Making use of Our Youth-Advice to the Muslim Youth

My dear Slaves of Allah, if Allah gives us 60 years to live then it comes to around 22,000 days (60×365). All these days Allah gives us to prepare for one day of interview with Allah. That is on the Day of Judgement. On that day, Allah will ask us some questions and He wants some correct answers. Allah is so merciful that He already told us what the questions will be through Shari’ah and our deeds. His Mercy is so great that He even told us the answers to these questions.

Now imagine, a student goes to write an exam. He opens his exam paper and finds the questions on one side. Then he finds that the answers to the questions are on the other side. Now after writing the exam, if this student still fails then what would we think of him? We would think that he is the dumbest person around. Well, tell you what, on the Day of Judgement, us people who knew the questions and answers will still fail! That is why, this is the time to wake up before we prove ourselves to be the dumbest of people.

Youth is the prime time of our lives. This is where people make important decisions like what to become in the future. Things you do in this time will most likely affect you throughout the rest of your life. That is why, it is important to bring Islam into your life during these days. Many people have the conception that when they get old then they will start practising Islam. Probably you and me also have this feeling.

But look at it this way:

If you want to become a famous hockey player then you would start playing right from the youth. As you grow up, you will become better and better. But if you think that you will start playing when you are an old man then the chances of becoming famous is virtually zero. That’s the reality. When we become old, we won’t have enough energy to even stand up and pray.

Because youth is the prime time of your life, that is why it is very precious to Allah. Allah has prepared a shade on the Day of Judgement for those people who used to worship Allah in their youth. On that Day, there will be no other shade except the shade from the throne of Allah. Imagine standing outside on a very hot day under the sun for hours after hours. You would definitely want some shadow to rest under. But what about that Day when the sun will be much nearer to us and the heat will be much more extreme. Wouldn’t you want some shade on that day? Of course you would!

You and I are all weak in terms of keeping our duties to Allah and Allah is aware of that. Allah wants that we keep trying to do our best. If a baby falls down while walking he tries to get up again and walk. He doesn’t keep sitting down. Then a day comes when he does start to walk. Similarly, we should keep trying our best and not give up. A day will come when, Insha Allah, we will be strong enough to obey Allah in every situation. Let us make a small promise to Allah right now that we will start doing the things for which we were sent to this life. Otherwise, we will be like that dumb guy who will fail the test on the Day of Judgement.

May Allah make it easy for us. Aameen.

Parents — The Cause of Disobedience & Delinquency of their Children

By Majlisul Ulama of S.A

“O People of Imaan! Save yourselves and your families (wives and children) from the Fire!, the fuel of which is people and stones…. [Surah At-Tahreem: Ayah 6]

Disobedience to parents has become an endemic problem in the Muslim Community. In this regard Muslims have followed in the footsteps of other communites among whom the dividing line between children and parents is extremely feint if not completely non-existent. Delinquency is on the increase. Kuffaar cultures and cults have made their impact on Muslim society. The embrace of westernization of Muslims have introduced all the evils of that kufr culture into Muslim homes thus bringing ruin to the holy moral fabric of the Muslim society.

Complaints of Parents

Parents are complaining of the gross disobedience of their children. From an early age the modern Muslim child displays his traits of rebellion against the parental authority. By the time he/she is a teenager there exists hardly any parental control. The child is misbehaved, displays misconduct and is rude to parents and indifferent  to the demands of Islam. The behaviour exhibited by the children in these times of them being the parents and the parents the children. Children dictate the terms of their desire and parents meekly comply. Most parents in this modern age are on the defensive when they have to confront the misdemeanours of their children. In fact, parents have become scared for the reactions of their children in the event of any confrontation with them.

Parents – those who still have some religious feeling – complain about the immoral behaviour of their children; they bemoan the irreligious attitude and slack ties which their children have with Islam. When the child ultimately takes the plunge into total moral and spiritual ruin by drugs or ‘marrying’ a non-Muslim to whom the parents are violently opposed, the world of the parents comes to a crushing end. They had provided the ‘best’ worldly upbringing to their child. They slaved for the education and well-being of their child. They left no stone unturned to make their child comfortable and successful on earth, yet they are now tortured with their beloved child’s moral collapse and ruin. The child renounces and denounces his parents who can now shed tears of sorrow, grief and disappointment.

Rights of Parents

When parents are faced with the gross disobedience and obstinacy of their teenage children, they wish and pray that their  children will understand the gravity of the sin of disobedience to parents. They may even tell to give their children lectures about Islam’s emphasis on obedience to parents. Some will approach others to speak and reason with the disobedient children and to make them aware of the punishment for disobeying parents. Different means and ways are explored in an attempt to bring the errant children to their senses, but all to no avail.  Once the child has chosen a particular path of evil or disobedience which is his/her mind is the only correct way, he/she will walk in that direction regardless  of the protests, threats and laments of his/her parents. These are daily incidents which are on the increase.

Undoubtedly, the Shariah has elaborately explained the rights of parents. The emphasis on obedience and kindness to parents is of such a high and prior degree that the Qur’an couples the sin of disobedience to parents to disobedience to Allah Ta’ala. It is, in fact, likened to shirk (association of partners with Allah Ta’ala). Hence, the Qur’an Majeed says in a number of places:

“Do not commit shirk with Allah and be kind to parents…”

After prohibiting shirk, the Qur’an prohibits disobedience to parents. A disobedient child lives under Divine curse. The rights of parents are numerous and sacred. There can be no argument in this regard. However, what is usually  overlooked is that the children too have rights  which are also sacred, and it is incumbent on parents to observe these rights which the Shariah has commanded.

Rights of Children

The Qur’anic verse:

“O People of Imaan! Save yourselves and your families from the fire….”

is a command to observe the rights of children as well. Since parents have grossly and miserably failed to observe the rights of their children, they are confronted in later life by the disobedience of their children. One shall reap only what one has sown. If parents study dispassionately the cause of their children’s spiritual and moral ruin, they will not fail to understand that the cause was parental neglect. The parents themselves have failed to discharge correctly and fully the sacred command of Allah Ta’ala with regard to children, hence the heart-breaking consequences they have to suffer.

The rights of children are not confined to the worldly and material well-being. Parents labour under the impression that as lomg as they have fulfilled their duty to their children with regard to food, clothes, shelter, worldly comfort and worldly kuffaar education, they have fully discharged the rights of their children. But, these provisions are only part of  Huqooq (Rights) which the Shariah imposes on parents. Of far greater importance  than worldly and material comfort and benefit is the Deeni Tarbiyat (training) of children. Nothing is more important than the Deeni and moral development of the child. The Qur’anic command to save one’s family from the Fire is an instruction to impart proper Deeni Ta’leem and Tarbiyat to children. Without such training it is not possible to save children from the “Fire” stated in the Aayat. The fire into which they will plunge figuratively speaking, commences right here on earth. The moral ruin and spiritual destruction   which follow in the way of parentap neglect represents the Fire on earth which will devour children. In Qiyamah, the fire is of course, Jahannum in which they will be punished for their evil conduct here on earth. But, parents should remember  that they have paved the path of Jahannum for their children by failing to observe the rights of their children.

The Attitude of Parents

Most parents in these days Islamically fail their children. While they slog night and day for the worldly well-being and welfare of their children, scant regard is shown for the Deeni Ta’leem and Tarbiyat of their children. The domain of Akhlaaq (Islamic Morals)  has been largele excised from the lives of modernstically inclined Muslim parents. As long as the children are materially provided for and their secular education attended to, parents are satisfied. Beyond this ectremely short-sighted policy their imagination cannot dwell.

Even the smattering of Deeni Ta’leem which children are allowed to pursue in their part-time Madrasahs after kuffaar school time is imparted grugdingly and disconsolately. The little Deeni Ta’leem provided by the impoverished Madrasahs are also made subservient to kuffaar secular education. Most children emerging from these part-time Madrasahs after doing a stint of Ta’leem in haphazard fashion lack adequate ability to even correctly recite the Qur’an Shariff. As far as the necessary Deeni Masaa’il are concerned, they are grossly deficient. The issue of Akhlaq does not even feature. What then can be expected from such a child lacking entirely in spiritual and moral background.

The Most Fundamental Right

Of all the rights which the children hold over their parents, the most important is the Haqq of  Tarbiyat (Islamic Morals and educational training). Since man has been created for the Aakhirah, his spiritual welfare has prior importance. The Qur’an and Hadith make incumbent on parents the provision of proper moral and Islamic educational training to their children. This department is of fundamental importance.  It has a greater status than even the provision of food , shelter and clothing. The best Sadqah a man can give is to train his child in Akhlaaq (Islamic Morals).

In the program of moral training, of vital importance is the company  and circle in which the child spends time and moves. Echoing the instruction of the Hadith of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), the Mashaa-ikh say:

Better than virtuous acts is virtuous company and worse than evil acts is evil company.

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) supplicated:

“O Allah! I seek refuge with you from an evil moment and from evil company”

In this sphere the parents in this age have grossly and miserably failed their children. This Shar’i command has been completely ignored and children are exposed to the worst kind of shaitani company and influences which utterly corrupt and ruin them. Instead of ensuring that their children remain in pious company or, as a last resort, in the home environment where pious company is not available, parents are not only content, but actually encourage their children  to associate with fussaaq, fujjaar and kuffaar. The best period of their formative life is destructively squandered in the ‘suhbat’ (company) of fussaaq and fujjaar secular teachers. Men and women of dubious and immoral character in secular schools become the guides and instructors of Muslim children. Children are constrained by their parents to live in the liberal and immoral school and university environment for up to twenty years or most part of their delicate lives. They mix with the opposite sex in co-ed schools. Their playmates and confidantes are non-Muslim teachers and schoolmates. While parents are too much engaged in their worldly pursuits, their children are involved in the immoral pursuits of cults and cultures of kufr to which they are being exposed. What Akhlaaq – what Islamic character can be expected of such children? How can intelligent Muslims expect such children to be obedient to their parents and obedient to the Laws of Allah Ta’ala? The logical consequence of such evil exposure is moral ruin, scepticism, atheism and delinquency. There is, therefore, no surprise when children display all their traits, habits and characteristics of the kuffaar.

Parents have to realise that they are the prime cause for the moral and spiritual destruction of their children . They have violated the sacred terms of the Amaanat and Pledge of Allah Ta’ala by their abdication of parental duty. The sins children perpetrate will be laid at the door of parents who will share the punishment in the Hereafter.

