The Neo-Pantheistic Belief of Qabr-Pujari’s about Nur-e-Muhammadi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

CHANGE

It is simple fact to understand that the removal of a bucket of water from the ocean will reduce the quantity of the ocean by one bucket. Although this reduction cannot be perceived by the eye, the intelligence of man understands it. Thus, removal of a bucket of water from the ocean does represent a change in the volume of the water. This change can be given an equation. If the ocean is X and the bucket is Y, the new volume will be X-Y. But no such equation can be posited for the Zaat of Allah Ta’ala. While change can be understood in finite and dimensional objects, it cannot be imagined in The Eternal and Infinite Being of Allah Azza Wa Jal.

Mentally, logically and rationally it is possible to deplete Allah Ta’ala (Nauthu billah!) in terms of the ludicrous theory of the Logos and Nebula innovated by the Ahl-e-Bid’ah. Such kufr is incompatible with Islamic Tauhid.

PANTHEISM

The neo-pantheistic belief of the Grave-Worshippers implies the doctrine that Allah’s Zaat is everything in creation and everything in creation is Allah. If the Noor-e-Muhammadi is part of Allah, it will follow that it is also Allah (Nauthubillaah!). Since there cannot be any difference in the Zaat of Allah Ta’ala, it will have to be acknowledged that the conception given out by the Qabar Pujaaris must necessarily and logically espouse the unity of Allah’s Zaat and Nur-e- Muhammadi. If any difference is argued between Allah’s Zaat and Nur-e-Muhammadi, it will give rise to the conclusion that the Unity of Allah’s Zaat is composed of different parts and different qualities. But such an idea is both absurd and kufr in direct confrontation with the pure concept of Islamic Tauhid.

Then, if Nur-e-Muhammadi is part of Allah and the universe was created out of this Nur or nebula or logos, it will follow that all creation is part of Allah Ta’ala. This multi-facetted stupid interpretation of Allah’s Being is intolerable to the Islamic doctrine of Tauhid.

This type of pantheistic theory supports only the kufr belief of all creation again being absorbed into Allah Azza Wa Jal. In fact, this is precisely the interpretation which the jaahil Bid’atis ascribe to the Sufi concept of Wahdatul Wujood. By assigning such kufr meanings of pantheism to the pure concept of Wahdatul Wujood of which the Auliya speak, the Grave-Worshippers endeavour to convey the idea that the illustrious Auliya subscribed to the pantheistic beliefs of kufr. But, there can be nothing further from the truth.

ALLAH’S CREATIVE POWER

The Qur’aan Majeed is explicit in its claim that Allah Ta’ala creates by His Command: ‘Kun’ (BE’) Allah Azza Wa Jal created Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam ) and his Nur in the celestial realm by His power of creation: He created this Nur out of the state of pure non-existence and nothingness. He did not create the Nur of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) out of His Zaat.

For the sweeping claims which the Qabar-Pujaari sect makes in regard to creation and the bestowal of divinity (Godhood) to our Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), it draws support from the doctrines of the kuffaar and cites Qur’aanic verses which bear no relevance to the topic under discussion. Since the Qur’aan and the Hadith are silent on the subject of the details of the origin of the universe, the Qabar Pujaari sect is left with no basis for substantiating its kufr and shirk conception other than the doctrines of the kuffaar as conveyed by the stupid logos and nebula theories.

DHALAAL

Those who had rejected the teachings of the Ambiya and those who had fallen in the snares of shaitaan mardud were constrained to propound their own theories for the origin of the universe. Since the knowledge of this fact does not form part of the Islamic conception of Hidaayah imperative for Najaat in the Aakhirah, Islam does not cast the mind and energy of man into futile and spiritually unproductive avenues. Simple, unadulterated Imaan and A’maal-e-Saalihah are the requirements for man’s earthly sojourn until he reaches his ultimate destination.

But shaitaan (La’anatullah), perpetually engaged in his occupation of deviating mankind from the Path of Rectitude, conspired to divert the minds of men from Allah Ta’ala. He thus chanelled their minds into dhalaal (deviation) and by involving them in futile and absurd mental exercises which are of no benefit, either in this world or the next. Instead of the mind engrossing itself in Dhikrullaah, the purpose of its creation, shaitaan succeeded in saturating it with absurd ideas and futile mental exercises such as the kufr logos and nebula theories. By such idle mental pursuits the Greek philosophers and the expounders of shirk and the deniers of Allah Ta’ala managed to manipulate the ignorant masses, plunging them into spiritual deviation.

CORRUPTED BRAINS

Grave-Worship (Qabar Puja) destroys the mental equilibrium of the human being. The spiritual pollution produced by idolatry and grave worship blinds the intelligence, rendering it incapable of straight and simple thinking. We, therefore, find the Qabar Pujaaris making these unabashed and stupid claims about the Nur of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) being the logos of the pantheistic kuffaar and the nebula of the atheist scientists who refute the existence of Allah Ta’ala without the slightest hesitation.

By what stretch of imagination can a Muslim postulate that the Nur of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) could ever be the miserable entities specified in conceptions and theories which are the products of kuffaar and satanic thinking? The corruption which qabar puja wroughts to the brains of a Muslim is akin to the corruption brought about by atheism and shirk.

NEBULA??

Endorsing the kufr theory of the origin of the universe and man propounded by the deniers and denigration of Allah Azza Wa Jal, the Grave Worshippers describe Rasulullah’s  Nur as the ‘nebula’. The atheist scientists and astronomers define ‘nebula’ as follows:

A relatively dense but still tenuous mass of gas or dust (or a mixture of both) in the space between the stars, which may glow by its own emission or by starlight reflected from dust surrounding the stars. Dark nebulae may be detected by their obscuration of the light from stars.

Cloud of dust or gas within the galactic system illuminated by neighbouring stars. A luminous mass believed to consist of an enormous number of stars….

Most certainly, the Nur of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was not a mass of cloud and dust nor was it a mixture of cloud and gas illuminated by other units of creation, viz., stars. The mind of the Mu’ min, although not so apprised by the Shariah, readily believes and understands that the illumination in that Splendid Nur was an inherent quality created in the Nur by Allah Ta’ala.

Most certainly, the Nur of Muham mad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was not a dark nebula obscuring the light emitted by stars as postulated by the nebular theory of the atheists. The Light of Hidaayah which emanated from the Nur of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) illuminated the minds and hearts of men and jinn, expelling the darkness of kufr and shirk—the type of kufr and shirk in which the votaries of grave-worship wallow.

ILL-CONCEIVED ALLIANCE

It is most ridiculous to attempt to highlight the splendour and grandeur of the Nur of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) by striking up an alliance with the absurd conceptions propounded by kaafirs, mushriks, heretics and atheists. Even the utilization of their terminology for Rasulullah’s Nur and for Allah Azza Wa Jal is to denigrate Allah Ta’ala and His illustrious Rasool. The employment of kuffaar terminology—terms coined by the kuffaar to describe their kufr theories—is haraam.

Terms which convey kufr and atheism cannot be used to describe the Nur of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) nor for the Zaat of Allah Azza Wa Jal. But, these worshippers of the graves, not only use the terminology of kufr, they in fact aver that the Nur of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam ) is actually the logos (deity of kufr) and the nebula or the mass of cloud, dust and gas of the nebular hypothesis of the atheists. This antitheis of Shar’i Tauhid expounded by the people of baatil is an unpardonable sin, for it is shirk about which the Qur’aan says:

“Verily, Allah does not forgive shirk committed with Him. And, He forgives besides this (shirk) for whomever He pleases.”

The theory of shirk which the votaries of grave-worship have interwoven around the Nur of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) stands condemned and rejected by the fundamental ethos created by Tauhid in the hearts of the Mu’mineen. In its doctrine of Tauhid, Islam is uncompromising. It does not brook the slightest vestige of shirk.

The “Holocaust”  is a Typical Zionist Myth

By Dr. Abdullah Mohammad Sindi

1. Introduction

2. Zionist Lies

3. How and Why the “Holocaust” Lies Started

4. Scholars and Historians deny the “Holocaust”

5. Conclusion

1. Introduction

The word “holocaust” means an extensive destruction of humans by other humans resulting in the massive loss of life, especially by fire. However, the so-called “holocaust” by Nazi Germany against Jews is actually based on two major lies.

The first lie says that the Nazis killed “6 million” Jews. Because this figure is extremely exaggerated, it is a lie (see below for some reasonable and unbiased estimates).

The second lie says that these “6 million” Jews were rounded up and then “gassed” or “burned” alive. Again, this is a lie because there is no proof whatsoever that any live Jew was ever “gassed” or “burned” in any “gas chambers” or “crematories” in Nazi Germany.

Only those people who had died of dangerous infectious diseases such as typhoid (whether Jews or non-Jews) were burned or cremated in Nazi Germany in order to avoid epidemics. The number of these infected burned dead is much smaller than the “6,000,000” legend. It was a common and legal practice by Nazi Germany and other countries to burn or cremate dead people infected with fatal communicable diseases to avoid infecting the living. No one has ever declared this kind of practice to be illegal.

On the other hand, those Jews who were killed by Nazi conventional  means (i.e., not gassed, and not burned) were no more special than the other overwhelming majority of non-Jewish victims who were also similarly killed by the same Nazi conventional means. Since the killing of non-Jews at the hands of the Nazis is not considered by anyone to be a “holocaust”, why then should the killing of Jews by Nazi conventional means constitute a “holocaust”?

2. Zionist Lies

All Arabs and all Muslims (along with many other people around the world) know very well that the Jewish/Zionist state of Israel is an illegitimate and illegal state established by the power of terror in 1948 and has been maintained by it ever since.

Committed to a brutal and undemocratic program that could be implemented only by force, Israel has been founded on many well-known myths and lies. Toping the list of these typical myths and lies are the following ten:

1. That Jews are the “Chosen People of God.”

2. That Palestine is “The Promised Land from God” for Jews only (despite the fact that Christianity was born there).

3. That the “Promised Land for Jews extends from the Nile to the Euphrates.”

4. That Jews have been “homeless” for the last 2,000 years until Israel was created for them in 1948.

5. That the creation of Israel in 1948 has been a “fulfillment of a Biblical prophecy.”

6. That Arabs have “hated” Jews for the last 2,000 years (despite the fact that Arabs have always been composed of Muslims, Christians, and Jews).

7. That Palestine was “an empty land” that did not have any Arab inhabitants when the Western the Zionist Jews created Israel on its land in 1948.

8. That Jews were not “allowed” to practice their religion freely in Palestine before Israel was created in 1948.

9. That Israel is a “democratic” and “peaceful” country (even though it has waged many brutal and expansionist wars against the Arabs, has systematically killed and uprooted the native Arab Christians and Muslims from their historical homeland of Palestine, and has stolen their properties and businesses for the last 68 years).

10. That Nazi Germany committed a “holocaust” by “gassing and/or incinerating six million Jews” during World War II.

While there are many Westerners who do not agree with at least one of the above first 9 myths, most people in the West generally accept the last Jewish/Zionist claim about the so-called “holocaust” without any challenge as if it were a “divine truth”. This holocaust hoax has been bought and sold by educated and uneducated Westerners alike, whether they are from the far right (such as Christian fundamentalists), or from the so-called “moderates”, or even from the far left (such as socialists and communists).

Although the US is believed to be a free country where the first Amendment to the US Constitution has supposedly guaranteed the freedom of speech for anyone who wishes to express logically and rationally his/her views on any subject, the so-called “holocaust” is clearly an exception to this rule. While an attack or criticism by anyone in the US is permitted against the American Government, the American President, Jesus Christ, or even God, a public (as opposed to private) attack or critical comment from anyone in the US on the powerful Jewish lobby or the so-called “holocaust” is not permitted in the land of the “free”. Anyone who dares to publicly say or write anything critical about Zionism or Jewish influence in the US is immediately castigated as a “racist’ or “anti-Semitic” (that is, anti-Jewish) and would pay a heavy price in damage to his/her reputation and career, as actors Marlon Brando and Vanessa Redgrave found out the hard way. Sometimes the price for speaking out against the Zionists in the land of the “free” is murder, as was the case with Alex Odeh, an Arab-American who was brutally killed in 1985 in his ADC (Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee) office in Southern California.

Although American Jews constitute only a tiny minority of about 2 or 3% of the total US population according to the best estimates, one really wonders if the US is truly a Christian or a Jewish nation, especially when it comes to a public free debate on the so-called “holocaust”.

 
3. How and Why the “Holocaust” Lies Started

During the latter parts of World War II in Europe (1939-1945), when it became apparent that Nazi Germany’s military defeat was on the horizon, Zionist leaders in and out of the United States feared that their colonialist design to steal the Holy Land of Palestine from the Arabs might lose support. Despite the fact that the anti-Jewish Nazis were on the verge of being annihilated (add to that most European Jews had already been assimilated and were living peacefully in their own respective native Western countries including the US where many German and Eastern European Jews had migrated), Zionist leaders still desperately wanted to continue at all costs with their old Pre-Nazi plan to settle-colonize Arab Palestine.

Obviously something heinous, dreadful, and shocking was needed during and after the concluding months of World War II for two main reasons. The first was to gain the necessary global legitimacy and support for the old Zionist scheme of 1897 (the birth of the World Zionist Organization) and 1917 (the British Balfour Declaration) to settle-colonize Palestine. The second was to rejuvenate Zionism by rallying reluctant Western non-Zionist Jews firmly behind the Zionist cause to establish an “exclusively” Jewish country for the so-called “homeless” Western Jews on this important Arab Holy Land of Palestine. It should be indicated here that the West has been obsessed to steal Palestine from the Arabs since the times of the old bloody Western Crusades (1095-1291).

To acquire world-wide support, compassion, and sympathy for their plan to colonize Arab Palestine, Zionist leaders in and out of the US suddenly began to circulate terribly horrifying stories that the Nazis had “incinerated” or “gassed” “six million” Jews in various “gas chambers”, “ovens,” and “crematoria” in and out of Germany between the end of 1942 and November 1944 (five months prior to Adolph Hitler’s suicide in April 1945). The Zionists also added that the Nazis had even made “fertilizers,” “lamp shades,” “handbags,” “ropes,” and “soap” from the skin, fat, and hair of the “exterminated” Jews.

The first person in the world to mention this dreadful information about the so-called “holocaust” and the “extermination of six million Jews” was Zionist Rabbi Israel Goldstein. He mentioned his wild claim on December 13, 1942. [1] Goldstein’s unverified claim became much more widely circulated by Zionist leaders, in and out of the USA, and their sympathizers all over the world after the end of World War II.

This “holocaust” claim was actually instrumental in producing the “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181” on November 29, 1947 that gave “legitimacy” and “legality” to the creation of the illegitimate and illegal Western-oriented Zionist state of Israel over half of Palestine against the wishes of its native Arabs. It should be indicated that this “UN” resolution, which the US masterfully engineered by heavily pressuring UN member states, passed by a vote of 33 countries for it, 13 against it, with 10 abstentions. 

4. Scholars and Historians Deny the “Holocaust”

No sooner had this new and shocking information about the so-called Nazi “holocaust” become public than many Western scholars and historians both in Europe and the US began to quickly refute it as a well-orchestrated wartime Zionist propaganda campaign. They compared it to other similar propagandas during wars such as those during World War I when the Germans were accused of “eating Belgian babies and delighting to throw them in the air and transfix them on bayonets”. In the words of Dr. Arthur R. Butz, an American professor at Northwestern University in Illinois, (more on Dr. Butz below), the: “Zionists, principally the World Jewish Congress, merely presented their nonsense [“holocaust”] to the Allied governments, in particular to the US Government, demanding endorsement of their nonsense.”[2]

Although the Zionists and their sympathizers have always labeled anyone who denies the “holocaust” as a “right-wing” or “racist”, in fact since the mid 1940s many Western and non-Western scholars and historians, from all walks of life with different ethnic backgrounds and political persuasions (including Jews), have categorically refuted the alleged Nazi “genocide,” “the gas chambers,” and the unbelievable number of “six million.”

