[By Maulana Saeed Palanpuri d.b]
“And whoever opposes the Rasul after the guidance has become clear to him, and he follows a way contrary to that of the Mu’mineen, we shall allow him to do what he is doing and then enter him into Jahannam.” (Surah An Nisaa 115)
“…And we have revealed the reminder (Qur’aan) to you so that you may explain to mankind that which has been revealed to them and so that they may reflect” (Surah An Nahl 44)
This is an article on the Hujjiyyat (proof/authority) of Hadeeth, Ijmaa’ and Qiyaas. The Ahlus Sunnah have accepted all three as proofs in Deen. There are other groups however, who reject one or more of these.
In the first Aayah the Hujjat of Qur’aan has been mentioned together with that of Hadeeth and Ijmaa’.
In the second, the Hujjat of Hadeeth has been mentioned with that of Qiyaas.
Deen is one Sharee’at varies:
For the guidance of mankind, Allaah Ta’alah revealed to them His Deen and Sharee’at. These are two things: Deen and Sharee’at.
From Aadam (alayhissalaam) to Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), the Deen of all the Ambiyaa has remained one. This Deen is Islaam. All the Ambiyaa came with Islaam. The Sharee’ats of the Ambiyaa varied with time. So all of them came with one Deen i.e. Islaam while their Sharee’ats changed from time to time.
Only this Ummat is Muslim:
Then by the Fadhl of Allaah, the Ummat of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has been given the title of Muslim. This was in answer to the Du’a of Ibraaheem [(alayhissalaam (Surah Hajj)]. Muslim means ‘One who has submitted to Allaah’.
Moosa (alayhissalaam), on behalf of the Jews said: “Innaa Hudnaa Ilaik” – (we have turned to you) and they were thus named Yahood (those who turned to Allaah).
Eesa (alayhissalaam) said to his disciples: “Man Ansaaree ilallaah” – (who will assist me for the sake of Allaah?). Those who responded were called Nasaara (the helpers).
Usool and Furoo’:
The link between Deen and Sharee’at is one of Usool and Furoo’. Deen is the Asal – fundamental element or basis. Sharee’at is its Fara’ – it is derived from the Asal.
Ri’aayat (concession) in Deen and Sharee’at:
In Sharee’at there is a certain amount of Ri’aayat (consideration) depending on the age [Zamaan] or circumstance [Haal]. In Deen there is no Ri’aayat. For this reason, there is no difference in Deen. From the inception, Deen has remained one. The Sharee’at of the different Ambiyaa has varied from the time of one Nabi to another according to the various Ahwaal (circumstances).
There are three fundamentals in Deen: Tauheed (the oneness of Allaah), Risaalat (believing in the Messengers) and Ma’aad (the belief of the Aakhirat (hereafter)). This was found in the Da’wat of all the Ambiyaa. There is no concession in this. Rejecting even part of this is Kufr. These are the Usools of Aqaa’id.
Then in Sharee’at, there was some variation. In the time of Aadam (alayhissalaam), all the humans were his children. At that time, it was permissible to marry one’s sister since there were no other women in the world. This is now Haraam. In some Sharee’at, 3 Salaats were Fardh, now 5 are Fardh. This is called Ri’aayat. These are just a few examples of it.
Now, The Deviancies:
The Ahle Qur’aan:
Now we come back to the topic: we have to understand the Usools and Daleels (principles and proofs) of Deen and Sharee’at. There are 3 fundamental sources of Islaam: The Qur’aan, the Hadeeth, and Ijmaa’.
The Qur’aan is the fountainhead of Deen and Sharee’at. Rejecting the Qur’aan is Kufr. No one can reject it and claim to be a Muslim.
The first group we will deal with call themselves the Ahle Qur’aan. They accept the Qur’aan and nothing else. They reject the Hadeeth. Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) had informed us about this group. They manifested for the first time in the very early period.