The oblique intellectual vision and corruption of intelligence of modern Muslims today have made them completely indifferent of them demads of Imaan and Islam. For the sake of worldly gain and transient pleasures and comforts they are prepared to barter away the Najaat (Salvation) of their children. Their goal in life is primarily worldly progress and perfection. In the process of worldly pursuit and acquisition the Deen and the Imaan of their children can be confounded. It does not matter to them.

Parents of this ilk are in reality the enemies of their children. They pave the path for the ruin of their offspring. The obedience to parents which the Shariah imposes as a sacred and obligatory duty on children is not related to such traitorous parents. Children are not under  Shar’i obligation to obey the evil and haraam commands of such parents.

When a child has been allowed by his parents to associate and mingle with a faasiq or Kafir member of the opposite sex for years at school or university, then such parents forfeit the right to debar the child from marrying that person when the couple has gone overboard in their immorality. It then becomes permissible  for such delinquent children to marry without the consent of their fussaaq parents who were instrumental in the spiritual and moral ruin of their beloved children.

It is imperative to understand that the basic cause of delinquency, disobedience and immorality  prevalent among Muslim children of this age is PARENTS who have abdicated their office of parenthood by shirking the parental obligations towards their children.

Principles of Deobandi Fiqhi Approach

[Hazrat Mufti Syed Abdush Shakoor Tirmizi (rahimahullah)
(Khalifa of Mawlana Zafar Ahmed Usmani and Mufti Mohammad Shafi’)]


Firstly it is essential to reiterate the fact vividly obvious to anyone who studies the works of senior Deobandi scholars. That is, their beliefs and practices conform completely with the teachings of Quran, hadith and hanafi fiqh. Their sulook and tasawwuf is also exactly according to the Sunnah. They are staunch hanafi and high caliber ahle-sunnah. Neither any of their beliefs is against Qur’an and hadith, nor any of their fiqh ruling against Hanafi fiqh.

Deobandiyat is not a separate maslak (route). In our day and age it is synonymous with maslak of Ahlus Sunnah wal jama’ah.

Few guiding principles:

If the following essential principles are kept in mind the Shari’ah ruling regarding all the contemporary bid’at/innovations will be easy to know:

First Principle:

Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala says:

ولا تسبوالذین یدعون من دون اللیسبو الل عدوا بغیر علم

Commenting under the heading, Hakeemul Ummat Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanavi (rahimahullah) said:

“The defamation of idols (gods) is per se a mubah (permissible) act. However, if it becomes a cause of a prohibited act, that is, denigration of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala, it will become prohibited (منھی عن) and objectionable (قبیح).

This forms the proof of a fiqh ruling. That is, if a permissible act becomes the cause of a prohibited act that (mubah) act itself becomes haram.

[Bayanul Qur’an volume 1 page 119]

Second Principle

Although, numerous verses of Quran mention tawheed (Oneness of Allah Ta’ala), prophethood, negation of disbelief and polytheism and on various occasions’ infidels (kuffar) mocked at them and denigrated Allah and His Prophet (salallaahu alayhi wasallam). These incidents are well documented in various places. But there is no prohibition of discussing these things.

The reason for this variance is that the discussion of these subjects is essential (wajib) and required by Shariah. If some corruption happens secondary to their discussion even then they will not be abandoned.

This proves the second principle.

Both of these principles are treasure trove of knowledge. Orders and rulings regarding numerous peripheral issues can be found from them. In ‘Ruhul Ma’ani’ this difference has been documented from the answer of Abul-Mansoor (rahimahullah) with Ibn e Sireen (rahimahullahl agreeing  to it.

The net result of these two principles is that,

If a permissible act, and similarly mustebbat & Sunan za’idah become contaminated with prohibited acts, then it will be essential (wajib) to abandon that permissible act. In actions that are themselves essential (wajib) and required by Shari’ah if there is any contamination with prohibited acts then even they will not be abandoned. However, it will be necessary to rectify those wrong doings.

This is the very difference which if not kept in mind leads to propagation of innovations.

Third Principle

Allah Ta’ala says:

یاایھاالذین امنوالاتقولوا رعنا

From this order we come to know the ruling that if an individual’s own permissible act becomes a source/excuse for another individual to commit a prohibited action, then that act becomes impermissible for the first person (to start with).

For example, if a scholar’s act is used to justify an ignorant person’s prohibited action, then if that act is non essential it will become impermissible for the scholar also. [Bayanul Qur’an volume 1 page 57]

This is documented in ‘Durr mukhtar’ and its explanation ‘Raddul mukhtar’ under the discussion of “prostration of thankfulness:

وسجدۃ الشکر مستحبۃ بھ تی لکنھا تکر بعد الصلوۃ لان الجھلۃ یعتقدونھا سنۃ او واجبۃ وکل مباح یودی الیمکرو۔ وی الشرح: وحاصل ان ما لیس لھا سبب لا تکر ما لم یود علھا الی اعتقاد الجھلۃ سنیتھا کالتی یعلھا بعض الناس بعد الصلوۃ  [الشامی جلد 1 ص 731]

It is based on these principles derived from Qur’an, Hadith and ruling of Hanafi jurists, the Deobandi scholars have spoken regarding the contemporary rituals and polemic issues.

[Maqalat e Tirmizi  page 216-218, Darul Ishat, Karachi. 1426H]

Applications of these principles

Based on these well established principles they have said that appointing special dates and other specific requirements for rituals like mawlid shareef gatherings, customs of fathiha (esal-e-thawab),  third and tenth day (post-death) esal e thawab gatherings, etc. to be bid’at.
By fixing these specification and precise requirements belief of them being necessary was developing.  Even if the person performing them had correct beliefs the danger of corrupting the beliefs of less knowledgeable was arising.
It is an established fiqh principle that as important it is to save one’s self from a destruction essentially important is to save others from any loss. That is, as important it to preserve one’s own beliefs equally important is to save others beliefs also.
‘Allamah Shami (Ibn Abideen) rahimahullah has written this principle in the discussion of fixing recitation of particular Surah in Salah. That is, wherever there is possibility of distorting shari’ah rulings or misunderstanding of ignorants. He writes:

“واقول حاصل معنی کلام ھذا الشیخین بیان وج الکراۃ ی المداومۃ وھو انان رای ذالک حقا یکر حیث تغیر المشروع والا یکر من حیث ایھام الجاھل”
[شامی جلد 1 ص 508]

The reason to stop the general people is  تغیر المشروعand for elite is ایھام الجاھل.

A general principle established is that mubah should not exceed its limits (both in knowledge and practice) and mutlaq must not change from its itlaq, both in knowledge and practice and a muqqiyad must not change similarly. There are many verses and hadith to prove this. As this is an established principle I do not need to mention daleel. Just to remind forgetful I mention,
It is narrated in Muslim:
قال رسول الل صلی الل علی وسلم لا تختصوا لیلۃ الجمعۃ من بین اللیلی ولا تختصو یوم الجمعۃ لقیام من الایام الا ان یکون ی یصوم احدکم  (الحدیث)

As Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had mention numerous merits of jumu’ah day and salatul jumu’ah there was a possibility that some will decide himself to specially select them for praying and fasting. For this Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) himself negated this thinking and reiterated that only those things that he had mentioned in this regard are recommendable and a Sunnah. If some one exceeds them then it will not be acceptable.
Imam Nawawi (rahimahullah) explains this principle:
احتج ب العلماء علی کراھۃ ھذ الصلوۃ المبتدعۃ التی تسمی الرغائب قاتل الل “واضعھا” و مخترعھا قھا بدعۃ منکر من البدع الضلال و الجھال
[Maqalat e Tirmizi pg 219-20]

The most striking thing we see in these days is that a mubah is given so much significance that people will easily ignore a person who does not pray salah or fast or makes ghiyba or lies but if a observant Muslim does not perform mawlid he is chastised, looked down upon and called names.
Is it not exceeding the mubah from its limits?? 

Response to Objections regarding Bayaan before Khutbah on Yaum al Jumu’ah

[Darul Uloom T & T]

Below is the article (in Red) which was written by a Shaykh as a refutation against our article: Ruling on the Religious Bayaan/Wa’az Delivered Before the Khutbah on Yaum Al-Jumu’ah.


The practice of giving a Bayaan (talk or lecture) in English on Fridays, not on the minbar, at the time normally allotted for the Khutbah and sometimes takes about half an hour relegating THE KHUTBAH OF JUMU’AH SALAAH TO JUST TWO OR THREE MINUTES IN ARABIC has taken root in some of our masaajid.

It should be noted that:

(1) This practice takes place in the presence of the lmaam.

(2) The Khateeb (the person who gives the Khutbah) for The Jumu’ah Salaah is also present.

(3) Most times the person giving the Bayaan is the Khateeb for Jumu’ah.

(4) The Khutbah of Jumu’ah, which is given purely in Arabic, is not understood by the masses.

(5) Everyone agrees that This Bayaan is not part of The Jumu’ah Salaah and should anyone absent himself or herself from it they would have done no wrong.

The Darul Uloom gave a ruling on this practice saying it is permissible and allowed. This was signed and dispatched by the head of that institute dated 19/05/2005. It was then subsequently published in their newsletter #24. The Darul Uloom quotes a number of ahaadeeth and a Fatwaa (Islamic Ruling) of The Permanent Committee for Religious and Legal Rulings of Saudi Arabia to support their position. However on close examination we discover an attempt to mislead the innocent and un-informed masses.

Firstly, they quote a hadeeth from Al Mustadrak, which says that Aboo Hurairah (Abpwh) will stand besides the mimbar and recite ahadeeth and then The Khaleefah ‘Umar (Abpwh) would deliver the Khutbah.

They insinuate that Umar (Abpwh) was present at Aboo Hurairah’s narration of ahaadeeth.

This was not so. What is found in Al Haakim’s collection of ahaadeeth (Al Mustadrak Vol.1 page306) is that he, Aboo Hurairah (Abpwh) would stand besides the mimbar and narrate ahadeeth and when he heard the movement of the door indicating the emergence of The lmaam he stopped his narrations and sat. The lmaam here is ‘Umar (Abpwh) who is also the Khateeb.

This and the other references that the Darul Uloom quotes, clearly establishes that when the Imaam came there was no preaching or narrating of ahaadeeth

Secondly they, the Darul Uloom quotes out of context the practice of The Prophet (u.w.b.p) going to the women and preaching to them after he delivered the Khutbah of Eid Salaah as evidence. What is contentious is the preaching before the Khutbah in the presence of the lmaam/Khateeb, and not after.

Thirdly, the Darul Uloom again attempts to mislead us by quoting the third part of a Fatwaa, which was given by The Permanent Committee for Religious and Legal Rulings in Saudi Arabia.

