “The  believers  should  not  go  forth  (in  jihaad)  all  together.    Why  then  should  not  a  party  from  every  group  (who  are  left behind)  apply themselves  diligently  to  understand  Deen  (fiqh)  and  admonish  these  people  when  they return,  then  they may ward off evil“.  [Surah Taubah: 122]

6)  “And  when  they become steadfast  and  firmly believed  in  our  revelations.  We  appointed  leaders  (guides)  from  amongst them who gave directions at our bidding” (will/command)  [Surah Alif laam meem Sajdah: 32-23]

7) “Follow the path of one who has turned towards me“.  [Surah luqman: 15]. 

8) “O Muslims, fear Allaah, be amongst the Sadiqeen”. (truthful ones).   [Surah Taubah].

9) “And follow the creed of Ibraheem who turned away from all that is false.”   [Surah-al-Imraan:95]. 

10)  “And  we  made  them  leaders  who  used  to  guide  others  by  our  command,  and  we  inspired  them  to  do  great  works“.     [Surah Ambiyaa:73]

As listed by Mufti Abdur Raheem Lajpuri in Fatawa Raheemiyah-Vol. 4.

TAQLEED IN THE AHADITH 

1).  Hadhrat  Hudhaifa  narrates  that  Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam) said: I do not know for how long I will be amongst you?   So you follow two people after me, (one) Abu Bakr and (two) Umar“.   [Mirqaat,  Vol. 5 p. 349]. 

2)  Definitely  Allaah  will  not  remove  (left)  Ilm  from  the  world  by raising  it  from  the hearts (of servants),  but Ilm will be risen by  calling  the  Ulema  (to  me),  to  such  an  extent  that  when  no  Alim  is  left  then  the  people  will  take  the  ignorant  as  their leaders,  who  will  be  questioned  and  they will  reply without  Ilm,  they themselves  will  be  misled  and  will mislead others.   [In BukhariMuslim,  from  Hadhrat  Abdullaah  bin  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu),  Mishkaat  P  33].

3)  “One who renders a legal  ruling without  Ilm,  its  sin  will  be  upon  the givers  of  the  Ruling”   [in Abu Dawood from Hadhrat Abu Hurrairah (Radhiyallahu anhu), Mishkaat:P 27].

4)  In  every  coming  generation  reliable  people  are  those  who  are  reposition  of  Ilm  with  which  they  refute  the  extremist complaintant,  and  the  false  claims  of  the  false  ones  and  the  gross  devious  false  declaration  of  the  ignorant  ones.  [from Hadhrat Ebraheem bin Abdul Rahman al Azri in Bukhari, Mishkaat P28]

5)  “You follow me by looking at me and those who are coming after your,  follow you  by looking at you”   [Bukhari, Muslim, Bukhari: Vol.1 P 99]. 

6)  “Verily  people  will  be  your  followers  and  verily  people  will  come  to  you  from  different  parts  of  the  world  to  acquire learning  (understanding)  in  Deen.    So  when  they  come,  admonish  them  with  good“.    [From  Hadhrat  Abu  Sa’eed  Khudri (Radhiyallahu anhu) of Tirmidhi, Mishkaat]. 

7)  A lady came to Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  and  stated. Oh  Rasulullaah,  my husband  has  gone  for Jihaad, and  when he performs  Salaat,  I follow  him  and  in  all  his  action  I follow  him,  now  show  me  such  an action, which  will earn me the  reward  of  Jihaad.  [From  Hadhrat  Sahl  bin  Mua’dh  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  in Musnad Ahmad, vol.  3, p 439].

Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  did  not  object  to  his  making  Taqleed  of  her  husband).  

8)  Concerning  the  Sahabah  (Radhiyallahu anhu)  Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam):    “So  the  work  these  Muslims consider  good  is  good  in  the  sight  of  Allah  also,  and  which  they consider  bad  is  bad  in  the sight  of  Allaah  also”     [Iqamat-al-Hajjeh,  Page  8,  Majalis  al  Abrar,  Page  130,  Majlis,  18,  Muwatta-e-Muhammad ,Page 112, Al- Bidaya-wal-Nihaya, Vol. 10, Page 228].

9)  The sect of salvation  is,  “That  millat  on  which  I,  (Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi Wasallam) am upon and my Sahabah are upon”   [Maktubat-e-Imam-e-Rabbani, Vol. 1, Page 102].

10) “My companions are like stars, whomever you follow, you will have the right path“.  [Mishkat, Page 554]. 

11)  The  person  who in matter relating  to  Deen  sees the  one higher  than  him and  follows (him) and  in  those  matters  relating to  mundane affairs  he sees  the  one lower  than  him,  then  he should  thank Allaah  for keeping him in  a good condition. [From Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) Jame Tirmidhi, Sharh Ibn Arabi, Vol. 9. Page 317]. 

12) “Hold fast to my Sunnat and Sunnat of the Khulafa Rashdeen al Madhdeen“.  [Mishkaat, Page 30]. 

13)  Sending  of  Hadhrat  Muadh  bin  Jabal  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  to  Yemen  by Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  [Abu Dawood vol. 2 Page 149]. 

14)  Sending of Hadhrat Mus’ab  bin  Umayr (Radhiyallahu  anhu) as a  teacher and  guide for the people of Madinah. Before the arrival of Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam).  Whose Taqleed did the people of Madinah make?  Was that against the law of Allaah?

15)  “Ulema  are  the  heirs  of  the  Ambiyaa”    [Ahmed,  Abu  Dawood,  Tirmidhi,  Mishkaat,  Page  34].

Ambiyaa left behind Ilm. Just as it is necessary to follow the Ambiyaa so also is it necessary to follow the Ulema

TAQLEED IN THE ERA OF THE SAHABAH (Radhiyallahu anhum)

1.  Hadhrat  Ibn  ‘Abbas (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  says  that  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  delivered a sermon at (a place) Jabia, and  said:  Oh  People,  those  of  you  who want to know about  Fiqh should  go to  Muadh  Bin  Jabal and  those  who  want to ask about  property (goods)  should  come  to me,  for  Allaah  has  made me its custodian  and  distributor.    [Majamul Jawaid  Vol.1, Page 135].

2)  Hadhrat  Salim  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  says  that  someone  asked  Abdullaah  bin  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  that  one  person owes  another  a  loan  which  has  to  be  paid  back  on  a  specified  time.  The  loan  giver  wants  the  debt  paid  before  its  time.   Hadhrat ‘Abdullaah bin Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) was displeased and stopped him.  [Muwatta Imaam Maalik, Page 179].

No  proof  of  decision  was  asked  for  nor  is  there  any  Hadith  for  this  answer.   So  deduction  by  analogy  was  used.  Is  this Shirk? Or not conforming to Sunnat?  Or kufr?

3)  Abdur Rahman says he asked  Muhammad bin Sereen that (for Ghusl) how is to enter the public bathroom?. He said: Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  considered  it  Makrooh  (detested).  [Musnad,  Mutalib  ul  alaya  Hafz  Ibn  Hajar,  Vol.  1,  Page  51,  Hadith no 187]. 

Again, No Hadith was quoted or asked for.

4)  Hadhrat  Sulaman  bin  Yassar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  said  that  Hadhrat  Abu Ayub Ansari (radhiyallahu anhu) journeyed with the intention of Hajj until  he  reached  Nazia  en-route  to  Makkah  where  his  conveyances  were  mislaid  (lost)  and  he  reached  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  on  (10  Zil  Hajj)  (Day  of  Sacrifice)  when  Hajj  had  already  taken  place  and  mentioned  what  had occurred.Hadhrat  Umar  (Radhaillahu  anhu)  said,  you  complete  these  acts  which  a  person  performing  Umrah  does  (i.e. Tawaaf  and Saee) by which you will come out of Ihraam.    Then when the Hajj  time comes next year perform Hajj and make sacrifice of what you can easily obtain.  [Muwatta Imam Maalik, Page 149].
No Hadith proof was called  for.  Hadhrat Abu  Ayyub Ansari (radhiyallahu anhu)  made Taqleed of Hadhrat Umar (Radhaillahu anhu)’s Ilm and  understanding.