However, it should be quickly emphasized here that these scholars and historians like Dr. Butz, some of whom will be mentioned shortly, do not deny the fact that many Jews and non-Jews were indeed persecuted or killed in Nazi Germany as well as in the German-occupied territories during World War II, both inside and outside the Nazi horrible concentration camps. What they deny is this so-called “holocaust”. They deny both the number of the “six millions” as well as the manner by which these Jews were killed. These holocaust deniers all agree on the following six fundamental points: [3]

1. That the so-called “holocaust” and the “six million” story originated from the Zionists themselves and not from any government authority or any other independent source.

2. That neither the February 1945 Yalta Conference (the summit of the three leaders of Russia, US, and Britain), nor the Vatican, nor even the International Red Cross, spoke out against any “holocaust” or “the six million” legend, and none of them had any reason to.

3. That none of the three major personal World War II memoirs of either the one written by French leader Charles de Gaulle, or that of the British leader Winston Churchill, or even that of the American leader Dwight D. Eisenhower, mentioned anything about any “holocaust”.

4. That the post-World War II Nuremberg war crime trials in Germany, which automatically “accepted” the Zionist claim of the “six million” figure, were nothing more than partial and biased political prosecutions by the victorious powers.

5. That the only so-called “confession” to “burning and gassing live Jews” came from only one person on April 5 1946 – Nazi Auschwitz commandant Colonel Rudolf Franz Hoess (or Hoss) – after he was tortured by six British military police intelligence officers as one of them, sergeant Bernard Clarke, later admitted.

6. That the best estimate of the total number of Jews who died or were killed (not “gassed” or “incinerated”) in and out of the German terrible concentration camps lost their lives either from Nazi brutalities, starvation, diseases, war-related causes, or other reasons, ranges from 300,000 to 500,000 (and not 6 millions). It should be indicated here that during World War II about 74 million people died, the overwhelming majority of whom were non-Jews, including the atomically bombed/incinerated civilians of the entire two Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The late French geographer Paul Rassinier (nicknamed “the father of holocaust revisionism”), who was elected in 1945 as a Socialist to the French National Assembly, published in 1948 a book titled: Le Passage de la Ligne (“Crossing the Line”) in which he recounted his horrible experiences as an interned left-wing political prisoner in the German concentration camps of Buchenwald and Dora between 1943 and 1945. In this book and in many others that followed it, such as The Holocaust Story and the Lies of Ulysses, Rassinier strongly refuted the “holocaust,” the “gas chambers,” and the “six million” figure.

While completely rejecting the claim of the “extermination” of Jews by the Nazis, Rassinier generously estimated that perhaps a million Jews might have perished [4] (a figure considered too high by many other holocaust refuters) due to many causes between 1933 and 1945 as a result of direct and indirect various brutal Nazi policies such as the turmoil of Jewish deportations, harsh labor conditions, internment camps, malnutrition, diseases, epidemics, and more importantly World War II itself.

Another French, Dr. Robert Faurisson, a former Professor at the Universite de Lyon, also rejected the so-called Nazi “holocaust”; challenged anyone to draw or show a “Nazi gas chamber”; described the famous Diary of Anne Frank as a hoax; and called the Washington, DC Holocaust Memorial Museum “an historical fiasco”.

Incidentally, while there is a Holocaust Memorial Museum in the US for the presumed “six million gassed” Jews by Nazi Germany, there are nowhere in the US any holocaust memorial museums, reparations, or even words of apology for either Native Americans or Black Americans who were slaughtered like animals by the tens of millions at the hands of Euro-Americans during the largest real holocaust the world has ever seen. In the words of the American professor Ward Churchill, “All told, it is probable that more than one hundred million native people were ‘eliminated’ in the course of Europe’s ongoing ‘civilization’ of the Western Hemisphere”. [5] Another American professor, David E. Stannard, writes that between 40-60 million black Africans lost their lives in the brutalities of the Euro-Americans slavery system. [6]

In his well researched and documented book, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European Jewry, Dr. Arthur R. Butz explained that during World War II even US State Department officials, such as J. Breckenridge Long and associates, “… considered all the talk about ‘exterminations’ to be just wartime propaganda invention, in the same spirit as the stories invented during World War I.” [7] In Dr. Butz’s words, “The ‘gas chambers’ were wartime propaganda fantasies completely comparable to the garbage that was shoveled out by Lord Bryce and associates in World War I.” [8]

Dr. Butz also indicated that the total number of inmates in the entire German concentration camp system, Jews and non-Jews (since there were no camps specifically for Jews alone), was about 224,000 in 1943 and 524,000 in 1944. [9] Moreover, Dr; Butz pointed out that Heinrich Himmler, the second most powerful man in Nazi Germany (who supposedly “committed suicide” by “poisoning himself” on May 23, 1945, while in British captivity), had explained a few weeks before the end of World War II in an interview with a representative of the World Jewish Congress that:

“In order to put a stop to the [typhus] epidemics, we were forced to burn the bodies of incalculable numbers of [dead] people who had been destroyed by disease. We were therefore forced to build crematoria, and on this account they are knotting a noose for us.” [10]

Finally, Dr. Butz proved that there was no direct Nazi tangible documentary evidence of any kind for an “extermination” program. He indicated that even Dr. Aryeh Leon Kubovy of the Israeli Center for Jewish Documentation in Tel-Aviv admitted in 1960 that “there exists no document signed by Hitler, Himmler or Heydrich speaking of exterminating the Jews and … the word ‘extermination’ does not appear in the letter from Goering to Heydrich concerning the final solution of the Jewish question.” [11]

Also, in her 1968 book Le systeme concentrationnaire nazi, French Jewish author Olga Wurmser-Migot writes:

“Just as there exists no … order of extermination by gas at Auschwitz, there exists no order to stop in November 1944. Neither at the Nuremberg trial, nor during the course of marginal trials nor at the Hess trial in Cracow, nor of Eichman in Israel, nor at the trial of the camp commanders nor at the Frankfurt November 1945 – August 1946 trial of secondary Auschwitz figures, was the famous order signed by Himmler on 22 November 1944 on the end of the extermination of Jews by gas ever found, the order putting an end to the Final Solution.” [12]

Moreover, in his book The Six Million Swindle: Blackmailing the German People for Hard Marks with Fabricated Corpses, Dr. Austin J. App, the late American Professor of English literature at the University of Scranton and LaSalle College, explained the following four vital points: [13]

1. 1.      That Hitler’s so-called “Final Solution” to the Jewish problem was not “annihilation” but rather deportation or expulsion from Germany, which was approved with the open cooperation and encouragement of the Zionists themselves who wanted German Jews to join other Jews from around the world to leave their own native countries in order to settle-colonize Palestine (a Zionist plan since 1897 and in accordance with the 1917 British Balfour Declaration).

2.      That absolutely no live person (Jew or non-Jew) was ever “gassed” or “burned” in any German concentration camp, including Auschwitz (allegedly the main “extermination” center).

3.      That the Jews who lost their lives while in Nazi hands either died of epidemics and/or killed because they were subversives, spies, saboteurs, criminals, or otherwise victims of unfortunate but internationally legal reprisals.

4.      That the Zionists and their American sympathizers, in and out of the American media and motion picture industry, who constantly use the figure of “six million” have failed to offer even a shred of evidence to prove their charge.

In addition, other Western writers have confuted holocaust story claims. Among them are the following two Americans: World War II Colonel John Beaty of the US Military Intelligence Service of the War Department who ridiculed the “six million” legend in his book Iron Curtain Over America, and Dr. David Leslie Hoggan, a former Professor at the University of California at Berkeley. Also, among British historians who have denied the “holocaust” are the following two: Best-selling author David Irving, and Richard E. Harwood who wrote a book in 1974 titled: Did Six Million Really Die? The Truth at Last [14]. At least three German scholars refuted the “holocaust.” These include Dr. Wilhelm Staeglich who wrote Auschwitz: A Judge Looks at the Evidence, Emil Aretz who wrote Hexen-Einmal-Eins einer Luege (“The Witches’ Multiplication Table is a Lie”), and Thies Christophersen who wrote Die Auschwitz Luege (“The Auschwitz Lie”).

Among the Japanese holocaust deniers are the following two: Dr. Masanori Nishioka who wrote an illustrated ten-page feature article titled: “The Greatest Taboo of Post-war History: There Were No Nazi Gas Chambers” in the Japanese magazine Marco Polo (February, 1995), and best-selling Japanese writer Masami Uno who described the “holocaust” and The Diary of Anne Frank as lies.

Other prominent holocaust deniers include the following two Canadians, publisher Ernst Zundel, and geologist and aerial photography expert John Ball; Swiss right-wing educator Jurgen Graf; Italian document expert Carlo Mattogno [15]; and Roger Garaudy, a leftist French writer and former member of the French Communist Party whose book, Les mythes fondateurs de la politique israelienne (“The Founding Myths of the Israeli Policy”) was published in 1995 in Paris by the leftist writer and publisher Pierre Guillaume. [16]

Beside the already-mentioned Jewish author Olga Wurmser-Migot, there are some other Western Jews who have also categorically denied that the Nazi government ever carried out or even contemplated the “gassing” of Jews. These include Swedish publisher Ditleib Felderer of the Jewish Information Bulletin, American David Cole, and German scholar Joseph Ginsburg. [17]

In fact, people who dispute the “holocaust” are found even in Hollywood itself where Jews established all of the major film studios such as Columbia, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount, Twentieth-Century Fox, Universal, and Warner Brothers. [18] For example, in a 1983 interview with Esquire magazine, the late prominent American actor, Robert Mitchum, scoffed at the so-called “holocaust”. When asked about the “slaughter of six million Jews” by the Nazis, Mitchum answered: “So the Jews say, … People dispute that.” [19]

 

5. Conclusion

There is no doubt whatsoever that it was from this so-called “holocaust” (more than anything else) that Zionism has gained its wide popular acceptance and sympathy throughout the west. This in turn led to the brutal creation of the alien State of Israel over the land of Arab Palestine in 1948 at the extremely tragic expense of its innocent Muslim and Christian natives.

In conclusion, however, whether the Nazis killed one single Jew or 6 million Jews (by whatever method or means), the Germans – and certainly not the Palestinian Arabs – should have paid the price for this so-called “holocaust”. Rationally speaking, any part of Germany (and not Palestine) should have been the site for the creation of this brutal, illegitimate, and illegal Jewish/Zionist State of Israel, which has been causing much death and misery to the Arabs.

 

Notes:

1. Arthur R. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European Jewry (Newport Beach, California: Institute for Historical Review, 1993), p. 80.

2. Ibid., p. 87.

3. See “66 Questions and Answers on the Holocaust,” (Newport Beach, California: Institute of Historical Review, 1995).

4. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, p. 17.

5. Ward Churchill, Indians are Us? Culture and Genocide in Native North America (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), p. 30.

6. David E. Stannard, American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 151.

7. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, p. 63.

8. Ibid. p. 240.

9. Ibid. p. 36.

10. Quoted in ibid., p. 240.

11. Quoted in ibid., p. 19.

12. Quoted in Roger Garaudy, The Founding Myths of the Israeli Policy (USAR Publishing Group: IPP Printers & Publishers, 1997), pp. 48-49.

13. See Austin J. App, The Six Million Swindle: Blackmailing the German People for Hard Marks With Fabricated Corpses(Takoma Park, Maryland: Boniface Press, 1973).

14. Richard E. Harwood, Did Six Million Really Die? The Truth at Last (Brighton, Sussex England: Historical Review Press, 1974).

15. For more details on the mentioned authors and their positions, which are beyond the scope of this article, see the deliberations of the Twelfth International Revisionist Conference on the “Holocaust” held on September 3-5, 1994 in Irvine, California, organized by The Institute for Historical Review, Newport Beach, California.

16. Garaudy, The Founding Myths.

17. Butz The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, p. 11-12.

18. See Jewish author Neal Gabler, An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood (New York: Double Day [and Crown], 1988).

19. Barry Rehfeld, “Robert Mitchum Gives a Ran Interview,” Esquire, February 1983, p. 56.

The Month of Shawwal: What to Do On Eid Night, Eid Day and During the Month

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Eid Mubarak to the Whole Ummat-e-Muslimah, Best Wishes from Team Islam Reigns

[By Mufti Taqi Uthmani]

Beginning of the Ashur-ul-Hajj

Shawwal is the first of the three months named as “Ashhur al-Hajj” (i.e. the months of Hajj). Although the major acts of Hajj are normally performed in the first ten days of Zul-hijjah, yet the whole period starting from the first of Shawwal up to the 10th of Zul-hijjah is held to be the period of Hajj because some acts of Hajj can be performed any time during this period. For example, the Tawaf-ul-qudum, followed by the Sai’ of Hajj cannot be performed before Shawwal, while it can be performed any day after the beginning of Shawwal. Similarly, an ‘Umrah performed before Shawwal cannot be treated as the ‘Umrah of Tamattu: while the ‘Umrah performed in Shawwal can be affiliated to the Hajj, making it a Hajj of Tamattu: Moreover, ihram of Hajj should not be started before Shawwal, because it makruh. For these reasons these three months have been named as the ‘months of Hajj‘ and the month of Shawwal has the distinction of being the first of these.

Eid-ul-fitr

The second meritorious aspect of Shawwal is that it has been chosen by Allah Almighty for the celebration of “Eid-ul-fitr“, one of the only two annual festivals recognized by the Shari’ah. This happy day is designed by the Shari’ah as a sign of gratefulness by the Muslims on the accomplishment of Ramadan, and as an immediate reward by Allah for those who spent the month of Ramadan in fasting and performing other forms of ‘ibadah.

Instead of commemorating an event from the past, the Shari’ah has prescribed the first of Shawwal as an annual festival for the Muslims at an occasion when they themselves accomplish a great ‘ibadah. This approach reminds the Muslims that they should not rely only on the accomplishments of their ancestors, rather, they should themselves perform meritorious acts to please their Creator.

In prescribing the ways to celebrate the happy day, Islam has adopted another unique approach. The festivals of other religions or nations normally comprise of some acts of rejoicing and enjoyment. Their whole happy day is normally spent in dancing, singing and playing.

In contrast, Islam has prescribed a simple yet graceful way to observe the happy day. First of all, it is mandatory on all the well-off Muslims to start their day by paying “Sadaqat-ul-fitr”  to the poor of their society, so that they, too, may enjoy the day along with others, and may not be worried for earning their livelihood at least on that day of happiness.

After paying the “Sadaqat-ul-fitr”, the Muslims are required to proceed to an open place where they can offer the Eid prayer collectively. In this way, they are supposed to present themselves before their Creator and offer two rak’ats of this special type of Salah, which makes them receive blessings from Allah and start their celebration by these divine blessings.

After the Salah also, they are supposed to rejoice the day in a responsible manner, without violating the limits prescribed for them and never indulging in the acts prohibited by Allah.

Keeping this point in view, we will now discuss specific rules prescribed for observing the day of Eid-ul-fitr.