Here is how Darul Uloom Quoted The Fatwaa:

“When asked about religious instructions held following The Friday Prayer; the Committee responded by saying: There is no sin in it since there is no prohibition for it in The Sunna”

The Darul Uloom here makes a serious blunder in not presenting the Fatwaa as was given.

Firstly they left out the words {after prayer} at the end of the fatwaa

Secondly the Darul Uloom in its attempt to mislead, also conveniently omits the second part of the Fatwaa of the Committee. This is indeed poor scholarship and not the way the students of knowledge.

Presented for your information is the Second and Third part of the fatwaa of the Permanent

Committee for Religious and Legal Rulings in Saudi Arabia.

“Recitation of Assamadiyyah (saying of Suratul lkhlaas) or anything else from the Qur’aan or remembrance before the start of the Khutbah is not obligatory; in fact. IT IS AN INNOVATION and it has been authentically reported from the Prophet (u.w.bp) that he said: Whoever innovated in this matter (i.e. this religion) of ours will have it rejected; Reported by both AI-Bukhaaree and Muslim.

Thirdly, there is no sin in holding a lesson or lessons in circles of learning on Fridays, as there is no

evidence to forbid ATER PRAYER.” (Fatawa Islamiyah Vol. 2 Page 447)

Dear readers know that this practice of giving a Bayaan before the Khutbah as is presently done, is not found in the practices or preaching of the Prophet (u.w.b.p), nor that of The Four Rightly Guided Caliph (Abpwt). Their preaching, admonishments, advices at the time of Jumu’ah Salaah came from The Mimbar

It is indeed imperative that the Muslims adhere to the Qur’aan and the Sunnah in all of their affairs. Allaah The Almighty warns us in Al-Qur’aan: But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad – uwbp-) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept them with full submission. Ch.4 V65.

We beseech Allaah to pardon us for our shortcomings and to forgive our wrongdoings; He indeed is The Forgiving, The Merciful. (Aameen)

Look out for our next Article where we address the real reason for the persistence by some to give a Bayaan before the Khutbah of Jumu’ah Salaah In Shaa Allaah.

Shaykh Hassan Hamid – Faculty of Shariah University Of Medina Saudi Arabia

[End of Shaykh Hassan’s Article]


Before responding to this article we wish to make it abundantly clear that the Darul Uloom’s article was not written to condemn or attack a person’s behavior or opinion, instead it was written as an answer to a question which was posed to the Darul Uloom. As such the article firstly came out in the form of an Islamic ruling and was then published in the Sabeelur-Rashaad publication.

The author of the article prints in bold letters DECEPTION OR NON-COMPREHENSION?’ giving an indication to the reader that the article written by the Darul Uloom is either to deceive others or it is that they have no understanding of the issues involved. Upon close examination it would be seen that this statement is more fitting to the writer of the said article than anyone else. We ask our readers to follow closely to what is being written.

The Shaykh then writes ‘The Practice of giving a Bayaan (talk or lecture) in English on Fridays, not on the minbar, at the time normally allotted for the Khutbah and sometimes takes about half an hour relegating THE KHUTBAH OF JUMU’AH SALAAH TO JUST TWO OR THREE MINUTES IN ARABIC has taken root in some of our masaajid’.

Based on this statement of the shaykh, we ask:- “What is the time normally allotted for Khutbah? Is it ½ hour, is it 1 hour, or is it 2 hours?”

The Shaykh gives the impression that whatever time has been allotted for the Khutbah – it is taken to give this talk which leaves only two or three minutes for the Arabic Khutbah.

According to the Islamic teachings, the time for Jumu’ah salaah/khutbah is the same as that of Zuhr salaah. If the Zuhr salaah lasts for 2 ½ -3 hours, so will be the time for Jumu’ah salaah/khutbah and since this is the allowable time, it means this entire period can be allotted for Jumu’ah salaah/khutbah. As such, if a person uses ½ hour for a bayaan, it is clear misguidance to say that he has used up the allotted time for the Khutbah OR he has relegated the Khutbah to just two or three minutes.

Regardless of the time taken by the one who is giving an English talk, the Khateeb/Imam has the full authority to give the Arabic Khutba in 10 minutes, 5 minutes, ½ hour or one hour. If he chooses to deliver the Arabic Khutbah in a few minutes, it has nothing to do with whatever time the lecturer took, seeing that the allotted time in the Shariah for Jumu’ah salaah is more that 2 hours on a Friday.

Hence it is totally wrong to say that the half hour taken by a lecturer is actually taking away from the ‘allotted time’ for Khutbah.

Further to this, the Shaykh writes that due to the time taken for the bayaan, the Khutbah of Jumu’ah is relegated, to just two or three minutes in Arabic.

On this point, we repeat, that Arabic Khutbahs given in a short or long time, have nothing to do with the time taken by the lecturer who had delivered a bayaan before the Khutbahs. It is up to the Imam or khateeb to take whatever time he wishes to deliver Arabic Khutbahs. And since there is no minimum or maximum time fixed in the Shariah for delivering Khutbahs, the Imam/Khateeb is at liberty to deliver them in a short or long time, once it conforms to the sacred Shari’ah.

Secondly, we have not seen anyone who has delivered two Arabic Khutbahs in just two or three minutes. This, in our opinion is undue exaggeration in order to swerve the minds of the reader.

The Shaykh continues by saying ‘it should be noted that:

(1) This practice takes place in the presence of the lmaam.

(2) The Khateeb (the person who gives the Khutbah) for The Jumu’ah salaah is also present.

(3) Most times the person giving the Bayaan is the Khateeb for Jumu’ah.

(4) The Khutbah of Jumu’ah, which is given purely in Arabic, is not understood by the masses.

(5) Everyone agrees that This Bayaan is not part of The Jumu’ah Salaah and should anyone absent himself or herself from it they would have done no wrong’.

It seems that the message which is being put across by the Shaykh in these statements are:

(1) This bayaan should not take place in the presence of the Imaam.

(2) This bayaan should not take place when the khateeb is present.

(3) The khateeb for Jumu’ah should not give the bayaan.

(4) The Khutbah of Jumu’ah should be given in a language which is understood by the masses. Since the masses cannot understand Arabic, the Khutbah should not be given purely in Arabic.

(5) A person who absents himself/herself from this bayaan is not doing anything wrong.

If this is the message of the shaykh, then we ask:-

*1. Where is it stated in any Islamic teaching that a bayaan cannot be given in the presence of the Imaam?

*2. Where is it evident in the Shari’ah that such bayaan cannot be given in the presence of the khateeb?

*3. Which law of the Shari’ah prohibits a khateeb from giving the bayaan himself?

*4. ‘The khutbah of Jumu’ah is not understood by the masses’. We ask, Is this a condition for the validity of the Jumu’ah Khutbah/Salaat? If this be the case then during the Hajj season where the majority of pilgrims are non arabs, the khateebs at the both harams (Makkah/Madinah) should be giving their khutbahs in a language which the masses or at least the majority can understand.

*5. Sure, this is not part of the Jumu’ah Salaah and there is no wrongdoing on the part of anyone who is not present for such bayaans. In fact this was explained clearly in our article since many people had the misunderstanding that this was a third Khutbah.

After this the Shaykh states: The Darul Uloom quotes a number of ahaadeeth and a Fatwaa (Islamic Ruling) of The Permanent Committee for Religious and Legal Rulings of Saudi Arabia to support their position.

We find that this statement of the shaykh is vague and can be misguiding to the reader, hence we will explain why the ahadeeth were quoted and why the fatawaa of the permanent committee was also quoted.

In explaining our point we wish to let the reader know that the purpose of our article was to respond to two questions which were brought to our attention by a few Muslim brothers. These questions were:

1. Is the lecture before the formal Khutbahs (on the minbar) on a Friday a third Khutbah? Some are saying it is a third Khutbah.

2. What is the ruling of delivering a lecture or bayaan given before the Khutbahs?

Based on these questions, the article incorporated a few traditions which proved that the two Khutbahs for Jumu’ah salaat are done in a manner specified by the Shariah and since these are not to be found in the lecture or bayaan, it cannot be deemed or called a Khutbah. Those who possess understanding would see that the quoted ahadeeth in this aspect had nothing to do with the permissibility or impermissibility of the bayaan or lecture before the Khutbahs.

In answering the other question certain ‘Athaar’ (traditions) were quoted to show that this act was done in the past and hence cannot be considered as forbidden. In addition, a fatawaa of the permanent committee was given simply to prove that an allowance was given by the committee for religious instructions to be done after the Jumu’ah Khutbah/Salaah. This was given to show that such religious instructions could not be deemed as a third Khutbah and it was permissible because there is no prohibition for it in the Sunnah. As such, if the same is done before Jumu’ah, then there is also no prohibition for this in the Sunnah.

The Shaykh then writes, ‘However on close examination we discover an attempt to mislead the innocent and un-informed masses.’

We think that this statement is an error from the Shaykh. We firmly believe that the Shaykh did not have a close examination of our article or probably he did not or could not understand it. It seems that upon seeing our article he was overcome with so much anger and displeasure that he immediately responded to it without understanding its content. We think that the problem with this Shaykh is that he cannot tolerate any opinion which is opposing to his. (And Allah knows best).

The Shaykh then states: ‘Firstly, they quote a hadeeth from Al Mustadrak, which says that Aboo Hurairah (Abpwh) will stand besides the minbar and recite ahadeeth and then The Khaleefah ‘Umar (Abpwh) would deliver the Khutbah. They insinuate that Umar (Abpwh) was present at Aboo Hurairah’s narration of ahaadeeth. This was not so. What is found in Al Haakim’s collection of ahaadeeth (Al Mustadrak Vol.1 page 306) is that he, Aboo Hurairah (Abpwh) would stand besides the minbar and narrate ahadeeth and when he heard the movement of the door indicating the emergence of the lmaam he stopped his narrations and sat. The lmaam here is ‘Umar (Abpwh) who is also the Khateeb.

The Shaykh uses these statements to try to prove to the reader that we are misrepresenting the truth. We ask: “Which part of the statement of our narration tells anyone that Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was present?”

The word ‘then’ simply means ‘after’ and whether or not Umar was there, he (Umar) did deliver the Khutbah after Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated the traditions. Our narration is therefore correct.

If anyone, such as the shaykh wishes to deduce anything from this narration according to their thinking, then he/they are at liberty to do so, however we have not narrated anything that indicates that Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was present nor can anyone think that the narration means that Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was present.

As such, the shaykh’s statement: ‘They insinuate that Umar (Abpwh) was present at Aboo Hurairah’s narration of ahadeeth’,   is a slander and false allegation against us (of something which we have not said or written).