5)  Hadhrat  Musaib  bin  Sa’d (Radhiyallahu  anhu) says my father (Hadhrat Sa’d Bin Abi Waqqaas), when he should perform his Salaat  in  the  Masjid  then  he  should  make a  short duration  in  Ruku  and  Sajda  and  at home lengthy ones. I asked my father of this  difference.  Hadhrat  Sa’d  (Radhaillahu  anhu)  replied,  Son,  we  are  the  Imams  (of  the  people),  people  follow  us  (so  they will regard lengthy Ruku and Sajdah as necessary.  [Majma ul  Zawaaid, Vol. 1, Page 182].

So the general public not only made Taqleed of the Sahabah’s statements but actions also. 

6)  Once  Hadhrat  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  saw  Hadhrat  Abdur  Rahman  bin  Auf  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  wearing  a  (special type)  of  socks  and  said:  I  swear  on  oath  that  you  should  remove  these  socks,  for  I  fear  that  people  will  see  you  and  follow you.  [Asabah of Hafiz ibn Hajar, Vol. 2, Page 361].

7)  Similarly once  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  saw Hadhrat Talha (radhiyallahu anhu) adorned  in  a  coloured  Ihraam and said “you are  the  Imaam  and  guide  of  people,  people  will  follow  you,  some  ignorant  person  sees  you  will  say  that  Talha  bin Ubaidullaah  should  wear  coloured  cloth  in  Ihraam, thus  do  not  wear  this  coloured  cloth“.  [Musnad  Ahmad,  Vol. 1,  Page 192].  

From 6 and 7 we learn that Taqleed was made on the statements and action of the knowledgeable Sahabah.

8)  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu) sent  Hadhrat Abdullaah  bin  Masood  (Radhiyallahu anhu)  to  Kufa  and  wrote  a  letter to the  people  of  Kufa:  “I  am  sending  to  you  Amaar  bin  Yasir  as  Amir  and  Abdullaah  bin  Masood  as  teacher  and  minister. They  are  prominent  and  from  the  Ahle  Badr  Sahabah,  follow  them  and  listen  to  them“.  

Was Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) asking the people to commit Shirk, Kufr and Bidaat?

9)  Stating  the  principles  of  Qaza  (judgement)  Hadhrat  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said:  From  after  today  whomsoever  is  faced  with  the responsibility  of  Qaza  (making  Shari’i  Rulings)  then  he  should  decide  by  the  Kitabullaah,  then  if  such  an  issue  is presented  which  is  not  in  the  Kitabullaah,  then  render  a  decision  in  conformity with  us  what  was  given  by Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi  wasallam),  then  if  any  issue  is  presented  which  is  not  found  in  the  Kitaabullah  and  in  the  decisions  of  Nabi (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam),  then  decisions  should  be  rendered in conformity with those of the Saleeheen (Pious) and  if any issue  is  presented  which  no  decision  is  available  in  the  Kitaabullaah,  or  no  decision  of  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) and  no  decision  of  Saleehen  is  available  then  make  “ijtihaad”.   [(8)  and  (9)  Sunan  Nisai,  Vol.  2,  Page  305].

Same  system  was  utilised  by  Hadhrat  Imam  Abu  Hanifa  (rahmatullah alayh)  B  see  later

10)  Hadhrat  Hassan  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  was  asked  by  someone,  do  you  drink  the  water  of  the  Masjid?  Whereas  it is Sadaqah?. Hadhrat  Hassan (radhiyallahu anhu) replied: Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr and Umar drank the water from Umme Sad (Radhaillahu anha), then (if  I  drink)  then  what  is  the  matter?    [Kanzul Ummal,  Vol.  3,  Page  31].    

Hadhrat  Hassan  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  gave  no  other  proof  besides  the  actions  of  Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  and Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu).  He preferred Taqleed.  Did he commit Bidat, Shirk or Kufr or Sin?

11)  The people  of Madinah questioned  Hadhrat ‘Abdullaah  bin  ‘Abbas (Radhiyallahu  anhu) about a woman who menstruated after  the  Fard  Taawaf. (Can  she  return  without  performing  the  Tawaaf-e-Widaa),  Ibn  ‘Abbaas  stated  that  she  can  return without  performing  Tawaf-e-Widaa.  The  people  of  Madinah  said  we  will not leave the decision of Zaid bin Thabit by acting on your ruling. (Bukhari, Vol. 1, Page 237).  

From  this  it  is  clear  that  Taqleed  was  practised  in  the  time  of  the  Sahabah  (Radhiyallahu  anhum)  and  not  considered  Kufr, Shirk, Bidat or sin. 
12)    Although  Hadhrat Ibn  Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) was a Mujtahid  but said  that  there is  no room for any other person’s legal ruling in the presence of Hadhrat Ali (Radhiyallahu anhu) rulings.  [Kalim-ul-Fazil, Page 19]. 

13)  As long as Salem bin Abdullaah was alive Imam Nafi (rahimahullah) did not give legal rulings (Fatawa). [Tazkiratul Hufaz, Vol. 1, Page 98].

THE SAHABAH WHO GAVE FATAWA DURING RASULULLAAH (SALLALLAHU ALAYHI WASALLAM ) LIFETIME 

The  Sahabah  who  gave  Fatawa  in  the lifetime Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)    time  were;  Abu  Bakr, Uthman,  Ali,  Abd  ul Rahman  ibn  Awf, Abdullaah  ibn  Mas’ud,  Ubay ibn  Ka’b,  Mu’adh  ibn  Jabal,  Ammar,  Ibn  Yasir,  Hudhayfah  ibn  al  Yaman,  Zayd ibn Thabit, Abu al Darda, Abu Musa al Ash’ari and Salman al Farisi (Radhiyallahu anhum ajmaeen). 

Some Sahabah gave more Fatawa than others. Those who gave the most Fatawa were: Umm al Mu’minin Aa’ishah, Umar ibn al  Khattab  and  his  son  ‘Abdullaah, Ali ibn Abi Talib, ‘Abdullaah ibn  ‘Abbas and  Zayd ibn Thabit.   The Fatawa given by any one  of  these  six  would  fill  a  great  volume.    For  example,  Abu  Bakr  Muhammad  ibn  Musa  ibn  Yaqab  ibn  al  Khalifah Ma’mun collected the Fatawa of Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) in twenty volumes. 

Those  from  whom a lesser  number of  Fatawa  issued were narrated  are:  Umm Salmah, Anas ibn Malik, Abu Sa’id al Khudri, Abu  Hurayrah, Uthman  ibn  Affan,  Abdullaah ibn Amr ibn al As,  Abdullaah  ibn  Zubayr,  Abu  Musa  al Ash’ari,  Sa’d  ibn Abi  Waqqas,  Salman  al  Farisi,  Jabir  ibn  ‘Abdullaah,  Muadh  ibn  Jabal  and  Abu  Bakr  al  Siddiq. To this  list  to  be  added  Talhah,  al  Zubayr,  Abd  ul  Rahman  ibn  Awf, Imran  ibn  Husayn, Abullaah  ibn  al Samit and  Mu’awiyah ibn Abu  Sufyan.  The rest  gave  only a  few Fatawa,  and  only one or  two,  in  some  instances more,  have been transmitted from any of them. [see ibn Hazm, al-Ihkam].

See  also  [Dajawi  II  576]:  “the  Companions  and  followers  used  to  give  Fatwas  on  legal  issues  to  those  who  asked  for  them.   At times  they would  mention  the  source,  if  this was  necessary,  while  at  other  time  they would  limit themselves to specifying the  ruling. 

Al  Ghazzali  (Mustasfa II 385)  explains  that  the  existence  of  Taqleed  and  Fatwa  among  the Companions is a  dalil for  the  necessity  of  this  fundamental  distinction.  The  proof  that    taqleed  is  obligatory  is  the  ijma  of  the Companions.  For they used  to  give  fatwas  to  the  ordinary people  and  did  not  command  them  to  acquire  the  degree  of   ijtihaad  for themselves.  This is  known  necessarily (bu’l-danura)  and  by  parallel  lines  of  transmission  (tawatur)  from  both  scholars  and  the non-scholars among them. 

See also Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddima (Bulaq ed., p 216):  “Not all the Companions were qualified to give fatwas and  Islam  was  not  taken  from  all  of  them.  That  privilege  was  held  only by those  who  had  learnt  the  Qur’aan,  knew  what  it contained  by  way of  abrogated  and  abrogating  passages,  ambiguous  (mutashabih)  and  perspicuous  (muhkam)  expressions, and  its  other  special  features“. 