The Night Preceding ‘Eid-ul-Fitr’

It had been the practice of the Prophet (SallAllahu alayhi wa sallam), that he would not sleep in the night preceding the day of Eid-ul-fitr. This night has been named in a Hadith as the Night of Reward (Laylatul Jaiza). Almighty bestows his rewards on those who have spent the month of Ramadan abiding by the dictates of Shari’ah, and all their prayers in this night are accepted. Therefore, it is desirable to perform nafl prayers in this night. The Prophet (SallAllahu alayhi wa sallam), is reported to have said:

Whoever stands up (in worship) in the nights preceding the two Eids expecting rewards from his Lord, his heart will not die when the other hearts will die. (Ibn Majah)

To benefit from this opportunity, one should perform as much worship in this night as he can, and should pray for all his needs and desires.

Before Going to Eid Prayer

The following acts are prescribed as Sunnah at the beginning of the day of ‘Eid-ul-Fitr before proceeding to the Eid prayer:

1. To wake up early in the morning.

2. To clean one’s teeth with a Miswaak or a brush.

3. To take a bath.

4. To put on one’s best available clothes.

5. To wear perfume.

6. To eat a sweet food, preferably dates, before the Eid prayer.

7. To recite the following Takbir in the low voice while going to the ‘Eid prayer:

Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar La Ilaha Ila Allah Wa Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar Wa Lillahi Alhamd

Sadaqat-ul-fitr

Sadaqat-ul-fitr is an obligation for every Muslim, male or female, who owns 613.35 grams of silver or its equivalent, either in the form of money, ornaments, stock-in-trade, or in the form of some goods or commodities beyond one’s normal needs. Every person who owns such an amount has to pay Sadaqat-ul-fitr, not only on behalf of himself but also on behalf of his minor children. The prescribed amount of Sadaqat-ul-fitr is 1.75 Kilograms of wheat or its value in money. This amount is prescribed for paying Sadaqat-ul-fitr for one person only. If a person has some minor children, the same amount has to be paid on behalf of each one of them separately. The following points must be remembered concerning the payment of Sadaqat-ul-fitr.

1. Sadaqat-ul-fitr is obligated on each adult male or female separately, and the relevant adult person himself is responsible to pay it. The husband is not required to pay Sadaqat-ul-fitr on behalf of his wife nor is the wife supposed to pay it on behalf of her husband. Similarly, a father is not bound to pay Sadaqat-ul-fitr on behalf of his adult children or vice-versa. However, if the head of the family, by his own free will, wishes to pay Sadaqat-ul-fitr for each one of the members of his family, he should seek their authorization for that purpose. In this case the Sadaqat-ul-fitr paid by him will be valid on their behalf. If he did not pay the Sadaqat-ul-fitr on behalf of any of the members of his family, he will not be responsible for it. Rather, it is the duty of every adult member of the family to discharge his own obligation or to request the head of the family to pay it on his or her behalf.

2. It is a Sunnah that the Sadaqat-ul-fitr is paid before performing the ‘Eid prayer. It can also be paid before the ‘Eid day, but it is not advisable to delay it up to the performance of ‘Eid prayer. However, if a person has failed to pay on its proper time, he should pay it as soon as possible, whereby the obligation will stand discharged.

3. The Sadaqat-ul-fitr is not necessary on behalf of a child who was born after the break of dawn in the ‘Eid day, nor is it necessary to pay Sadaqat-ul-fitr on behalf of a person who dies before the dawn of the Eid day.

4. Sadaqat-ul-fitr should be paid only to a person who is entitled to receive Zakah.

(More info on Sadaqat al-Fitr: Fiqh of Sadaqat al-Fitr)

The ‘Eid Prayer

The second obligation on ‘Eid day is to perform the ‘Eid prayer. Some rules in this respect are mentioned hereunder:

1. The ‘Eid prayer is Wajib (obligatory) on every male Muslim.

2. The ‘Eid prayer can be performed any time between the Ishraq and  Zawal.

3. It is preferable that the ‘Eid  prayer is performed at an open field and not in a mosque. However, if, it is difficult for any reason to perform it in an open field, it can also be performed in a big mosque.

4. It is not advisable to hold the ‘Eid prayer in every mosque, rather it is preferable that the people from several small mosques get together to either perform it in an open field or, in its absence, in a big mosque which can accommodate a large number of people.

5. No Nafl Salah can be performed before the ‘Eid prayer, neither in one’s home, nor at the place of’ Eid prayer. Similarly, Nafl prayer cannot be performed after the Eid prayer at the same place. However, it can be performed after one comes back to his home.

6. The Eid prayer has neither Adhan nor Iqamah.

How to Perform ‘Eid Prayer

The ‘Eid Prayer has two rak’ah to perform in the normal way, with the only addition of six takbirs, three of them in the beginning of the first rak’ah, and three of them just before ruku’ in the second rak’ah. The detailed way of performing the ‘Eid prayer is as follows:

The Imam will begin the prayer without Adhan or Iqamah. He will begin the prayer by reciting takbir of Tahrimah (Allahu Akbar). You should raise your hands up to the ears, and reciting the takbir, you give a little pause during which you should recite Thana’ (Subhanak Allahumma…….).  After the completion of Thana’ the Imam will recite takbir (Allahu Akbarthree times, and after reciting each Takbir (Allahu Akbarin a low voice, you should bring your hands down and leave them earthwards. But, after the third takbiryou should set them at the level of your navel as you do in the normal prayer.

After these three takbirs the Imam  will recite the Holy Qur’an, which you should listen quietly. The rest of the rak’ah will be performed in the normal way.

After rising for the second rak’ah, the Imam will begin the recitations from the Qur’an during which you should remain calm and quiet. When the Imam finishes his recitation, he will recite three takbirs once again, but this time it will be before bowing down for ruku‘. At each takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after saying Allahu Akbar‘ bring them down and leave them earthwards. After these three takbirs have been called and completed, the Imam will say another takbir for bowing down into the ruku’position. At this takbir you need not raise your hands. You just bow down for your ruku’  saying, Allahu Akbar‘. The rest of the Salah will be performed in its usual way.

Khutbah: The Address of ‘Eid-ul-fitr

In this Salah, Khutbah is a Sunnah and is delivered after the Salah, unlike the Salah of Jumu’ah where it is Fard and is delivered before the Salah. However, listening to the Khutbah of ‘Eid Salah is wajib or necessary and must be heard in perfect peace and silence.

It is a sunnah that the Imam begins the first Khutbah by reciting takbirs ‘Allahu Akbar’ nine times and the second Khutbah with reciting it seven times.

Note: The way of ‘Eid prayer described above is according to the Hanafi school of Muslim jurists. Some other jurists, like Imam Shafi’i, have some other ways to perform it. They recite Takbir twelve times before beginning the recitations from the Holy Qur’an in both rak’ah. This way is also permissible. If the Imam, being of the Shafi’i school, follows this way, you can also follow him. Both ways are based on the practice of the Prophet, (SallAllahu alayhi wa sallam).

Six Fasts in the Month of Shawwal

It is commendable to keep six fasts in the month of Shawwal. The Prophet, (SallAllahu alayhi wa sallam), has said:

Whoever completes fasts of Ramadan then adds to them the fast of six days in the month of Shawwal, it will carry the thawab of fasting for the whole year. (Sahih Muslim)

This hadith had described the great thawab of six fasts of this month. Therefore, the Muslims should take this opportunity of acquiring such an enormous reward from Allah. It is more preferable to start these fasts from the 2nd of Shawwal and keep fasting up to the 7th of it. However, if, they are kept in other days, it is hoped that the requirement of the above hadith may also be fulfilled.

Fiqh of Sadaqat al-Fitr

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The Purpose of Sadaqat al-Fitr

Every Muslim is required  to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr at the conclusion  of the month of Ramadan as a token  of thankfulness to Allah for having enabled him to observe fasts. Its purpose is to purify those who fast from any indecent act or speech and to help the poor and needy. This view is based upon the hadith which reads, “The Messenger of Allah (sallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) enjoined Sadaqat al-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. It is accepted as Zakah for the one who pays it before the `Eid prayer, and it is sadaqah for the one who pays it after the prayer.”

There are two purposes indocated in this Hadith: one is related to the individual; for  completion  of  his  fast  and  compensation  for  any  shortcomings  in  his  acts  or  speech.  The  other  is  related  to society; for the spreading of love and happiness among its members, particularly the poor and needy, during the day of `Eid. It also purifies one’s soul from such shortcomings as the adoration of property, and from miserliness.  Furthermore,  it  purifies  one’s  property  from  the  stain  of  earnings.  It  is  also  a  cure  for  ailments. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallan) said, “It would be better that you treat your patients with charity.

In addition,  it provides for the  needs of the poor  and the indigent and relieves them  from having to  ask others for charity on the day of `Eid. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Fulfil their need on this day (i.e., the day of `Eid)

Who Must Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr?

Sadaqat al-Fitr is  incumbent on every free Muslim who possesses one Sa` of dates or barley which is not needed as basic food  for  himself  or  his  family  for  the  duration  of  one  day  and  night.  Every  free  Muslim  must  pay Sadaqat al-Fitr  for  himself, his wife, children, and servants.  This is the opinion of Imam Malik, Al-Shafi`i, and Ahmad (rahimahumullah). Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah), however, said that it is only obligatory for one who possesses a nisab (a minimum amount of property) after fulfilling the costs of his house, servant, horse, and weapon.
Al-Khattabi explained that Sadaqat al-Fitr was obligatory for all Muslims, not only those who possess the nisab stating that this is the view of the majority of scholars. He said, “In essence, the rationale behind it was stated to be the purification  of  one  who  fasts  from  any  indecent  act  or  speech.  And  since  every  Muslim  needs  this,  it  is  therefore  obligatory upon every fasting Muslim, whether rich or poor, who possesses one Sa` in excess of his main staple food for the duration of one day and night.  This is because so long as the essential rationale is shared by all Muslims, then they also share the same obligation.”

The majority view is that it is a virtuous wisdom of Islam that it makes this Zakah obligatory not only on the rich, but also upon nearly every Muslim, for you can hardly find a person who does not possess  one  Sa` of  food above  his  main  staple  food  for  the  duration  of  one  day  and  night.  The  wisdom  behind  this  obligation,  therefore, is to prepare the poor  to practice benevolence and feel the dignity and honour of giving in charity. Allah described the believers with these words, “Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity…” (Aal `Imran 3:134) Thus  if we contemplate on this wisdom, we  will not  find it strange that  the needy pay this Sadaqat, because it does not cause them to suffer any loss. He will pay only his sadaqa and then receive the sadaqa of various people.

Moreover, we have to bear in mind that Sadaqat al-Fitr is obligatory for everyone who lives until the sun sets on the last day of Ramadan.  This is the point of view of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Malikis. Accordingly, whoever dies before the sun sets on the last day of Ramadan is exempted. Likewise, a person who has a baby on the last day of Ramadan should pay Zakat al-Fitr for the baby.  The majority of jurists argue that we should not pay Saqadat al-Fitr for an embryo. But Imam Ahmad (rahimahullah) holds that sadaqat al-Fitr is also obligatory for an embryo, because it is permissible to assign property to an embryo by means of a will.

When Sadaqat al-Fitr Is Due

The jurists agree that Sadaqat al-Fitr is due at the end of Ramadan.  They differ, however, about the exact time. Al-Thawri, Ishaq, Malik (in one of two reports), and Al-Shafi`i (in one of his two opinions), are of the opinion that it is due at the sunset of the night of breaking the fast, for this is when the fast of Ramadan ends. However, Al-Layth, the Hanafi school, Al-Shafi`i (in his other opinion), and the second report of Malik say that Sadaqat al-Fitr is due at the start of Fajr (dawn) on the day of `Eid because it is an act of worship connected with `Eid, so the time of its payment should not be before `Eid just as sacrifice on the `Eid Al-Adha.

These two different views acquire relevance if a baby is born after sunset but before dawn on the day of `Eid; the question then is whether Sadaqat al-Fitr is obligatory for the baby or not. In accordance with the first view, it is not, since the birth took place after the prescribed time, while according to the second view, it is obligatory because the birth took place within the prescribed space of time.

Time of Payment

It is not permissible to delay giving Sadaqat al-Fitr after the day of `Eid (i.e. one may give it up to the time of the `Eid prayer). However, there are some jurists who think that it is permissible to delay giving it even after the `Eid prayer.  The founders of the four schools of Fiqh hold the first opinion, but Ibn Sirin and al-Nakha`i (rahimahumullah) say that its payment can be delayed. Ahmad says: “I hope that there is no  harm (in delaying  the payment).” Ibn Raslan says that there is a consensus that payment cannot be delayed merely for the reason that it is a type of sadaqa. Thus, any delay is a sin and is analogous to delaying one’s prayers without an acceptable excuse.

Anyway,  the  founders  of  the  four  accepted  Islamic  legal  schools  agree  that  Sadaqat  al-Fitr  is  not  nullified  simply  by failure to pay it on its due time. If it is not paid before `Eid prayer, one is not exempt from it. It becomes a debt payable even after death. The heirs must not distribute the deceased’s legacy before payment of the deceased’s unpaid Sadaqat al-Fitr.

Most scholars believe that it is permissible to pay sadaqat al-Fitr a day or two before `Eid. Ibn `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) reported that the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ordered them to pay Sadaqat al-Fitr before the people went out to perform the `Eid prayer. Nafi` reported that `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) used to pay it a day or two before the end of Ramadan. However, scholars hold different opinions when a longer time period is involved. According to Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah), it is permissible to pay it even before Ramadan so long as you make the intention of Sadaqah. Al-Shaf`i (rahimahullah) holds that it is permissible to do so at the beginning of Ramadan. Malik and Ahmad (in his well-known view) maintain that it is permissible to pay it only one or two days in advance.

The reasons for these differences in opinion is that the Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to pay sadaqat al-Fitr after Fajr prayer on the day of `Eid but before the `Eid prayer for the reason that the Muslim community was still small and limited in number.

During the time of the Companions the payment was made one or two days before the `Eid. After the spread of Islam the jurists permitted its payment from the beginning and middle of Ramadan so as to ensure that the sadaqat al-Fitr reached its beneficiaries on the day of `Eid, thereby avoiding the possibility that the process of distribution would delay reception of the payment after the day of `Eid.

These differences  of  opinion  among  the  jurists  justify  some  leniency  for  Muslims  in  regard  to  the  time  of  payment,  and therefore a Muslim can pay at any of these times. He also took the view that paying it at different times gives the poor and needy the opportunity to benefit from Sadaqat al-Fitr and fulfil their needs for longer periods.

These differences are due to taking into consideration both the needs of the poor and the opportunity of attaining the wisdom behind the obligation of Sadaqat al-Fitr. Therefore, the most acceptable and practical approach is to apply whichever practice fulfils the purpose and wisdom behind sadaqat al-Fitr, that is bringing happiness to the poor on the day of `Eid and giving their children a chance to enjoy this day as others do.

What type of food can be given and permissible substitutes??

The jurists hold different views as to the types of food which must be given as Sadaqat al-Fitr.  The Hanbali view is that the kinds of food which can be given are five: dates, raisins, wheat, barley, and dry cottage cheese. Imam Ahmad (rahimahullag) is reported to have said that any kind of staple grain or dates are also permissible, even if the above five types are available. The Malikis and Shafi`is are of the view that it is permissible to give any kind of food as long as it is the main staple in that particular region or the main food of the person. As for the Hanafis, they permit paying the value of Sadaqat al-Fitr in money.

Ibn Al-Qayyim highlighted these different viewpoints and concluded that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) prescribed Sadaqat al-Fitr as one Sa` of dates, barley, raisins or dry cottage cheese.  These were the main staple kinds of food in Madinah.