Besides this, it is clearly established that this preaching (lecturing) of Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) prior to the Khutbah on Fridays was officially okayed and sanctioned by the Khalifah Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) himself, since it was tolally impossible that Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) may do this without the consent of the Khalifah. As such, whether Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was present or not, his official consent was given for this practice.

The Shaykh then concludes his first point by saying ‘This and the other references that the Darul Uloom quotes, clearly establishes that when the Imaam came there was no preaching or narrating of of ahadeeth’.

Based on what the shaykh has established and his acceptance of the tradition from Al-Mustadrak it shows that he is allowing the preaching and lecture to take place before the formal Khutbahs, however it should be stopped when the Imaam comes to deliver the Khutbahs. Probably the people of his masjid who are in favour of the said lecture or bayaan can use this strategy in order to avoid confrontation with the Shaykh.

As for us, we have not established such a principle or law from such narrations, nor is there such a principle in any Islamic text, nor has there been any such rulings held by the former and latter Jurists of Islam, as such we think that this is the Shaykh’s personal deduction which is not binding upon anyone to follow.

The Shaykh further writes: ‘Secondly they, the Darul Uloom quotes out of context the practice of The Prophet (u.w.b.p) going to the women and preaching to them after he delivered the Khutbah of Eid Salaah as evidence. What is contentious is the preaching before the Khutbah in the presence of the lmaam/Khateeb, and not after.’

When we read statements such as these, we have no choice except to beg Allah to show mercy to the shaykh and grant him wisdom and understanding. Statements such as these clearly indicate to us that the sheikh did not even read or understand our article.

Even a child who understands our article would see that the above practice of the Rasool (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was not used to prove the permissibility of giving a bayaan or lecture before the Jumu’ah Khutbahs. Instead, this tradition was simply used to prove that a bayaan, lecture, advice or religious instruction given after the two Khutbahs cannot be deemed a Khutbah. As such, when this was not considered to be a third Khutba then why should the lecture or bayaan before the Jumu’ah Khutbahs be called a third Khutbah. This is the context in which the tradition was quoted.

The Shaykh should pay more attention to what he reads before misjudging others. The Shaykh goes further to state his third point by saying, ‘Thirdly, the Darul Uloom again attempts to mislead us by quoting the third part of a Fatwaa, which was given by The Permanent Committee for Religious and Legal Rulings in Saudi Arabia. Here is how Darul Uloom Quoted The Fatwaa:

“When asked about religious instructions held following The Friday Prayer; the Committee responded by saying: There is no sin in it since there is no prohibition for it in The Sunnah.”

The Darul Uloom here makes a serious blunder in not presenting the Fatwaa as was given. Firstly they left out the words {after prayer} at the end of the fatwa. Secondly the Darul Uloom in its attempt to mislead, also conveniently omits the second part of the Fatwaa of the Committee. This is indeed poor scholarship and not the way of the students of knowledge.

Presented for your information is the Second and Third part of the fatwaa of the Permanent Committee for Religious and Legal Rulings in Saudi Arabia.

“Recitation of Assamadiyyah (saying of Suratul lkhlaas) or anything else from the Qur’aan or remembrance before the start of the Khutbah is not obligatory; in fact. IT IS AN INNOVATION and it has been authentically reported from the Prophet (u.w.bp) that he said: Whoever innovated in this matter (i.e. this religion) of ours will have it rejected. Reported by both AI-Bukhaaree and Muslim.

Thirdly, there is no sin in holding a lesson or lessons in circles of learning on Fridays, as there is no evidence to forbid ATER PRAYER.” (Fatawa Islamiyah Vol. 2 Page 447).

In this false allegation, the shaykh tries again to mislead the reader, by saying that the Darul Uloom is trying to mislead others, and quotes three points from which he made deductions. First he says: ‘The Darul Uloom here makes a serious blunder in not presenting the fatwa as was given’.

In our article, we simply presented the message of the Fatawaa which was given by the Permanent Committee. If one looks at our statement in the article, it would be clear that the opinion was not reported with a direct speech nor was a quotation made with quotation marks. The purpose was simply to convey the opinion of the Permanent Committee and not to quote their statement word for word.

We ask, was it essential upon us to present a fatawaa in exactly the same words as it was given in the article? We wrote, ‘when asked about’, this statement goes to show that what is being related is indirect and not direct. What we did was to give the message of the fatawaa and not the fatawaa itself, and this is acceptable by the jurists of Islam when the original message is not distorted. This practice is to be found in many books written by great scholars and occurs also in the field of hadith, where scholars would give the meaning and message of the hadith rather then quoting the hadith itself. We therefore ask the question, ‘what wrong have we done if we did not misrepresent or distort the message of the fatawa’. (We will later explain that the message was the same as indicated in the fatawaa).

The other point quoted by the Shaykh is, ‘firstly they left out the words {after prayer} at the end of the fatawaa ’.

In order for our reader to see the lack of understanding of simple English by the Shaykh we will put both statements together to see if there is any difference between the both.

The Shaykh is reporting that the Fatawaa says, ‘there is no sin in it since there is no prohibition for it in the Sunnah after the prayer.’   He then says that because we used the word  ‘following the Friday prayer’ instead of ‘after the Friday prayer’  we have made a blunder, hence we are misleading the people.

We ask you, our readers, Is there any difference between these two statements:-

1) ‘Religious Instructions done following the Friday prayer’ and

2) ‘Religious Instructions done after the Friday prayer’.

If both have the same meaning then what is the problem with the Shaykh? The Shaykh wants the reader to think that the Darul Uloom is misleading the people and has changed the words of the Fatawaa.

The truth my dear readers, is that the Permanent Committee was asked about a statement made by a person upon which they responded. The statement made by the person, which is mentioned in Fatawaa Islamiya, is: ‘Religious instruction following the Friday prayer is something highly preferred and there is no objection to it’. The Committee was asked to say whether this is correct or not. As such, commenting on this statement the Permanent Committee said, ‘There is no sin in holding a lesson or lessons in circles of learning on Fridays, as there is no evidence to forbid it after the prayer.

We want our readers to know that the Permanent Committee was asked about lessons held ‘following the Friday prayer’. As such, the Darul Uloom noted the exact words that were used in the statement as given in the book Fatawaa Islamiyah.

While reporting this, our article states (indicating to the point of after the prayer), ‘when asked about religious instructions held following the Friday prayer’.

In presenting this to our readers we simply conveyed the message of both the question and answer instead of narrating the full question and its answer. We wrote, ‘when questioned about religious instructions held following the Friday prayer, the permanent committee responded ……’

This, in simple English, means that the permanent secretary was asked about the ruling regarding holding religious instructions after the Friday prayer.

The only thing that was done was to simply use the word ‘following’ and everyone who understands the English language knows very well that the word ‘following’ in this context means ‘after’. Remember, we said in the beginning that we were presenting the message of the question/answer and not narrating the identical words.

As such, the statement made by the Committee is exactly what was conveyed in the Darul Uloom’s article.

The Shaykh who is saying that we left out the words ‘after the prayer’ should know that ‘following the prayer’ and ‘after the prayer’ have the same meaning. He should make an effort to understand what has been written rather than looking for faults which he alone can see.

The Shaykh again shows his lack of understanding by writing the following: ‘Secondly the Darul Uloom in its attempt to mislead, also conveniently omits the second part of the Fatawaa of the committee’.

Having quoted this he says: ‘This is indeed poor scholarship and not the way of the students of knowledge.’

We say this is poor understanding on his part, for one who has studied at an Islamic University. The question is why did we leave out the part which has annoyed him? Was it a mistake or was it intentional? These are questions the Shaykh should have asked, before drawing wrong conclusions from our article in order to make false allegations.

The reason that the second part of the fatawa was not given is that it was not relevant to the issue which was being discussed. The main topic of the article was about the permissibility and impermissibility of the lecture/bayaan before the Jumu’ah Khutbahs, the second part of the fatawa (which the shaykh speaks about) has nothing to do with the topic. This part of the fatawa was given in response to a question asked about a person/persons reciting surah Ikhlaas or anything else from the Qur’an or remembrance (Zikr) before the start of the Khutbah. Many people who have seen this practice being done can immediately understand the question asked. This, I have seen for myself in certain masjids in different parts of the world where a few people would normally gather together prior to the Jumu’ah salaah and recite the Zikr, (remembrance of Allah, by saying the first Kalimah) loudly.

In other places some gather together to recite salaat and salaam collectively before and after Jumu’ah salaah. In our opinion, this was the nature of what was asked of the permanent committee, which they responded to. These actions are undoubtedly Bid’ah and innovations which we also condemn. With this understanding, it is clear that this part of the fatawa has no relevance to the topic of discussion and hence was left out. This also has been the practice of many scholars of the past and present, even in the field of ahadith many of the Muhadditheen would quote only part of a hadith and leave out other parts. Many Jurists have done the same regarding fatawas in their books of Islamic Jurisprudence and this is an acceptable practice among the Scholars of Islam, (they would quote only that which is relevant to the topic of discussion).

Further to this, it seems that the Shaykh himself is guilty of the same thing which he accuses us of. He writes, ‘Presented for your information is the Second and Third part of the fatawa of the Permanent Committee for Religious and Legal Rulings in Saudi Arabia’.

We ask: “Why did the shaykh leave out the first part of the fatawa and why did he not quote the questions which were asked, so that the reader would have a full understanding of the responses?”

For the information of the readers, we will give the entire section which dealt with this issue as given in Fatawa Islamiyah, so that the readers would see for themselves that the Darul Uloom was not misleading anyone when only a part of the fatawa was quoted. The readers would also see that while the Shaykh was accusing us of leaving out a part, he has also done the same.

The Permanent Committee for Religious Research and Legal Rulings read the following letter which was addressed to His Excellency, the General Director and whose text was as follows:

Q. Allah, the Most High says: “But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith until they make you (O Muhammad Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) judge in all disputes between them and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions and accept (them) with full submission” (4:65).

Khalid: There must be religious chanting before the Adhan of Zuhr on Fridays.

‘Umar: No, rather, recitation of the Quraan through the loudspeaker is more loved by Allah than that.

Khalid: The recitation of As-Samadiyyah (Surah Al-Ikhlaas) before the start of the Khutbah and religious chanting is obligatory and highly preferred.

‘Umar: That has not been prescribed by Allah, nor by His Messenger (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) and it is not obligatory. In fact it is obligatory to be silent until the Imam ascends the pulpit and the Adhan is made.

Khalid: Religious instruction following the Friday prayer is something highly preferred and there is no objection to it.

‘Umar: This has not been reported from the mouth of the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) nor from his companions, may Allah be pleased with them, and they did not do it during their lifetimes.

