Taqleed Made Easy

[By Mufti Afzal Hoosen Elias]

What is the Literal Meaning of Taqleed

The literal  meaning  of  Taqleed  according  to  the  dictionary is  “to  follow“.  And  according  to  the  dictionary,  Taqleed it’tiba; Ita’at;  and  Iqtida  are  all  synonyms.    The  word  taqleed  originates  from  “Qa  la  da”,  i.e.:  a  collar  (necklace)  when  this  collar  is placed  on  the  neck  of  men  it  is  called  a  necklace  and  when  it  is placed  on  the  neck  of an  animal  it  is called  a  collar.  We will now explain only that meaning which refers to men because we are humans. 

The Shar’ii Meaning of Taqleed

Hakimul  Ummat Hadhrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (Rahmatullah Alayh) while defining Taqleed writes: “that Taqleed is to  accept  the  view  or  saying  of  an  individual,  and  to  entertain  a  positive  belief  that  his  view  is  authentic.  Without scrutinizing (investigating) its authority.”  (Al-Iqtisaad Page 5).

According  to  the above-mentioned  definition  of  taqleed, we  understand that  to  accept  the  narration  of a narrator  is taqleed of ‘Riwayah‘ and to accept the disposition of a Mujtahid is ‘Taqleed fid Dirayat‘.

The  Correct  and  Incorrect  Taqleed:  

According  to  the  dictionary,  the  milk  of  a  dog  is  called  milk  and  the  milk  of  a  cow  is  also  called  milk,  but  according  to Shariat there is a difference of it being Halaal and haraam. In the same way there are two types of Taqleed:

1.  If  you  follow  anybody  in  going  against  Shariat,  then  this  is  wrong,  just  like  how  the  non-believers  follow  their  own  evil ways,  instead  of  following  Allaah  and  his  Rasul  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).

2.    If  you  follow anybody in  acting according to Shariat  and  that  you  have this belief  that  the  Mujtahid  is  more  learned  than in the Qur’aan and Sunnat and that is why we follow him, then this is the correct and Wajib (necessary) Taqleed.

On Which Masa’il (laws) Taqleed is Made?

Only  on  these  Mas’alas  which  need  deep  thought  (Masa’il  Ijtihadia).  In  the  Hadith  of  Muadh  bin  Jabal  (radhiyallahu anhu),  the  law  of Ijtihaad  is  established,  that  in    those  mas’alas  the  Mujtahid  will  adopt  Ijtihad  which  are  not  found  in  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith, and these are corroborated from the Qur’aan and Hadith.

N.B. It  is  also  the  Ijtihaad  of  the  Muhadditheen,  to  make  the  rules  of  Hadith.  To  say which Hadith  is correct, which is weak and to say whether the author is reliable or not. 

Who Should Taqleed be Made of?

It  is  a  known  fact,  in  that  those  Mas’alas  which  require  deep  thought  (Ijtihaad)  then  the  Mujtahid  should  be  followed  and  it is the declaration of the Mujtahid, That  we do not take out Mas’alas from our own  whims and fancies.  But it  is taken from the Qur’aan, Hadith and on Ijma (i.e. Unanimous  consent  of  Ummah).    And  this is also the  declaration  of  the  Mujtahids  that  we  first  search  in  the  Qur’aan,  if  no clear  answer  is  found,  then  we  look  in  the  Sunnah,  and  if  it  is  not  found  therein,  then  the  unanimous  agreement  of  the Sahaabah  (Radiyahallahu  Anhum),  if  there  is  difference  of  opinion  among  the  Sahaabah  (Radiahallahu  Amhum)  then  it  is taken  from  the  Khulafa-e-Rashideen,  and  it  is  not  found  here  also,  then  they  pass  such  a  ruling  through  their  undertaking which  is  not against  the  commandments of Allaah  Ta’ala and  the  teachings of Nabi (Sallallahu  alayhi wasallam) and  in  this way they search for the answers. 

If  you  wish  to  know  the  truth  about  what  we  have  stated,  then  summarise  the  teachings  of  Ibrahim  and  his  cohorts  as recorded  in  the  following  works:  Al Athar  traditions  by Muhammad al Shaybani, the Jami “The Compendium” of Abu al Razzaq  and  the  Musannaf  “Compilation”  of  Ibn Abu Shaybah,  and  compare  with  Abu  Hanifah’s  (rahmatuplah alayh)  formal  opinions.   Indeed,  you  will  find  that  Abu  Hanifah    (rahmatullah alayh)  departs  only rarely from  their  way,  and  even  then  his  opinion  will  not  differ from the opinions of the Jurists of Kufah.

I  follow  the  book  of  Allaah,  and  if  I find  no solution  there,  I follow  the  Sunnah of the Nabi (Sallaahu alayhi Wasallam). If I find  no  solution  in  either  the  Qur’aan  or  the  Sunnah,  I follow  whichever  of  the  pronouncements of the Sahabah  I prefer, and leave  whichever  I  wish.  If  there  is  a  pronouncement  on  a  particular  matter  by  any  of  the  Sahabah,  I  would  not  adopt  any other  opinion  made  by  any  other  scholar.  But,  if  I  found  a  solution  only  in  the  opinions  of  Ibrahim,  al  Sha’bi,  Ibn  Sirin, Hasaan  al  Basri,  Ata  or  Sa’di  Ibn  al  Musayyab,  I  would  make  Ijtihad  just  as  they  did“. [See Tarikh Baghdad Vol. XXXI, p 368, al Intiqa, p 142, and Mashayikh Balkh al Hanafyah].

When some people tried to turn the Khalifah, al Mansur against Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayb), he wrote to the Khalifah:

The situation  is  not  as  you  have heard,  O  Amir  al Mu’minin! I work according  to the  Book of Allaah, then according to the Sunnah  of  the  Nabi  (Sallahu  Alayhi  Wasalaam),  then  according  to  the  judgements  of  Abu  Bakr,  Umar,  Uthman  and  Ali (radhiyallahu anhum),  then  according  to  the  judgements  of  the  rest  of  the  Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum).Then  if    there  are  any  differences  between  their pronouncements,  I resort  to  al  Qiyas (deduction by analogy).  No  one  of  Allaah’s  creatures  is  inherently closer  to  Him  than any  other“. [See al Samarqandi, Mizan al Usul, 152, taqi al Din-al Ghazzi, al Tabaqat al Saniyah I, 43; and Mashayikh, Balkh, p. 193]. 

Just  like  an  accountant  has  to  look  up  in  the  laws  of  accounting  for  every  new  question  and  not  from  his  own  whims  and fancies.

Moreover  the  general  impression  created  is  that  Imams  of  Fiqh,  especially  Imam  Abu  Hanifa  (rahmatullah alayh)  only formulate  using Qiyas  and  discard  the  Quraan  and  Ahadith.

Also  know that  following  the  Sunnat  one  will  be  adhering  to  the  Ahadith  as  well.  But  by trying  to  only follow  the  Ahadith one  will  not  necessarily  be  following  the  Sunnat

Understand  carefully  this  difference.  For  those  opposing  Taqleed  try  to decieve  the  simple  Muslim by stating  that  you  are  not  following  the  Ahadith  and  thereby implying  that  one is  not following the  Nabi (Sallahu  Alayhi  Wasalaam)  of  Allaah.

Furthermore  Sunnat  came  before  Ahadith,  so  the  one  acting  upon  the  Sunnat  is  closest  in  Pleasing  the  objects  of  Allaah. Also,  the  Aima-e-Araba – the  Four  Imams  of Fiqh  had  access to the  Sunnat  which  includes  the Ahadith whilst the objectors of Taqleed are further away from the era of Nabi (Sallahu Alayhi Wasalaam) and only have the Ahadith in front.

Who Makes Taqleed?

It  is  a  known  fact that  when  a  question  is  put  forward  to  an  accountant,  then  he would  give  an  answer  according  to  the rules of  accounting  and  those  who  do not  know the rules of  accounting,  will  ask  the accountant for an answer.   In the same way in Masa’il-e-Ijtihadia there are  two ways in practicing on the Qur’aan and Sunnah.

1.  That  person  who is a Mujtahid  will  search  of  Mas’alas  himself,  from the rules  of  Ijtihadia  and  will practice on  the Qur’aan and Hadith.

2.  And  a ‘Ghair  Mujtahid‘  (non-Mujtahid)  knows  that  he  does  not  have  the  capability of  searching  for  the  Mas’ala  from  the Qur’aan  and  Hadith  that  is  why he  will  ask the  Mujtahid  for the  Mas’ala according to the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith.  To practice in this  way is  called  Taqleed  and  a  Muqallid-follower  cannot  practice  on any law on his own opinion and when he know that a Mujtahid will inform him according to the purport of Allaah and his Rasul (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

Who is a Mujtahid?

These  conditions  include:  (a)  mastery  of  the  Arabic  language,  to  minimise  the  possibility of  misinterpreting  Revelation  on purely linguistic  grounds;  (b)  a  profound  knowledge  of  the  Qur’aan  and  the  Sunnah  and  the circumstances  surrounding  the revelation  of  each  verse  and  Hadith,  together  with  a full knowledge of the Qur’aanic and  Hadith  commentaries, and a control of  all  the  interpretative  techniques  discussed  above;  (c)  knowledge  of  the  specialised  disciplines  of  Hadith,  such  as  the assessment  of  narrators  and  of  the  matn;  (d)  knowledge  of  the  views  of  the  companions, followers and the great Imams, and of  the  positions  and  reasoning  expounded  in  the  text  books  of  Fiqh,  combined  with  the  knowledge  of  cases  where  a consensus  (Ijma)  has  been  reached;    (e)  knowledge  of  this  science  of  judicial  analogy  (qiyas,  its  types  and  conditions;    (f) knowledge  of  one’s  own  society  and  of  public  interest  (maslaha);  (g)  knowing  the  general  objectives  (makasid)  of  the Shari’ah;  (h)  a  high  degree  of  intelligence  and  personal  piety,  combined  with  the  Islamic  virtues of compassion,  courtesy and modesty.