And  also  Imam  al-Baji  (S793):  “Ordinary  Muslims  have  no  alternative  but  to  follow  the Ulema.  One  proof  of  this  is  the  ijma  of  the  Companions,  for  those  among  them  who  had  not  attained  the  degree  of  ijtihad used  to  ask  the  ulema  Companions for the  correct  ruling on  something which happened to them. Not one of the Companions criticised  them  for  doing  so,  on  the  contrary,  they gave  them  fatwas  on  the  issues they has asked about, without condemning them or telling them to derive the rulings themselves (from the Qur’aan and Sunnah)“.  

According  to  Al-Sha’bi: “Six  of  the  Companions  of  the  Rasul  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)    used  to  give  fatawas  to  the people:    Ibn  Mas’ud,  Umar  ibn  al-Khattab,  Ali ibn  Talib,  Zayd  ibn  Thabit,  Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Abu Musa al-Ash’ari. And out of  these,  three  would  abandon  their  own  judgements  in  favour  of  the  judgements  of  three  others: ‘Abdullah ibn  Mas’ud would  abandon  his  own  judgement  for  that  of  Umar,  Abu  Musa  would  abandon  his  own  judgement  for  that  of  Ali,  Zayd would abandon his own judgement of Ubayy ibn Ka’b“.

The  time  of  the  Sahabah  came to an  end  between  90-100  A.H.  and  was followed  by the  time of the Tabi’in  whose scholars became  responsible  for  Fiqh  and  giving  Fatawa.  The  last  of  the  Sahabah  in  Kufa  died  in  86  or  87  A.H.  The  last  one  in Madinah,  Sahl  ibn  Sa’d  al  Sa’idi (radhiyallahu anhu),  died  in  91  A.H. The  last in  Basrah,  Anas  ibn  Malik (radhiyallahu anhu),  died  in  91A.H. (some say 93 A.H.). The  last  one  in  Damascus,  Abdullaah  ibn  Yasir,  died  in  88  A.H.  The   last  one  of  the  Sahabah  Amir  ibn  Wathilah  ibn Abdullaah (Abu Tufayl) (radhiyallahu anhu) died in 100 A.H.

Thereafter,  those  who  became  responsible  for  issuing  Fatawa  were  the freed  men, most of whom had lived with the Fuqaha  among  the  Sahabah  Such  as:    Nafi,  the  freed  men  of  Ibn  Umar,  Ikramah,  the  freed  men  of  Ibn  ‘Abbas,  Ata  ibn Rabah,  the  Faqih  of Makkah;  Tawus the Faqih  of the people of Yemen; Yahya ibn  Kathir,  the Faqih  of  Yamamah,  Ibrahim al  Nakha’i,  the  Faqih  of  Kufah,  Hasan  al  Basri,  the  Faqih  of  Basrah;  Ibn  Sirin,  also of Basrah;  Ata  al  Khurasani  in  Khurasan and others.  Indeed, Madinah was unique in having a Faqih from Quraysh, Sa’id ibn al Musayab (rahimahumullah).

Sadurul  A’aimah  Makki  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  says  that  he  visited  Hadhrat  ‘Ataa  Khalifa  Hishaam  bin  Abdul  Malik (Rahmatullah  Alayh).  So  Khalifa  asked  him,  that  do  you  know  the  Ulema  of  the  different  towns?    He  replied  yes  –  so Khalifa  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  asked,  who  is  the  Aalim  of  Madinah?    He  replied,  Nafi,  and  in  Makkah,  ‘Ataa,  in  Yemen, Taws,  in  Yamamah,  Yahya  bin  Katheer,  in  Syria,  Makhool,  in  Iraq,  Maymoon  bin  Mihran,  in  Kurasaan,  Dhihaak  bin   Mazahim, in  Basrah,  Hassan  Basri,  in  Kufa,  Ibrahim Nakha’i.  So  in  every town  one  Imaam’s fatwa’s was followed. Imaam Haakim has also  written  this  incident  in  Ma’rifat  Uloom  Hadith. That  is  why Imaam Ghazali  (radhiyallahu anhu)  says  that Taqleed  is  the Ijma  (unanimous  consent)  of  all  the  Sahaabah  (Radiahallahu  Anhum) because with  the Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhum) Mufti  used  to  give  the  fatwa  and  the  rest  of  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhum)  should  not  refute  it.  This  is  Taqleed  and this Taqleed is established with an authentic chain of narrators. 

Allamah  ‘Aamadi (Rahmatullah  Alayh) says that during the  times  of the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) and the Tabieens (Rahmatullah  Alayhim),  the  Mujtahid  used  to  give  Fatwa  but  together  with  that  they should  not  give  its  proof  and  nor  should the  people  ask  for  its  proof  and  nobody should  reject  this  practice.  So  this  is  called Ijma,  where the general public follow the Mujtahids  and  Shah Waliullah  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  narrates  from  the Shaikh  ‘Izzuddeen  bin  Salaam (Rahmatullah Alayh) who says  that  during  the  times  of  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Amhum)  and  the  TabieenTaqleed  was  established  with  an authentic  chain  of  successors  and  during  that  time  there  was  not  a  single  person  who  rejected  Taqleed  and  because  the compilation of their fiqh is not present today, but the 4 imaams have compiled it, so that is why we have to follow them.

Just  like  how  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyallahu  Anhum) and    the Tabieen  used  to  also recite  the  Qur’aan  but in  those days it was not  called  the  Qiraat  of  Hadhrat  Hamza  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhu)  and  they  used  to  also  believe  in  the  same  Hadith,  but  they should not call it Bukhari and Muslim.

Taqleed in the time of Khalifah Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz (rahmatullah alayh).

He restricted  the  authority to  issue  Fatawa,  inmost  districts,  to  a  few  named  individuals,  as  he did  in  Egypt,  when  he named only three  people  for  this  purpose.  Interestingly,  two  of  them were  freedmen,  Yazid  ibn  Abu  Habib  and Abd Allah ibn Abu Ja’far,  and  the  third  was  an  Arab, Jaf’ar  ibn  Rabi’ah. When  the  Khalifah  was  questioned about appointing two freedmen  and only  one  Arab,  he  answered:  “What  fault  is of  mine  if  the  freedmen  are  improving  themselves  and  your  are  not.”  [Al Maqizi, Khutat, IV, 143].

GREAT SCHOLARS WHO MADE TAQLEED

THE HANAFI SCHOLARS

Imam Ibn ‘Abidin (d. 1252/1836),  Hafiz  Ibn  al-Humam (d.  861/1457), Imam Ibn Al Shahnah al-Kabeer,  Imam  Zufar  (d.  158  AH,  Imam  Abu  Yusuf  (d.  182/798),  Imam  Muhammad  al-Shabani  (d. 189/804),  Imam  al-Tahawi  (d.  321  AH),  Imam  ibn  Abi  al-Izz  al-Hanafi,  Imam  Ibn  Nujaim  al-Misri  (d.  970 AH), Shaykh  Ali al-Qari  (d.  1014/1606), Shaykh  Abd  al-Haqq  Dehlawi  (d.  1052  AH),  ‘Allamah  Abdul Hayy al-Lucknawi (d/1304  AH), also known as Abdul Hasanat, Shaykh Abdul Hasan as-Sindee al-Hanafi, Shaykh  ‘Aafiyyah  ibn Yazeed.

THE MALIKI SCHOLARS 

Hafiz Ibn Abd  al-Barr  (d.  463/1071), Imam  Ibn  Wahb (d.  197/812),  Imam  Abdullah  ibn  abi Zaid  al-Qairwanee al-Maliki (d. 389 AH)

THE SHAFI’ SCHOLARS 

Imam al-Bayhaqi (d. 458/1066),  Shaykh  Abu  Yusoof al-Buweeti, Shaykh Abdul Qasim ad-Daariki, Hafiz Ibn as-Salah (d.643/1245),   Imam  Taqi ad-Deen  al-Subki  (d.  756/1355), Imam Abu  Nu’aym (d.  430/1038, Imam  al-Bukhari  (d.  256/870), Imam  Muslim  (d.  261/875,  Imam  Abu  Dawood  (d.  275/889), Imam  Nasai  (d.  309/915), Imam Tirmidhi (d.  279/892), Imam ibn  Majah  (d.  209/824), Imam al-Suyuti  (d.  911/1505) Hafiz Ibn Khuzaymah  (d. 311/924), Imam  ash-Sha’rani  (d. 973/1565), Imam Hakam (d. 405/1014),  Imam  ibn  Asakir (d. 571 AH), Hafiz Khateeb al-Baghdadi (d. 463/1072), Hafiz  al-Dhahabi  (d. 748/1348), Hafiz  al-Iraqi (d. 806/1404), Imam  al-Tabarani (d. 360/971), Imam al-‘Izz ibn Abdus Salaam  (d.  660/1262),  Imam  ibn  Hibban  (d.  354/965),  Hafiz  ibn  Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852/1449), Hafiz al-Haythami (d. 807/1405), Imam  al-Haramayn  (d.  478/1085), Imam  Abul Qasim al-Qushayri  (d.  465/1072), Imam al-Razi  (d.  606/1210, Imam  al-Baghawi  (d.  510/1117), Imam Abu  Shamah (d. 665 AH ), Imam al-Nawawi (d. 676/1277).