Khalid: Praying two Rak’ahs before the Friday prayer is obligatory and it is a Sunnah.

‘Umar: The Messenger of Allah  did not pray it neither did his companions, may Allah be pleased with them.

Khalid: The Mu’adhin sending blessings upon the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) after the Adhan is something highly preferred and there is no objection to it.

‘Umar: No, it is not permissible and it was not done by the Messenger of Allah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) nor was it done by his companions, may Allah be pleased with them.

It is requested that you provide the correct answer in writing, in accordance with the ruling of the Islamic Law. May Allah reward you with the best reward.

A. First of all, Nasheed (Religious chanting) prior to the Adhan for Friday prayer has not been confirmed as lawful; rather, it is an innovation. And Friday should not be singled out for the recitation of the Qur’aan through the loudspeaker, or otherwise – neither before the Adhan, nor after the prayer – and its recitation is not an Islamic feature of Friday; rather, its recitation is prescribed everyday, so making it particular for Fridays is an innovation. The confirmed Sunnah is to confine oneself to the Adhan for it.

Secondly, recitation of As-Samadiyah or anything else from the Qur’an or remembrance before the start of the Khutbah is not obligatory; in fact, it is an innovation, and it has been authentically reported from the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) that he said: “Whoever innovated in this matter (i.e. this religion) of ours will have it rejected.” (Bukhaari and Muslim).

Thirdly, there is no sin in holding a lesson or lessons in circles of learning on Fridays, as there is no evidence to forbid it after prayer.

Fourthly, there is no Sunnah prayer before the Friday prayer, because this has not been authentically reported from the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), neither has it been reported from his companions, may Allah be pleased with them. But it is lawful for the one who comes to the Friday prayer to pray whatever supererogatory prayers are easy for him, until the Khatib ascends the pulpit. And whoever enters after the Khatib has ascended the pulpit, it is only prescribed for him to pray Tahiyyatul-Masjid.

Fifthly, sending prayers on the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) is encouraged in the Islamic law and its reward is great, and it is a Sunnah after the Adhan; but the Mu’adhin should send prayers on him after the Adhan quietly, not aloud. It is an innovation for the Mu’adhin to do so upon completing the Adhan. As for the one who hears the Adhan, it is Sunnah for him to repeat it and to send prayers on the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) after the Mu’adhin completes the Adhan, and he should ask Allah to grant intercession to His Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), saying “O Allah! Lord of this complete supplication, and of the established prayer, grant Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) intercession and the most virtuous place and raise him to the praiseworthy station which You have promised him” (Bukhari).

The Permanent Committee

As can be seen, the last part of the fatawa is relevant to our topic of discussion since in allowing the establishment of circles of learning on Fridays after Jumu’ah salaat the permanent committee said, ‘there is no evidence to forbid it after prayer’. What is established from this statement of the permanent committee is that when there is no evidence to forbid a thing in the Shariah, it would be allowed to do it. Using this same principle we ask the shaykh: ‘where is the evidence to prohibit the bayaan or lecture before Juma?’

Our opinion on this matter remains the same that, ‘since there is absolutely no evidence to prohibit the lecture or bayaan before the formal Khutbahs on the day of Jumu’ah, it would be permissible.

In the aforementioned statements of the shaykh, the reader would note that while narrating the fatawaa of the Permanent Committee, the shaykh made a special highlight of the words ‘IT IS AN INNOVATION’, by putting it in capital letters, underlining it and also typing it bold. In addition he also highlighted in bold letters the words, ‘before the start of the khutba is not obligatory’. We want our readers to know that this is not the way it has been narrated in the book ‘Fatawaa Islamiyah’. This special highlight of these words gives the impression to the reader that this is the way it has been given in the book, when it is not so. As such, this is deception on the part of the Shaykh.

In our opinion (and Allah knows best) the Shaykh wants to convey to the reader that the lecture/bayaan done before the Khutbah is an innovation.

We wish to ask our readers to pay careful attention to the words written by the Permanent Committee before these statements, so that they may understand what exactly is being considered an innovation. The statement reads ‘Recitation of Assamadiyah (saying of Surah Ikhlaas) or anything else from the Qur’an or remembrance before the start of the Khutbah is not obligatory; in fact, it is an innovation’.

If the reader examines the statement carefully, it will become clear to him/her that the above ruling of the Permanent Committee has no connection with the issue of giving a bayaan or lecture before the Khutbahs. If the Shaykh wishes to use this statement to prove to the readers that giving a lecture or bayaan before the Friday Khutbah is an innovation, then it will be sheer ignorance and misguidance on his part.

The Shaykh further writes, ‘Dear readers know that this practice of giving a Bayaan before the Khutbah as is presently done, is not found in the practices or preaching of the Prophet (u.w.b.p), nor that of the Four Rightly Guided Caliph (Abpwt). Their preaching, admonishments, advices at the time of Jumu’ah Salaah came from The Mimbar’.

We say that there are many things which are being presently done and are not in accordance to the practices of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) nor from the rightly guided Caliphs. Is this a principle in the Shariah which tells us to categorize all such actions to be haraam, bid’ah or impermissible? Such principles are certainly not in the Shariah.

Besides this, it is clearly established in Mustadrak Al Hakim that Abdullah bin Basr (Radhiyallahu Anhu) used to preach prior to the Khutbah on Fridays and it is also evident that Tameem Daari (radhiyallahu anhu) used to preach before the Khutbah on Fridays. (Musnad Ahmad, Al Isabah Fi Tazkirah As Sahaba).

The Shaykh concludes the article by stating: It is indeed imperative that the Muslims adhere to the Qur’aan and the Sunnah in all of their affairs. Allah the Almighty warns us in Al-Qur’aan: But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (0 Muhammad – uwbp-) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept them with full submission. Ch.4 v.65.

In the above verse the shaykh calls upon Muslims to adhere to the Quran and Sunnah in all their affairs, this is a very good invitation to which every Muslim must adhere. However the Shaykh should have explained the ‘concept of Sunnah’ so that people may have the proper understanding of the word. It is important that Muslims understand what can be classified under the word ‘Sunnah’ and what cannot (be classified). This understanding is extremely important, especially in today’s world where there have been a lot of condemnation simply due to the misunderstanding of ‘what is Sunnah’ and ‘what is Bid’ah’. We have seen the roaming about of many uneducated and ignorant ones preaching about ‘Sunnah’ and often quoting from Sahih Al-Bukhari and upon being confronted it is seen that they possess absolutely no knowledge of that which they preach or invite towards.

In conclusion, we wish to let the Muslims know that the Darul Uloom has never misguided anyone and its agenda has never been to create factions, disunity and dissension among Muslims.

As readers can see, our article which was circulated amongst the Muslims did not criticize, condemn or attack anyone. We believe that differences of opinion can always be settled in a better way.

However since our brother’s article in condemning the Darul Uloom was widely circulated, then its correction must be done in the same manner. In doing so, we did not use ‘names’ for our dear brother, instead we pointed out to certain mistakes, which we believe, needed to be corrected.

With respect to what we say or write, we know that we are all accountable to Allah and as such we ensure that a proper and thorough research is done on any given topic before an official opinion is given and only that is given which conforms to the true and authentic teachings of Islam coming through the generations of the Sahabahs to the Pious Predecessors (Salafus Saaliheen) and to the rightly guided scholars throughout the ages until our time.

In all matters, Darul Uloom does not give its own personal opinion; instead it adopts that which has been agreed upon by great Jurists and Scholars of the past and present. Hence with respect to the topic of discussion, we clearly state that ‘there is absolutely no prohibition for the talk or bayaan given before the official Khutbas on the day of Jumu’ah. Whoever wishes to prohibit it must provide sound and valid texts for the same.

As for its allowance, besides the explanations we have given in our article, we see that many great Muftis and Scholars throughout the world have all allowed it, since there is no prohibition for it in the Shariah.

In the end, we pray that Allah gives us all the true understanding of the teachings of His beautiful religion and may He give us the wisdom to preach, propagate and teach it to others. We beg Him to accept our humble efforts and to keep us on the straight path. We also beseech Him to protect the Muslims from all forms of mischief and dissension and to keep them on the straight path.

Clarification of the false arguments against the school of ‘Ilm ul Kalam

The answer of Shaykh al-Islam Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Husayn al-Bayhaqi (rahimahullah) on the enemies of Kalaam [Islamic linguistics] what mistakenly is often translated as “philosophy”.  What in it is a lie against the choice of words and against the terminology.

Who was al-Bayhaqi (rahimahullah) first?

Amirul Mu’mineen fi al-Hadith Shams ud-Deen adh-Dhahabi (rahimahullah) said of him:

“Hafidh, a scholar, the precise, the jurist, Shaykh al-Islam …. if he had wanted he could establish his own legal school.”

[Tadhkirat ul-Huffaz, al-Dhahabi]

The Shafi’s say that without him there would be no Shafi’i school of law.

And al-Juwayni (rahimahullah) says of him:

“There is no one amongst the Shafi’s who has an advantage over Imam Shafi’i (rahmatullah alayh) himself except Al-Bayhaqi, because of his many books and his assistance to his Madh-hab.”

[Dhahabi, Ibid]

It is the following statement from Imam Shafi’i [meaningful]:

“My opinion of the people of Kalaam is that you have to beat them with palm leaves.”

And the statements generally of the Salaf, where they talk bad about the Kalaam, as they refer to the Kalaam of atheists and sects such as the Mu’tazilah, Qadariyah, Karramiyah, Hashawiyyah etc.

Imam al-Bayhaqi (rahimahullah) said with regard to these statements:

“Allah knows best, but with theological rhetoric [Kalaam], they meant only those of the innovators. During their time only the innovators were known to deal with theological rhetoric. The Ahlus Sunnah, however, was very concerned with this until they were obliged to do so..”

Imam Shafi’i (rahmatullah alayh)’s student Abu Bakr al-Muzani (rahimahullah) handed down:

“I debated with a certain person who asked me questions that almost caused me to get doubts about my religion. I came to Ash-Shafi’i (rahmatullah alayh) and told him this matter. He said to me, “Where are you?” I answered, “In the mosque!” He said, “No! You are in a Taran [in the Red Sea] and its waves are falling down on you! This is a popular topic of atheists and it is so and so (he Muzani gave the answer). That the servant of Allah ﷻ with everything He has forbidden – except Shirk encounters, is better for him than Kalaam ”!

Imam al-Bayhaqi (rahimahullah) comments on this story in his manaqib as follows:

“This shows that Ash-Shafi’i (rahmatullah alayh) had excellent knowledge of this subject [Kalaam] and saw the duty to respond, if necessary, to the distortions of the atheist. With Kalaam, and – Allah knows best – he meant the atheism of the atheists and the false teachings of the innovators.”