A scholar  who has fulfilled  these  conditions  can  be  considered  a  mujtahid fi’l-shar,  and  is not  obliged,  or  even  permitted,  to follow  an  existing  authoritative  madhhab.  This  is  what  some  of  the  Imams  were  saying  when  they  forbade  their  great disciples  from  imitating  them  uncritically.  But  for  the  much  greater  number  of   scholars  whose  expertise  has  not  reached such  dizzying  heights,  that  is,  a  scholar  who  remains  broadly  convinced  of  the  doctrines  of  his  school,  but  is  qualified  to differ  from  received  opinion  within  it,  there  have  been  a  number  of  example of  such method,  for  instance  Qadi Ibn  ‘Abd al-Barr (rahimahullah) among  the  Malikis,  Imam  al-Nawawi (rahimahullah) among  the  Shafi’is,  Ibn  Abidin (rahimahullah) among  the  Hanafis  and  Ibn  Qudama (rahimahullah)  among  the Hanbalis. 

Other  categories  of  mujtahid  are  listed  by  the  usul  scholars;  but  the  distinctions  between  them  are  subtle.  The  remaining categories  can  in  practice  be  reduced  to  two:  the  muttabi  (follower),  who  follows  his  madhhab  while  being  aware  of  the Qur’aanic  and  Hadith  texts  and  the  reason  underlying  its  positions,  and  secondly  the  muqallid  (emulator),  who  simply conform to the  madhhab because of his confidence in  its  scholars,  and  without necessarily knowing  the  detailed  reasoning behind  all  its  thousands  of  rulings.  

The Definition of a ‘Ghair Muqallid

We have already understood  the  meaning of a Mujtahid  and  a Muqallid (follower),  now we have  to understand the meaning of  a  ‘Ghair  Muqallid‘  i.e.  that  person  who  cannot  make  Ijtihaad  and  who  does  not  follow  anybody,  meaning  he  is  not  a Mujtahid  nor  is  he  a  Muqallid.  Just  like  how  in  Salaat  with  Jama’ah,  there  is  only  one  Imaam  and  the  rest  are  Muqtadis (followers).    But  that  person  who  is  not  an  Imaam  nor  a  Muqtadi,  or  he  sometimes  speaks  ill  of  the  Imaam  or  fights  with  the Muqtadis,  is  known  as  a  Ghair  Muqallid,  or  just  like  how  in  countries  there  is  a  ruler  and  the  rest  are  all  his  subjects,  but that  person  who  is  not  a  ruler  nor  is  he  a  subject,  then  he  is  a  traitor  of  that  country.  So  this  is  the  position  of  a  ‘Ghair Muqallid‘.  (Non-follower).

These  days  the  ‘Ghair  Muqallid‘  has  termed  himself, “Ahl-e-Hadith‘, whereas  in  reality  he  is  far  away  from  the  Ahadith. Another name commonly used these days is “Salafi“.

TAQLEED IN THE QUR’AAN

1)  “Ask  the  people  of  knowledge  (those  who  know)  when  you  do  not  know”   [Nahl: 43, Ambiyaa: 7].          

2)  “These  are  those  whom  Allaah  had  guided  so  you  also  follow  their  path”   [Surah An’aam]        

3)  “Oh  Muslims,  obey  Allaah  and  obey  the  Rasul  and  those  in  authority”   [Surah an Nisa’: 89]]             

4)  “When  news come to them, either of security or of fear,  they divulge  it,  but  if  they had  refined  it  to  the Rasul and to those who are in authority among them, those among them who investigate the matter, they could have understood it“.  [Surah An Nisa’: 83].

5)  “The  believers  should  not  go  forth  (in  jihaad)  all  together.    Why  then  should  not  a  party  from  every  group  (who  are  left behind)  apply themselves  diligently  to  understand  Deen  (fiqh)  and  admonish  these  people  when  they return,  then  they may ward off evil“.  [Surah Taubah: 122]

6)  “And  when  they become steadfast  and  firmly believed  in  our  revelations.  We  appointed  leaders  (guides)  from  amongst them who gave directions at our bidding” (will/command)  [Surah Alif laam meem Sajdah: 32-23]

7) “Follow the path of one who has turned towards me“.  [Surah luqman: 15]. 

8) “O Muslims, fear Allaah, be amongst the Sadiqeen”. (truthful ones).   [Surah Taubah].

9) “And follow the creed of Ibraheem who turned away from all that is false.”   [Surah-al-Imraan:95]. 

10)  “And  we  made  them  leaders  who  used  to  guide  others  by  our  command,  and  we  inspired  them  to  do  great  works“.     [Surah Ambiyaa:73]

As listed by Mufti Abdur Raheem Lajpuri in Fatawa Raheemiyah-Vol. 4.

TAQLEED IN THE AHADITH 

1).  Hadhrat  Hudhaifa  narrates  that  Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam) said: I do not know for how long I will be amongst you?   So you follow two people after me, (one) Abu Bakr and (two) Umar“.   [Mirqaat,  Vol. 5 p. 349]. 

2)  Definitely  Allaah  will  not  remove  (left)  Ilm  from  the  world  by raising  it  from  the hearts (of servants),  but Ilm will be risen by  calling  the  Ulema  (to  me),  to  such  an  extent  that  when  no  Alim  is  left  then  the  people  will  take  the  ignorant  as  their leaders,  who  will  be  questioned  and  they will  reply without  Ilm,  they themselves  will  be  misled  and  will mislead others.   [In BukhariMuslim,  from  Hadhrat  Abdullaah  bin  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu),  Mishkaat  P  33].

3)  “One who renders a legal  ruling without  Ilm,  its  sin  will  be  upon  the givers  of  the  Ruling”   [in Abu Dawood from Hadhrat Abu Hurrairah (Radhiyallahu anhu), Mishkaat:P 27].

4)  In  every  coming  generation  reliable  people  are  those  who  are  reposition  of  Ilm  with  which  they  refute  the  extremist complaintant,  and  the  false  claims  of  the  false  ones  and  the  gross  devious  false  declaration  of  the  ignorant  ones.  [from Hadhrat Ebraheem bin Abdul Rahman al Azri in Bukhari, Mishkaat P28]

5)  “You follow me by looking at me and those who are coming after your,  follow you  by looking at you”   [Bukhari, Muslim, Bukhari: Vol.1 P 99]. 

6)  “Verily  people  will  be  your  followers  and  verily  people  will  come  to  you  from  different  parts  of  the  world  to  acquire learning  (understanding)  in  Deen.    So  when  they  come,  admonish  them  with  good“.    [From  Hadhrat  Abu  Sa’eed  Khudri (Radhiyallahu anhu) of Tirmidhi, Mishkaat]. 

7)  A lady came to Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  and  stated. Oh  Rasulullaah,  my husband  has  gone  for Jihaad, and  when he performs  Salaat,  I follow  him  and  in  all  his  action  I follow  him,  now  show  me  such  an action, which  will earn me the  reward  of  Jihaad.  [From  Hadhrat  Sahl  bin  Mua’dh  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  in Musnad Ahmad, vol.  3, p 439].

Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  did  not  object  to  his  making  Taqleed  of  her  husband).  

8)  Concerning  the  Sahabah  (Radhiyallahu anhu)  Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam):    “So  the  work  these  Muslims consider  good  is  good  in  the  sight  of  Allah  also,  and  which  they consider  bad  is  bad  in  the sight  of  Allaah  also”     [Iqamat-al-Hajjeh,  Page  8,  Majalis  al  Abrar,  Page  130,  Majlis,  18,  Muwatta-e-Muhammad ,Page 112, Al- Bidaya-wal-Nihaya, Vol. 10, Page 228].

9)  The sect of salvation  is,  “That  millat  on  which  I,  (Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi Wasallam) am upon and my Sahabah are upon”   [Maktubat-e-Imam-e-Rabbani, Vol. 1, Page 102].

10) “My companions are like stars, whomever you follow, you will have the right path“.  [Mishkat, Page 554]. 

11)  The  person  who in matter relating  to  Deen  sees the  one higher  than  him and  follows (him) and  in  those  matters  relating to  mundane affairs  he sees  the  one lower  than  him,  then  he should  thank Allaah  for keeping him in  a good condition. [From Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) Jame Tirmidhi, Sharh Ibn Arabi, Vol. 9. Page 317]. 

12) “Hold fast to my Sunnat and Sunnat of the Khulafa Rashdeen al Madhdeen“.  [Mishkaat, Page 30]. 

13)  Sending  of  Hadhrat  Muadh  bin  Jabal  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  to  Yemen  by Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  [Abu Dawood vol. 2 Page 149]. 

14)  Sending of Hadhrat Mus’ab  bin  Umayr (Radhiyallahu  anhu) as a  teacher and  guide for the people of Madinah. Before the arrival of Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam).  Whose Taqleed did the people of Madinah make?  Was that against the law of Allaah?

15)  “Ulema  are  the  heirs  of  the  Ambiyaa”    [Ahmed,  Abu  Dawood,  Tirmidhi,  Mishkaat,  Page  34].

Ambiyaa left behind Ilm. Just as it is necessary to follow the Ambiyaa so also is it necessary to follow the Ulema

TAQLEED IN THE ERA OF THE SAHABAH (Radhiyallahu anhum)

1.  Hadhrat  Ibn  ‘Abbas (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  says  that  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  delivered a sermon at (a place) Jabia, and  said:  Oh  People,  those  of  you  who want to know about  Fiqh should  go to  Muadh  Bin  Jabal and  those  who  want to ask about  property (goods)  should  come  to me,  for  Allaah  has  made me its custodian  and  distributor.    [Majamul Jawaid  Vol.1, Page 135].

2)  Hadhrat  Salim  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  says  that  someone  asked  Abdullaah  bin  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  that  one  person owes  another  a  loan  which  has  to  be  paid  back  on  a  specified  time.  The  loan  giver  wants  the  debt  paid  before  its  time.   Hadhrat ‘Abdullaah bin Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) was displeased and stopped him.  [Muwatta Imaam Maalik, Page 179].