As for people of other territories, what they should pay is one Sa` of their staple grain, such as corn, rice, etc. But if their main staple food is other than grain, such as milk, meat, fish, etc., then they should pay one Sa` of that particular food.  This is the opinion of the majority of scholars and is the preferred point of view, since it achieves the purpose of fulfilling the needs of the poor on the day of `Eid with the staple food of their region.

The Calculation of Sadaqat al-Fitr

The amount of Sadaqat al-Fitr, as we referred earlier, is one Sa` of food.  There is consensus on this amount among the  scholars  with  regard  to  all  types  of  food  except  wheat  and  raisins.  As  for  these  two  types  the  Shafi`is,  Malikis and Hanbalis agree that the prescribed amount is one Sa`, however the Hanafis say it is sufficient to pay half Sa` from wheat and they differed with regard to raisins. Wheat was  not a  common  food  amongst them  during  the  time  of  the Prophet  so  he  did not  prescribe  one  Sa`  of  it as he did with the other types of food.

As for those of the Companions of the Prophet who prescribed half Sa` of wheat instead of one Sa` of barely or dates like Mu`awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and other Companions, the opinion regarding this is that they did so by analogy, since the value of wheat was more than those of other types of food which were equal. But according to their opinion, the value should be considered and taken as the criterion and this will cause instability and confusion for it changes from place to another and from time to time. He mentioned that in Pakistan the value of wheat is less than that of dates, then how should we pay of it half the amount (i.e. Sa`) that we should pay of dates? He also mentioned that nowadays raisins are more expensive than wheat and dates. The only solution for these problems, he says, is to regard Sa` as the criterion and basis.

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) appointed Sa` as the measure and did not prescribe it in money saying that in his opinion there are two reasons for this: First, money was still rare among the Arabs particularly the Bedouins. They did not have their own currency. So if the Prophet had prescribed it in money, he would have caused hardship to them. Second, the purchasing power of money changes from time to time. For instance, the purchasing power of a certain currency sometimes becomes low and other times high, so paying Sadaqat al-Fitr in money  makes  its  value  unstable. That  is  why  the  Prophet  prescribed  it  with  a  stable  measure,  that  is  an  amount of food which fulfils the needs of one family. For one Sa` provides a family with food for a whole day.

The Amount of Sa`

Sa` is a certain measure which equals 4 mudds (a mudd equals a handful of an average man).  The contemporary  equivalent  weights  of  Sa`  differs  according  to  the  stuff  which  is  weighted.  For  example  a  Sa`  of  wheat equals 2176 grams, a Sa` of rice is 2520 grams, a Sa` of beans equals 2250 grams etc.  Therefore some scholars are of the view that the criterion should be the measure not the weight for there are kinds of food which are heavier than others. But I think this is the case if the equivalent weight of a certain kind of food is not known. If there is no available measure or weight with the person, then he should pay 4 mudds. Nowadays, it is not that problem because ministries of religious affairs in Muslim countries and mosques and Islamic centres in Western countries announce the value of Sadaqat al-Fitr every year. Anyhow, this is the obligatory amount which every Muslim should pay. It is better and recommended that one pays an extra amount, particularly for those who are wealthy, for they will be rewarded for it.

Its Payment in Money

As mentioned earlier, the Hanafis permitted the payment of Sadaqat al-Fitr in money. This is the view of Al-Thawri, Al-Hasan  al-Basri,  and  `Umar  ibn  `Abd  al-`Aziz (rahimahumullah).  However,  the  other  three  schools  did  not  permit  this. Their  argument is that the Prophet did not do so and hence its payment in money contradicts the Sunnah of the Prophet. But  some  contemporary  scholars  support  the  Hanafi  view  since  this  is  easier  nowadays  for  the  payer  particularly in cities where people use only money for dealings. Among them is al-Ghazali (rahimahullah), who mentioned earlier the two reasons for which the Prophet did not prescribe it in money. He also stated  that  the  purpose  of  Sadaqat  al-Fitr  is  to  fulfil  the  needs  of  the  poor  and  this  is  achieved  also  by  payment  in money and that in most cases and most countries the payment in money is more useful to the poor. He also mentioned that when the Prophet prescribed it from food, it was easy for the payer and useful for the recipient during that time. But nowadays to pay it in food is not useful for the poor because he cannot  make use, for instance, of wheat or dates unless he sells them with any price, generally low, to buy his needs with the money.

We have excluded the times of famines where the payment of food is more useful for the recipients and said that the criterion is the benefit of the poor so if food proves to be more useful as in times of famines and catastrophes, then its payment in kind is better. But if money is more useful, then its payment in money is better.

Nowadays, if we consider the condition in the Muslim world in general and that of Muslims in the  West in particular we will discover that the second view is more convenient with the spirit of Islamic legislation and the present  condition  of  Muslims.  As we  will  see  later when  Muslims  living  in  the West  decide  to  transfer  their  Zakah funds or some of them to needy Muslims in Muslim countries, then the payment in money is more convenient.

Sightings of the Hilaal (New Crescent) and the Signs of Qiyamah

[Mufti Muhammad Yusuf Danka,  Croydon Masjid]

Allah Ta’ala has stated in the Holy Qur’an:

They ask you [Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)] about the crescent moons. Say: They are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for  the pilgrimage.’  [Qur’an 2:189]

The Shari’ah of Islam has classified the regulation of time (months)  by means of sighting the crescent  moon. Every person who has the  faculty of sight can look at the  sky and determine the start of the  new month (by viewing the  crescent moon). Despite great  leaps being made in the field of  astronomy as well as scientific  calculations being formulated on  the birth of the new moon, the  scientific analysis is not a  verified proof in Islam to    commence the new month. To  stipulate Ramadan and Eid  (commencement of end of the  month) calendar dates by  calculations alone is not  permissible. In the  commencement of every month, it is necessary to verify and validate the sighting of the moon  (Muhaqaq Ru’yat Basari).  Whosoever leaves this methodology has left the guidance of the Shari’ah in Sunnah. (Dars-e-Tirmidhi vol 2, p 520-521)

Shaykhul Tafsir Hadhrat Molana Muhammad Idrees Khandhlawi writes: ‘In the  Shari’ahZakaat, Hajj, and  Ramadhan fasting, issues of  Islamic  jurisprudence (i.e  the  waiting  period  of  women  etc) are  based  upon the  lunar  month. There  is  no  reference made  to  the  solar  calendar or its calculation in  Shariah. It is for this reason  that  the knowledge of the lunar months and conditions of Ruyat‐e‐Hilal  are  Fard alal Kifayah upon the Muslims.  If all the Muslims were to abandon  attaining knowledge related to these  matters, they would be committing a  sin. [Ma’riful Qur’an, vol 1, p380]

The Final Prophet to Mankind, Sayyidina Muhammad bin Abdullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has  related many signs before  Qiyamah to warn Mankind. The  books of Hadith are filled with  authentic chain of narrations in  respect of these  signs.  One  sign  among the signs of Qiyamah is  that there will be disagreement  in  regards to Ruyat‐e-Hilal. It has  also been related that near the  time Qiyamah the crescent moon  of  the  first  day  will  be  seen  to  be large. The Prophet  also  stated: ‘When seeing the crescent  moon of the first day people will state, this looks like  the  moon  of  the  2nd  or  3rd  day.’  The Prophet   further told us to abstain from  doing so.

In this time, not only the laymen  but also certain groups among  the scholars are proclaiming  these matters. The scholars are  not mindful of the fact that their statements are going against the advices made by the Nabi.

Nowadays people totally forgo the Sunnah of sighting the moon when deciding upon  any calendar event. In fact the norm is that people try to cause controversy after  the full moon is evident by working back on dates and justifying that the date of celebration or commencement of fasting was correct. We can see the reality in the statements of the Nabi 1400 years on, when we are hearing and seeing people making statements exactly as the Prophet described. People are saying today: ‘Is the moon of the 1st night really this big?’  or ‘does the moon  of the  1st night stay  on the horizon for such a long  time?’ then they say: ‘This  means that it must be the  moon  of the 2nd or  3rd night.’ Such statements are made as accusations rather than questions and are evident signs preceding to Qiyamah as foretold by the Prophet.

The  requirements  of  Shari’ah  are  to  sight  the  moon  of  the  29th  night  and  if  it  is  not  viewed  then 30 days are  to be completed for the month. The size of the  moon is not entertained or given  any  weight  in  Shari’ah, this  is the view of  ignorant and irreligious persons. In  Islam, we have  specific stipulations clearly laid out which is the law of  Allah revealed to Mankind for their  betterment.

Signs of Qiyamah-Sighting the Large moon of the 1st night: 

1. Sayyidina Abu Hurairah related  that the Prophet stated: ‘A sign  from among the signs of Qiyamah  is that the moon of the 1st night will be large and upon seeing this people will say: ‘This is the moon of the  2nd night.’ (Majmuz-Zawahid, vol 3, p146)

2. Sayyidina Abdullah bin Masood related that the Prophet stated: ‘Close to the day of Qiyamah, the moon will be seen as being large.’ (Majmuz-Zawahid, vol 3, p146).

Remember the Ghair Muqalideen cannot debate the validity of these Ahadith, even their Shaykh Albani  has stated their authenticity.

3. Sayyidina Anas bin Malik  (radhiyallahu anhu) related that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) stated: ‘Verily, a sign of  Qiyamah is that the moon of the 1st night will be large and upon seeing this people will say: ‘This is the moon  of the 2nd night.’ (Majmuz-Zawahid, vol 7, p325)

Signs of Qiyamah – The new month being commenced before sighting the crescent moon:

4. Sayyidina Anas bin Malik (radhiyallahu anhu) related that  the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) stated: ‘A sign from  among the signs of Qiyamah is that the moon will be seen before it is  sighted. Upon sighting the moon of the 1st night it will be said: ‘This is the moon of the 2nd night.’ (Majmul-Fawahid, vol 4, p714)

Nowadays, certain governments ofMuslim countries (Turkey, Indonesia etc) are commencing Ramadhan and Eid upon pre‐calculated lunar calendars. This results in them commencing the new month 1 or 2 days before the crescent moon can be sighted. The Saudi government base the commencement of the new month, especially Ramadan, Eid and Hajj on the possibility of the new moon being present (not witnessed) on the horizon for 1 minute after the sun sets. If a calculation proves this phenomenon, they deem the new month to have commenced and it is upon this that the Umm Ul Qura calendar is formulated and printed for the entire year. It is the desire of the Saudi government that the entire Muslim world follows their lead in adopting this principle. It is for this reason that they announce the commencement of the new Islamic month before the crescent moon of the 1st day is visible anywhere in the World.

Signs of Qiyamah – The moon of the 1st night will be called the moon of the 2nd night:

5. Asim bin Bahdala relates from
Sayyidina Shu’aib (radhiyallahu anhu) that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) stated: ‘A sign witnessed close to the   day of Qiyamah will be that themoon of the 1st night will seem like that of the 2nd night.’ (As Sunnanul Waarida, vol 4, p791)

6. Sayyidina Amara bin Mehran
relates: I heard Sayyidina Hassan (radhiyallahu anhu) state: ‘The  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) stated: ‘A  sign  from  the signs of Qiyamah is that the moon of the 1st night will be sighted and it will be said: This is the moon of the 2nd night.’ (As Sunnanul Waarida, vol 4, p791)

7. Sayyidina Abu Saeed Khudri (radhiyallahu anhu) related  that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) stated: ‘Close  to Qiyamah the moon will be seen as being large. Upon seeing the moon of the 1st night a person will have doubt and will think it is the moon of the 2nd night.’ (As Sunnanul Waarida, vol 4, p791)

There are many reports that corroborate with these narrations, including At‐Tabarani, each of which strengthens the other according to the science of Hadith. There are also those narrations which are related through Sahih and Hasan chains of narration.

Signs of Qiyamah – The disagreement in the sighting of the Ruyat-e Hilal:

8. Abu Baktari (Saeed bin Firoz Ku fi) stated: ‘We went out with the intention of Umrah, when we  reached Batane Nakhla (an area between Makkah and Taif) we gathered in a place to sight the moon. (After seeing the moon) Certain people said: ‘This moon looks like the 2nd night and some said it looks like the 3rd night.’ Following this, wemet Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Abbas(radhiyallahu anhu). We described our experience to him, he asked: ‘What night did you see the moon?’We replied: ‘such and such a night.’Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) related that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) stated: ‘Allah has based the month of Ramadan upon the sighting of the moon. Therefore, the moon is of the night that you people viewed it (that is the 1st night).’ It is found in another narration: ‘If you people did not view a clear sky and the moon is not sighted,  complete  the  month  with  30  days  (Sh’abaan)  and  after  this  keep  the  fasts  of  Ramadhan.’  (Mishkaat Masabih, ch. Ruyat-e Hilal)

In the present day and age, many  people go to ‘Saudi’ Arabia during  the month of Ramadan to perform ‘Umrah. On the day when the  Saudi government announces the  commencement of the new  month, when there  are  clear  skies, none of the millions  present sight the moon. Even  the  responsible  persons  of  the  Saudi Ruyat‐e-Hilal  committee  are not able to view the moon  with the use of an observatory  standard telescope in numerous  locations in the kingdom.  However,  in  accordance  with  the Umm Ul Qura calendar, the  announcement is made 1 day  before  the  new  crescent  moon  can  be  sighted. Confusion and  quarrels are found in the entire  Muslim world, only due to the  incorrect announcement of ‘Saudi’  Arabia. The signs of Qiyamah as mentioned in the Ahadith are a result of this.

In the countries where the Muslim   leaders of centres and  organisations follow the Saudi  announcements or adopt it for  their purpose of establishing a  new month, even they do not view  the crescent moon on the night of  the Saudi announcement. They  view the moon 2 or 3 days after  Saudi make their announcement  and instead of making this the  1st night, they  say: ‘maybe  the  Saudi  announcement was right  then, this looks like the moon of  the 2nd or 3rd night.’ They will  prefer to protect and preserve the  Umm Ul Qura calendar rather than taking the advice of the Prophet :  ‘If  you  people  did  not  view  a  clear  sky  and  the  moon  is  not  sighted, complete the month with 30 days…

The Statements of the Scholars:

Hadhrat Allamah Shabir Ahmed  Uthmani (rahimahullah) writes:  ‘Allah at times creates the moon in a  large form so that the people may  see it easily. At times it is witnessed  as being small and at times, it cannot even be seen. The order of the  Shari’ah is that if the moon is not  witnessed  then 30 days are to be  completed  in  the  month. There are  times when it is possible to sight the  crescent moon, but the sky is cloudy  and the moon is not visible, in this instance 30 days will be completed.’ (Fathul Mulhim, vol 3, p115)

Hadhrat Allamah Nawab Muhammad Khutubudeen Dehlawi (rahimahullah) writes: ‘In    conclusion,  it can be understood  that the basis of Ramadan is  upon sighting the crescent moon.  There is no reliance or weight to  the size of the crescent moon, be  it large or small. However, it is  found in narrations that the  viewing of a large moon of the1st night is from amongst the signs near to the End of Time (Qiyamah). (Mazahir Haq, vol 2, p309)

Presently, people who are not  witnessing the new crescent  moon in the stipulated nights,  instead of adopting the advice of  the Shari’ah to complete 30 days,  follow the announcements of the  another country and government  to where they are living. In doing  so, they commence Ramadan in  the month of Sh’abaan. When  they view the moon the following  day, they hide their fault and  proclaim the moon of the 1st  night as being that of the 2nd.  The same is true form the  completion of Ramadan, when  the moon is not sighted for the  commencement of Shawwal on  the 29th night, 30 days should be  completed. In this instance, 1  fast of Ramadan is wasted and  Eid is performed in Ramadan. It is unfortunate, that those who follow the Sunnah and Mustabat 11  months of the year, leave aside a  Fardh on this occasion and it does not affect their conscience.