[Manaqib Al-Imam ash-Shafi’i, p. 458]

And Shaykh al-Islam Abu Bakr al-Bayhaqi (rahimahullah) also said:

وكيف يكون كلام أهل السنة والجماعة مذموما عنده وقد تكلم فيه وناظر من ناظره وكشف عن تمويه من ألقىلى سمع بعض أصحابه من أهل الأهواء شيئا مما هم فيه?

“And how could he [al-Shafi’i] consider the kalaam of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’a as criminal when he himself followed it, debating with those who debated [Kalaam] and the errors Uncovered doubts among some of his disciples?”

[Manaqib Al-Imam ash-Shafi’i]

And Hafs al-Fard debated and defeated one of the Mu’tazilah with that of the Imam ash-Shafi’i, himself said about him:

ما تكلم في هذا مثله ولا أقدر منه على هذا

“No one who is more akin to him [Shafi’i] [in this area] than he did in it [i.e. in Kalaam]”

[Manaqib al-Imam ash-Shafi’i, p. 456]

The Roots of Sunni-Shi’i Differences in Fiqh

[Abu Muhammad al-Afriqui]

It is often alleged by the protagonists of Sunni-Shi‘i unity that differences between the two schools are not more grave or serious than the differences that exist within the four Sunni schools of jurisprudence. Sunni-Shi‘i differences should therefore be treated with the same tolerance and acceptance as Hanafi – Shafi‘i differences, and it is in the spirit of this proposed “mutual tolerance” that the advocates of unity speak of the Shi‘i Ja‘fari school of jurisprudence as nothing more than a “fifth madh-hab“.

It is therefore only normal for the average Sunni lay person who has come into contact with advocates of Sunni-Shi‘i unity to wonder about, or even be taken in, by such a claim. How serious are the differences between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah really? Could they ever be reconciled? If not, could there at least be an amicable agreement to disagree, just like the Hanafis disagree with the Shafi‘is, or the Malikis with the Hanbalis? It is these questions that this article sets out to answer.

Full reconciliation between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Ithna ‘Ashari Ja‘fari Shi‘ah is not merely elusive, it is simply an impossibility. Anyone who knows the reality of the issues that separate the Shi’ah from the Ahl as-Sunnah is bound to agree. Nothing sums up the truth of the situation better than the words of Hamid Algar—an ardent admirer of Khomeini and the revolution—, who describes Sunnism and Shi‘ism as “two parallel lines that cannot meet”. The endeavour to bring about reconciliation between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah is therefore a wasted effort. The next best option is thus mutual tolerance and acceptance.

In order to test the viability of tolerance and acceptance between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah we will have to look more closely at the issues that separate the one from the other. These issues can be categorised into two groups:


1. fundamental differences,

which include articles of faith, and all such issues that could be termed “differences in principle”, that by their nature give rise to differences in secondary matters;

2. secondary differences,

i.e. difference in matters of jurisprudence, like the way salah is performed, or that marriage and divorce take place, etc..

Each of the fundamental issues of difference would require a separate study to see how they affect compatibility between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah. In this article it is our intention to look more closely at the type of difference that is usually dismissed as “secondary”, and thus “unimportant”. Are differences in fiqh between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah really so insignificant that we can jusitifiably turn a blind eye when we encounter them?

There can be no doubt that this question is anathema to the propagators of Shi‘ism amongst the Ahl as-Sunnah, as well as to those who have fallen prey to their propaganda. Yet, if it is truth we seek, we cannot allow the preferences of such obviously biased persons to deter us. The “unity” such people strive to achieve, and which they accuse others of trying to destroy, is a unity forged in ignorance. How much do we really know about the Shi‘ah? We have taken them on face value, and on grounds of what we have thus learnt about them we proceed to create unity. The naivety of such a position in a matter of far reaching religious implications is far too obvious. A unity founded upon ignorance is a very precarious unity indeed. Like a mirage, it seems very real when seen from afar, but as soon as you approach it, it slips out of existence.

There are two levels at which one can look at the differences in jurisprudence between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah. The first is the level of external appearance. When the differences in fiqh are inspected at this level they do not seem any more alien than the differences that exist between the various schools of Sunni jurisprudence. In fact, in many, or even most cases one will find the Shi‘i position to be conformity with at least one of the four Sunni madhahib. This is illustrated in the following three examples:

In the salah, the jalsat al-istirahah is held to be sunnah by the Shi‘ah. In this they concur with the view of the Shafi‘i madhhab. [Yahya ibn Sa‘id al-Hilli: al-Jami‘ lish-Sharai’ p.75 (Mu’assasat Sayyid ash-Shuhada’, Qum 1405)]

In marriage the majority of Shi‘i jurists hold the view that khalwah, i.e. valid seclusion, has no effect on the mahr (dowry) nor upon any other aspect of the marital contract. In this they are once again agreement with the Shafi‘is, but differ from the other three schools. [Muhammad Jawad Maghniyyah: The Five Schools of Islamic Law p. 319 (Ansariyan Publications, Qum 1995)] If the husband is unable to pay the mahr the wife is not entitled to divorce according to the Shi‘i and the Hanafi schools. The Malikis, the Shafi‘is and the Hanbalis all have different views. [ibid]

It is on this level that most people view the differences that exist between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah. Even certain `ulama of the Ahl as-Sunnah, looking at the matter on this level, have been known to express the view that “differences between the Ahl as- Sunnah and the Shi‘ah are no more serious than the differences that exist between the various schools of Sunni jurisprudence”.

However, when we confine ourselves to viewing the problem of Sunni-Shi‘i differences on this level we are in effect closing our eyes to the most important aspect of those differences: THE ROOT. The true nature of Sunni-Shi‘i differences can never be appreciated or understood in full without comprehending the reasons for their existence. It is only when the problem has been viewed and grasped on the level of the reasons for difference, and not merely the external appearance of difference, that one is justified to take further steps.

When the Shi‘ah differ from the Ahl as-Sunnah, it is not the same as when one Sunni school differs from the other. This is because the various Sunni schools all trace their roots back to the same legacy. They share a common heritage in the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam). When differences do occur, they occur not because one madhhab bases itself on a legacy other than the legacy of the other. Both believe in and hold on to the same legacy. Their differences are caused by secondary factors, like whether certain categories of hadith possess binding authority or not, or the divergence in the methods they regard as valid to interpret the legacy and extrapolate from it. The following two examples illustrate how such differences occur:

The mursal hadith (a hadith with an interruption in its chain of narrators between the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam and the Tabi‘i), for example, is deemed to possess binding authority by the Hanafis, while the Shafi‘is do not accept it except if it is supported by any one of a number of external factors. If we imagine a mursal hadith that is not supported by any of the factors the Shafi‘is stipulate, it is only logical to expect that the Shafi‘i ruling on the issue the hadith pertains to will differ from the Hanafi ruling.

Spoken words are sometimes accompanied by implied meanings. For example, when it is said, “Stay awake,” this also means “Don’t sleep”. This unspoken opposite meaning is termed mafhum al-mukhalafah. The Shafi‘is accept it as a valid means of extracting meaning from a text, while the Hanafis do not. If the former extract such meaning from a text and base a ruling upon the meaning inferred by this method, and the latter base their ruling upon some other grounds, there is bound to be a measure of difference in the outcome of their respective views.

Sunni-Shi‘i differences, on the other hand, are fundamentally distinct from inter-Sunni differences. While it may rightly be claimed that the Shi‘ah, too, have their particular principles of extrapolation, it would be incorrect to describe those principles as the root cause of difference between them and the Ahl as-Sunnah, the reason for that being that while the Sunni schools each have methods of extrapolation particular to themselves, they all apply their respective methods to the same legacy. The Shi‘ah, on the other hand, have not only their own set of principles, but also a legacy distinct from the legacy of the Ahl as-Sunnah. When there are differences between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah, they arise not on account of differences in interpretation or methods of extrapolation, but because the source from which the Shi‘ah draw their law is a source other than the source of the Ahl as-Sunnah.

What is this “legacy”, the reader may well ask. It is embodied in the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam). As far as the Qur’an is concerned, although history is witness to alot of Shi‘ite calumny against the inviolability of the Qur’an, most contemporary Shi‘i scholars, and even many of their classical ‘ulama who staunchly believe in its interpolation, will admit the Qur’an’s status as the prime source of legislation. (A Shi‘i scholar of the present century, Muhammad ‘Ali Tabataba’i, reconciles belief in the interpolation of the Qur’an with acceptance of the Qur’an as a source of legislation by saying that “interpolation occured specifically in those verses relating to Imamah.” [Tafsir al-Qummi] Verses with a legal purport are thus left uncorrupted.) Since the Qur’an is thus “agreed upon” between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah, there remains only the other part of the legacy we inherited from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam): the Sunnah.

Essentially, the difference lies in the concepts each have of what constitutes the Sunnah. According to the Ahl as-Sunnah the Sunnah is everything narrated from the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wasallam), as long as the transmitters are trustworthy. The Shi‘ah, on the other hand, will only accept as the Sunnah that which is transmitted by ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) and the rest of the twelve Imams, and that which is narrated from these Imams by their Shi‘ah followers. Forget what the rest of the Sahabah narrate, not even the narrations of other members of the household of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam), his daughters besides Fatimah (radiyallahu ‘anha), his wives, his cousins or uncles, are considered part of the Sunnah by the Shi‘ah. That is the first observation.

The second is the way the Shi‘ah regard the legacy upon which the foundations of Sunni fiqh rests. Since the days of the Sahabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) the Sunnah of the Prophet was handed down from generation to generation. The Sahabah narrated it to the Tabi‘in, they to the generation after them, and so on, until it came to be compiled in what we know today as the hadith literature. To the Shi‘ah, when this legacy is found to be in contradiction to what is supposedly narrated from their Imams, the reason behind it is that the Sahabah (radhiyallahu ‘anhum) were guilty of wilfully distorting and corrupting the Din of Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam). Thus, where inter-Sunni differences amount to nothing more than technicalities, Sunni-Shi‘i differences are differences in historical perspective.