THE HANBALI SCHOLARS

Hafiz Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728/1328), Hafiz ibn  al-Qayyim  al-Jawziyyah (d. 751/1350), Hafiz ibn al-Jawzi (d. 508) Hafiz ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (d. 795/1393).

COMMENT

These  great  and  prominient  Scholars  fell  the  need  to  make  Taqleed  but  todays  so  called  self  styled  scholar  rejects  its necessity and goes even further by classifing those who make Taqleed as idol-worshippers, innovators and sinners.

STATEMENTS OF SCHOLARS CONCERNING TAQLEED

1)   Imam  Abdul  Ghani  an-Nablusi  (d.  1143/1733),  was  an  author  of  nearly  500  works  said  in  his  well-known  book, Khulasat-ut-Tahqiq:  “A  Muslim  is  either  a  Mujtahid  or  has  not  reached  the  level  of  Ijtihad. The one who is not a Mujtahid should follow which ever he likes of the four Madhhabs.”

2)    Imam Abdul Wahhab ash-Sha’rani (d. 973/1565)   said  in  his book al-Mizan al-Kubra:    “However according to the Ulama, it  is  Wajib  (incumbent)  for  the  ordinary  Muslim  to  follow  a  Mujtahid.  They  said  that  if  a  non-mujtahid  Muslim  did  not follow  a  Mujtahid,  he would  deviate  from the  right  path.    All Mujtahids inferred rules from the documentary evidences they found  in  Islaam.  No  Mujtahid  has even  talked  our of  his  own  opinion  on  the  Deen    of Allaah  Ta’ala. A  person  who speaks ill  of  any  of  the  A’immat  al-Madhahib  (founders  of  the  Madhhabs)  shows  his  ignorance  (and  this  is  common  amongst  the ignorant members of the La-Madhhabi groups today)“. 

3)  Allamah  Ibn  Nujaim (H 970) Al sha’balul Nasir;  P 131: “For any person  to go against the Rule/Decision of the 4 Imams is going against Ijima“.

4)   Hafiz-e-Hadith  Allamah  Ibn  Humam, (h 861)  in  Al  Tarirr  fi’l  Usul  Fiqh P. 552:   “it  is  because  of  this,  that  certain….Have started that Taqleed of the 4 Imams is specified….and Taqleed to be limited to these 4 imams is correct“.

5)    The Famous Mulla Jiwan Siddique (H1130) teacher of Aurangzeb Alamgir (rahimahullah) states in Tafseer Ahmadi: “Ijma has occurred on that it is only permissible  to  make Taqleed  of  the  4  Imams. Thus  if  any  Mujtahid  is  born  (in  this  age)  and  his  opinions  is  against that of the 4 Imams then it will not be permissible to follow it“.

6)    The famous Muhaddith  and  Mufassir,  Qadhi  Thanaullah  Panipati (H 1225) stats  in Tafseer  Mashari (Vol.  2,  P 64):  “After the third and  fourth  century  there  is  no  5th  Madh-hab  to  follow  besides  the  4  Madh-habs  of  the  Ahle  Sunnat Wal Jamaat  is  secondary matters,  and  in  the  this  matter,  ijma  has  occurred  that  any  opinions  contrary  to  the  4  Madhhabs is false  (Baatil)” 

7)    Imam Ibrahim Sarkashi  Maaliki says in  [(Al-Fatuhatul  Wahabia), P.199]: that in this age after the era of the Sahabah  just as Ibn Salah  has  said  that it  is  not  permissible  to  make  Taqleed  of  anyone  besides  the  4  Imams, viz., Imaam Maalik, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imaam Shafi’i, Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (rahumahumullah).

8)   Muhaddith Ibn Hajar Makki  (rahimahullah)  (H  852)  states  on  P.196  of  Farabul  Mubeen  fi  Sahr ‘Arbaeen:  “that  in  our  time  it  is the  opinion  of  the  Elder  Imams  that  it  is  permissible  to  make  Taqleed  of  the  Imam-e-Arbaa, viz,  Imam  Shafi,  Imam Maalik,  Imam  Abu  Hanifa  and  Imam  Ahmad  and  it  is  not  permissible  to  make  Taqleed  of  another Imam“.

9)    If  a  man is  called  deficient  in  any of  these  things,  he  cannot  be  called  a  Mujtahid  and  should  conform  to  one  or  other  of the  recognised  schools  of  law  (i.e.  only  Hanafi,  Maliki  Shafi’i  or  Hanbali  schools  today. [Imam Abu Hanifah: Life and work By the well known historian, Allamah Shibli Nu’mani (pg 117)].

10)   Shaykh Abdul  Wahhab al-Najdi  says: “All  praise  due  to  Allah,  we  follow  the  pious  predecessors  and  are  not  creators  of  a new way or innovations  and  we  are  on  the  Madhhab  of  Imaam  Ahmad  bin  Hanbali (rahimahullah)    (Muhammad  ibn  Abd al  Wahab by Allamah  Ahmed  Abdul  Gaffer,  Attar,  Beirut  pat. 174,5]

11)    Son  of  Shaykh  Abdul  Wahhab  Najdi,  Shaykh  ‘Abdullaah  states,  “In  secondary  matters  we  are  of  the  Madhab  of  Imam Ahmed  bin  Hanbal  (rahimahullah)  and  whosoever  adheres  to  any of  the  4  Imams we do  not  object.    [al-Hidayatul  Sunnat – Sheik Muhammad bin Abdul Wabad ke Khilaf propaganda of Moulana Mansoor Nomani].

12)    The commentor of Muslim, Sheik Muhyudeen Nuri (rahimahullah)  states in Rawathul Talebeen:the Ulema state concerning general  Ijtihaad  that  it  has  terminated  with  the  4  Imams.  All  reliable  and  research  Ulema  have  made Taqleed, the  following of  any one of these  Imaams upon the Ummaat Waajib (compulsory).   And Imam-ul-Haramain has recorded Ijma (consensus) on the making of Taqleed of one Imam” [Miral Hidaya, P.10].

13)    Sayed Ahmed Tahawi (H. 1233), states: the group  on salvation  is the  Ahle Sunnat  Wal Jamaat which has been concised in    the  4  Madhhabs  today  which  are  Hanafi,  Maalik,  Shaafi,  and  Hanbali.  And  those  persons  in  this  age  who  are  not  from these  Madhhabs  are  amongst  the  innovators  and  dwellers  of  the  Fire  (not  from  the  Ahle  Sunnat).    [Tahtawi  Alaa  Durul Muktaar, Vol. 4, P153].

THE LOGICAL NEED FOR MAKING TAQLEED 

1)    This verdict,  namely that  one is  well-advised  to  rely on  a  great  Imam  as  one’s  guide  to  the Sunnah,  rather than  relying on oneself,  is  particularly    binding  upon  Muslims  in  countries  such  as  Britain  or  South  Africa  etc.,  among  whom  only a  small percentage  is  even  entitled  to  have  a  choice  in  this  matter.    This  is  for  the  simple  reasons  that  unless  one  knows  Arabic. Then  even in of one wishes to read  all the  Hadith  determining  a particular  issue one  cannot.    For  various  reasons,  including their  great  length,  no  more  that  ten  of  the  basic  Hadith  collections have been translated into English. There remain well over three  hundred  others  including  such  seminal  works  as  the  Musnad  of  Imam  Ahmad  ibn  Hanbal,  the  Musannaf  of  Ibn  Abi Shayba,  the  Sahih  of    Ibn  Khuzayma, the Mustadrak  of al-Hakim and many other multi-volume collections which contain a large  number  of  sound  hadiths  which  cannot  be  found  in  Bukhari,  Muslim,  or  the  other  works  that  have  so  far  been translated.  Even  if  we  assume  that  the  existing  translations  are  entirely  accurate,  it  is  obvious  that  a  policy  of  trying  to derive  there  Shari’ah  directly  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Sunnah  cannot  be  attempted  by those  who  have  not  access  to Arabic. To attempt  to  discern  the  Shari’ah  merely  on  the  basis  of  the  hadiths  which  have  been  translated  will  be  to  ignore  and  amputate much of the Sunnah, leading to serious distortions.