No  proof  of  decision  was  asked  for  nor  is  there  any  Hadith  for  this  answer.   So  deduction  by  analogy  was  used.  Is  this Shirk? Or not conforming to Sunnat?  Or kufr?

3)  Abdur Rahman says he asked  Muhammad bin Sereen that (for Ghusl) how is to enter the public bathroom?. He said: Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  considered  it  Makrooh  (detested).  [Musnad,  Mutalib  ul  alaya  Hafz  Ibn  Hajar,  Vol.  1,  Page  51,  Hadith no 187]. 

Again, No Hadith was quoted or asked for.

4)  Hadhrat  Sulaman  bin  Yassar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  said  that  Hadhrat  Abu Ayub Ansari (radhiyallahu anhu) journeyed with the intention of Hajj until  he  reached  Nazia  en-route  to  Makkah  where  his  conveyances  were  mislaid  (lost)  and  he  reached  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  on  (10  Zil  Hajj)  (Day  of  Sacrifice)  when  Hajj  had  already  taken  place  and  mentioned  what  had occurred.Hadhrat  Umar  (Radhaillahu  anhu)  said,  you  complete  these  acts  which  a  person  performing  Umrah  does  (i.e. Tawaaf  and Saee) by which you will come out of Ihraam.    Then when the Hajj  time comes next year perform Hajj and make sacrifice of what you can easily obtain.  [Muwatta Imam Maalik, Page 149].
No Hadith proof was called  for.  Hadhrat Abu  Ayyub Ansari (radhiyallahu anhu)  made Taqleed of Hadhrat Umar (Radhaillahu anhu)’s Ilm and  understanding.

5)  Hadhrat  Musaib  bin  Sa’d (Radhiyallahu  anhu) says my father (Hadhrat Sa’d Bin Abi Waqqaas), when he should perform his Salaat  in  the  Masjid  then  he  should  make a  short duration  in  Ruku  and  Sajda  and  at home lengthy ones. I asked my father of this  difference.  Hadhrat  Sa’d  (Radhaillahu  anhu)  replied,  Son,  we  are  the  Imams  (of  the  people),  people  follow  us  (so  they will regard lengthy Ruku and Sajdah as necessary.  [Majma ul  Zawaaid, Vol. 1, Page 182].

So the general public not only made Taqleed of the Sahabah’s statements but actions also. 

6)  Once  Hadhrat  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  saw  Hadhrat  Abdur  Rahman  bin  Auf  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  wearing  a  (special type)  of  socks  and  said:  I  swear  on  oath  that  you  should  remove  these  socks,  for  I  fear  that  people  will  see  you  and  follow you.  [Asabah of Hafiz ibn Hajar, Vol. 2, Page 361].

7)  Similarly once  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  saw Hadhrat Talha (radhiyallahu anhu) adorned  in  a  coloured  Ihraam and said “you are  the  Imaam  and  guide  of  people,  people  will  follow  you,  some  ignorant  person  sees  you  will  say  that  Talha  bin Ubaidullaah  should  wear  coloured  cloth  in  Ihraam, thus  do  not  wear  this  coloured  cloth“.  [Musnad  Ahmad,  Vol. 1,  Page 192].  

From 6 and 7 we learn that Taqleed was made on the statements and action of the knowledgeable Sahabah.

8)  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu) sent  Hadhrat Abdullaah  bin  Masood  (Radhiyallahu anhu)  to  Kufa  and  wrote  a  letter to the  people  of  Kufa:  “I  am  sending  to  you  Amaar  bin  Yasir  as  Amir  and  Abdullaah  bin  Masood  as  teacher  and  minister. They  are  prominent  and  from  the  Ahle  Badr  Sahabah,  follow  them  and  listen  to  them“.  

Was Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) asking the people to commit Shirk, Kufr and Bidaat?

9)  Stating  the  principles  of  Qaza  (judgement)  Hadhrat  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said:  From  after  today  whomsoever  is  faced  with  the responsibility  of  Qaza  (making  Shari’i  Rulings)  then  he  should  decide  by  the  Kitabullaah,  then  if  such  an  issue  is presented  which  is  not  in  the  Kitabullaah,  then  render  a  decision  in  conformity with  us  what  was  given  by Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi  wasallam),  then  if  any  issue  is  presented  which  is  not  found  in  the  Kitaabullah  and  in  the  decisions  of  Nabi (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam),  then  decisions  should  be  rendered in conformity with those of the Saleeheen (Pious) and  if any issue  is  presented  which  no  decision  is  available  in  the  Kitaabullaah,  or  no  decision  of  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) and  no  decision  of  Saleehen  is  available  then  make  “ijtihaad”.   [(8)  and  (9)  Sunan  Nisai,  Vol.  2,  Page  305].

Same  system  was  utilised  by  Hadhrat  Imam  Abu  Hanifa  (rahmatullah alayh)  B  see  later

10)  Hadhrat  Hassan  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  was  asked  by  someone,  do  you  drink  the  water  of  the  Masjid?  Whereas  it is Sadaqah?. Hadhrat  Hassan (radhiyallahu anhu) replied: Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr and Umar drank the water from Umme Sad (Radhaillahu anha), then (if  I  drink)  then  what  is  the  matter?    [Kanzul Ummal,  Vol.  3,  Page  31].    

Hadhrat  Hassan  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  gave  no  other  proof  besides  the  actions  of  Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  and Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu).  He preferred Taqleed.  Did he commit Bidat, Shirk or Kufr or Sin?

11)  The people  of Madinah questioned  Hadhrat ‘Abdullaah  bin  ‘Abbas (Radhiyallahu  anhu) about a woman who menstruated after  the  Fard  Taawaf. (Can  she  return  without  performing  the  Tawaaf-e-Widaa),  Ibn  ‘Abbaas  stated  that  she  can  return without  performing  Tawaf-e-Widaa.  The  people  of  Madinah  said  we  will not leave the decision of Zaid bin Thabit by acting on your ruling. (Bukhari, Vol. 1, Page 237).  

From  this  it  is  clear  that  Taqleed  was  practised  in  the  time  of  the  Sahabah  (Radhiyallahu  anhum)  and  not  considered  Kufr, Shirk, Bidat or sin. 
12)    Although  Hadhrat Ibn  Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) was a Mujtahid  but said  that  there is  no room for any other person’s legal ruling in the presence of Hadhrat Ali (Radhiyallahu anhu) rulings.  [Kalim-ul-Fazil, Page 19]. 

13)  As long as Salem bin Abdullaah was alive Imam Nafi (rahimahullah) did not give legal rulings (Fatawa). [Tazkiratul Hufaz, Vol. 1, Page 98].

THE SAHABAH WHO GAVE FATAWA DURING RASULULLAAH (SALLALLAHU ALAYHI WASALLAM ) LIFETIME 

The  Sahabah  who  gave  Fatawa  in  the lifetime Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)    time  were;  Abu  Bakr, Uthman,  Ali,  Abd  ul Rahman  ibn  Awf, Abdullaah  ibn  Mas’ud,  Ubay ibn  Ka’b,  Mu’adh  ibn  Jabal,  Ammar,  Ibn  Yasir,  Hudhayfah  ibn  al  Yaman,  Zayd ibn Thabit, Abu al Darda, Abu Musa al Ash’ari and Salman al Farisi (Radhiyallahu anhum ajmaeen). 

Some Sahabah gave more Fatawa than others. Those who gave the most Fatawa were: Umm al Mu’minin Aa’ishah, Umar ibn al  Khattab  and  his  son  ‘Abdullaah, Ali ibn Abi Talib, ‘Abdullaah ibn  ‘Abbas and  Zayd ibn Thabit.   The Fatawa given by any one  of  these  six  would  fill  a  great  volume.    For  example,  Abu  Bakr  Muhammad  ibn  Musa  ibn  Yaqab  ibn  al  Khalifah Ma’mun collected the Fatawa of Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) in twenty volumes. 

Those  from  whom a lesser  number of  Fatawa  issued were narrated  are:  Umm Salmah, Anas ibn Malik, Abu Sa’id al Khudri, Abu  Hurayrah, Uthman  ibn  Affan,  Abdullaah ibn Amr ibn al As,  Abdullaah  ibn  Zubayr,  Abu  Musa  al Ash’ari,  Sa’d  ibn Abi  Waqqas,  Salman  al  Farisi,  Jabir  ibn  ‘Abdullaah,  Muadh  ibn  Jabal  and  Abu  Bakr  al  Siddiq. To this  list  to  be  added  Talhah,  al  Zubayr,  Abd  ul  Rahman  ibn  Awf, Imran  ibn  Husayn, Abullaah  ibn  al Samit and  Mu’awiyah ibn Abu  Sufyan.  The rest  gave  only a  few Fatawa,  and  only one or  two,  in  some  instances more,  have been transmitted from any of them. [see ibn Hazm, al-Ihkam].

See  also  [Dajawi  II  576]:  “the  Companions  and  followers  used  to  give  Fatwas  on  legal  issues  to  those  who  asked  for  them.   At times  they would  mention  the  source,  if  this was  necessary,  while  at  other  time  they would  limit themselves to specifying the  ruling. 

Al  Ghazzali  (Mustasfa II 385)  explains  that  the  existence  of  Taqleed  and  Fatwa  among  the Companions is a  dalil for  the  necessity  of  this  fundamental  distinction.  The  proof  that    taqleed  is  obligatory  is  the  ijma  of  the Companions.  For they used  to  give  fatwas  to  the  ordinary people  and  did  not  command  them  to  acquire  the  degree  of   ijtihaad  for themselves.  This is  known  necessarily (bu’l-danura)  and  by  parallel  lines  of  transmission  (tawatur)  from  both  scholars  and  the non-scholars among them. 

See also Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddima (Bulaq ed., p 216):  “Not all the Companions were qualified to give fatwas and  Islam  was  not  taken  from  all  of  them.  That  privilege  was  held  only by those  who  had  learnt  the  Qur’aan,  knew  what  it contained  by  way of  abrogated  and  abrogating  passages,  ambiguous  (mutashabih)  and  perspicuous  (muhkam)  expressions, and  its  other  special  features“. 