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) stated: ‘My Ummah  will never unite on a wrong.’  It is  for this reason, that those who call  to the Truth, announce the reality  of this wrong to the masses even  though they come under a barrage  of ridicule for their stance. What is the logic behind the moon of the 1st  night being large?

There  are  2  important  conditions  for  the  sighting  of  the  Hilal:

1. The moon (light) must be  distinguishable from sunlight, so  as  not  be  engulfed  in  the  rays  of  the  sun.

2. The moon should be high in the sky. For the moon to be viewed on  the 1st night, it needs to be at  least 10 degrees above the  horizon. The crescent moon can  only be viewed a minimum of 18  hours after the birth of the new  moon. The crescent is visible only after the strong rays of the sunset  have subsided, this occurs when  the sun is 5 degrees below the  horizon. The crescent will only be  visible if it is at 10 degrees or  more above the horizon after the  sun has ‘set’ (5 degrees below the  horizon). This process takes  approximately 15‐20mins from  sunset to the sighting of the  crescent moon. Whosoever, claimsto have sighted the crescent moonbefore this stipulated time, either  they have been deceived by  their sighting or they are lying. It  is not possible for there to be  Ruyat e Aama (majority  sighting)  before the  conditions stated above.

Unseen Time: The last time that  the moon is seen in the month is  the morning of the 27th or 28th  day. After this, the moon is  hidden from the sight of anybody  on Earth. The time the moon is  hidden to the 29th or 30th night,  when the new Hilal becomes  visible is referred to as Mahaaq  (unseen  time). Usually, the  timeframe for ‘unseen  time’  is  between 36  –  50  hours.

It should be noted that the moon  constantly circulates the Earth.  The time taken to complete a  lunar monthly cycle is 29 days, 12 hours, 44mins, 2.9secs. It is for this reason that the Prophet
(sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) stated: ‘sight the moon of the 29th  night and if it is not viewed then  complete 30 days (for the month)’.
The full moon of a lunar monthly  cycle occurs 14 days, 18 hours,  22mins, 1.5secs after the birth of  the new moon (14.75  days). This  is when the moon is seen at  100% coverage in the sky, a full  moon. Therefore, in 1 hour the  crescent occupies 0.2821932% of  the moons surface area, this  denotes the thickness of the  crescent on any given day. In 1  day the moon is covered 6.7726385% of the surface area.

By understanding the scientific  principle of  the crescent size  formation above, the following  will become clear. For example:  on the 29th August 2011, the  Saudi government announced the  sighting of the crescent moon for  Eid ul Fitr in accordance with the  Umm Ul Qura calendar. Scholars  throughout the Islamic world rejected this announcement.  Hadhrat  Mufti  A.S.  Desai  Sahib  of  Mujlisul  Ulama  South  Africa,  has written in his article of 16  Shawwal 1432 (15/9/2011): ‘It is  not permissible for Muslim of UK  nor for Muslims anywhere in the  world to follow the Hilaal  announcements of the current  Saudi authorities. Despite  clear skies, the Hilal was not  sighted in Saudi  Arabia, neither  by the Hilal committees nor the  masses.’ This is a statement made in light of the Shari’ah and Sunnah.
The reality is also clearly against  the possibility of a sighting on  this night; on the 29th August  2011, sunset was at 6.40pm, the  moon set at 6.44pm. Therefore  the moon was only present on the horizon for 4mins after sunset,  the moon was 12 hours 36min old at  this time. The altitude of the  moon on this day was zero  degrees above the horizon.

The following day; on the 30th  August 2011, sunset was at  6.39pm, the moon set at 7.27pm,  the moon was present on the  horizon for 48mins after sunset  and was 10 degrees above the  horizon. It was possible  for Ruyate  Aamah to take place  on this night according to the  requirements of Shari’ah. This  was, in  reality, the 1st day of the  Islamic month which many  thousands of people have  witnessed. The moon was seen  on the horizon 10 minutes after  sunset and was visible for 30  mins. On  seeing  the  large  crescent moon on this night, people in “Saudi” Arabia said: ‘This is moon of the 2nd night.’

It should be understood that it  was not possible to see the moon  on the 29th August 2011 as it  was  only 12hours 36mins old. As  stated before, it is not possible to  view the crescent moon when it  is less than 18hours old. On the  30th  August  2011 the moon was  36  hours  35mins old. The  reason this crescent moon  looked large on  the horizon was  because it covered 10.26% of the  moons surface area (1/10th  of  the moons area) (1 hour ‐ 0.2821932% x 36.35hrs = 10.26%). We should look at how accurately the Final Prophet Khatimul Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  foretold of these occurrences and  words people will utter in respect  of the Ruyate Hilal near the day  of Qiyamah, they are playing out  in front of our own eyes. May Allah  unite us in this time of Fitnah and grant us the correct understandingof the Deen.  Aameen!

Divine Revelations and Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

[By Muhammad Mustafa A’zami]

From early Islamic history we now turn to face Prophet Muhammad’s (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) message itself, to its nature as well as to its link with the teachings of earlier prophets. Allah created humanity for the singular purpose of worshipping Him, though He is in no need of anyone’s worship as it adds nothing to His supremacy. The manner of worship was not left to the dictates of individuals or communities, but was explicitly delineated through the dispatching of prophets and messengers. As all messengers received their commission from the same Creator, so the core message remained essentially the same; only some of the practical details were altered. Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma’il (Ishmael), Ya’qub (Jacob), Ishaq (Isaac), Yusuf (Joseph), Dawud (David), Sulaiman (Solomon), ‘Isa (Jesus) (alayhimus salaam) and the countless others He sent forth each bore a message of finite scope, intended for a particular community at a particular time. These were all invariably corrupted or lost, nullifying the message and leaving its followers in the throes of idolatry, superstition, or fabrication. With Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) however, the time was ripe for a message that would not be hedged in by national boundaries or a particular epoch, a faith that could never be nullified because it was intended for all people and for all time.

Islam refers to the Jews and Christians as ‘people of the Book’. These three religions have a common patriarch in Ibrahim (alayhissalaam), and hypothetically worship the same God that was worshipped by Ibrahim and his sons Isma’il and Ishaq (alayhimus salaam). In discussing these religions we inevitably encounter some common terms, but though the words appear similar to the eyes the underlying implications often are not. For example, the Qur’an states explicitly that everything in the universe has been created for the sole purpose of worshipping Allah, while in the faulty Jewish mythology the entire universe was created for the merit of the children of Israel. In addition the Israelite prophets were false attributed as supposedly indulged in fashioning images of false gods (Aaron) or committed adultery (David), while Islam insists on the virtuous character of all the prophets. Meanwhile, the Christian concept of a trinity-with Jesus being the sole member of the God -head visible within church confines-thoroughly contradicts the precise Oneness of Allah in Islam. We will therefore briefly cover the nature of prophethood in the light of Islam; this will lay the groundwork for the fundamental differences between Islam and the two preceding corrupted monotheistic religions, and define some of the ideals that Allah conveyed to the world at large in His final revelation.

The Creator and some if His Attributes

Clearly we did not create ourselves, as no creature has the power to create itself out of nothingness. Allah asks in the Holy Qur’an:

Were they created of nothing, or were they themselves the creators

All creation therefore emanates from a Creator.

That is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but He the Creator of all things, so worship Him; He has the power to dispose of all affairs” [Qur’an 52:35]. 

We have indeed created man in the best of moulds.” [Qur’an 6:102]

The Creator is unique, nothing has been fashioned into His Image. He is also without kin, the one and only God. [Qur’an 95:4]

Say: He is Allah, The One; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He did not beget, nor is He begotten; and there isnone like unto Him.” [Qur’an 112:1-4].

He is gracious, merciful and loving. He rewards good deeds most generously if done with sincerity, and accepts repentance from the truly penitent. He forgives as He pleases, but does not forgive those who ascribe other gods besides Him and die unrepentant.

Say: O my servants who have transgressed against their souls! despair not if the mercy of Allah :for Allah forgives all sins: for He is oft-forgiving, Most Merciful” [Qur’an 39:53].

Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him;but He forgives anything else to whom Hepleases; whoever sets up partners with Allah has committed a most heinous sin indeed.” [Qur’an 4:48]

The Purpose Behind Mankind’s Creation Allah created humans solely that they may worship Him.

I have created jinns and men, only that they may serve Me.” [Qur’an 51:56]

Given that food, water, shelter, reproduction and thousands of other matters are inextricably tied to human survival, Islam has transformed all of these into acts of worship, so long as the intention behind them is to better serve Allah.

The Message of the Prophets

Within mankind, Allah instilled a nature that leads instinctively to His worship alone, provided there is no external interference This is clear from the Hadith of the Prophet, “There is none born but is created to his true nature [Islam]. It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian … ” [Muslim] . To compensate for such interferences He dispatched messengers from time to time, to displace the webs of idolatry and superstition and guide people to the proper way of worship.

Nor would We send down Our wrath until We had sent a messenger (to give warning).” [Qur’an 17:15].

Il  12  13

The Creator purged His messengers, paragons of virtue and piety without exception, from all evil. They were model examples of human behaviour, and instructed their respective communities to follow their lead in the worship of Allah. Their core message throughout history was ageless.

Never did We dispatch a messenger before you without revealing to him this: that there is no god but I ; therefore worship and serve Me.” [Qur’an 21:25].

And the message of all the prophets was,

So be mindful if Allah (proclaimed the messengers) and obey me.” [Qur’an 26:108]. See also the sarne Sura verses: 110, 126,131,144,150, 163 and 179. This indicates that all the prophets have asked the same from their community.

The concise phrase Laa ilaaha Illallaah (there is no god but Allah) is the core belief uniting all the prophets from Adam to Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam; the Qur’an approaches this theme time and again, particularly calling the attention of Jews and Christians to this point.

The Final Messenger

In the arid heat of Makkah, Prophet Ibrahim (alayhissalaam) thought of the nomads who would come to settle in that barren valley and entreated his Creator:

Our Lord! send amongst them a Messenger if their own who shall rehearse Your Signs to them and instruct them in the Book and Wisdom) and purify them for You are the Exalted in Might the Wise.” [Qur’an 2:129].

And at a fixed time, in the same barren land, Allah planted the fruit of Ibrahim’s (alayhissalaam) supplication in the form of His last messenger to all humanity.

Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is not the father of any of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets.” [Qur’an 33:40].   

We have not sent you but [as a messenger]  to all mankind, giving them glad tidings and warning them [against sin]; but most people are not aware” [Qur’an 34:28].

We have not sent you but as a mercy for all worlds.” [Qur’an 21:107].

As Allah Willed it, so it came to be, that an unlettered shepherd should carry the burden of receiving, teaching and disseminating a revelation that was intended to last till the end of history: a heavier responsibility than that shouldered by all previous messengers combined.

Receiving the Revelations

Concerning the revelation of the Qur’an we find verse 2:185,

The month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was [first] bestowed from on High as a guidance unto man and a self-evident proof of that guidance…

And in verse 97:1, “Behold, from on High We bestowed this [divine writ] on the Night of Destiny.”

Over a span of twenty-three years the Qur’an came to be revealed bit-by-bit according to the impending circumstances. Ibn ‘Abbas radhiyallahu anhu (d. 68 A.H.), one of the greatest scholars among the Companions, explains that the Qur’an was sent in its entirety to the lowest heaven of the world (Bait al-‘Izza) in one night, arriving from there to the earth in stages as necessary. (As Suyuti, al-Itqan, 1:117).

The reception of revelation (wahy) is outside the realm of the common person’s experiences. For the previous fourteen centuries no true messenger has existed, nor will there be another, so to understand the phenomenon of walhy we have to depend solely on the reports that come authentically from the Prophet, and from those trustworthy individuals who witnessed him ( There are many events thatcan be described to, but not fully comprehended by, someone whose limited range of experiences gets in the way. An easy example is describing a landscape (let alone its colours!) to a blind person, or chirping of birds to someone who is deaf, They may be able to appreciate some of the description, but not to the full extent of someone blessed with hearing and eyesight. In the same sense, the descriptions of the wahy and how the Prophet felt during its reception are, to the rest of us, matters beyond our full comprehension). “These narrations may perhaps mirror what other prophets experienced as well, in the throes of divine communication.

➡Al-Harith bin Hisham inquired, “O Messenger of Allah, how does the revelation come to you?” He replied, “Sometimes it comes like the ringing of a bell, and that is the hardest on me, then it leaves me and I retain what it said. And sometimes the angel approaches me in human form and speaks to me, and retain what he said.” (Al-Bukhari, Sah’ih, Bad’ al-Wahy:1). ‘A’isha related, “Verily I saw the Prophet when the revelation descended upon him on a day severe with cold, before leaving him. And behold, his brow was streaming with sweat.'” (ibid, Bad’ al-Wahy.1)

➡ Ya’la once told ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) of his desire to observe the Prophet while he was receiving wahy. At the next opportunity ‘Umar (rashiyallahu anhu) called out to him, and he witnessed the Prophet with his face red, breathing with a snore. Then the Prophet appeared relieved [of that burden],” (Muslim, Sahih, Manasik:6).

➡ Zaid bin Thabit (radhiyallahu anhu) stated, “Ibn Umm-Maktum came to the Prophet while he was dictating to me the verse:

Not equal are those believers who sit … ‘ [Qur’an 4:95].

On hearing the verse Ibn Umm- Maktum said, ‘O Prophet of Allah, if I had  the means I would most certainly have participated in jihad.’ He was a blind man. So Allah revealed [the remainder of the verse] to the Prophet while his thigh was on mine and it became so heavy that I feared my thigh would break.” (Al-Bukhari, Sahih, jihad:30).

Clear physiological changes enmeshed the Prophet during the reception of wahy, but at all other times his manner and speech were normal. He never possessed any control as to when, where, and what the revelations would say, as is evident from numerous incidents. I have chosen the following two examples arbitrarily:
➡In the case of some people slandering his wife ‘A’isha, and accusing her of mischief with a Companion, the Prophet received no immediate revelation. In fact he suffered for an entire month because of these rumours before Allah declared her innocence:

  “And why did you not (O people), when you heard (the rumour), say, ‘It is not right of us to speak of this: glory to ‘You (our Lord) this is a most serious slander ” [Qur’an 24:16].

➡Meanwhile, in the case of Ibn Umm-Maktum’s objection on account of his blindness, the Prophet received the revelation instantly:

Not equal are those believers who sit (at home)—excepting those who are disabled and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their lives.” [Qur’an 4:95].

Also read: Wahy (Divine Revelation) and its True Nature

The Beginning of Wahy and the Miracle of Qur’an

Preparing the future prophet for his role was a gradual process, a time in which puzzling occurrences and visions seemed to percipitate about him, and in which the Archangel Jibrail (alayhis salaam) repeatedly let his presence be known. [Ibn Hajar, Fathul Bari, viii: 716] Appearing before Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) suddenly one day while he was secluded in a cave Jibrail commanded him to read; he replied that he did not know how to read. The angel repeated his demand thrice, and received the same confused and frightened answer thrice, before revealing to this unsuspecting Prophet the very first verses he was to hear of the Qur’an:

Read! in the name of your Lord and Cherisher, Who created. Created man, out of a leech-like clot. Proclaim! And your Lord is Most Bountiful. He Who taught [the use of the Pen] Taught man that which he knew not.” [Qur’an 96:1-5].