Hadhrat Miqdaam ibn Ma’dikarib (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Listen! I have been given the Qur’aan and other commands like it as well. Soon you will find an obese, carefree person, who while reclining on his couch will say: ‘follow the Qur’aan in all that it declares Halaal and Haraam’” Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam further said: “Listen! All that the Rasul has declared (of Halaal and Haraam) is as if Allaah has declared it so!” [Mishkaat no 163]
Hadhrat Irbaadh ibn Saariyah (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Will a non-chalant person among you, while laying on his couch say that Allaah has only revealed the Qur’aan? Listen! By Allaah! I have given orders, and I have advised, and I have prohibited certain things. These are like the Qur’aan and at times even more!” [Mishkaat no. 164]
The claim of these people is erroneous-it is false. These people made their first appearance in the 1st century in the time of the Sahaabah and Taabi’een. They are still present. You will find many thousands in Pakistan. They say that the Qur’aan alone is sufficient. They call themselves ‘Ahle Qur’aan’. Even the name is deceptive. The entire Ummat accepts the Qur’aan. The entire Ummat is ‘Ahle Qur’aan’. The correct name for this group is Munkireen-e- Hadeeth – Rejectors of Hadeeth. So we have to establish the Hujjat (proof) of Hadeeth.
The Shee’ah – the greatest rejectors of Hadeeth:
Here the Shee’ah come in. Generally we do not consider them Munkireen of Hadeeth whereas they are on top of the list. They reject all the Hadeeth of the Sunnis. They have their own collections of fabricated Hadeeth. They believe that that after Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), Khilaafat and Imaamat was transferred to Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). Then to Haasan and then to Hussain (radhiyallahu anhuma). In this way, there are 12 Imaams. These Imaams used to receive Wahy (Divine revelation). This Wahy is equal to the Qur’aan! The Wahy of the Imaams can even abrogate that of Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). These are their beliefs. They do not call the Imaams as Nabis, but they grant them all the authority of the Ambiyaa!!
Their most important book on Hadeeth is Al Kaafi of Ya’qoob Kulaini. 10% of the Kitaab are the ‘sayings’ of Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). The other 90% are the Ahaadeeth (saying) of the Imaams. These are but a few of their beliefs in brief.
These two groups do not accept Hadeeth as Hujjat in Deen. The rest of the Ummat does. Usools of Deen and other Shar’i commandments are proven from Hadeeth just as they are from Qur’aan.
The Ahle Hadeeth and Inkaar of Ijmaa’ (consensus of the believers):
After Hadeeth, we accept Ijmaa’ as Hujjat in Deen. Just as one group rejects Hadeeth, one group rejects Ijmaa’. This is a more ‘recent’ group. They made their appearance during the British rule of India and Arabia. They had themselves registered with the British government as ‘Ahle Hadeeth’. Like this they differentiated themselves from the ‘Ahle Qur’aan’.
What is the correct name for the Ahle Hadeeth:
But this name is also deceptive. As with the other group they got stuck on level two and could not progress to the next. We call them ‘Ghair Muqallid’ but strangely both names do not fit. We are ‘As-haabul Hadeeth’ followers of Hadeeth and they are the staunchest of Muqallids. They fight tooth and nail against the Taqleed of our Imaams, yet they blindly and rigidly follow their own Imaams in all that is correct and incorrect.
Some people call them ‘Ahluz Zaahir’ because their Ilm is very shallow and transparent. They do not like this name for themselves.
That is why they had their name registered with the Kaafir government as ‘Ahle Hadeeth’. Then when the British-Saudi-American government came into existence, the lure of petrol-money was too strong. So the ‘Ahle Hadeeth’ aligned themselves with the Saud Najdis and changed their name to Salafi. Salafi means followers of the predecessors, but this name also does not fit! Their path is far off the way of the Salaf e Saaliheen.
We cannot call them Ghair Muqallid because they are the worst Muqallids. We accept all the Imaams as being on Haqq. At times we even accept the Fiqh of the others. They blindly follow their Imaams and Ulamaa only. They consider all others as astray.
We follow the rightly guided Imaams. They follow their own confused self-styled Imaams like Nasiruddeen Albaani.
Can they be called Laa Madh-habiyyah?
Among the Arab Ulamaa, this sect is known as ‘Laa Madh-habiyyah’ – those who do not follow a correct Madh-hab. In Urdu this name cannot be used.
Madh-hab in Arabic means School of thought (Maslak). In Urdu it means Deen or religion.
So the Urdu meaning of Madh-hab cannot be taken since they are not Non-Muslim. They are Muslims but they do not follow any of the Imaams in Hidaayat.
The True Essence of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah:
In Hadeeth we are told to follow the Sawaade A’zam [great multitude] of the Ummat. We are on this path. We are the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah.
We follow the Qur’aan; then we follow the Sunnah, not just Hadeeth; and we follow the way of the Sahaabah and the Mu’mineen and their Ijmaa’ – this is ‘Al-Jamaa’ah’