And  also  Imam  al-Baji  (S793):  “Ordinary  Muslims  have  no  alternative  but  to  follow  the Ulema.  One  proof  of  this  is  the  ijma  of  the  Companions,  for  those  among  them  who  had  not  attained  the  degree  of  ijtihad used  to  ask  the  ulema  Companions for the  correct  ruling on  something which happened to them. Not one of the Companions criticised  them  for  doing  so,  on  the  contrary,  they gave  them  fatwas  on  the  issues they has asked about, without condemning them or telling them to derive the rulings themselves (from the Qur’aan and Sunnah)“.  

According  to  Al-Sha’bi: “Six  of  the  Companions  of  the  Rasul  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)    used  to  give  fatawas  to  the people:    Ibn  Mas’ud,  Umar  ibn  al-Khattab,  Ali ibn  Talib,  Zayd  ibn  Thabit,  Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Abu Musa al-Ash’ari. And out of  these,  three  would  abandon  their  own  judgements  in  favour  of  the  judgements  of  three  others: ‘Abdullah ibn  Mas’ud would  abandon  his  own  judgement  for  that  of  Umar,  Abu  Musa  would  abandon  his  own  judgement  for  that  of  Ali,  Zayd would abandon his own judgement of Ubayy ibn Ka’b“.

The  time  of  the  Sahabah  came to an  end  between  90-100  A.H.  and  was followed  by the  time of the Tabi’in  whose scholars became  responsible  for  Fiqh  and  giving  Fatawa.  The  last  of  the  Sahabah  in  Kufa  died  in  86  or  87  A.H.  The  last  one  in Madinah,  Sahl  ibn  Sa’d  al  Sa’idi (radhiyallahu anhu),  died  in  91  A.H. The  last in  Basrah,  Anas  ibn  Malik (radhiyallahu anhu),  died  in  91A.H. (some say 93 A.H.). The  last  one  in  Damascus,  Abdullaah  ibn  Yasir,  died  in  88  A.H.  The   last  one  of  the  Sahabah  Amir  ibn  Wathilah  ibn Abdullaah (Abu Tufayl) (radhiyallahu anhu) died in 100 A.H.

Thereafter,  those  who  became  responsible  for  issuing  Fatawa  were  the freed  men, most of whom had lived with the Fuqaha  among  the  Sahabah  Such  as:    Nafi,  the  freed  men  of  Ibn  Umar,  Ikramah,  the  freed  men  of  Ibn  ‘Abbas,  Ata  ibn Rabah,  the  Faqih  of Makkah;  Tawus the Faqih  of the people of Yemen; Yahya ibn  Kathir,  the Faqih  of  Yamamah,  Ibrahim al  Nakha’i,  the  Faqih  of  Kufah,  Hasan  al  Basri,  the  Faqih  of  Basrah;  Ibn  Sirin,  also of Basrah;  Ata  al  Khurasani  in  Khurasan and others.  Indeed, Madinah was unique in having a Faqih from Quraysh, Sa’id ibn al Musayab (rahimahumullah).

Sadurul  A’aimah  Makki  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  says  that  he  visited  Hadhrat  ‘Ataa  Khalifa  Hishaam  bin  Abdul  Malik (Rahmatullah  Alayh).  So  Khalifa  asked  him,  that  do  you  know  the  Ulema  of  the  different  towns?    He  replied  yes  –  so Khalifa  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  asked,  who  is  the  Aalim  of  Madinah?    He  replied,  Nafi,  and  in  Makkah,  ‘Ataa,  in  Yemen, Taws,  in  Yamamah,  Yahya  bin  Katheer,  in  Syria,  Makhool,  in  Iraq,  Maymoon  bin  Mihran,  in  Kurasaan,  Dhihaak  bin   Mazahim, in  Basrah,  Hassan  Basri,  in  Kufa,  Ibrahim Nakha’i.  So  in  every town  one  Imaam’s fatwa’s was followed. Imaam Haakim has also  written  this  incident  in  Ma’rifat  Uloom  Hadith. That  is  why Imaam Ghazali  (radhiyallahu anhu)  says  that Taqleed  is  the Ijma  (unanimous  consent)  of  all  the  Sahaabah  (Radiahallahu  Anhum) because with  the Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhum) Mufti  used  to  give  the  fatwa  and  the  rest  of  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhum)  should  not  refute  it.  This  is  Taqleed  and this Taqleed is established with an authentic chain of narrators. 

Allamah  ‘Aamadi (Rahmatullah  Alayh) says that during the  times  of the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) and the Tabieens (Rahmatullah  Alayhim),  the  Mujtahid  used  to  give  Fatwa  but  together  with  that  they should  not  give  its  proof  and  nor  should the  people  ask  for  its  proof  and  nobody should  reject  this  practice.  So  this  is  called Ijma,  where the general public follow the Mujtahids  and  Shah Waliullah  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  narrates  from  the Shaikh  ‘Izzuddeen  bin  Salaam (Rahmatullah Alayh) who says  that  during  the  times  of  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Amhum)  and  the  TabieenTaqleed  was  established  with  an authentic  chain  of  successors  and  during  that  time  there  was  not  a  single  person  who  rejected  Taqleed  and  because  the compilation of their fiqh is not present today, but the 4 imaams have compiled it, so that is why we have to follow them.

Just  like  how  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyallahu  Anhum) and    the Tabieen  used  to  also recite  the  Qur’aan  but in  those days it was not  called  the  Qiraat  of  Hadhrat  Hamza  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhu)  and  they  used  to  also  believe  in  the  same  Hadith,  but  they should not call it Bukhari and Muslim.

Taqleed in the time of Khalifah Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz (rahmatullah alayh).

He restricted  the  authority to  issue  Fatawa,  inmost  districts,  to  a  few  named  individuals,  as  he did  in  Egypt,  when  he named only three  people  for  this  purpose.  Interestingly,  two  of  them were  freedmen,  Yazid  ibn  Abu  Habib  and Abd Allah ibn Abu Ja’far,  and  the  third  was  an  Arab, Jaf’ar  ibn  Rabi’ah. When  the  Khalifah  was  questioned about appointing two freedmen  and only  one  Arab,  he  answered:  “What  fault  is of  mine  if  the  freedmen  are  improving  themselves  and  your  are  not.”  [Al Maqizi, Khutat, IV, 143].

GREAT SCHOLARS WHO MADE TAQLEED

THE HANAFI SCHOLARS

Imam Ibn ‘Abidin (d. 1252/1836),  Hafiz  Ibn  al-Humam (d.  861/1457), Imam Ibn Al Shahnah al-Kabeer,  Imam  Zufar  (d.  158  AH,  Imam  Abu  Yusuf  (d.  182/798),  Imam  Muhammad  al-Shabani  (d. 189/804),  Imam  al-Tahawi  (d.  321  AH),  Imam  ibn  Abi  al-Izz  al-Hanafi,  Imam  Ibn  Nujaim  al-Misri  (d.  970 AH), Shaykh  Ali al-Qari  (d.  1014/1606), Shaykh  Abd  al-Haqq  Dehlawi  (d.  1052  AH),  ‘Allamah  Abdul Hayy al-Lucknawi (d/1304  AH), also known as Abdul Hasanat, Shaykh Abdul Hasan as-Sindee al-Hanafi, Shaykh  ‘Aafiyyah  ibn Yazeed.

THE MALIKI SCHOLARS 

Hafiz Ibn Abd  al-Barr  (d.  463/1071), Imam  Ibn  Wahb (d.  197/812),  Imam  Abdullah  ibn  abi Zaid  al-Qairwanee al-Maliki (d. 389 AH)

THE SHAFI’ SCHOLARS 

Imam al-Bayhaqi (d. 458/1066),  Shaykh  Abu  Yusoof al-Buweeti, Shaykh Abdul Qasim ad-Daariki, Hafiz Ibn as-Salah (d.643/1245),   Imam  Taqi ad-Deen  al-Subki  (d.  756/1355), Imam Abu  Nu’aym (d.  430/1038, Imam  al-Bukhari  (d.  256/870), Imam  Muslim  (d.  261/875,  Imam  Abu  Dawood  (d.  275/889), Imam  Nasai  (d.  309/915), Imam Tirmidhi (d.  279/892), Imam ibn  Majah  (d.  209/824), Imam al-Suyuti  (d.  911/1505) Hafiz Ibn Khuzaymah  (d. 311/924), Imam  ash-Sha’rani  (d. 973/1565), Imam Hakam (d. 405/1014),  Imam  ibn  Asakir (d. 571 AH), Hafiz Khateeb al-Baghdadi (d. 463/1072), Hafiz  al-Dhahabi  (d. 748/1348), Hafiz  al-Iraqi (d. 806/1404), Imam  al-Tabarani (d. 360/971), Imam al-‘Izz ibn Abdus Salaam  (d.  660/1262),  Imam  ibn  Hibban  (d.  354/965),  Hafiz  ibn  Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852/1449), Hafiz al-Haythami (d. 807/1405), Imam  al-Haramayn  (d.  478/1085), Imam  Abul Qasim al-Qushayri  (d.  465/1072), Imam al-Razi  (d.  606/1210, Imam  al-Baghawi  (d.  510/1117), Imam Abu  Shamah (d. 665 AH ), Imam al-Nawawi (d. 676/1277).

THE HANBALI SCHOLARS

Hafiz Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728/1328), Hafiz ibn  al-Qayyim  al-Jawziyyah (d. 751/1350), Hafiz ibn al-Jawzi (d. 508) Hafiz ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (d. 795/1393).

COMMENT

These  great  and  prominient  Scholars  fell  the  need  to  make  Taqleed  but  todays  so  called  self  styled  scholar  rejects  its necessity and goes even further by classifing those who make Taqleed as idol-worshippers, innovators and sinners.

STATEMENTS OF SCHOLARS CONCERNING TAQLEED

1)   Imam  Abdul  Ghani  an-Nablusi  (d.  1143/1733),  was  an  author  of  nearly  500  works  said  in  his  well-known  book, Khulasat-ut-Tahqiq:  “A  Muslim  is  either  a  Mujtahid  or  has  not  reached  the  level  of  Ijtihad. The one who is not a Mujtahid should follow which ever he likes of the four Madhhabs.”