To use an example: In salah, the Malikis let their hands hang by their sides, while the Hanafis, Shafi‘is and Hanbalis fold their hands. The Shi‘ah too, let their hands hang by their sides. In this single issue of fiqh we thus have an inter-Sunni difference as well as a Sunni-Shi‘i difference. Between the Malikis and the other three madhahib the difference is a mere technicality. The Malikis accept the validity of folding the hands in salah (after all, Imam Malik (rahmatullah alayh) himself in the Muwatta’ narrates a hadith that supports the folding of the hands), but prefer letting the hands hang for the reason that in Imam Malik’s day this was the practice of the community in Madinah. The other madhahib take into consideration that the Companions of the Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) who narrate his Sunnah were not exclusively settled in Madinah. Many of them resided in the Makkah, ‘Iraq, Syria and Egypt. Ahadith to the effect that it is sunnah to fold the hands have been authentically narrated from a number of Sahabah (amongst whom ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiyallahu ‘anhu), and therefore this, and not the practice of the people of one particular city, takes precedence. Between the Sunni schools this difference is a technical one, one that amounts to giving preference to one view over another. But between the Shi‘ah and the Ahl as-Sunnah the issue assumes much more serious proportions. From a question of mere technical preference it turns into an acrimonious indictment of the Sahabah (radiyallahu ‘anhum). Traditions in the book Tahdhib al-Ahkam, one of the four major collections of Shi‘i hadith, describe the folding of the hands in salah as “an act of kufr” and “something that is only done by the fire-worshippers”. Here one would have to ask: How could an alien practice like this creep into Islam? The answer is given by Ayatullah Khomeini himself, in his treatise at-Ta‘adul wat-Tarjih, wherein he quotes the following tradition from the book ‘Ilal ash-Shara’i‘ by Ibn Babawayh al-Qummi:

(Ja‘far as-Sadiq) asked: Do you know why you are commanded to act contrary to the`Àimmah (the Ahl as-Sunnah)?

I replied: I do not know.

He said: Verily, the Ummah contradicted ‘Ali in each and every aspect of his religion, intending thereby to destroy his cause. They used to ask him about things they did not know, and when he gave a ruling they would invent an opposite verdict from their own side to mislead the people.  [at-Ta‘adul wat-Tarjih by Ayatullah Khomeini, p. 82, cited in Dr. Zayd al-‘Is:al-Khomeini wal-Wajh al-Àkhar p. 131]

In the Shi‘i perspective of Islamic legislative history the fact that the Sahabah deliberately corrupted and distorted the teachings of the Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) is such a fundamental truth, that is came to be looked upon as a criterion of truth in itself. This position is reflected in the way they deal with the phenomenon of Shi’i narrations that contradict one another. Abu Ja‘far al-Kulayni, in the introduction to al-Kafi, the most important of their four canonical hadith collections, expresses it in the following terms:

Know… that no one can distinguish narrations of the Possessors of Knowledge (the Imams) by his opinion; except according to the words of the Possessor of Knowledge: ‘Compare them to the Qur’an. Accept that which is in accordance with it, and reject that which contradicts it,’ and his words: ‘Abandon that which is in accordance with the people (the Ahl as- Sunnah), for truly, guidance lies in being different to them’. [al-Kafi  vol. 1 pp. 55-56 (Dar al-Adwa’, Beirut 1992)]

This particular perspective has persisted in the Shi‘i psyche over the centuries since Kulayni and his teacher Qummi, until it became, in the opinion of Khomeini and all other Shi‘i jurists, one of the two principal methods of juridical preference in cases of conflicting narrations. In light of the alarming frequency with which contradictions occur in the ahadith of the Shi‘ah (one of their four major hadith sources, al-Istibsar, is devoted to the phenomenon of contradiction) the importance of a principle of this nature is evident. We reproduce here from Khomeini’s works various Shi‘i narrations in which he and other Shi‘i mujtahids find justification for their view:

1. Hasan ibn Abil Jahm asked: If something is narrated from Abu ‘Abdillah (Imam Ja‘far), and something contrary to it is also narrated from him, which should we accept?

The Imam answered: Accept that which is in contradiction to the people, and avoid that which is accordance with them. [at-Ta‘adul wat-Tarjih p.80]

2. Abu ‘Abdillah said: Our Shi‘ah are those who submit to our command, who accept our words, and who act contrary to our enemies. Whoever is not like that is not of us. [Tahrir al-Wasilah p. 83, from al-Fusul al-Muhimmah by al-Hurr al-‘Amili p. 225]

3. ‘Ali ibn Asbat narrates that he asked Imam Rida: (What should I do in case) an incident occurs for which I am need of a juridical opinion, but nowhere in the city do I find anyone of your partisans (the Shi‘ah) whom I can ask?

He replied: Go to the (Sunni) faqih of the city and refer your case to him. Then take the opposite of whatever answer he gives you, for verily, therein lies the truth. [at-Ta‘adul wat-Tarjih p.82, from ‘Uyun Akhbar ar-Rida by Ibn Babawayh al-Qummi, vol. 1 p. 275]

It is on account of these and other similar narrations which the Shi‘ah claim to emanatefrom their infallible Imams that the mujtahids of the Ja‘fari madhhab were led to formulate the principle Khomeini expresses in these terms:

In cases of conflicting reports, contradiction of the Ahl as-Sunnah is a factor of preference … In fact, it is the most common and widespread factor of preference in all chapters of fiqh and upon the tongues of the fuqaha. [at-Ta‘adul wat-Tarjih p. 83]

There is no ambiguity with regard to the issue of contradicting the Ahl as- Sunnah being a factor of preference in the case of conflicting narrations. [at-Ta‘adul wat-Tarjih p. 84]

The factors of tarjih (preference) are limited to two: conforming to the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and contradicting the Ahl as-Sunnah. [at-Ta‘adul wat-Tarjih p. 84]

All of these quotations show a definite obsession with being different from the Ahl as- Sunnah. We therefore ask: If so much importance is attached to being different, to the point of it being regarded as the criterion of truth, why should there be such a noise and clamour for unity? Why should the Shi‘ah seek unity with people whose version of Islam they regard as the corruption of the Din of Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) wrought by the hands of his Companions? And even if the Shi‘ah do manage to create a semblance of such unity, how much goodwill and sincerity can be expected of them if one considers their particular perspective of the legacy which forms the basis of our faith and practice?

We have chosen Khomeini’s views as representative of Shi‘i opinion for a very special reason, and that is the fact that in the contemporary world it is he and his successors who are the most vociferous proponents of Sunni-Shi‘i unity, and who dismiss Sunni-Shi‘i differences as negligible. In more than one of his public addresses he takes to task those who attempt to create mischief amongst the Muslims by “misleading” them into believing that there are substantial differences between the Ahl as-Sunnah and the Shi‘ah. However, closer scrutiny of his jurisprudential works reveal that such condemnations are nothing but political rhetoric. When we remove the image he projects as Leader of the Revolution, we are left with merely another Shi‘i scholar imprisoned by the fundamentals of his faith. In his eyes, and likewise in the eyes of generations of Shi‘i scholars before him, the legacy of the Sunnah upon which their Sunni “brothers” base their practice of Islam is the product of the envious mischief and the disbelief of the Sahabah, who in the hope of destroying the cause of the Ahl al-Bayt distorted every teaching of the Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam) they could lay their hands upon. If this is how they regard the very basis upon which the foundations of our Deen rests, what remains to be said for unity?

Resolutions of the Tablighi Jama’at [Nizamuddin Markaz Dispute]

[Majlisul Ulama]

By  the  Grace  of Allah  Ta’aala,  the  nine  elders  of  the  Shura  were  gathered  from  the  4th to  the  13th  of November,  the  3rd  to  the 12th  of Safar 1438,  on  the  occasion  of the  Raiwind  ijtima.  They  considered that  the  following would  be  useful  in  promoting this  noble  effort in  the  entire  Ummah  of Muhammad  sallallahu  alayhi wa sallam,  and  in practically  engaging  every  individual of this Ummah in  this  effort.

It  is  very  important to  maintain  the  pattern  that preserves  the  fundamentals  and  the  principles  of the  work  on  which  Mawlana Ilyas  Sahib,  Mawlana Yusuf Sahib  and  Mawlana In’aam  al-Hasan  Sahib founded  the  work  and  carried  it  on,  and  which  led to  the ways  of  effort on  which  the  hearts  of  the entire  Ummah  were  united.

The  elders  of  the  Shura  advised  the  following points  to  be  necessary  and  beneficial  when  the responsible  brothers  of  various  countries  enquired regarding  certain  difficulties  they  were  facing while  working in  the  present  situation  (of differences  of opinion):

1.  The matters  (Umoor) regarding  the  work  in various  countries  should  only  be  taken  up when  most  of  the  elders  of  Shura  are present.  Currently  such  occasions are during the  Raiwind  Ijtima  and  the  Tongi Ijjtima.

2. Instead  of  putting  these  matters  (umoor)  to an  individual  of  this  Shura,  these  should  be presented  collectively  before  the  entire Shura,  and  in  case  of  differences,  the majority  decision  should  prevail.

3. It  is  very  important  for brothers  doing the work  in  various  countries  to  spend  their annual time  in  this  environment  (of India, Pakistan  and  Bangladesh).  For  this  purpose it was  decided  that  the  brothers  of  various countries  should  spend  their  yearly  time one year  in  their  own  countries,  the  next  in  the three countries,  and  the third  year in  other  countries  (as  per  mashwara).

The gatherings  (Jod)  of  responsible brothers  from  various  countries  at Nizamuddin  once  in  two  years  were started  due  to  the  illness  of  Mawlana In’am  al-Hasan  Sahib.  This  is  now  no longer needed. Instead, it is more useful that the brothers spend their time in this environment according to the three-yearly program described above.

4. In order to bring the work on correct and strong pattern, it should be tried that each masjid takes out the complete jamaat of their own masjid.The responsible brothers of various countries should send the kawaif of their jamaats to the Shura and the jamaats should be sent when the Shura agrees to it. The routes for these jamaats should be taken from the responsible brothers of the respective countries to which these jamaats are being sent.

5. When there is a need of immediate response to matters arising during the year, the  responsible brothers should turn to the members of the Shura.

6. Similarly, the Shura should be contacted whenever there is a need to decide the dates for Itjimas and Jors in their countries.

7. Likewise, for demanding the jamaats from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to attend the country Jors and Ijtimas, the Shura should be contacted.

In future, the letters regarding the matters arising in the countries should be addressed only to these elders and a copy should be sent to Raiwind.

May Allah grant us the best guidance in all the matters and accept these efforts as means for the guidance of the entire Ummah.. Aameen.

Signed by:

1. Haji Muhammad Abdul Wahhab Sahib.

2. Mawlana Ibrahim Dewla Sahib

3. Mawlana Muhammad Yaqub Sahib 

4. Mawlana Ahmad Lat Sahib

5. Mawlana Zuhairul Hasan Sahib

6. Mawlana Nazrul Rahman Sahib

7. Mawlana Abdul Rahman Sahib

8. Mawlana Ubaidullah Khursheed Sahib

9. Mawlana Ziaul Haq Sahib

6th Safar, 1438 7th Nov, 2016

My dear Mohammad Saad Sallamahu

Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu

We hope that you are well, by Allah’s favor.