2)    The belief  that  ordinary Muslims,  even  if  they know Arabic,  are  qualified  to  derive rulings of the Shari’ah for themselves, is a example of this egotism running wild. 

3)    The fact  that  all  the  great  scholars  of  the  Deen-religion,  including  the  Hadith  experts,  themselves  belong  to  Madhhabs, and  required  their  students  to  belong  to  Madhhabs,  seem  to  have  been  forgotten.  Self  esteem  has  won  a  major  victory here over common sense and Islaamic responsibility. 

4)    If  one’s  child  is  seriously ill,  we  will  ask,  does  one  look  for  oneself  in  the  medical  textbooks for the proper diagnoses and cure,  or  should  one  go  to  a  trained  medical  practitioner?  Clearly  sanity  dictates  the  later  option.  And  so  it  is  in  matter  of Deen-religion,  which  are  in  reality  even  more  important  and  potentially  hazardous.  We  would  be  both  foolish  and irresponsible to try to look through the sources ourselves, and become our own Muftis.

5)    The  question  is  often  asked  why  only  four  schools  should  be  followed  today.  The  answer  is  straightforward,  while  in theory there  is  no  reason  whatsoever  why the number has  to  be  four,  the  historical  fact  is  that  only these four have sufficient detailed literature to support them.

6)    The Ulema usually recognises  sever  different  degrees of  Muslims  from  the  point  of  view of  their  learning,  and  for  those who are interested  they are  listed  here,  in  order  of  scholarly status. (a,b)  the  Mujtahidun  fi’l-shar  (mujtahids  in  the  Shari’ah) and  the  Mujtahidun  fi’-madhhab  (mujtahids  in  the  Madhhab)  have  already  been  mentioned. (c)  Mujtahidun  fi’l-masa’il (Mujtahids  in  Particular  Issues)  are  scholars  who  remain  within  a  school,  but  are  competent  to  exercise  Ijtihad    on  certain aspects  within  which  they know thoroughly. (d)  Ashab  al-Takhri  (Reslovers of Ambiguity), who are competent to indicate which  view  was  preferable  in  cases  of  ambiguity,  or  regarding  suitability  to  prevailing  conditions.  (e)  Ashab al-Tarjih (people  of  Assessment),  are  those  competent  to  make  comparisons  and  distinguish  the  correct  (Sahih)  and  the  preferred (Rajih,  arjah)  and  the  agreed-upon  views  from  the  weak  ones  inside  the  Madhhab.  (f)  Ashab  al-Tashith (people  of  Correction)  those  who  could  distinguish  between  the  manifest  (Zahir al-riwya)  and  are  rare  and  obscure (nawadir)  views  of  the  schools  of  their  following.  g)  Muqalladun  the  emulators  including  all  non-scholars.  [Kamali, 3879. See also bilmen, I, 250-1, 324-6].  Of these seven categories only the first three are considered to be Mujtahids.

7)    The system of taqleed  implies  that  as  long  as  the  layman  does  not  get the  training for becoming a doctor he cannot practice medicine,  for  example,  in  the  case  of  medicine  such  person  may be  termed  a  quack and  may even  be punished  today, but in the  case  of  Islaamic  Law  he  is  assuming  much  graver  responsibility,  he  is  claiming  that  the  opinion  he  is  expressing  is  the Law intended by Allaah.  [Introduction to The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer xxxv].

By  Allaah,  this  view  (that  ordinary  people  should  not  follow  madhhabs)  is  nothing  less  than  an  attempt  to  fling  the  door wide  open  for  people’s  individual  preferences,  thereby  turning  the  Book  and  the  Sunnah  into  playthings  to  be  manipulated by  those  deluded  fools,  driven  by  their  compounded  ignorance  and  their  corrupt  imaginings.  [CfImam  al-Dajawi  II  579]

8)    Now, if a layman who cannot judge between the arguments of different  Madhahib  is allowed to choose any of the juristic views  without  going  into  the  arguments  they have  advanced,  he  will  be  at  liberty to  select  only  those  views  which  seem  tohim  more  fulfilling  to  his  personal  requirements,  and  this  attitude  will  lead  him  to  follow  the desires  and  not  the guidance… the practice totally condemned by the Noble Qur’aan.

9)    For  example,  Imam  Abu  Hanifah (rahimahullah) is  of  the  view  that  bleeding  from  any part  of  the  body  breaks  the  wudu,  while Imam  Shafi’i (rahimahullah)  states  that  the  wudu  is  not  broken  by  bleeding.  On  the  other  hand,  Imam  Shafi’i (rahimahullah)    says  that  if  a man  touches  a  woman,  his  wudu  is  broken  and  he  is  bound  to  make  fresh  wudu  before  offering  Salaat,  while  Imam  Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) insists that merely touching a women does not break the wudu

10)    Now, if the policy of “pick and  choose” is  allowed  without  restriction,  a  layman can choose the Hanafi view in  the matter of  touching  a  women  and  the  Shafi’i  view  in  the  matter  of  bleeding.  Consequently,  he  will  deem  his  wudu  unbroken  even when  he  had  combined  both  the  situation,  while  in  that  case  his  wudu  is  not  valid  according  to  both  Hanafi  and  Shafi’i views.
11)    Similarly,  a  traveller,  according  to  the  Shafi’i  can  combine  the  two  prayers  of  Zuhr  and  ‘Asr.    But  at  the  same  time,  if  a traveller  makes  up  his  mind  to  stay in  a  town  for  four  days,  he  is  no  more  regarded  a  traveller  in  the  Shafi’i  view  hence,  he cannot  avail  of  the  benefit  of  qasr,  nor  of  combining  two  prayers. On  the  other  hand,  combining two prayers  in  one  time  is not  allowed  in  the  Hanafi  school,  even  when  on  is  on  journey.  The  only concession  available for him is that of Qasr. But the period  of  travel,  according  to  Hanafi  view  is  fourteen  days,  and  a  person  shall  continue  to  perform  qasr  until  he  resolves  to stay in a town for at least fourteen days.

12)    Consequently  a  traveller  who  has  entered  a  city  to  stay  there  for  five  days  cannot  combine  two  prayers,  neither according  to  Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah)  because  by staying  for  five  days  he  cannot  use the  concession, nor according to Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah), because combining two prayers is not at all allowed according to him.

13)      If such an attitude  is allowed,  it  will  render  the  Shari’ah  a  plaything  in  the  hands  of  the  ignorant,  and  no rule of Shari’ah will  remain  immune  from  distortion.  That  is  why the  policy of  “pick  and  choose”  has  been  condemned  by  all  the  renowned scholars of Shari’ah. Imam Ibn Tamiyyah, the famous Muhaddith and jurist, said in his Fatawa:.

14)    Some people  follow  at  one  time  an  Imam who holds the marriage  invalid,  and  at another  time  they follow  a jurist  who holds  it  valid.  They  do  so  only to  serve  their  individual  purposes  and  satisfy  their  desires.  Such  a  practice  is  impermissible according to the consensus of all the imams.

15)    He further  elaborates  the  point  by several  examples  he  says:  “for  example  if  a person  wants  to  pre-empt  a sale  he  adopts the  view  of  those  who  give  the  right  of  pre-emption  to  a  contingent  neighbour,  but  if  they are  the  vendee  of  a  property,  the refuse  to  accept  the  right  of  pre-emption  for  the  neighbour  of  the  vendor  (on  the  basis  of  Shafi’i  view  and  if  the  relevant person  claims  that  he  did  not  know  before  (that  Imam  Shafi’i  does  not  give  the  right  of  pre-emption  to the  neighbour)  And has  come  to  know  it  right  then,  and  he  wants  to  follow  that  view  as  from  today,  he  will  not  be  allowed  to  do  so,  because such  a  practice  open  the  door  for  playing  with  the  rules  of  the  Shari’ah  and  paves  the  path  for  deciding  the  Halaal  and Haram in accordance with one’s desires“.  [Fatawa Ibn Tamiyyah Syrian ed. 2:285,286].