2)    Imam Abdul Wahhab ash-Sha’rani (d. 973/1565)   said  in  his book al-Mizan al-Kubra:    “However according to the Ulama, it  is  Wajib  (incumbent)  for  the  ordinary  Muslim  to  follow  a  Mujtahid.  They  said  that  if  a  non-mujtahid  Muslim  did  not follow  a  Mujtahid,  he would  deviate  from the  right  path.    All Mujtahids inferred rules from the documentary evidences they found  in  Islaam.  No  Mujtahid  has even  talked  our of  his  own  opinion  on  the  Deen    of Allaah  Ta’ala. A  person  who speaks ill  of  any  of  the  A’immat  al-Madhahib  (founders  of  the  Madhhabs)  shows  his  ignorance  (and  this  is  common  amongst  the ignorant members of the La-Madhhabi groups today)“. 

3)  Allamah  Ibn  Nujaim (H 970) Al sha’balul Nasir;  P 131: “For any person  to go against the Rule/Decision of the 4 Imams is going against Ijima“.

4)   Hafiz-e-Hadith  Allamah  Ibn  Humam, (h 861)  in  Al  Tarirr  fi’l  Usul  Fiqh P. 552:   “it  is  because  of  this,  that  certain….Have started that Taqleed of the 4 Imams is specified….and Taqleed to be limited to these 4 imams is correct“.

5)    The Famous Mulla Jiwan Siddique (H1130) teacher of Aurangzeb Alamgir (rahimahullah) states in Tafseer Ahmadi: “Ijma has occurred on that it is only permissible  to  make Taqleed  of  the  4  Imams. Thus  if  any  Mujtahid  is  born  (in  this  age)  and  his  opinions  is  against that of the 4 Imams then it will not be permissible to follow it“.

6)    The famous Muhaddith  and  Mufassir,  Qadhi  Thanaullah  Panipati (H 1225) stats  in Tafseer  Mashari (Vol.  2,  P 64):  “After the third and  fourth  century  there  is  no  5th  Madh-hab  to  follow  besides  the  4  Madh-habs  of  the  Ahle  Sunnat Wal Jamaat  is  secondary matters,  and  in  the  this  matter,  ijma  has  occurred  that  any  opinions  contrary  to  the  4  Madhhabs is false  (Baatil)” 

7)    Imam Ibrahim Sarkashi  Maaliki says in  [(Al-Fatuhatul  Wahabia), P.199]: that in this age after the era of the Sahabah  just as Ibn Salah  has  said  that it  is  not  permissible  to  make  Taqleed  of  anyone  besides  the  4  Imams, viz., Imaam Maalik, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imaam Shafi’i, Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (rahumahumullah).

8)   Muhaddith Ibn Hajar Makki  (rahimahullah)  (H  852)  states  on  P.196  of  Farabul  Mubeen  fi  Sahr ‘Arbaeen:  “that  in  our  time  it  is the  opinion  of  the  Elder  Imams  that  it  is  permissible  to  make  Taqleed  of  the  Imam-e-Arbaa, viz,  Imam  Shafi,  Imam Maalik,  Imam  Abu  Hanifa  and  Imam  Ahmad  and  it  is  not  permissible  to  make  Taqleed  of  another Imam“.

9)    If  a  man is  called  deficient  in  any of  these  things,  he  cannot  be  called  a  Mujtahid  and  should  conform  to  one  or  other  of the  recognised  schools  of  law  (i.e.  only  Hanafi,  Maliki  Shafi’i  or  Hanbali  schools  today. [Imam Abu Hanifah: Life and work By the well known historian, Allamah Shibli Nu’mani (pg 117)].

10)   Shaykh Abdul  Wahhab al-Najdi  says: “All  praise  due  to  Allah,  we  follow  the  pious  predecessors  and  are  not  creators  of  a new way or innovations  and  we  are  on  the  Madhhab  of  Imaam  Ahmad  bin  Hanbali (rahimahullah)    (Muhammad  ibn  Abd al  Wahab by Allamah  Ahmed  Abdul  Gaffer,  Attar,  Beirut  pat. 174,5]

11)    Son  of  Shaykh  Abdul  Wahhab  Najdi,  Shaykh  ‘Abdullaah  states,  “In  secondary  matters  we  are  of  the  Madhab  of  Imam Ahmed  bin  Hanbal  (rahimahullah)  and  whosoever  adheres  to  any of  the  4  Imams we do  not  object.    [al-Hidayatul  Sunnat – Sheik Muhammad bin Abdul Wabad ke Khilaf propaganda of Moulana Mansoor Nomani].

12)    The commentor of Muslim, Sheik Muhyudeen Nuri (rahimahullah)  states in Rawathul Talebeen:the Ulema state concerning general  Ijtihaad  that  it  has  terminated  with  the  4  Imams.  All  reliable  and  research  Ulema  have  made Taqleed, the  following of  any one of these  Imaams upon the Ummaat Waajib (compulsory).   And Imam-ul-Haramain has recorded Ijma (consensus) on the making of Taqleed of one Imam” [Miral Hidaya, P.10].

13)    Sayed Ahmed Tahawi (H. 1233), states: the group  on salvation  is the  Ahle Sunnat  Wal Jamaat which has been concised in    the  4  Madhhabs  today  which  are  Hanafi,  Maalik,  Shaafi,  and  Hanbali.  And  those  persons  in  this  age  who  are  not  from these  Madhhabs  are  amongst  the  innovators  and  dwellers  of  the  Fire  (not  from  the  Ahle  Sunnat).    [Tahtawi  Alaa  Durul Muktaar, Vol. 4, P153].

THE LOGICAL NEED FOR MAKING TAQLEED 

1)    This verdict,  namely that  one is  well-advised  to  rely on  a  great  Imam  as  one’s  guide  to  the Sunnah,  rather than  relying on oneself,  is  particularly    binding  upon  Muslims  in  countries  such  as  Britain  or  South  Africa  etc.,  among  whom  only a  small percentage  is  even  entitled  to  have  a  choice  in  this  matter.    This  is  for  the  simple  reasons  that  unless  one  knows  Arabic. Then  even in of one wishes to read  all the  Hadith  determining  a particular  issue one  cannot.    For  various  reasons,  including their  great  length,  no  more  that  ten  of  the  basic  Hadith  collections have been translated into English. There remain well over three  hundred  others  including  such  seminal  works  as  the  Musnad  of  Imam  Ahmad  ibn  Hanbal,  the  Musannaf  of  Ibn  Abi Shayba,  the  Sahih  of    Ibn  Khuzayma, the Mustadrak  of al-Hakim and many other multi-volume collections which contain a large  number  of  sound  hadiths  which  cannot  be  found  in  Bukhari,  Muslim,  or  the  other  works  that  have  so  far  been translated.  Even  if  we  assume  that  the  existing  translations  are  entirely  accurate,  it  is  obvious  that  a  policy  of  trying  to derive  there  Shari’ah  directly  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Sunnah  cannot  be  attempted  by those  who  have  not  access  to Arabic. To attempt  to  discern  the  Shari’ah  merely  on  the  basis  of  the  hadiths  which  have  been  translated  will  be  to  ignore  and  amputate much of the Sunnah, leading to serious distortions.

2)    The belief  that  ordinary Muslims,  even  if  they know Arabic,  are  qualified  to  derive rulings of the Shari’ah for themselves, is a example of this egotism running wild. 

3)    The fact  that  all  the  great  scholars  of  the  Deen-religion,  including  the  Hadith  experts,  themselves  belong  to  Madhhabs, and  required  their  students  to  belong  to  Madhhabs,  seem  to  have  been  forgotten.  Self  esteem  has  won  a  major  victory here over common sense and Islaamic responsibility. 

4)    If  one’s  child  is  seriously ill,  we  will  ask,  does  one  look  for  oneself  in  the  medical  textbooks for the proper diagnoses and cure,  or  should  one  go  to  a  trained  medical  practitioner?  Clearly  sanity  dictates  the  later  option.  And  so  it  is  in  matter  of Deen-religion,  which  are  in  reality  even  more  important  and  potentially  hazardous.  We  would  be  both  foolish  and irresponsible to try to look through the sources ourselves, and become our own Muftis.

5)    The  question  is  often  asked  why  only  four  schools  should  be  followed  today.  The  answer  is  straightforward,  while  in theory there  is  no  reason  whatsoever  why the number has  to  be  four,  the  historical  fact  is  that  only these four have sufficient detailed literature to support them.

6)    The Ulema usually recognises  sever  different  degrees of  Muslims  from  the  point  of  view of  their  learning,  and  for  those who are interested  they are  listed  here,  in  order  of  scholarly status. (a,b)  the  Mujtahidun  fi’l-shar  (mujtahids  in  the  Shari’ah) and  the  Mujtahidun  fi’-madhhab  (mujtahids  in  the  Madhhab)  have  already  been  mentioned. (c)  Mujtahidun  fi’l-masa’il (Mujtahids  in  Particular  Issues)  are  scholars  who  remain  within  a  school,  but  are  competent  to  exercise  Ijtihad    on  certain aspects  within  which  they know thoroughly. (d)  Ashab  al-Takhri  (Reslovers of Ambiguity), who are competent to indicate which  view  was  preferable  in  cases  of  ambiguity,  or  regarding  suitability  to  prevailing  conditions.  (e)  Ashab al-Tarjih (people  of  Assessment),  are  those  competent  to  make  comparisons  and  distinguish  the  correct  (Sahih)  and  the  preferred (Rajih,  arjah)  and  the  agreed-upon  views  from  the  weak  ones  inside  the  Madhhab.  (f)  Ashab  al-Tashith (people  of  Correction)  those  who  could  distinguish  between  the  manifest  (Zahir al-riwya)  and  are  rare  and  obscure (nawadir)  views  of  the  schools  of  their  following.  g)  Muqalladun  the  emulators  including  all  non-scholars.  [Kamali, 3879. See also bilmen, I, 250-1, 324-6].  Of these seven categories only the first three are considered to be Mujtahids.