Shaken from this unexpected encounter and carrying this greatest of burdens, Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) returned trembling to his wife Khadijah and implored her to conceal him, till some measure of calmness had returned to him. As an Arab he was familiar with all sorts of Arabic expressions, with poetry and prose, but nothing bore resemblance to these verses; he had heard something the likes of which he had never heard before. These ineffable Words, this Qur’an, became the first and greatest miracle bestowed upon him. In another time and place Moses had been granted his own miracles-light emanating from his hands, the transformation of his stick into a slithering snake -as signs of his prophethood. Compare that to the subtlety of Muhammad’s case: in the solitude of a mountain cave an angel beckons an unlettered man to read. His miracles included no snakes, no plagues, no curing of lepers or raising of the dead, but Words unlike anything that had ever fallen on human ears.

The Impact of the Prophet’s Recitation on the Polytheists

The passage of time helped to settle the Prophet into his new role, and as he busied himself expounding Islam to his closest companions by day, so Allah encouraged him to recite the Qur’an during the stillness of night.
O enwrapped one! Keep awake [in prayer] at night all but a small part if one-half thereof or make it a little less than that or add to it [at will]; and [during that time] recite the Qur’an calmly and distinctly, with your mind attuned to its meaning.” [Qur’an 73:1-4].

Let us chronicle the effect of these recitations on the idolaters. Ibn Ishaq writes:

Muhammad bin Muslim bin Shihab az-Zuhri told me that he was informed that Abu Sufyan bin Harb, Abu Jahl bin Hisham, and al-Akhnas bin Shanq bin ‘Amr bin Wahb ath-Thaqafi (an ally of Bani Zuhra), had ventured out by night to eavesdrop on the Prophet as he recited in his house. Each of the three chose an appropriate place, and none knew the exact whereabouts of his comrades. So they passed the night listening to him. At dawn they dispersed and, meeting one another on the way back, each of them chided his companions, “Do not repeat this again, lest one of the simpletons spots you and becomes suspicious“. Then they left, only to return on the second night, eavesdrop again, and chide each other at dawn. When this recurred on the third night, they confronted each other the next morning and said, “We will not leave until we take a solemn oath never to return“. After this oath they dispersed. A few hours later al-Akhnas took his walking stick and, approaching the house of Abu Sufyan, inquired his opinion as to what they had heard from the Prophet. He replied, “By God, I heard things whose meanings I cannot comprehend, nor what is intended by them“. Al-Akhnas said, “Such is also the case with me“. Then he proceeded to Abu jahl’s house and asked the same question. He answered, “What, indeed, did I hear! We and the tribe of ‘Abd Manaf have always rivalled each other in honour. They have fed the poor, and so have we; they have assumed other people’s troubles, and so have we; they have shown generosity, and so have we. We have matched each other like two stallions of equal speed.Then they proclaimed, ‘We have a prophet who receives revelations from the heavens’. When will we acquire anything like that? By God, we will never believe him or call him truthful.”  [Ibn Hisham, Sira, vol. 1-2, pp. 315-16].

Despite the severity of their hatred the Prophet continued reciting, and the eavesdroppers continued to increase till they constituted a sizeable portion of Quraish, each of them wary of having his secret exposed. [Ibn Ishaq, as-Seyr wa al-Maghazi, pp. 205-6] The Prophet was not asked to argue with his antagonists about Allah’s Oneness because the Qur’an, clearly not the work of a man, contained within itself thelogical proof of the existence and Oneness of Allah. Yet as his recitations spilled from the stillness of night into the bustle of day and became public, Makkah’s anxieties were quickly brought to the boil.

With a popular fair fast approaching, some people from amongst Quraish approached al-Walid bin al-Mughira, a man of some standing. Head dressed them, “The time of the fair has come round again and representatives of the Arabs will come to you. They will have heard about this fellow of yours, so agree upon one opinion without dispute so that none will give the lie to the other.” They said, “Give us your opinion about him,” and he replied,
No, you speak and I will listen.” So they said, “He is a kahin  (clairvoyant).” al-Walld responded, “By God, he is not that, for he has not the unintelligent murmuring and rhymed speech of the kahin“, “Then he is possessed.” “No, he is not that. We have seen possessed ones, and here there is no choking, no spasmodic movements or whispering.” “Then he is a poet.” “No, he is no poet, for we know poetry in all its forms and meters.” “Then he is a sorcerer.” “No, we have seen sorcerers and their sorcery, and here there is no spitting and no knots.” “Then what are we to say, O Abu ‘Abd Shams?” He replied, “By God, his speech is sweet, his root is as a palmtree whose branches are fruitful, and everything you have said would be known as false. The nearest thing to the truth is your saying that he is a sahir (sorcerer), who has brought a message by which he separates a man from his father, or from his brother, or from his wife, or from his family.” [Ibn Ishaq, as-Seyr wa al-Maghazi, edited by Suhail Zakkar, p. 151; Ibn Hisham, Sira, vol. 1-2, pp. 270-71].

We find the same phenomenon in the case of Abu Bakr, who built a mosque in Makkah next to his own house and devoted himself to regular prayer and recitation of the Holy Qur’an. The polytheists approached Ibn Addaghinna, who was responsible for protecting Abu Bakr, and asked him to prevent Abu Bakr from reading the Qur’an because, among other things, women and children were known to eavesdrop on his recitations, and were naturally more susceptible to such an influence.” [Ibn Hisham, Sira, vol. 1-2, p. 373; al-Baladhuri, Ansab, i:206].

The Prophet’s Role Regarding the Qur’an

The Qur’an consistently employs derivations of talà (recited): yutlà atlū, tatlū, Jatlū etc. We read this in verses 2:129, 2:151, 3:164, 22:30, 29:45 and 62:2, among many others; all of them allude to the Prophet’s role of disseminating the revelations throughout the community. But recitation alone is insufficient if it is unaccompanied by instruction. The Prophet’s responsibilities towards the Word of Allah are easily discerned in the following verses, the first being from Prophet Ibrahim’s supplication:

Our Lord! Send amongst them a messenger of their own who shall rehearse Your Signs to them and instruct them in the Book and Wisdom and purify them.” [Qur’an 2:129].

Allah has conferred a great favour on the Believers indeed, sending among them a messenger from amongst themselves who rehearses unto them the Signs of Allah, and purifies them, and instructs them in the Book and Wisdom.” [Qur’an 3:164].

A similar favour you have already received in that We have sent among you a messenger of your own, rehearsing to you Our Signs, and purifying you, and instructing you in the Book and Wisdom.” [Qur’an 2:151].

And in Sura al-Qiyama:

Do not move your tongue concerning (the Qur’an) to make haste there with. It is for Us to collect it (inyourheart) so you may recite (and compile it). But when We have recited it, follow its recital (as promulgated): Nay more, it is for Us to explain it (through your tongue).” [Qur’an 75:16-19].

The above verse concerns the Prophet’s eagerness to memorise the Qur’an whilst it was still being revealed. In his haste to commit verses to memory before they slipped away,he would move his tongue in anticipation of the coming words. By assuring him that there was no need for haste, that all verses would etch themselves unerringly into his heart, Allah was taking full responsibility for the timeless preservation of the Qur’an.

Recitation of the Qur’an in Turns with Jibrail

To continually refresh the Prophet’s memory, the Archangel Jibril (alayhis salaam) would visit him particularly for that purpose every year. Quoting a few hadiths in this regard:

➡Fatima (radhiyallahu anha) said, “The Prophet informed me secretly, Jibril (alayhis salaam) used to recite the Qur’an to me and I to him once a year, but this year he has recited the entire Qur’an with me twice. I do not think but that my death is approaching.”’ [Al-Bukhari, sahih, Fadha’il al-Qur’an: 7]

➡Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) reported that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) would meet with Jibril (alayhis salaam) every night during the month of Ramadan, till the end of the month, each reciting to the other. [Al-Bukhari, sahih, Saum:7]

➡ Abu Huraira (radhiyallahu anhu) said that the Prophet and Jibril would recite the Qur’an to each other once every year, during Ramadan, but that in the year of his death they recited it twice. [Al-Bukhari, sahih, Fadha’il al-Qur’an: 7]

➡ ‘Ibn Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) gave a similar report to the above, adding, “Whenever the Prophet and Jibril finished reciting to each other I would recite to the Prophet as well, and he would inform me that my recitation was eloquent.” [ At-Tabari, at-Tafsir, i:28]

➡ The Prophet, Zaid bin Thabit, and Ubayy b.Ka’b recited to one another after his last session with jibril [A. Jeffery (ed.), Muqaddimatan, p. 227]. The Prophet also recited twice to Ubayy in the year he passed away [ibid, p. 74; also Tahir al-jaza’iri, at-Tibyan, p. 126 ].

Each of the above hadiths describes these recitations between Archangel and Prophet using the term Mu’ārada. (Mu’ārada is from Mufā’ala, meaning that two people are engaged in the same action. For example muqātala: to fight each other. Thus Mu’ārada indicates that Jibril (alayhis salaam) would read once while the Prophet listened, then vice-versa. This general practice continues to this day. A few of the Companions were in fact privy to this Mu’ārada between the Prophet and Jibril, such as ‘Uthman [Ibn Kathir, Fadha’il, vii:440], Zaid bin Thabit, and ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud).

The Prophet’s duties towards the wahy were myriad: he was the instrument of divine reception, the one who supervised proper compilation, provided the necessary explanations, encouraged community-wide dissemination, and taught to his Companions. Naturally, Allah did not descend to earth to explain the meaning of this verse or that; by stating that “it is for Us to explain it” instead of “it is for you (Prophet Muhammad) to explain it”, Allah was conferring full legitimacy on the Prophet’s elucidation of all verses not as guess work on his part, but rather as divine inspiration from Allah Himself, The same holds true regarding the compilation of the Qur’an.

And so after memorisation, the responsibilities of recitation, compilation, education and explanation coalesced into the Prophet’s prime objectives throughout his prophethood, duties he discharged with tremendous resolve, sanctioned in his efforts by Allah.  As for explanation of the wahy, the literature of the Prophet’s sunna as a whole constitutes his elucidation of the Qur’an, his incorporation of its teachings into practical everyday life.

A Few Remarks on Orientalist Claims

Some (Anti-Islamic) Orientalist writers have put forward strange theories regarding the Qur’an’s revelation. Noldeke for instance claims that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) forgot the earliest revelations, while Rev.Mingana states that neither the Prophet nor the Muslim community held the Qur’an in high esteem till long afterwards when, with the rapid expansion of the Muslim state, they at last thought it perhaps worthwhile to preserve these verses for future generations. Approaching the issue from a logical viewpoint is sufficient to dispel these non-sensitic claims.

Infact this logical approach works regardless of whether the orientalist believes in Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) as a prophet or not, because either way he would have done his utmost to preserve what he was claiming to be the Word of Allah. If he truly was Allah’s messenger then the case is obvious: preserving the Book was his sacred duty. As discussed earlier, the Qur’an was the first and greatest miracle ever bestowed upon him, its very nature a testimony that no man had penned it. To casually neglect this miracle, the sole proof that he was indeed Allah’s Prophet, would have been abysmally stupid.

Any theory (of the duffer orientalists) claiming even an iota of indifference is entirely irrational. If a theorist proffers no satisfactory explanation as to why the Prophet would act so grievously against his own interests (let alone the commands of Allah), then the theory is quite simply a throw away statement with no basis in fact.

Also see: The Qur’an Unimpeachable: Refutation to John Gilchrist’s slander on the Authenticity of The Holy Qur’an

Conclusion

Memorising, teaching, recording, compiling, and explaining: these, as we have stated, were the prime objectives of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), and such was the magnetism of the Qur’an that even the polytheists found themselves inclined to lend it their attentive ears. In subsequent chapters we will deal in some depth with the precautions taken by the Prophet and the early Muslim community, to ensure thatthe Qur’an circulated in its pure, unadulterated form. Before ending this article let us turn our attention to the present, and gauge how successfully the Qur’an has been taught in our times. Muslims across the globe are passing through one of their bleakest periods in history, an era where hope and faith seem to hang precariously in the balance everyday. Yet there are countless Muslims numbering in the hundreds of thousands and covering every age group, gender, and continent who have committed the entire Qur’an to memory. Compare this with the Bible, translated (wholly or partially) into two thousand languages and dialects, printed and distributed on a massive scale with funds that would place the budgets of third world countries to shame. For all this effort, the Bible remains a bestseller that many are eager to purchase but few care to read. And the extent of this neglect runs far deeper than one could possibly imagine. On January 26th, 1997, The Sunday Times published the results of a survey by its correspondents Rajeev Syal and Cherry Norton regarding the Ten Commandments. A random poll of two hundred members of the Anglican clergy revealed that two-thirds of Britain’s vicars could not recall all Ten Commandments. These were not even lay Christians but vicars. This basic code of morality for Jews and Christians is a mere handful of lines; the Qur’an on the other hand, fully memorised by hundreds of thousands, translates into roughly 9000 Iines. A clearer picture of the Qur’an’s esteemed influence and the Prophet’s educational success cannot be imagined.

Related Article: How do we know the Qur’an is unchanged??

Laylatul Qadr – Its Origin & Virtues

[By Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhlawi (rahimahullah)]

Amongst the nights of Ramadan there is one called “Laylatul Qadr” a night that is noted for its great blessings. The Qur’an Kareem describes it as being greater in blessedness and spiritual virtue than a thousand months which in turn means that it is greater than eighty three years and four months.

Fortunate indeed is that person who attains the full blessings of this night by spending it in ‘ibaadah of Allah, because he has then attained reward for ‘ibaadah of eighty three years and four months and even more. Indeed the granting of this night to the faithful Muslim is a great favour.

THE ORIGIN

Regarding this night, in a Hadith reported by Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) in Durre Manthoor Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is reported to have said: “Laylatul Qadr was granted to my ummah and not to any other ummah before this“. Regarding the reason for the granting of Laylatul Qadr. various-reasons are mentioned. One reason, according to some Ahaadith is given thus: Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to look at the longer lives of the earlier people and was suddened when pondering over the much shorter lives of his own ummah. If his ummah had wished to compete with the people before them in the doing of righteous deeds, because of their shorter lives it would be impossible for them to either emulate or surpass them. To compensate for this difference in their life span, Allah in His infinite mercy granted them with this night of great blessing. This means that if any fortunate one of this ummah spends during his life time ten such nights in the worship of his maker, he would have gained the reward for ‘ibaadah of eight hundred and thirty years and even more. Another report states that: Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) once related to the sahaabah the story of a very righteous man from among the Bani Israa’il who used to spend one thousand months in ibaadah. On hearing this, the sahaabah envied that person because they could not attain the same reward.
whereupon Allah granted tliem the Night of Power as a recompense. 

Still another report states that our Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) once mentioned the names of the fout most pious people from among the Bani Israa’il who each spent eighty years in Allah’s sincere service, worshipping Him, and not sinning in the least. They were Nabi Ayyub (alayhis salaam), Zakariyya (alayhis salaam), Hizqeel (alayhis salaam) and Yu’sha’ (alayhis salaam). The sahaabahs heard this with astonishment. Then Jibraeel (alayhis salaam) appeared and recited Surah Qadr, wherein the blessing of this night was revealed.

Apart from these reports, there are others too, explaining the origin of the Night of Power. This type of difference in narration arises because, after occurrence of several incidents only one ayat is revealed. That aayah then is relevant to anyone of the incidents that took place. But no matter which of them we accept, the important fact that remains is that Allah has granted the ummah of Prophet Muhammad this night. This is a great favour and gift of Allah. To devote yourself on this night is also a blessing from Allah. How worthy of envy are those Mashaa’ikh who say they did not miss the ‘ibaadah of one Laylatul Qadr since they became of age. Now, as to which night it is, here again approximately fifty different views of the ‘ulama are mentioned. It is not easy for me to enumerate them all. But the most accepted versions, as well as further discussions on this night shall follow in the ensuing paragraphs of this article. The numerous excellences of this night are mentioned in various books of Hadith, These will also be mentloned. For the reason that the Qur’an Majeed itself mentions this night, we shall commence with a short commentary on Surah Qadr. (The translations are from A. Yusuf Ali).