16)    So  to  be  decisive  concerning  any  situation  that  a  clear  direction  has  been  stipulated  the  Qur’aan  or  Hadith  requires tremendous  wide  depth  knowledge.  Due  to  ignorance  there  is  strong  possibility  that  one  will  utilise  deduction  wherein  a clear-cut injunction exists.

17)    If  one  is  not  conversant  with  abrogated  and  non-abrogated  text  or  ruling  of  Shari’ah  then  there  is  high  degree  of possibility  of  acting  on  an  abrogation  exists  contrary  to  the  time  of  the  Sahabah  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  where  Shariat regulations to be acted upon were in front of them. 

18)    Many a times one  comes  across  proofs  which  are  contrary in  nature  from  the  Ahaadith  than  to  collaborate  proofs  in  a Ahaadith or give performance is extremely tedious and difficult. Thus reliance on the experts and authors of Jurisprudence.

19)    In  Ahaadith,  many laws are  mentioned  without  conditions  and  restrictions  whereas  there  have  been  to  some  extend  on other Ahaadith. Thus without a total knowledge of all the Ahaadith one will be at a  total loss like the Ghair Muqallids

20)    In  Ahaadith  at  times  there  is  brevity  and  conciseness    which  is  expounded  in  some  other  Ahaadith.  Without  extensive knowledge valid proper conclusion will not be reached but one will be groping in the dark.

21)    In  some,  laws  proofs  are  of  types.  Some  pointing  to  permissibility  and  the  other  towards  impermissibility.  Making  the rule  is  these  conflicting  circumstances  are  extremely  difficult  without  letting  whims,  desires  and  personal  inclinations overpowering.  Thus  the  rule  stated  or  formulated    closest  to  and  in  the  era  of  Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) will be free from adherence to the inner-desires etc. 

22)    Ijtihad  – Door  is  open-Right  of  Entry  is  reserved  — Justice  (retd)  Dr  Tanzilur-Rahman. It  is  thus  reported  from  Hadhrat  Ali (R.A.)  that  Ijtihad  can  only be  performed  by ‘Fuqaha-I-Abidin‘  that is, the pious jurists. This  saying  also  implies  that  Ijtihad  should  be  made  collectively,  and  not  individually.  Allamah  Iqbal  has  been  a  great exponent  of  Ijtihad  in  the  sub-continent  (see  lecture  No  7  on  Ijtihad  of  his  famous  book   “The  Reconstruction  of  Religions thought  in  Islam”.  But,  at  the  same  time,  he  is  conscious  of  its  pitfalls  by  unscrupulous,  incompetent  and  unqualified persons as apparent from his following verses:- When  the  solidarity  of  life  is  divided,  the  nation  acquires  stability  through  Taqleed.   Tread  the  path  of  the  ancestors,  as  the  meaning  of  Taqleed  is  the  consolidation  of  the  nations.   Exercise  of  Ijtihad  during  the  period  of  decline  causes  disintegration  of  the  nation.   It is safer to follow the earlier authorities than accept the Ijtihad of unqualified scholars

SUMMARY BY SHAH WALIULLAAH (rahmatullah alayh)

A summary of what Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah (rahmatullah alayh) states in Fayoosul Haramain (p 48).

1)    Taqleed  was  prevalent  in  the  blessed  era  of  Sahabah   and  Tabi’in era  without objection.

2)  To follow the  Madhhab-e-Arbah  (Hanafi,  Maalik,  Shave,  Hanbali)  is following the “Sawad-e-Aazam” (the Lofty Group on Truth),  and  to  go  outside  the  circle  of  Mazhab-e-Araba  tantamounts  to  going  out  of  the  “Sawad-e-Aazam”  (which  is misleading).

3)    After  the  second  century  Taqleed  of  one  person  had  commenced. 

4)    The  above  is  a  secret  Ihaam  (inspiration).

5)    It  is  waajib  upon  the  Ummat  to  make  Taqleed  of  the  Madhhab-e-Arbaa.

6)    Taqleed  is  Waajib  upon  a  non-Mujtahid.

7)    There  are  Religious  wisdoms,  and  benefits  in  making  Taqleed  of  one  person.

8)    I  was  advised  by  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  to  stay  within  the  Madhab-e-Arbaa.

9)    Madhhab  Hanafia  is  in  accordance  with  the  Sunnah  and  its  testimony  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  himself  gave.

10)    For  the  common  faith
(non-Muqallids)  to  discard  Taqleed  is  Haraam  but  it  is  the  beginning  of  leaving the  Circle  of Islaam.

Talfeeq and changing Madhhabs is not permissible

It  is  not  permissible  to  leave  making  Taqleed  of  one  Imam  and  follow  another  Imam  when  one  wishes.    When  this  is  done without  permission  from  the  Shariat  it  leads  to  Talfeeq,  it  also  causes  one  to  follow  one’s  desires  resulting in going far away from  the  truth  and  being  lead  astray.

Moulana  Mohammed  Hussain  Sahib who  opposed  making  Taqleed  for  many  years  and  then  finally being  affected  by  the consequences of not making Taqleed writes in his Risaalah, Isha’atus Sunnah Vol. 11, No 2, page 53.

After  twenty  five  years  of  experience  we  have  come  to  know  those  who  leave  making  mutlaq  taqleed  or  leave  making taqleed  of  a  Mujtihis-e-Mutlaq  out  of  ignorance,  finally leave  the  fold  of  Islam.  Some  of these people become Christians and some  remain  without  any  Madhhab,  who  do  not  adhere  to  any  faith  or  religion.    Violating  the  commands  of  Shariat, transgression and irreligiousness are the least effect of this freedom.” 

Similarities between Shias and Ghair Muqallids

Shia  deny  that  the  Sahabah  (Radhiyallahu  anhum)  are  the  citerion  of  right  and  wrong  in  Deen-Religion  like  the Ghair  Muqallids.

Shia state  3  Talaaqs  in  one  session  equal  one,  so  do  the  Ghair  Muqallids.

Shia  say  that  Taraweeh  is  the  bidat  of  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  so  do  the  Ghair  Muqallids.

Shia  state  that  the  second  azaan  given  near  the  Mimbar  is  an  Innovation  (bidat)  as  the  Ghair  Muqallids  say  also and classify  it  is  Bidaat  Uthmani.

Shia do  not  accept the  decision  of  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu) and Hadhrat Ayesha (Radhiyallahu anha) of preventing  women  from  the  Masjid,  so  do  the  Ghair  Muqallids  [Vol.  4,  P.42  Fatawa  Rahimiyah].

Shias and Ghair  Muqallids deny and reject the Ijma of Sahabah (Radhiyallahu anhum).

SOME QUESTIONS

QUESTION 1: We have statements of the  Imams denoting that they must  not  be  followed,  so why do we follow  them? Statements such as: Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah): “When  I say something contradicting  the  Book  of Allaah,  the Exalted  or  what is narrated  from the Rasul (Sallahu Alayhi Wasalaam) , then ignore my saying

Imam  Malik  (Rahimahullaah)  said: “Truly  I  am  only  mortal,  I  make  mistakes  (sometimes)  and  I  am  correct  (sometimes) therefore,  look  into  my opinions:  All  that  agrees  with  the  Sunnah,  accept  it;  and  all  that does not agree with the Book and the Sunnah, ignore it.” 

Imam  ash-Shafi’i (rahimahullah):  “If you  find  my  writings  something  different  to  the  Sunnah  of  the  Rasul  of  Allaah  (Sallahu  Alyhi Wasalaam), then  speak on  the basis  of the  Sunnah  of the  Rasul  of Allaah (Sallahu Alayhi Wasalaam ) and leave what I have said.”

ANSWER:  We must understand  the  era  during  which  these  statements  were  made. We  will  realise  that  it  was  mentioned  before  other Mujtahids or potential Mujtahids, not those who cannot even read two lines of Arabic properly.

It  is  obvious  that  such  councils  were  for  the  Imams  sophisticated  pupils,  and  we  never  intended  for  the  use  by  the Islamically-uneducated  masses. Imam-al-Shafi  (rahimahullah) etc,  were  not  addressing  a  crowd  of  butchers,  night  watchmen  and donkey-drivers.