7)    The system of taqleed  implies  that  as  long  as  the  layman  does  not  get the  training for becoming a doctor he cannot practice medicine,  for  example,  in  the  case  of  medicine  such  person  may be  termed  a  quack and  may even  be punished  today, but in the  case  of  Islaamic  Law  he  is  assuming  much  graver  responsibility,  he  is  claiming  that  the  opinion  he  is  expressing  is  the Law intended by Allaah.  [Introduction to The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer xxxv].

By  Allaah,  this  view  (that  ordinary  people  should  not  follow  madhhabs)  is  nothing  less  than  an  attempt  to  fling  the  door wide  open  for  people’s  individual  preferences,  thereby  turning  the  Book  and  the  Sunnah  into  playthings  to  be  manipulated by  those  deluded  fools,  driven  by  their  compounded  ignorance  and  their  corrupt  imaginings.  [CfImam  al-Dajawi  II  579]

8)    Now, if a layman who cannot judge between the arguments of different  Madhahib  is allowed to choose any of the juristic views  without  going  into  the  arguments  they have  advanced,  he  will  be  at  liberty to  select  only  those  views  which  seem  tohim  more  fulfilling  to  his  personal  requirements,  and  this  attitude  will  lead  him  to  follow  the desires  and  not  the guidance… the practice totally condemned by the Noble Qur’aan.

9)    For  example,  Imam  Abu  Hanifah (rahimahullah) is  of  the  view  that  bleeding  from  any part  of  the  body  breaks  the  wudu,  while Imam  Shafi’i (rahimahullah)  states  that  the  wudu  is  not  broken  by  bleeding.  On  the  other  hand,  Imam  Shafi’i (rahimahullah)    says  that  if  a man  touches  a  woman,  his  wudu  is  broken  and  he  is  bound  to  make  fresh  wudu  before  offering  Salaat,  while  Imam  Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) insists that merely touching a women does not break the wudu

10)    Now, if the policy of “pick and  choose” is  allowed  without  restriction,  a  layman can choose the Hanafi view in  the matter of  touching  a  women  and  the  Shafi’i  view  in  the  matter  of  bleeding.  Consequently,  he  will  deem  his  wudu  unbroken  even when  he  had  combined  both  the  situation,  while  in  that  case  his  wudu  is  not  valid  according  to  both  Hanafi  and  Shafi’i views.
11)    Similarly,  a  traveller,  according  to  the  Shafi’i  can  combine  the  two  prayers  of  Zuhr  and  ‘Asr.    But  at  the  same  time,  if  a traveller  makes  up  his  mind  to  stay in  a  town  for  four  days,  he  is  no  more  regarded  a  traveller  in  the  Shafi’i  view  hence,  he cannot  avail  of  the  benefit  of  qasr,  nor  of  combining  two  prayers. On  the  other  hand,  combining two prayers  in  one  time  is not  allowed  in  the  Hanafi  school,  even  when  on  is  on  journey.  The  only concession  available for him is that of Qasr. But the period  of  travel,  according  to  Hanafi  view  is  fourteen  days,  and  a  person  shall  continue  to  perform  qasr  until  he  resolves  to stay in a town for at least fourteen days.

12)    Consequently  a  traveller  who  has  entered  a  city  to  stay  there  for  five  days  cannot  combine  two  prayers,  neither according  to  Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah)  because  by staying  for  five  days  he  cannot  use the  concession, nor according to Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah), because combining two prayers is not at all allowed according to him.

13)      If such an attitude  is allowed,  it  will  render  the  Shari’ah  a  plaything  in  the  hands  of  the  ignorant,  and  no rule of Shari’ah will  remain  immune  from  distortion.  That  is  why the  policy of  “pick  and  choose”  has  been  condemned  by  all  the  renowned scholars of Shari’ah. Imam Ibn Tamiyyah, the famous Muhaddith and jurist, said in his Fatawa:.

14)    Some people  follow  at  one  time  an  Imam who holds the marriage  invalid,  and  at another  time  they follow  a jurist  who holds  it  valid.  They  do  so  only to  serve  their  individual  purposes  and  satisfy  their  desires.  Such  a  practice  is  impermissible according to the consensus of all the imams.

15)    He further  elaborates  the  point  by several  examples  he  says:  “for  example  if  a person  wants  to  pre-empt  a sale  he  adopts the  view  of  those  who  give  the  right  of  pre-emption  to  a  contingent  neighbour,  but  if  they are  the  vendee  of  a  property,  the refuse  to  accept  the  right  of  pre-emption  for  the  neighbour  of  the  vendor  (on  the  basis  of  Shafi’i  view  and  if  the  relevant person  claims  that  he  did  not  know  before  (that  Imam  Shafi’i  does  not  give  the  right  of  pre-emption  to the  neighbour)  And has  come  to  know  it  right  then,  and  he  wants  to  follow  that  view  as  from  today,  he  will  not  be  allowed  to  do  so,  because such  a  practice  open  the  door  for  playing  with  the  rules  of  the  Shari’ah  and  paves  the  path  for  deciding  the  Halaal  and Haram in accordance with one’s desires“.  [Fatawa Ibn Tamiyyah Syrian ed. 2:285,286].

16)    So  to  be  decisive  concerning  any  situation  that  a  clear  direction  has  been  stipulated  the  Qur’aan  or  Hadith  requires tremendous  wide  depth  knowledge.  Due  to  ignorance  there  is  strong  possibility  that  one  will  utilise  deduction  wherein  a clear-cut injunction exists.

17)    If  one  is  not  conversant  with  abrogated  and  non-abrogated  text  or  ruling  of  Shari’ah  then  there  is  high  degree  of possibility  of  acting  on  an  abrogation  exists  contrary  to  the  time  of  the  Sahabah  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  where  Shariat regulations to be acted upon were in front of them. 

18)    Many a times one  comes  across  proofs  which  are  contrary in  nature  from  the  Ahaadith  than  to  collaborate  proofs  in  a Ahaadith or give performance is extremely tedious and difficult. Thus reliance on the experts and authors of Jurisprudence.

19)    In  Ahaadith,  many laws are  mentioned  without  conditions  and  restrictions  whereas  there  have  been  to  some  extend  on other Ahaadith. Thus without a total knowledge of all the Ahaadith one will be at a  total loss like the Ghair Muqallids

20)    In  Ahaadith  at  times  there  is  brevity  and  conciseness    which  is  expounded  in  some  other  Ahaadith.  Without  extensive knowledge valid proper conclusion will not be reached but one will be groping in the dark.

21)    In  some,  laws  proofs  are  of  types.  Some  pointing  to  permissibility  and  the  other  towards  impermissibility.  Making  the rule  is  these  conflicting  circumstances  are  extremely  difficult  without  letting  whims,  desires  and  personal  inclinations overpowering.  Thus  the  rule  stated  or  formulated    closest  to  and  in  the  era  of  Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) will be free from adherence to the inner-desires etc. 

22)    Ijtihad  – Door  is  open-Right  of  Entry  is  reserved  — Justice  (retd)  Dr  Tanzilur-Rahman. It  is  thus  reported  from  Hadhrat  Ali (R.A.)  that  Ijtihad  can  only be  performed  by ‘Fuqaha-I-Abidin‘  that is, the pious jurists. This  saying  also  implies  that  Ijtihad  should  be  made  collectively,  and  not  individually.  Allamah  Iqbal  has  been  a  great exponent  of  Ijtihad  in  the  sub-continent  (see  lecture  No  7  on  Ijtihad  of  his  famous  book   “The  Reconstruction  of  Religions thought  in  Islam”.  But,  at  the  same  time,  he  is  conscious  of  its  pitfalls  by  unscrupulous,  incompetent  and  unqualified persons as apparent from his following verses:- When  the  solidarity  of  life  is  divided,  the  nation  acquires  stability  through  Taqleed.   Tread  the  path  of  the  ancestors,  as  the  meaning  of  Taqleed  is  the  consolidation  of  the  nations.   Exercise  of  Ijtihad  during  the  period  of  decline  causes  disintegration  of  the  nation.   It is safer to follow the earlier authorities than accept the Ijtihad of unqualified scholars

SUMMARY BY SHAH WALIULLAAH (rahmatullah alayh)

A summary of what Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah (rahmatullah alayh) states in Fayoosul Haramain (p 48).

1)    Taqleed  was  prevalent  in  the  blessed  era  of  Sahabah   and  Tabi’in era  without objection.

2)  To follow the  Madhhab-e-Arbah  (Hanafi,  Maalik,  Shave,  Hanbali)  is following the “Sawad-e-Aazam” (the Lofty Group on Truth),  and  to  go  outside  the  circle  of  Mazhab-e-Araba  tantamounts  to  going  out  of  the  “Sawad-e-Aazam”  (which  is misleading).

3)    After  the  second  century  Taqleed  of  one  person  had  commenced. 

4)    The  above  is  a  secret  Ihaam  (inspiration).

5)    It  is  waajib  upon  the  Ummat  to  make  Taqleed  of  the  Madhhab-e-Arbaa.

6)    Taqleed  is  Waajib  upon  a  non-Mujtahid.

7)    There  are  Religious  wisdoms,  and  benefits  in  making  Taqleed  of  one  person.

8)    I  was  advised  by  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  to  stay  within  the  Madhab-e-Arbaa.

9)    Madhhab  Hanafia  is  in  accordance  with  the  Sunnah  and  its  testimony  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  himself  gave.

10)    For  the  common  faith
(non-Muqallids)  to  discard  Taqleed  is  Haraam  but  it  is  the  beginning  of  leaving the  Circle  of Islaam.

Talfeeq and changing Madhhabs is not permissible

It  is  not  permissible  to  leave  making  Taqleed  of  one  Imam  and  follow  another  Imam  when  one  wishes.    When  this  is  done without  permission  from  the  Shariat  it  leads  to  Talfeeq,  it  also  causes  one  to  follow  one’s  desires  resulting in going far away from  the  truth  and  being  lead  astray.