In the name of Allah the beneficient, the’Merciful”.
“We have indeed revealed this {message} in the Night of Power“. (Suratul Qadr: 1).

Reference here is made to the fact that on this special night, the Qur’an was sent down from AI Lowhul Mahfuz (The preserved Tablet) to the heavens (above the earth). Because a great book like Qur’an was revealed in this night is in itself sufficient to explain its excellence, needless to mention all other blessings and virtues which are included. In the very next verse by way of drawing and increasing our interest in the matter under discussion, a question is asked:

And what will explain to you what the Night of Power is“. (Suratul Qadr: 2).

In other words, the question asked here is: Have you any knowledge as to the greatness and the great importance of this night? Have you any knowledge as to the great favours and bounties that are placed in it? The next verse proceeds to enumerate someof that greatness:

The Night of Power is better than a thousand months” (Suratul Qadr: 3).

The true meaning here is that reward for spending this night in ‘ibadah is better and more than having spent one thousand months ‘ibadah, it is in fact more but as to how much more rewarding it is, we are not told here. )

Therein come down·the Angels and the Spirit by Allah’s permission on every errand“. (Suratul Qadr: 4)

A fine explanation is given in this verse by Imaam Raazi (rahimahullah) Commenting on this verse he explains that when man first appeared on earth, created by Allah as His vicegerent on earth, the Malaa’ikah looked on him with scorn. When Allah informed them of His intention of placing man on earth, they even ventured to ask: “Will you place in this earth one who shall commit evil therein and shed blood?

Similarly, when his parents noted his original form as a mere drop of mani (sperm), they too looked upon it with scorn and resentment, so much so that they considered it as something which polluted clothing and had to be washed away. But later when Allah made that same despicable sperm into a fine form of man, they began to love and cherish him. So far have things now progressed that when on this Night of Power we see that same man worshipping Allah and adoring Him, those very same Malaa’ikah who had previously looked down on him with scorn, descend towards him, obviously repentant for the thoughts they had once harboured against him.

In this verse mention is made  “and the spirit“. Reference is clearly to Jibraeel (alayhis salaam). Commentators of the Qur’an have given various versions of this word. Let us look at some of them:

(a) The vast majority of the commentators are agreed that Jibraeel (alayhis salaam) is meant here, and according to Imaam Raazi (rahimahullah) this is the most correct meaning. Allah first makes mention of the Malaa’ikah and then because of Jibraeel’s (alayhis salaam) status among them, special mention is made of him.

(b) Some commentators hold the view that “Spirits” here means one angel of such extra ordinary gigantic proportion that before him heavens and earth appear as almost nothing (as a morsel).

(c) Another group of commentators opine that “Spirit” here means one such group of Malaa’ikah who never appear and only on this night are they seen by other Malaa’ikah.

(d) Some commentators.again believe that the “Spirit” here designates one such creation of Allah which although it partakes of food and drink, still is neither man nor angel.

(e) There is also a view that “Spirit” here refers to ‘Isaa (alayhis salaam) who on this night comes down with the Malaa’ikah to view the righteous deeds of this ummah.
(f) The last view we wish to mention here is that “Spirit” means Allah’s special mercy which comes in the wake of the angels descent. But already stated the first opinion is the most acceptable.

In this respect Imaam Bayhaqi (rahimahullah) reports a hadith by Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) wherein Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is reported to have said, “On Laylatul Qadr Jibraeel (aIayhis salaam) comes down with a group of angels and make dua’ for mercy for every one whom they. find busy in ‘ibadah“. This same verse under discussion says,

” … By Allah’s permission on every errand…”

The Author of Mazhaahire Haq writes that on this night ages ago the Malaa’ikah were created on this night long ago the creation on Aadam (alayhis salaam) was begun as the matter from which he was created had been gathered; on this night trees were planted in Jannah and large number of Ahaadith bear witness to the fact that on this night dua’s are granted. Similary we read in the kitaab Durre Manthoor, that according to a Hadith it was on this night that ‘lsaa (alayhis salaam) was lifted up bodily into the heavens and also it was on this night that the towbah (repentance) of Bani Israa’il was accepted.

Peace be until the break of dawn” (Suratul Qadr: 5).

Yes, this is the very embodiment of peace. Throughout its hours the Malaa’ikah recite salaam upon faithful believers adoring their Lord. As one group descends another ascends as is explained in the Ahaadith. Another interpretation is that it is a night of complete safety from evil and mischief.

These blessings remain throughout the night until the break of dawn and are not confined to any specific haul. And now having noted a few virtues of this night as explained in the words of Allah, there is no further need to quote any Ahaadith. However, since many virtues have been in numerous Ahaadith we mention a few here.

HADITH NO.1

Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) reports Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said. “Whoever slands in prayer and ‘ibaadah on the night of Power with sincere faith and with sincere hope of gaining reward. his previous sins are forgiven“. [Reported in At Targheeb from Bukhaari and Muslim].

COMMENTARY

In the above Hadith ‘standing’ refers to salaah as well as any other form of ‘ibaadah, as for example thikr, tilaawah etc. The phrase ‘ with sincere hope of gaining reward‘, means that one should be sincerely occupied with ‘ibaadah solely for the pleasure of Allah and to receive reward from Him. This should not be done for others to see or to deceive them. According to Khattaabi it means that one should have complete faith in the promise that any deed shall be rewarded and thus one must stand before Allah with earnestness and enthusiasm. Neither should one think of this ‘ibaadah as a burden, nor should there be any doubt about the reward which will be granted. After all it is a known fact that when one aims at a high goal and desire to have a great reward, while at the same time having complete certainty of receiving it, the burden of striving hard along an arduous path to attain that goal becomes easy. Similary the burden of standing for long hours becomes easy. This is the reason why those who had become spiritually elevated in Allah’s sight find it easy to remain in ‘ibaadah almost at all times.

It will be noted that the Hadith speaks about previous sins being forgiven. The ‘ulama‘ have said that this forgiveness are mentioned in the hadith above and other Ahaadith refers only to minor sins. Major sins can only be forgiven according to the Qur’an after sincere repentance with the vow and promise never to return to such sins again. This is the reason why the ‘ulama are unanimous that major sins are not forgiven except by sincere repentance. Hence whenever forgiveness of sins mentioned in the Ahaadith the ‘ulama specify it to be minor sins.

My late father (May Allah bless him and grant him light in his resting place) used to say that the word ‘minor’ has been omitted here for two reasons,

Firstly, he says a true muslim is one on whom major sins should not rest, because whenever a major sin has been commited, he will never rest or find peace until he has sincerely repented to Allah (begging) for forgiveness and promising not to do the same in future.

Secondly, my late father used to say, when such great and blessed days and nights come along, when a true muslim stands before Allah in prayer and adoration hoping to gain reward, it is a fact that the true muslim in his conscience should feel greatly grieved for previous sins. This grief over sins and the resolution not to return to such acts are the most important requirements of towbah. This means that on such days and nights the repentance for major sins is automatic. (leaving only minor sins to be forgiven). It is best however that when a night like Laylatul Qadr comes along. one who has committed major sins should first of all verbally repent with a heart full of sincere longing for forgiveness so that Allah in His infinite mercy may forgive all forms of sins. And when you do, remember me too in your dua’s.

HADITH NO.2

Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) reports: Once when Ramadan commenced, the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: ‘A month has verily dawned over you wherein lies a night better than one thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its blessings has indeed deprived of (almost) all good. And none is deprived or its good except he who is complelely unfortunate”’. [Reported by Ibn Majah].

COMMENTARY

Who can have doubt as to the misfortune of the person who deprives himself of the great good of Laylatul Qadr? (Who can doubt the misfortune of the one who misses all the bestowed favours? Indeed there are so many of us). There are those who during the course of their services and duties of employment have to stay awake throughout the year at night. What difficulty can there be for people like these, should they for the sake of gaining the reward of over eighty years lbaadah, stay awake at night for this month in the way of Allah’s service?

For them the task should not be too difficult, but, because of lack of Interest, there is no urge in the heart. If that was present. then not one night but a thousand nights in worshipping Allah would become exceedingly easy.

It is that urge and desire that we must create. After all there must have been some reason why Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) had performed such lengthy salaah that his feet even became swollen. This he did despite having firmly believed the promises and glad tidings which Allah had given him. We also profess to be his followers. Those who really appreciated these opportunities of lbaadah did what was necessary and set an example to the ummah. They left no room for the critics to say. “Who could do it better or who is more capable of following.. these examples“. It is a matter of convincing the heart, that for these who desire doing things the most difficult task presents no hardship; This could only be achieved by remaining with a recognised Shaikh for spiritual guidance.

Let us look at the example of the following illustrious sons of Islam. One such man was ‘Umar ❤ (radhiyallahu anhu) who, having performed his Ishaa’ salaah used to return home and then remain in ‘salaah throughout the night until the athaan was heard for fajr. Then there is the example of the pious Khaleefa Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu) who, after fasting the whole day (almost throughout the year) used to spend the whole night in salaah, apart from having a little sleep during part of the first third of the early night. It is well known about him that he used to recite the whole Qur’an during one Rak’ah. In the Ihya ‘Ulum Ad Deen by lmaam Ghazaali (rahimahullah). Abu Taalib Makki makes mention about forty men from among the taabi’i, who used to perform fajr salaah with the same wudhu with which they had performed their Ishaa’ salaah. This had been reported by many authentic narrators.

Shaddaad (radhiyallahu anhu) was one of the sahaabah who used to lie awake throughout the night turning from side to side until fajir. Then he used to say, “O Allah, the fear for the fire of Jahannam has driven away sleep from my eyes‘. Aswad bin Yazeed (radhiyallahu anhu) apart from sleeping a little between Maghrib and lshaa‘, used to remain in ‘ibaadah throughout the night during Ramadan. Now let us look at a man like Sa’id ibn Musayyib (radhiyallahu anhu) it is said that he used to perform lshaa‘ and fajr with the same wudhu for fifty years. Then there is the example of ‘Sila bin Ashyam (radhiyallahu anhu) who after spending a whole night in Allah’s worship, used to say at the break of day, “O Allah. I am not fit to beg of You Jannah but all I beseech from You now is that You save me from Jahannam“.

Qataadah (radhiyallahu anhu) was a man who used to finish the recitation of the Qur’an every three nights of Ramadan but during the latter ten nights he used to complete the whole Qur’an every night. About Imaam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullah) it is well known that for forty years he performed Ishaa‘ and the following morning’s fajr1 with the same wudhu. To doubt or disbelieve is the denial of true historical facts. When his companions inquired of him as to where he had obtained the strength for that, he replied. “It is in answer to a special du’a’ which I made to Allah in the name of the blessedness of His special names“, He merely slept a little in the afternoons about which he said, “In the Hadith we are advised to do that“. In other words, even in the afternoon sleep he used to follow the sunnah. This same Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah), while reciting the Qur’an used to cry so much that his neighbours used to feel pity for him. Once he wept the whole night, crying while reciting the following verse time and again:

Nay the Hour (of judgement) is the time promised for them (for their recompense) and that hour will be most grevious and bitter“. (Suratul Qamar: 46).

Ibrahim Ibn Ad’ham (rahimahullah) went so far not to sleep in Ramadan neither by night nor by day. Imaam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) used to recite the Qur’an about sixty times in his ‘salaah in the days and nights of Ramadan. Apart from these few there were countless others saintly souls who used to act diligently on the injunctions of the verse:

I have only created jinn and human that they may serve Me“. (Suratuth Thaariyaat: 56).

Nothing is difficult for those who have a will to practice. These are examples of those who have gone before. But today too there are many who with the same devotion, serve Allah and according to their own times turn night into day in the service of Allah. Even in these times of evil and iniquity there are those who in their saintly manner follow the example of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Leisure and comfort should not prevent one from deligent devotion. Nor are worldly errand obstacles.

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Allah says, ‘O son of Aadam, spend your time in my service and I shall enrich you with independence and freedom from want. and I remove poverty from you. Otherwise I shall fill you with obligations and duties while your poverty and needs shall not disappear“. How true, and we see the truth of this daily.

(There are people who serve only Allah while having no apparent means of earning anything and yet they need nothing. On the other hand we see people striving hard to earn worldly things and necessities. They become so engaged in their task that no time is left for ‘ibaadah. Then too, inspite of spending all their time seeking material needs, they remain full of wordly desires, necessities and obligations).

Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “On the Night of Power Jibraeel (alayhis salaam) decends to the earth with the group of angels, praying for blessings on every servant of Allah they see standing in worship or sitting and celebrating Allah’s praises, Then on the day of ‘Eid. Allah boasts about them to the angels, “O angels, what is the reward of that employee who had fully completed his service?” They reply. ‘O our Sustainer, his reward should be given in full’. To this Allah replies; ‘O My angels, verily My servants. the males among them as well as the females have performed the obligatory duty upon them, thereafter they set forth to the ‘Eidgah raising their voices in prayer to Me, swear by My honour, by My Grace, by My High position of greatness, that I shall surely answer the prayer ofthose people”. Thereafter Allah says (addressing the people) “Return. certainly I have forgiven your sins and have exchanged your evil deeds with righteous ones”, Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said “those people then return from the eidgaah in forgiven state“. [ Reported by Bayhaqi in Shua’bul lmaan].

COMMENTARY

In this Hadith it is clearly mentioned, that jibraeel (alayhis salaam) comes down with the angels. The author of Ghaaliyatul Mawaa’ithz quotes from the Ghunyah of Shaikh Abdul Qaadir jilaani (rahimahullah) that in a hadith reported by Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) it is mentioned that jibraeel (alayhis salaam), after his descent commands the angels to proceed to the house of everyone busy with ibaadah, and to shake his hand, Thereupon the angels spead forth visiting every house whether big or small, whether in the jungle or on a ship wherein a believing worshipper resides, to shake his hand. However, certain houses are not entered. The house in which there is a dog or a pig. The house in which there is a person in state of janaabah, which has resulted from adultery or fornication, and a house wherein pictures of men and animals are displayed. How unfortunate it is that many Muslim houses do not have the angels entering simply because there are pictures of men and animals being displayed, solely for the sake of adding what appears to be a bit of adornment.

Only one picture may have been hunged by one careless member of the household and the whole house (dwelling) is completely deprived of blessings.

HADITH NO.4

Aa’ishah (radhiyalIaahu anha) reports that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Seek Laylatul Qadr among the odd numbered nights of the last ten days of the month of Ramadan“.
[Reported in Mishkaat]

COMMENTARY

We come to the question: “When is Laylatul Qadr? The above Hadith commands us to seek it among the last ten nights of Ramadan. According to the vast majority of authorities, the last ten nights commence on 21st night. Such is the case that whether the month of Ramadan consists of 29 days or 30 days, one should seek Laylatul Qadr on the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th night. If the month is 29 days then too, these will be termed as the last ten (Akheer Asharah) Ibn Hazm has a different opinion, saying that the word Asharah as used in the Hadith means ten. As such the above calculation will only be correct where the month of Ramadan consists of thirty days. However, when there are only twenty nine days in the month (as often happens), the last ten days in the month will commence with the 29th day and the night being the 20th night. According to this calculation it will mean that the unevenly numbered nights will be the 20th, 22nd. 24th, 26th and 28th night. (With due respect to a greatly learned Aalim like Ibn Hazm, the majority of ‘ulama do not agree with him, the reason being that I’itikaaf is sunnah during the last ten days of Ramadan). All the ‘ulama are unanimous that when Rasulullah went into I’itikaaf in search of haq, he entered the Musjid to commence seclusion on the 21st night of Ramadan.