QUESTION TWO : Those  people  that  come  before  the  4  Imaams,  example from  the time  of  Sahaabah  (Radhiyallahu  Anhum)  till Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) did they follow any Imaam, or was Taqleed not Wajib then?

ANSWER : This  question  is  also  not by the  theologians  of  the  Ahle  Sunnat  Wal Jamaat,  but  this  question  also  comes  from the Shiahs.

The  Sahaabah  (Radiahallahu  Amhum)  were  more  than  a  hundred  thousand  in  number.  Shah  Waliullaah  (rahmatullah alayh)  says  the Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhum)  were  of  2  groups,  Mujtahid  and  Mukhlid. The  Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhum) were Arabs,  but  according  to  Ibn  Qayyim there  were  only 149  theologians,  from whom 7 gave most fatawas and 20 gave few fatawas  and  122  were  those  who  rendered  the  least  fatawas.  The  thousands  of  fatwas  of    these  Mufti’s  are  present  in  the following  kitaabs.    Musnaf  ibn  Abi Shayba; Musnaf Abdur Razzaq; Tahzeebul Aathaar and Ma’aanil Aathaar, etc., in  which the  Mufti’s  only  narrate  the  Mas’ala  law,  and  they  do  not  narrate  any  Aayat  or  Hadith  by  way  of  proof  together  with  the Mas’ala  and  the  rest  of  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyallahu  Anhum)  practised  on  these  Mas’ala’s  without  any proof.  This  is  called Taqleed.  Regarding  these  Mufti’s  of  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyallahu  Anhum),  Shah  Walliullaah (rahimahullah) says, that the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) were spread in different countries and in every place one  Sahaabi was followed, example:

Makkah – Hadhrat  ibn  Abbass  (Radiahallahu  Anhu).     

Kufa – Hadhrat  Abdullah  bin  Maqsood  (Radiahallahu  Anhu)

Yemen- Hadhrat  Muadh  (Radhiyallahu  Anhu)

Basrah- Hadhrat Anas (Radhiyallahu Anhu)

Madinah- Hadhrat Zaid Ibn Thabit (Radhiyahallahu Anhu)

Then  after  them it  was  the  era  of  the  Tabi’eens.  Hadhrat Shah  Walliullaah  (Rahmatullah  Alayh) says that every Tabee Aalim had a line of following and they became the Imaams of each city and the people used to follow them. This  is  such  a question,  as  if  a  person  says  was  the  Qur’aan  recited  before  the  10  Qaris  came, or the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) did not read Bukhari or Muslim or was it not necessary to believe in Hadith

QUESTION THREE  Was any Mujtahid born after the 4 Imaams, or can any Mujtahid be born or not?
ANSWER : This  question  is  in  relation  to  history.  Shah  Waliullaah  (Rahmatullaah  Alayh)  says,  a  true  Mujtahid  has  not  been  born  300 year  after  Hijra  and  Imaam  Nawawi  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  has  mentioned  in  Sharah  Madhhab,  that  for  a  true  Mujtahid  to come  is  not  impossible  according  to  Shariah,  but  what  will  they  come  to  do?  If  any Muhaddith  through  his  claim  regards the  entire  Sahih  Bukhari  as  false  and  has  no  respect  and  honour  for  the Hadith and Muhadditheen, then what benefit does he do  for  deen.  

QUESTION FOUR: What are the proofs, for only one Imaam’s Taqleed to be Waajib and also explain its laws?

ANSWER : Just  like  in  Yemen  Hadhrat  Mua’dh  (Radhiyallahu  Anhu)  was  a  Mujtahid  and  the  public  used  to  follow  him.  See  section “Taqleed in the era of the Sahabah” for more details above.  
Shah Waliullaah (Rahmatullah Alayh) says, that one Imam’s Taqleed is Wajib on the public and it’s proof is Ijma.

QUESTION FIVE: Imaam  Abu  Yusuf  and  Imaam  Muhammad  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  were  the  students  of  Imaam  Abu  Hanifa  (Rahmatullah Alayh) and they also used to follow him, then why did they not have the same views regarding certain Mas’alas?

ANSWER : Imaam Abu Yusuf  and  Imaam  Muhammad  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  were  both  Mujtahids  and  it  is  not  necessary  for  one Mujtahid to follow another Mujtahid and if they do follow another Mujtahid then too it is permissible.

The Outcome of Rejecting Taqleed 
The Testimony of Moulana Muhammad Husein Batalwi From  50  years  of  experience,  we  have  come  to  know  that  those  people  that  make  Taqleed  without  any  knowledge  will eventually  leave  the  fold  of  Islaam.  Some  will  turn  to  Christianity.    Some  will  be  come  atheist. From these Faasiqs, some of them  openly  leave  out  Jummah  Namaaz  and  fasting,  they  do  not  stay  away  from  interest  and  wine,  and  some  of  them because  of  dunya  outwardly stay away from  sins,  but are  involved  in  sin  secretly.    They marry women  in  a  haraam manner.   Dunya is the cause  of Kufr,  Apostasy  and  Sin.   But  for  the  Muslims to come out of the fold of Islaam, because of ignorance regarding Taqleed is a very serious matter. 

It  is  common  now to see activists  prowling  the  mosques  criticising  other  worshippers  for  what  they believe  to  be  defects  in their worship, even when their victims are following the verdicts of some of the leading Imams of fiqh.

Salvation or Destruction

Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (Radiahallahu  Amhu) said  that  no  doubt  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  had  mentioned: “That three things grant salvation and three things cause destruction.” Those things that grant salvation are:

1. To  have  the  fear  of  Allaah  under  all  conditions.

2. To  speak  the  truth  in  all  conditions,  happiness  or  sadness.

3. To choose moderation whether you are rich or poor.

Three Things That Cause Destruction:

1. to  follow  your  carnal  desires.

2. To  be  stingy.

3. To have pride on one’s opinions.

Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  mentioned  that  from  the  three  the  last  one  is  most  destructive.    (Mishkaat).  

Hadhrat  Shaikh  Abdul  Gani  (rahimahullah)  narrates  from  Mullah  Ali  Qari (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  that this  Hadith  is  a  proof  regarding those people who do not follow the 4 imaams and these are the people who will fall into destruction.

By  Allaah,  this  view  (that  ordinary  people  should  not  follow  madhhabs)  is  nothing  less  than  an  attempt  to  fling  the  door wide  open  for  people’s  individual  preferences,  thereby  turning  the  Book  and  the  Sunnah  into  playthings  to  be  manipulated by those deluded fools, driven by their compounded ignorance and their corrupt imaginings. [Cf. Imam al-Dajawi II 579].

And has come to know it right then, and  he wants to follow that view as from today, he will not be allowed to do so, because such  a  practice  open  the  door  for  playing  with  the  rules  of  the  Shari’ah  and  paves  the  path  for  deciding  the  Halaal  and Haram in accordance with one’s desires. [Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah Syrian ed. 2:285,286].

One who does not make Taqleed will follow ones whims, fancies, desires  and external motications to reach decisions which is against the Shariat of Islaam. Underlying are few ayaats showing the detestments of following ones desires. 

Ayats  on  Following  the  Nafs

1)  “But  he  clung  to  the  earthly  life  and  succumbed  to  his  fancies.  He  was  like  the  dog  which  pants  whether  you  chase  it away or let it alone”  (Qur’an 7/176).

2)  “Do you see the man who makes his desire his God, the man whom Allaah leaves in  error, setting a seal upon his ears and heart  and  drawing  a  veil  over  his  eyes?  Who  then  can  guide  him after Allaah  (has  withdrawn  guidance)?  Will  you  not  take heed?  (45-23).

3)  “Can  he who follows the guidance of his Rabb be compared to him whose erroneous actions are made to seem fair to him, and to those who follow their desires?” (47-14).

4)  “Nor  obey  him  whose  heart  We  have  made  Heedless  of  Our  Remembrance;    who  follows  his  desires  and  whose  case exceeds due bounds”  (18-28).

5)  “And  if  after  all  the  knowledge  you  have  been  given  you  yield  to  their  desires,  there  shall  be  none  to  help  or  protect  you from the wrath of Allaah” (2-120).

6) “And do not yield to their fancies from the truth that has been made known to you”  (5-48). 

7) “And do not be led by their desires“. (5-49). 

8) “And do not yield to the desires of ignorant men, for they in no way can protect you from the wrath of Allaah” (45-18).

9) “Rule with justice among men and do not yield to lust, lest it should turn you away from Allaah’s path”  (38-26).