Moulana  Mohammed  Hussain  Sahib who  opposed  making  Taqleed  for  many  years  and  then  finally being  affected  by  the consequences of not making Taqleed writes in his Risaalah, Isha’atus Sunnah Vol. 11, No 2, page 53.

After  twenty  five  years  of  experience  we  have  come  to  know  those  who  leave  making  mutlaq  taqleed  or  leave  making taqleed  of  a  Mujtihis-e-Mutlaq  out  of  ignorance,  finally leave  the  fold  of  Islam.  Some  of these people become Christians and some  remain  without  any  Madhhab,  who  do  not  adhere  to  any  faith  or  religion.    Violating  the  commands  of  Shariat, transgression and irreligiousness are the least effect of this freedom.” 

Similarities between Shias and Ghair Muqallids

Shia  deny  that  the  Sahabah  (Radhiyallahu  anhum)  are  the  citerion  of  right  and  wrong  in  Deen-Religion  like  the Ghair  Muqallids.

Shia state  3  Talaaqs  in  one  session  equal  one,  so  do  the  Ghair  Muqallids.

Shia  say  that  Taraweeh  is  the  bidat  of  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  so  do  the  Ghair  Muqallids.

Shia  state  that  the  second  azaan  given  near  the  Mimbar  is  an  Innovation  (bidat)  as  the  Ghair  Muqallids  say  also and classify  it  is  Bidaat  Uthmani.

Shia do  not  accept the  decision  of  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu) and Hadhrat Ayesha (Radhiyallahu anha) of preventing  women  from  the  Masjid,  so  do  the  Ghair  Muqallids  [Vol.  4,  P.42  Fatawa  Rahimiyah].

Shias and Ghair  Muqallids deny and reject the Ijma of Sahabah (Radhiyallahu anhum).

SOME QUESTIONS

QUESTION 1: We have statements of the  Imams denoting that they must  not  be  followed,  so why do we follow  them? Statements such as: Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah): “When  I say something contradicting  the  Book  of Allaah,  the Exalted  or  what is narrated  from the Rasul (Sallahu Alayhi Wasalaam) , then ignore my saying

Imam  Malik  (Rahimahullaah)  said: “Truly  I  am  only  mortal,  I  make  mistakes  (sometimes)  and  I  am  correct  (sometimes) therefore,  look  into  my opinions:  All  that  agrees  with  the  Sunnah,  accept  it;  and  all  that does not agree with the Book and the Sunnah, ignore it.” 

Imam  ash-Shafi’i (rahimahullah):  “If you  find  my  writings  something  different  to  the  Sunnah  of  the  Rasul  of  Allaah  (Sallahu  Alyhi Wasalaam), then  speak on  the basis  of the  Sunnah  of the  Rasul  of Allaah (Sallahu Alayhi Wasalaam ) and leave what I have said.”

ANSWER:  We must understand  the  era  during  which  these  statements  were  made. We  will  realise  that  it  was  mentioned  before  other Mujtahids or potential Mujtahids, not those who cannot even read two lines of Arabic properly.

It  is  obvious  that  such  councils  were  for  the  Imams  sophisticated  pupils,  and  we  never  intended  for  the  use  by  the Islamically-uneducated  masses. Imam-al-Shafi  (rahimahullah) etc,  were  not  addressing  a  crowd  of  butchers,  night  watchmen  and donkey-drivers.

QUESTION TWO : Those  people  that  come  before  the  4  Imaams,  example from  the time  of  Sahaabah  (Radhiyallahu  Anhum)  till Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) did they follow any Imaam, or was Taqleed not Wajib then?

ANSWER : This  question  is  also  not by the  theologians  of  the  Ahle  Sunnat  Wal Jamaat,  but  this  question  also  comes  from the Shiahs.

The  Sahaabah  (Radiahallahu  Amhum)  were  more  than  a  hundred  thousand  in  number.  Shah  Waliullaah  (rahmatullah alayh)  says  the Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhum)  were  of  2  groups,  Mujtahid  and  Mukhlid. The  Sahaabah  (Radhiyahallahu  Anhum) were Arabs,  but  according  to  Ibn  Qayyim there  were  only 149  theologians,  from whom 7 gave most fatawas and 20 gave few fatawas  and  122  were  those  who  rendered  the  least  fatawas.  The  thousands  of  fatwas  of    these  Mufti’s  are  present  in  the following  kitaabs.    Musnaf  ibn  Abi Shayba; Musnaf Abdur Razzaq; Tahzeebul Aathaar and Ma’aanil Aathaar, etc., in  which the  Mufti’s  only  narrate  the  Mas’ala  law,  and  they  do  not  narrate  any  Aayat  or  Hadith  by  way  of  proof  together  with  the Mas’ala  and  the  rest  of  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyallahu  Anhum)  practised  on  these  Mas’ala’s  without  any proof.  This  is  called Taqleed.  Regarding  these  Mufti’s  of  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiyallahu  Anhum),  Shah  Walliullaah (rahimahullah) says, that the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) were spread in different countries and in every place one  Sahaabi was followed, example:

Makkah – Hadhrat  ibn  Abbass  (Radiahallahu  Anhu).     

Kufa – Hadhrat  Abdullah  bin  Maqsood  (Radiahallahu  Anhu)

Yemen- Hadhrat  Muadh  (Radhiyallahu  Anhu)

Basrah- Hadhrat Anas (Radhiyallahu Anhu)

Madinah- Hadhrat Zaid Ibn Thabit (Radhiyahallahu Anhu)

Then  after  them it  was  the  era  of  the  Tabi’eens.  Hadhrat Shah  Walliullaah  (Rahmatullah  Alayh) says that every Tabee Aalim had a line of following and they became the Imaams of each city and the people used to follow them. This  is  such  a question,  as  if  a  person  says  was  the  Qur’aan  recited  before  the  10  Qaris  came, or the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu Anhum) did not read Bukhari or Muslim or was it not necessary to believe in Hadith

QUESTION THREE  Was any Mujtahid born after the 4 Imaams, or can any Mujtahid be born or not?
ANSWER : This  question  is  in  relation  to  history.  Shah  Waliullaah  (Rahmatullaah  Alayh)  says,  a  true  Mujtahid  has  not  been  born  300 year  after  Hijra  and  Imaam  Nawawi  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  has  mentioned  in  Sharah  Madhhab,  that  for  a  true  Mujtahid  to come  is  not  impossible  according  to  Shariah,  but  what  will  they  come  to  do?  If  any Muhaddith  through  his  claim  regards the  entire  Sahih  Bukhari  as  false  and  has  no  respect  and  honour  for  the Hadith and Muhadditheen, then what benefit does he do  for  deen.  

QUESTION FOUR: What are the proofs, for only one Imaam’s Taqleed to be Waajib and also explain its laws?

ANSWER : Just  like  in  Yemen  Hadhrat  Mua’dh  (Radhiyallahu  Anhu)  was  a  Mujtahid  and  the  public  used  to  follow  him.  See  section “Taqleed in the era of the Sahabah” for more details above.  
Shah Waliullaah (Rahmatullah Alayh) says, that one Imam’s Taqleed is Wajib on the public and it’s proof is Ijma.

QUESTION FIVE: Imaam  Abu  Yusuf  and  Imaam  Muhammad  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  were  the  students  of  Imaam  Abu  Hanifa  (Rahmatullah Alayh) and they also used to follow him, then why did they not have the same views regarding certain Mas’alas?

ANSWER : Imaam Abu Yusuf  and  Imaam  Muhammad  (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  were  both  Mujtahids  and  it  is  not  necessary  for  one Mujtahid to follow another Mujtahid and if they do follow another Mujtahid then too it is permissible.

The Outcome of Rejecting Taqleed 
The Testimony of Moulana Muhammad Husein Batalwi From  50  years  of  experience,  we  have  come  to  know  that  those  people  that  make  Taqleed  without  any  knowledge  will eventually  leave  the  fold  of  Islaam.  Some  will  turn  to  Christianity.    Some  will  be  come  atheist. From these Faasiqs, some of them  openly  leave  out  Jummah  Namaaz  and  fasting,  they  do  not  stay  away  from  interest  and  wine,  and  some  of  them because  of  dunya  outwardly stay away from  sins,  but are  involved  in  sin  secretly.    They marry women  in  a  haraam manner.   Dunya is the cause  of Kufr,  Apostasy  and  Sin.   But  for  the  Muslims to come out of the fold of Islaam, because of ignorance regarding Taqleed is a very serious matter. 

It  is  common  now to see activists  prowling  the  mosques  criticising  other  worshippers  for  what  they believe  to  be  defects  in their worship, even when their victims are following the verdicts of some of the leading Imams of fiqh.

Salvation or Destruction

Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (Radiahallahu  Amhu) said  that  no  doubt  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  had  mentioned: “That three things grant salvation and three things cause destruction.” Those things that grant salvation are:

1. To  have  the  fear  of  Allaah  under  all  conditions.

2. To  speak  the  truth  in  all  conditions,  happiness  or  sadness.

3. To choose moderation whether you are rich or poor.

Three Things That Cause Destruction:

1. to  follow  your  carnal  desires.

2. To  be  stingy.

3. To have pride on one’s opinions.

Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  mentioned  that  from  the  three  the  last  one  is  most  destructive.    (Mishkaat).  

Hadhrat  Shaikh  Abdul  Gani  (rahimahullah)  narrates  from  Mullah  Ali  Qari (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  that this  Hadith  is  a  proof  regarding those people who do not follow the 4 imaams and these are the people who will fall into destruction.

By  Allaah,  this  view  (that  ordinary  people  should  not  follow  madhhabs)  is  nothing  less  than  an  attempt  to  fling  the  door wide  open  for  people’s  individual  preferences,  thereby  turning  the  Book  and  the  Sunnah  into  playthings  to  be  manipulated by those deluded fools, driven by their compounded ignorance and their corrupt imaginings. [Cf. Imam al-Dajawi II 579].

And has come to know it right then, and  he wants to follow that view as from today, he will not be allowed to do so, because such  a  practice  open  the  door  for  playing  with  the  rules  of  the  Shari’ah  and  paves  the  path  for  deciding  the  Halaal  and Haram in accordance with one’s desires. [Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah Syrian ed. 2:285,286].