ADVICE

Though there is great possibility of Laylatul Qadr being on the odd nights from the 21st onwards, there does also exist the likelihood that it could fall during. the last ten nights. The best advice one can give here is that one should spend each night from the twentieth onwards in Ibaadah, so that one may be sure of having acquired the blessings of Laylatul Qadr. Ten or eleven nights is definitely not so difficult if one looks at the great reward that is granted.

HADITH NO.5

‘Ubaadah bin ‘Saamit (radhiyallahu anhu) said. ‘Once Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) came out to inform us the true date of Laylatul Qadr. (Unfortunately at that time) an argument took place between two muslim men. whereupon he said, “I came out in order to inform you as to when Laylatul Qadr was, but because two people argued (the fixing of the correct date) was taken away. Perhaps that is better for you. So seek it among the ninth, seventh and fifth nights“. [Reported in Mishkaat].
COMMENTARY

Three important points are referred to in this Hadith. Firstly. there is mention of an argument which resulted in the knowledge of Laylatul Qadr being withheld from us. Arguments are always the cause of loss of blessings. Once Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) inquired of the companions, “Shall I inform you of some action that is better than ‘salaah, fasting and charity?” The companions replied. “Certainly” Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) then said. “Maintaining peaceful and good relations amongst yourselves is most virtuous for verily arguments among yourselves eliminates faith“. This means that just as the razor removes hair from the head so does arguments amongst yourself remove faith.

This is indeed an illness among us. Even those among us who appear exceptionally religious and busy with their are victims of these arguments and strife. Firstly we should carefully study Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying, then check our conduct in which pride prevents us to submit towards natural conciliation.  Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has taught us: “To insult a muslim is the most despicable and obnoxious type of achievement“. We often go to such extent that when we cross words with muslims in arguments. we do not even care for a muslim’s or refrain from insults. In such cases no notice seems to be taken of the injunctions of Allah and His Messenger. The Holy Qur’an says:

Argue not among yourselves. otherwise your courage will go and your strength deport and be patient and persevering for Allah is with those who patiently persevere“. (Surah Anfaal: 46)

It is now the duty of those who always seek to injure and destroy the honour and dignity of others to sit back and think how much harm they have done to themselves. They should think how much they have through these despicable deeds, themselves become despicable in Allah’s sight and in the sight of those around them. The person who serves relationship with his brothers for more than three days and dies in this state will go straight to Jahannam. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said that on every Monday and Thursday the actions of servants are brought before Allah. Then through His Mercy (as a result of certain pious deeds) forgiveness is granted except to the idolators. However, regarding any two people between whom an argument had taken place and friendship is cut off it shall be said “Leave their affair aside until such time that they become reconciled“.

Another Hadith states that when actions are presented before Allah. every Monday and Thursday. repentance is accepted from those who repent, and forgiveness is granted to those who seek pardon. As for those who had arguments. they are left as they are. Another Hadith further teaches us that on Shab e Bara’at (the night of the 15th Sha’baan) the mercy of Allah
is directed at all Allah’s creation and forgiveness is freely granted except for two types cf persons. One, a kaafir (disbeliever), and the one who harbours bad thoughts against others, in another Hadith it is stated, There are three kinds of people whose Salaah does not ascend one hand span above their heads for acceptance. Mentioned among these are the ones who argue among themselves.

In the above paragraphs I have digressed from the point under discussion. It was not my intention to mention all these Ahaadith on arguments. I merely did it to bring to our notice this great evil which we underestimate, so much so that even those whom we consider to be noble and righteous are guilty of it. To Allah is my plea, and He is the One we. seek assistance from. On the other hand, be informed that this fighting, use of harsh words and cutting oneself off from another, will only be regarded as a crime and evil in Islam, when done out of enmity and hatred over worldly matters. It is permissible to break off relations with somebody because of evil deeds or because of some religious matters (wherein he is in the wrong and blameable). Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) once quoted a saying of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) to which his son said something, which outwardly appears as if he objected to it. The result was that Ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) never again spoke to that son for as long as he lived. There are numerous  similar instances reported of the sahaabah.

Often we too Cut off relations with people and claim that it is for the sake of the Deen. Allah as All-knowing, All-seeing and He alone knows the true state of affairs. He knows which relationships are broken off because of the Deen and which are cut off because of the hurt to our honour, pride and dignity.

The second point to which the Hadith under discussion draws attention is the fact that man should be satisfied and accept Allah’s ruling in all matters. For example, even though it seems that the loss of the knowledge as to when Laylatul Qadr actually falls, is a great loss of blessing, it has to be accepted because it is from Allah. For this reason Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) says, “It is better for us that way“. One should ponder over this, Allah is at all times merciful to His servants.

Even when someone is overtaken by a great calamity because of his own evil deeds. He needs only appeal to His Creator, admit his own weakness. and that same calamity becomes. the cause Of greater good. Nothing is impossible for Allah.

Our ‘ulama have mentioned several advantages in not knowing the proper time for Laylatul Qadr. Firstly, had we known the actual time for this blessed night, there would have been so many who would not have served Allah at all during the year or on other nights. They would only wait for the prescribed night in which to perform their ibaadah. As things are now. one has to stay awake and be in Ibaadah for quite a number of nights hoping that each night is perhaps the night. (This means more nights in Allah’s service and reward for the same).

Secondly, there are among us those who just do not seem to be able to avoid evil. How extremely dangerous and unfortunate for them wouid it be. when in spite of knowing that such and such night is Laylatul Qadr and then still spend it in sin and evil? Once Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) on entering the musjid saw one of the sahaabah sleeping on one side. He said to Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) “Wake him up so that he can make wudhu“. This Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) did and then addressed the Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) thus asked ‘O Messenger of Allah, you are always first to hurry towards any good deed. Why did you not wake him up yourself? To this Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied. “I fear on his behalf that this man may refuse. and refusal to my command is kufr. If he refused your command. it would not be kufr (disbelief). Similarly Allah in His mercy does not approve that in spite of knowing which night is the real one, one should still spend it in sin and evil.

Thirdly, there are amongst some who find it possible to spend one, two or three nights in Ibaadah while we do not know which is the night of Power. Now say for arguments sake. we did not know which night Laylatul Qadr would be and inspite of that, for one reason or another, within or outside our control we allowed that night to go by without Ibaadah, it is an almost certain fact that thereafter for the rest of Ramadan. no other night would have been spent in Ibaadah.

Fourthly, every night spent in ibaadah in search of Laylatul Qadr is night for which a separate reward is granted.

Fifthly, We have read that Allah boasts to His angels about those believers who exert themselves in ibaadah during Ramadan. Now when they spend more nights in Allah’s worship, more such chances of boasting arise.

In spite of not knowing when it is the night of Laylatul Qadr and although they have only a vague idea about its fixed time, still they exert themselves to the utmost in Allah’s service night after night. If such is their exertion when they do not know then how more will they exert themselves whenit is known to them? .

There are sure to be advantages. Due to such blessings Allah often keeps certain things secret to Himself, as for example, the “Ismul A’zam” (the great name of Allah. whereby if we call upon Him, He answers). Similarly there is a special moment on the day of Jumu’ah when prayers are answered. This time too is not known with complete certainty. There are numerous other things which are included in this category. It is possible that because of the argument that took place the fixing of Laylatul Qadr during that Ramadan was caused to be forgotten. However because of the other benefits the knowledge of the fixed date was not revealed.

The third point to which attention is drawn is that Laylatul Qadr should be sought among the 9th, 7th and 5th. By reading these in conjunction with the.other Ahaadith. we come to know that this refers to the last ten nights of Ramadan, which nights are these? If we start from the 20th. Counting up then these three nights are the 25th. 27th and 29th. If, on the other hand we start counting from the 28th down, where Ramadan has 29 days, these nights .are the 21st, 23rd, and 25th. And in the case where the month has 30days it would be 22nd 24th and 26th.

From the above one can see how much uncertainty there is about the correct date. Among the learned ‘ulama there are approximately fifty different opinions. Because of this reason, some ‘ulama have said that Laylatul Qadr does not occur on one and the same night every year. If in an year it occurred on one night then the following year it occurred on another night. There are times when Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) commanded the companions to search among a number of nights, whereas at other times again he used to fix a certain night.

Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that once during a conversation with the companions, mention was made of Laylatul Qadr. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) asked “What is the date today?” They replied, “The 22nd of Ramadhaan. The Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Search for Laylatul Qadr in the night following this”. Abu.Tharr (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that he inquired of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) whether Laylatul Qadr was only granted for the time of the duration of Rasulullah’s (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) life, or whether it continued to come after him. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied, “It continues until Qiyaamah“. I then inquired “In which section of Ramadan does it come? The Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied. “Search for it in the first ten and in the last ten days“, Thereafter Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) became busy with other work. I waited and finding another chance inquired, “In which section of those ten does Laylatul Qadr come? Upon this Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) became so angry with me as he had never been before or after, and he said, “If it had been Allah’s object to make it known, would He not have informed? Search for it among the last seven nights, and ask no more“. In another Hadith again Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is reported to have told one sahaabah that Laylatul Qadr was on 23rd night.

Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) related, “While sleeping once, somebody said to me in my dream. ‘Rise up, This is Laylatul Qadr’. I woke up and proceeded in haste to Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam. There I found him in salaah. That was the 23rd night“. According to other reports again the 24th is Laylatul Qadr. Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “Whoever remains all nights of the year in lbaadah can find Laylatul Qadr“. (In other words the blessed night moves throughout the year and does not necessarily have to come in Ramadan only). Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) reports this view from Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) Durre Manthoor when this was mentioned to Ubay bin Kaab (radhiyallahu anhu) he said “Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) meant people will stay awake only on this night and become contented“. Thereafter he swore by Allah that Laylatul Qadr comes on 27th. This is also the view held by numerous sahaabah as well as tabi’ieen.

Among the Imaams, the well known opinion of Imaam Abu Hanifa (rahimahullah) is that Laylatul Qadr moves throughout the year while another view of this is that it moves about throughout the month of Ramadan. His famous student followers, Imam Muhammad and lmam Abu Yusuf. however, were of the opinion that this night is fixed on one special night which is unknown, during the Holy month. While the Shafi’i’s believe that it occurs probably on 21st. Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullah) and lmaam Maalik (rahimahullah) hold view that it comes only among the odd nights of the last ten nights of Ramadan, moving from year to year and is not fixed. But as for the vast majority of ‘ulama, their hope lies in Laylatul Qadr coming annually on 27th night.

Ibn Arabi (rahimahullah) says, “In my opinion the view of those who believe that Laylatul Qadr comes on various nights throughout the year is most correct, because twice have I seen it in Sha’baan once on the 15th and once on 19th and twice have I seen it in the middle ten nights of Ramadan, the 13th, and the 18th. And I have also seen it on every odd night of the last ten. For this reason I am certain that it could occur on any night of the year but comes mostly in Ramadan.”

Shah Waliullah (rahimahullah) of Delhi believed that Laylatul Qadr comes twice every year: (a) One Laylatul Qadr is that one on which Allah’s commands are revealed (to the angels). This is also the night on which the Holy Qur’an was sent down from the Al Lowhul Mahfuz to the heavens. This night does not come in Ramadan alone but moves and can come on any other night of the year. However. the night on which the Holy Qur’an was revealed fell in Ramadan and mostly falls during Ramadhaan. (b) The second Laylatul Qadr is the one of tremendous spiritual value. when angels descend in large numbers, while shayateens are held back and a time when prayers and ibaadah are accepted. This comes only in Ramadan during the ‘uneven’ nights of the last ten days. (This view of Shah Waliullah used to be most acceptable to my late father).

Anyway, whether there are two Laylatul Qadr’s or whether there is only one, the fact still remains that one has to search for it according to ones courage and ability. If not throughout the year, then in Ramadan. If that should prove difficult, then during the last ten days. When that too seems a bit too much to be expected, then only the odd numbered nights of the last ten days. When one has wasted these opportunities too, then by no means should the 27th be allowed to go by; If by AlIah’s blessings and your good fortune that is Laylatul Qadr, then in comparison all the prosperity and pleasures of the world would be meaningless. Thus, even though that may not be the much searched for night, then at least the reward for ibaadah is received.

The salaah of Maghrib and ‘Isha throughout the year should be performed with jama’ah; because if it is Laylatul Qadr the reward for both is so much more. It is a great blessing of Allah that when one endeavours for religious aims and cannot make it success, he is still rewarded for the effort. And inspite of this, there are those who do not leave a stone unturned in their services for Deen. On the contrary; in worldly affairs when one does not break even his efforts are also written off as a loss. Then too in this latter case numerous people spend their lime, efforts and wealth in worldly things that are fruitless and without purpose and do not hold any reward or consolation.

HADITH NO.6

‘Ubaadah bin Saamit (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that he asked Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) about Laylatul Qadr. He replied “It is in Ramadan during the last ten days, on the unevenly numbered nights, either the 21st. 23rd, 25th, 27th and 29th or the last night of the month of Ramadan. Whosoever stands in ibaadah on this night with sincere faith and with genuine hopes of gaining reward his previous sins will be forgotten. Among the signs of this night is that it is a serene, quite, shining night, not hot, nor cold and (as if through the amount of spiritual light) the moon remains clear. without any rays. No stars are flung (at the shayaa’teen) on that night until the break of dawn. Another sign is that the sunrises without any radiant beams of light, appearing rather like the moon in its fullness. On that day Allah prohibits the shayaa’teen from rising up with the sun“. [Reported in Durr Manthoor]

COMMENTARY

Part of what has been mentioned in this Hadith has already been dealt with. Some signs are mentioned about the actual night; These signs are clear and need no further explanation. Apart from these signs, however, there are other signs too, as found in the Hadith and in the experience of those who had the fortune to encounter Laylatul Qadr. The sign that is, however, most common in the Hadith and generally witnessed is the rising of the sun ‘without any radiant beams of light’. The other signs besides this are not necessarily always found. One sahaabi, Ab’da bin abi Lubaabah (radhiyallahu anhu) says, “On the evening of the 27th, I tasted the water of the sea and it was sweet“. Ayoob bin Khaalid (rahimahullah) said. “When I once had to perform ghusl (bath) with sea water, then on tasting it found it sweet. This was on the 23rd night“. Some of the Mashaa-ikh wrote that on the evening of Laylatul Qadr everything prostrates on the ground then return to their positions. These are however things that are only shown to the extremely pious ones and are not seen by the ordinary person.

HADITH NO.7

Aa’isha (radhiyallahu anha) reports; “O Messenger of Allah, when I find myself in Laylatul Qadr, what shall I say?” The Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied, ‘Say a Allah Thou are One who pardons. Thou lovest to pardon, so grant me forgiveness“. [Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and Tirmizhi].

COMMENTARY

This is indeed  an all inclusive prayer, wherein one begs Allah in His infinite grace should forgive sins, What else would one require? Imaan Sufyaan Thawri (rahimahullah) used to say that to keep oneself busy on this night with dua‘ is better than any other forms of Ibaadah, Ibn Rajab (rahimahullah) says that one should not only remain busy with dua‘, but should also take part in all other forms of ‘ibaadah as well, such as the recitation of Qur’an, ‘salaah, dua‘, prescribed devotions etc. This latter opinion is considered correct and close to what Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has said, as already mentioned in previous Ahaadith.