10)  “And  who  is  in  greater  error  than  the  man  who  is  led  by  his  desires  without  guidance  from  Allaah?    Allaah  does  not guide the evil-doers.” (28-50).

FEW TESTS FOR THE GHAIR MUQALLIDS

First Test

When you meet a Ghair Muqallid give him the Qur’aan  and  a few Hadith  books  and  ask him to show you the perfect  way of  performing  Salaat.  Is  it  a  verbal  or  an  oral  Ibadat.  First  ask  him  the  laws  of  each  action.  It  is  FardhWajibSunnat  or Nafl?    Tell  him  to  show  you  this  from  Qur’aan  and  Hadith. He  will  never  be  able  to  show  you  till  Qiyamaat.  He  will  be distressed  and  say to  you  that  we  do not  believe in  anything  being  Sunnat,  Wajib,  of  Nafl. These laws are innovations. You should  immediately ask  him  to  recite  Sura  Fatihah  behind  the  Imaam,  top  place  hands on a chest, to say  Aameen in  a loud  voice.  If  these  are  not  FardhWajibSunnat,  of  Nafl,  then  those  that  say it is  FarzWajib,  etc.,  are  all innovators.  Then  state  to  him  that  when  you  are  not  an  Imaam  of  a  Masjid,  you  perform  a  Fardh  behind  a  Imaam,  and Sunnat  and  Nafl  on  you  own,  then  ask  him  to  show  you  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  that  when  a  Muqtadi-follower  or  a person  who performs   his own  namaaz whether he should say,  Takbire Tahrima, Thana Ta’awuz, Tasmia, Aameen, Takbir, Tasbihs  of  rukhu  and  SajdaTashaadadDuroodDuaa  and  Salaam  softly or  in  a  loud  voice.  He  will  never  be able to show you  clearly from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith.  Then  make  him note down,  that I have spoken a lie on the Qur’aan and Hadith and I  cannot  even  show  perfect  way  of  performing  Namaaz  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  and  till  today  I  was    reading  all  my Namaazes following my Moulana. After writing this,  you  should  ask  him the  name  of his follower and  test  him in  the  same way.  You  will  see  that  he  is  also  a  big  liar  and  he  will  not  be  able  to  even  show  you  the perfect  way of  performing  Namaaz from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith. Whenever  you  meet  a  Ghair  Muqallid,  you  should  tell  him  that  he  does  not  know  anything from the Qur’aan and Hadith and he should not go on speaking lies on the Qur’aan and Hadith

Second  Test

Take  Taleemul  Islaam,  Bahishti  Zewar  or  Urdu  Fatawa  Alamgiri  and read each Mas’ala and tell him to give you a proof from the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith,  for  all  those  Mas’alas-laws  which  he  regards  as  incorrect.  And  then  tell  him  after  completing  the book,  that  if  you  give  us  strong  proof  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  for  all  of  those  mas’alas  which  you  regard  as  incorrect , then only will I accept your view. 

Third Test

Take  Tahawi Shareef,  Musnaf ibn  Abi Shai’ba  or Musnaf Abdur Razzaak and narrate the contradicting Ahadith and ask him to solve  the  contradiction  with  a  Sahih  Hadith  and  not  with  an  individuals  statement  or  principal,  he  will  be  helpless  and unable  to  achieve  a  solution.  Only  one  solution  is  applicable  and  that  is  to  follow  the  Mujtahid  by  acting  on  the  more superior Hadith. This is Taqleed.

It  is  clean  from  the  above  that  these  people  are  ignorant  regarding  Qur’aan  and  Hadith.    Yes,  harbouring  ill  thought  and being  impertinent  to  the  ancestors  have  been  termed  as  practising  on  Hadith.  Perhaps  practising  on  “the  latter  part  of  this Ummat  will  curse  the  foremost”  is  termed  as  practising  on  Hadith.

Their Taqleed

In  language  they blindly trust  the  Philogist  which  is  their  Taqleed.  The Ghair Muqallids disciples follow the Muhadditheen in  regard  with  the  authenticity and  the  weakness  of  a  Hadith,  the  principles of Hadith and  the narrators of Hadith. In Grammar  and  Etymology  they  do  not  feel  ashamed  to  follow  a  Grammarian.  They  deem  it  necessary  to  follow  a doctor  by  taking  the  prescribed  medication. Regarding  legislative  laws  they  follow  a  controversialist  (one  well versed  in  law). Only regarding  Islaamic  Jurisprudence,  instead  of  following the Theologians,  they follow incapable Ulema. Following and  consulting  the incapable  is  a sign  of  Qiyamaah.  Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) is reported  to  have  said  that  when  duty  is  entrusted  to  an  incapable  person,  then  await  the  coming  of  Qiyamaah  (i.e. wait  for  turmoil  and  destruction). This  is  just  as  one  who  takes  medical  treatment  from  a  shoemaker,  or  advice regarding  legal  matters  from  a  blacksmith.  In  Tafseer,  instead  of  following  Hadhrat  Abdullaah  bin  ‘Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) they  follow  Mirza  Qadiyani.    In  Hadith,  Aslam  Jirajapuri  and  Parwez  are  given  preference  and  regarded  more authentic than Imaam Bukhari and Imaam Muslim. 

Reward and Punishment

When the judge passess a verdict  and  exerts  in  doing so, he  will receive double  reward  if  he  is  correct  and  a single  reward if  he  err’s”  [Sharh  Muslim–vol.  12  p13]    

Rasulullaah (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) has  said, “That  whosoever  gives his own opinions regarding the Qur’aan,  his  abode shall  be  Jahannum (Tirmidhi )   

And  he mentioned  that  “whosoever gives his own opinion regarding the Qur’aan, then he will be turned a sinner, even if it happens to be on the truth“. (Tirmidhi).

Imaam Nawawi (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  says:  “That  it  is  an  agreement  between  all  Muslims  that  a Mujtahid  gets a  reward  for every  Ijtihaad  (i.e.  every  problem  that  is  solved  after  deep  thought).  If  his  Ijihaad  is  correct,  then  he  is  worthy  of  2 rewards, one  reward  for  his  earnest  effort  and  the  other  reward  for  his  correctness.  And  if  his  Ijtihaad  was  not  correct,  then too  he  will  get  one  reward  for  his  earnest  effort.  And  an  unworthy  person  is  not  allowed  under  any  circumstances  to  make Ijtihaad,  but  is  regarded  as  a  sinner,  whether  it  happens  to  be  correct  or  incorrect,  because  it  is  only  by  a  mere  co-incidence that  he  got  the  correct  answer  and  not  on  the foundation  of  Shariat.  So  he  is  regarded  a  sinner  in  all  these cases, whether it is correct  or  incorrect  and  all  his  own  opinions  are  rejected  and  non  of  his  excuses  are  accepted,  according  to Shariat and he is regarded as a Jahannami” [Sharah Muslim].

The Blind Taqleed 

Today the  people  taunt  and  say that  following  of  the  Imaams  of  Fiqh  is  blind  Taqleed.  Unfortunately these  people  don  not even  know  the  meaning  of  blind  Taqleed.  Blind  Taqleed  is  when  one  blind  person  runs  behind  another  blind  person  and both  fall  into  a  ditch.  And  if  a  blind  person  follows  a  person  who  can  see,  so  this  person  with  the  blessing  of  vision  will save  the  blind  person  from  falling  into  a  ditch,  and  will  make  him  reach  his  destination.  The  4  imaams  are  not  blind.  They are  the  pious  servants  of  Allaah.  Blind  Taqleed  is  also  this,  that  they  themselves  are  blind  and  their  imaams  are  also  blind regarding  Ijtihaad.  That  is  why  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  has  said:  “That  if  an  ignorant  person  make  his  leader  a person who himself is ignorant, then he will be lead astray

LAST WORD

It  is  our  advise  that  those  who  are  making  Taqleed  should  know fully well that they are  on  the  path of the “Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat”  and  to  those  who  unfortunately  deny  or  reject  Taqleed  must  repent  to  be  counted  amongst  the  group  whose  name even was given by Rasulullaah (Sallahu Alayhi Wasalaam). Presently the Ghair Muqallid is misled and misleading. May Allaah  Ta’ala grant us  the ability to  conform  to  the  teaching  of  Nabi  (Sallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  as  expounded  by the Ahle Sunnah Wal Jamaat.  Aameen!