One who does not make Taqleed will follow ones whims, fancies, desires  and external motications to reach decisions which is against the Shariat of Islaam. Underlying are few ayaats showing the detestments of following ones desires. 

Ayats  on  Following  the  Nafs

1)  “But  he  clung  to  the  earthly  life  and  succumbed  to  his  fancies.  He  was  like  the  dog  which  pants  whether  you  chase  it away or let it alone”  (Qur’an 7/176).

2)  “Do you see the man who makes his desire his God, the man whom Allaah leaves in  error, setting a seal upon his ears and heart  and  drawing  a  veil  over  his  eyes?  Who  then  can  guide  him after Allaah  (has  withdrawn  guidance)?  Will  you  not  take heed?  (45-23).

3)  “Can  he who follows the guidance of his Rabb be compared to him whose erroneous actions are made to seem fair to him, and to those who follow their desires?” (47-14).

4)  “Nor  obey  him  whose  heart  We  have  made  Heedless  of  Our  Remembrance;    who  follows  his  desires  and  whose  case exceeds due bounds”  (18-28).

5)  “And  if  after  all  the  knowledge  you  have  been  given  you  yield  to  their  desires,  there  shall  be  none  to  help  or  protect  you from the wrath of Allaah” (2-120).

6) “And do not yield to their fancies from the truth that has been made known to you”  (5-48). 

7) “And do not be led by their desires“. (5-49). 

8) “And do not yield to the desires of ignorant men, for they in no way can protect you from the wrath of Allaah” (45-18).

9) “Rule with justice among men and do not yield to lust, lest it should turn you away from Allaah’s path”  (38-26).

10)  “And  who  is  in  greater  error  than  the  man  who  is  led  by  his  desires  without  guidance  from  Allaah?    Allaah  does  not guide the evil-doers.” (28-50).

FEW TESTS FOR THE GHAIR MUQALLIDS

First Test

When you meet a Ghair Muqallid give him the Qur’aan  and  a few Hadith  books  and  ask him to show you the perfect  way of  performing  Salaat.  Is  it  a  verbal  or  an  oral  Ibadat.  First  ask  him  the  laws  of  each  action.  It  is  FardhWajibSunnat  or Nafl?    Tell  him  to  show  you  this  from  Qur’aan  and  Hadith. He  will  never  be  able  to  show  you  till  Qiyamaat.  He  will  be distressed  and  say to  you  that  we  do not  believe in  anything  being  Sunnat,  Wajib,  of  Nafl. These laws are innovations. You should  immediately ask  him  to  recite  Sura  Fatihah  behind  the  Imaam,  top  place  hands on a chest, to say  Aameen in  a loud  voice.  If  these  are  not  FardhWajibSunnat,  of  Nafl,  then  those  that  say it is  FarzWajib,  etc.,  are  all innovators.  Then  state  to  him  that  when  you  are  not  an  Imaam  of  a  Masjid,  you  perform  a  Fardh  behind  a  Imaam,  and Sunnat  and  Nafl  on  you  own,  then  ask  him  to  show  you  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  that  when  a  Muqtadi-follower  or  a person  who performs   his own  namaaz whether he should say,  Takbire Tahrima, Thana Ta’awuz, Tasmia, Aameen, Takbir, Tasbihs  of  rukhu  and  SajdaTashaadadDuroodDuaa  and  Salaam  softly or  in  a  loud  voice.  He  will  never  be able to show you  clearly from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith.  Then  make  him note down,  that I have spoken a lie on the Qur’aan and Hadith and I  cannot  even  show  perfect  way  of  performing  Namaaz  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  and  till  today  I  was    reading  all  my Namaazes following my Moulana. After writing this,  you  should  ask  him the  name  of his follower and  test  him in  the  same way.  You  will  see  that  he  is  also  a  big  liar  and  he  will  not  be  able  to  even  show  you  the perfect  way of  performing  Namaaz from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith. Whenever  you  meet  a  Ghair  Muqallid,  you  should  tell  him  that  he  does  not  know  anything from the Qur’aan and Hadith and he should not go on speaking lies on the Qur’aan and Hadith

Second  Test

Take  Taleemul  Islaam,  Bahishti  Zewar  or  Urdu  Fatawa  Alamgiri  and read each Mas’ala and tell him to give you a proof from the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith,  for  all  those  Mas’alas-laws  which  he  regards  as  incorrect.  And  then  tell  him  after  completing  the book,  that  if  you  give  us  strong  proof  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadith  for  all  of  those  mas’alas  which  you  regard  as  incorrect , then only will I accept your view. 

Third Test

Take  Tahawi Shareef,  Musnaf ibn  Abi Shai’ba  or Musnaf Abdur Razzaak and narrate the contradicting Ahadith and ask him to solve  the  contradiction  with  a  Sahih  Hadith  and  not  with  an  individuals  statement  or  principal,  he  will  be  helpless  and unable  to  achieve  a  solution.  Only  one  solution  is  applicable  and  that  is  to  follow  the  Mujtahid  by  acting  on  the  more superior Hadith. This is Taqleed.

It  is  clean  from  the  above  that  these  people  are  ignorant  regarding  Qur’aan  and  Hadith.    Yes,  harbouring  ill  thought  and being  impertinent  to  the  ancestors  have  been  termed  as  practising  on  Hadith.  Perhaps  practising  on  “the  latter  part  of  this Ummat  will  curse  the  foremost”  is  termed  as  practising  on  Hadith.

Their Taqleed

In  language  they blindly trust  the  Philogist  which  is  their  Taqleed.  The Ghair Muqallids disciples follow the Muhadditheen in  regard  with  the  authenticity and  the  weakness  of  a  Hadith,  the  principles of Hadith and  the narrators of Hadith. In Grammar  and  Etymology  they  do  not  feel  ashamed  to  follow  a  Grammarian.  They  deem  it  necessary  to  follow  a doctor  by  taking  the  prescribed  medication. Regarding  legislative  laws  they  follow  a  controversialist  (one  well versed  in  law). Only regarding  Islaamic  Jurisprudence,  instead  of  following the Theologians,  they follow incapable Ulema. Following and  consulting  the incapable  is  a sign  of  Qiyamaah.  Rasulullaah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) is reported  to  have  said  that  when  duty  is  entrusted  to  an  incapable  person,  then  await  the  coming  of  Qiyamaah  (i.e. wait  for  turmoil  and  destruction). This  is  just  as  one  who  takes  medical  treatment  from  a  shoemaker,  or  advice regarding  legal  matters  from  a  blacksmith.  In  Tafseer,  instead  of  following  Hadhrat  Abdullaah  bin  ‘Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) they  follow  Mirza  Qadiyani.    In  Hadith,  Aslam  Jirajapuri  and  Parwez  are  given  preference  and  regarded  more authentic than Imaam Bukhari and Imaam Muslim. 

Reward and Punishment

When the judge passess a verdict  and  exerts  in  doing so, he  will receive double  reward  if  he  is  correct  and  a single  reward if  he  err’s”  [Sharh  Muslim–vol.  12  p13]    

Rasulullaah (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) has  said, “That  whosoever  gives his own opinions regarding the Qur’aan,  his  abode shall  be  Jahannum (Tirmidhi )   

And  he mentioned  that  “whosoever gives his own opinion regarding the Qur’aan, then he will be turned a sinner, even if it happens to be on the truth“. (Tirmidhi).

Imaam Nawawi (Rahmatullah  Alayh)  says:  “That  it  is  an  agreement  between  all  Muslims  that  a Mujtahid  gets a  reward  for every  Ijtihaad  (i.e.  every  problem  that  is  solved  after  deep  thought).  If  his  Ijihaad  is  correct,  then  he  is  worthy  of  2 rewards, one  reward  for  his  earnest  effort  and  the  other  reward  for  his  correctness.  And  if  his  Ijtihaad  was  not  correct,  then too  he  will  get  one  reward  for  his  earnest  effort.  And  an  unworthy  person  is  not  allowed  under  any  circumstances  to  make Ijtihaad,  but  is  regarded  as  a  sinner,  whether  it  happens  to  be  correct  or  incorrect,  because  it  is  only  by  a  mere  co-incidence that  he  got  the  correct  answer  and  not  on  the foundation  of  Shariat.  So  he  is  regarded  a  sinner  in  all  these cases, whether it is correct  or  incorrect  and  all  his  own  opinions  are  rejected  and  non  of  his  excuses  are  accepted,  according  to Shariat and he is regarded as a Jahannami” [Sharah Muslim].

The Blind Taqleed 

Today the  people  taunt  and  say that  following  of  the  Imaams  of  Fiqh  is  blind  Taqleed.  Unfortunately these  people  don  not even  know  the  meaning  of  blind  Taqleed.  Blind  Taqleed  is  when  one  blind  person  runs  behind  another  blind  person  and both  fall  into  a  ditch.  And  if  a  blind  person  follows  a  person  who  can  see,  so  this  person  with  the  blessing  of  vision  will save  the  blind  person  from  falling  into  a  ditch,  and  will  make  him  reach  his  destination.  The  4  imaams  are  not  blind.  They are  the  pious  servants  of  Allaah.  Blind  Taqleed  is  also  this,  that  they  themselves  are  blind  and  their  imaams  are  also  blind regarding  Ijtihaad.  That  is  why  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  has  said:  “That  if  an  ignorant  person  make  his  leader  a person who himself is ignorant, then he will be lead astray

LAST WORD

It  is  our  advise  that  those  who  are  making  Taqleed  should  know fully well that they are  on  the  path of the “Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat”  and  to  those  who  unfortunately  deny  or  reject  Taqleed  must  repent  to  be  counted  amongst  the  group  whose  name even was given by Rasulullaah (Sallahu Alayhi Wasalaam). Presently the Ghair Muqallid is misled and misleading. May Allaah  Ta’ala grant us  the ability to  conform  to  the  teaching  of  Nabi  (Sallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  as  expounded  by the Ahle Sunnah Wal Jamaat.  Aameen!

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