Respected Haji Abdul Wahab Sahib spoke in a gathering of responsible brothers of the countries yesterday, November 6, 2016. He drew the attention of all workers to going to Nizamuddin. In addition he especially spoke of some fundamental matters.

1. “In the mashwara that took place upon Hazrat Ji Mawlana Inaamul Hasan Sahib’s demise, his entire Shura had agreed that the work will proceed by mashwara and there will be no Ameer, and there will be no bay’at in Nizamuddin.”

2. (Haji Sahib further stated that) “on the occasion of previous ijtima in Nov 2015, I had completed the Shoora with the mashwara of brothers and signed it after reciting ‘Allahumma khir lee wakhtar lee’ 101 times.”

3. (He said:) “Only those things that the entire Shura agrees upon should be promoted.”

4. (Haji Sahib said:) “In the time of Maulana Yusuf R.A., when the brothers from different countries brought their matters, Maulana Yusuf R.A. used to say: ’Some of our mashwara brothers are in Makkah Mukarramah, some in Madinah Munawwarah and some in Pakistan. We shall take up these matters in mashwara when we get together.’ In the time of Maulana Inaamul Hasan Sahib rahmatullah alayh, the brothers of the countries were told to write their matters to Nizamuddin and send a copy to Raiwind. Maulana Inaamul Hasan rahmatullah alayh used to decide only after taking our opinion. Now, the brothers from India don’t even ask us our opinion. For years we have been making sabr and istighfar.”

From these statements of Haji Sb, it is clear that the work has to be done on the pattern of the elders, and there should be no addition or modification without the consensus of the Shoora.

You sign the letter related to the completion of Shoora. As per Haji Sahib’s previous letter of January 4, 2016, those five Nizamuddin brothers taken in the Shoora should also be “faisal” by rotation one after the other regarding matters in  Nizamuddin.

On the above points, there is a consensus of the 9 brothers of Shoora present here. If you were to accept these points, they would gladly come to Nizamuddin.

Insha Allah, working in this manner will lead to mutual love and unity and progress in the work. May Allah Ta’ala accept all of us and give us the Taufeeq to carry on this work according to his pleasure. Aameen.

Signed by:

1. Haji Muhammad Abdul Wahhab Sahib.

2. Mawlana Ibrahim Dewla Sahib

3. Mawlana Muhammad Yaqub Sahib 

4. Mawlana Ahmad Lat Sahib

5. Mawlana Zuhairul Hasan Sahib

6. Mawlana Nazrul Rahman Sahib

7. Mawlana Abdul Rahman Sahib

8. Mawlana Ubaidullah Khursheed Sahib

9. Mawlana Ziaul Haq Sahib

Note: Haji Sahib further said that the brothers of Nizamuddin and Raiwind should cry profusely before Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala in their supplications.

Fate  and  Destiny  (Al-Qadaa  wa  Al-Qadar)

There  has  not  been  a  topic  that  is  more  likely  discussed,  argued  and  debated as  that  topic  of  Al-Qadaa  wa  Al-Qadar.  That’s  because  everyone  wants  to  argue it,  whether  one  is  knowledgeable  or  ignorant  about  it.  And  a  question  being always  asked  is  whether  everything  happening  to  us  is  pre-destined?  So  why is  the  call  to  Account  then?  And  can  I  do  anything  that  is  not  by  the  will  of  Allah? The  questioning  goes  even  further;  if  this  is  the  truth,  where  I  can’t  do  except what  Allah  has  determined  for  me,  why  Allah  punishes  me  by  sending  me  to Hell?  Is  it  just  to  be  called  to  Account  in  the  Hereafter?

You  will  find  that,  this  question  is  asked  only  by  those  who  has  transgressed against  their  souls  and  disobeyed  Allah.  On  the  other  hand,  you  will  not  find anyone  saying,  that  since  everything  is  pre-determined  by  Allah,  then  why  will Allah  bless  me  with  the  Jannah (Paradise)?  Definitely,  that  is  a  question  that  you  never hear.  You  always  hear  people  saying  that  the  call  to  Account  is  unjust,  because our  actions  have  already  been  pre-destined  by  Allah.

Allah  has  given  man  the  freedom  of  choice  throughout  his  life.  From here  came  the  debate;  that  is  some  people  would  think  that  the  freedom  of choice  given  to  man  conflicts  with  the  consent  of  Allah  in  His  universe,  which  is very far from the truth. And  those  people  refer  to  Al-Ayaat  Al-karima:

But  ye  will  not,  unless  Allah  wills;  for  Allah  is  full  of  Knowledge  and  Wisdom  [Surah Al-Insan: Ayah 30]

They  also  refer  to  the  words  of  Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala  to Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“Verily, you (O  Muhammad) will  not  be  able  to  guide  whom  you  like,  but  Allah  guides  whom  He  wills”   [Surah Al-Qassas: Ayah 56]  

And Allah also says

“For  Allah  leaves  to  stray  whom  He  wills,  and  guides  whom  He  wills” [Surah Fatir: 8]

So,  if  those  are  the  Ayat  and  this  is  the  will  of  Allah,  how  are  we  called  to Account  on  the  Day  of  Resurrection?

Here  we  can  say  that  Allah  Ta’ala  has  what  He  wills  in  His  creation.  There  is nothing  in  the  universe  of  Allah  that  can  be  considered  to  be  exempt  from  his decree.  This  is  the  mere  truth  that  we  start  with,  and  we  can  add  to  this  the  fact that  the  people  are  themselves  contributing  to  their  destruction.  And  that  they will  deserve  either  the  punishment  or  the  mercy  of  Allah  according  to  their  own deeds,  as  Allah  Ta’ala says

“Verily  Allah  will  not  deal  unjustly  with  man  in  aught;  it  is  man  that  wrongs  his own soul”  [Surah Yunus: 44]

Universe  and  Choice

Allah Ta’ala  created  the  whole  universe  on  the  basis  of  choice.  There  are creatures  that  had  the  option  to  choose  only  once  and  their  choice  was  to  be oppressed.  And  there  are  others  who  have  chosen  to  be  given  the  right  of successive  choice  so  that  each  of  them  would  have  the  freedom  of  choice throughout  his  life  (Al-Hayat  Al-Dunya).

There  are  Angels  that  Allah  did  not  inform  us  about  how  they  have  been created. They glorify Allah day and  night  and  they  never  disobey  what  Allah  has decreed. As Allah says:  

“They  (the  angels)  glorify  His  Praises  night  and  day,  they  never  slacken  (to  do so)”  [Surat Al-Anbiya’: 20]

And  Allah Ta’ala  also  says

“Angels  who  disobey  not,  (from  executing)  the  Commands  they  receive  from Allah,  but  do  that  which  they  are  commanded”   [Surat  At-Tahrim: 6]

Those  are  the  angels  that  Allah Ta’ala  keeps  in  charge  for  whatever  He  wills throughout  the  universe.  There  is  an  angel  in  charge  of  every  single  thing  in  the universe  according  to  the  Will  of  Allah.  There  are also  the  uppermost  angels,  the  angels  of  death,  the  angels  that  are  in  charge of  man,  like  Al-Hafaza Al-Kiram (Arabic pronounced name for the angels that writes down man’s good and bad deeds in  a  book) who  write  down  man’s  acts,  and  many  other angels.

All  creatures  except  man  and  Al-Jin  have  deliberately  chosen  to  be oppressed. If  we  read  what  Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala  says,

“Truly,  We  did  offer  Al-Amanah (the  Trust)  to  the  heavens,  and  the  earth,  and the  mountains,  but  they  declined  to  bear  it  and  were  afraid  of  it,  but  man  bore  it. Verily,  he  was  unjust  (to  himself)  and  ignorant  (of  its  results)”    [Surah Al-Ahzab: 72]

Then  we  will  know  that  the  heavens,  the  earth,  the  mountains  and  all  other creatures  were  offered  Al-Amanah,  which  is  the  freedom  of  choice.  That  is  they were offered to be free to choose and to be able to obey or disobey. But all those  creatures  except  man  and  Al-Jinn  refused  the  offer  of  choice.  They  all  said to Allah that they can’t  handle  themselves  nor  Al-Amanah  and  they  asked  Allah to  make  them  oppressed.

And if Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala  had  not  informed  us  about  that  in  His  book  the  Qur’an,  we  would  not  have  known  that  the  offer  of  choice  was  there  for  all  His  creatures, that  they  refused  to  carry  Al-Amanah  that  man  has  accepted  and  that  they preferred  to  be  oppressed.

But  let’s  explain  what  is  Al-AmanahAl-Amanah  is  what  another  person  leaves with  you  on  a  condition  that  he  gets  it  back  whenever  he  wants.  He  would  leave Al-Amanah  with  you  because  you  are  trustworthy  and  this  trust  has  to  be without  any  written  proof  or  any  eyewitness.  For  example,  if  someone  gave  you some  money  and  he  got  a  receipt,  a  bank  check  or  a  money  draft  in  return,  it  is not  considered  Amanah.  It  is  considered  a  certified  deposit.  Also  if  someone left  the  money  with  you  in  the  presence  of  some  people,  it  is  still  not  considered Amanah,  but  a  witnessed  deposit.  It  is  called  Amanah  only  if  that  trust  was between  the  two  of  you,  with  no  witness  or  proof.  And  Allah  Rabbul  Aalameen  offered  Al-Amanah  to  the  heavens,  earth  and  mountains,  but  they  all  rejected  it.  Why? Because  they  felt  they  are  incapable  of  returning  it.  That  is  because  if  someone  left  you  some  money  as  Amanah,  you  might  hit  some  bad  times  and  turn towards  some  of  that  money  hoping  that  you  can  return  it  later.  And  you  might even  spend  all  the  money,  thinking  that  you  will  be  able  to  return  it  by  the  time  it is  due.  But  actually  when  the  time  comes,  you  can’t  get  the  money  and  by  this, you  have  wasted  Al-Amanah.  So  man  before  bearing  Al-Amanah,  thought  that  he would  be  able  to  return  it  and  that  he  would  follow  the  law  of  Allah  and  pay  back His  rights  by  praying,  thanking  Allah,  serving  Him  and  doing  all  what Allah  orders  him. When  man  started  the  journey  of  bearing  Al-Amanah,  that  is  this  life  [Al-Hayat Al-Duniya], the  devil –  Al-Shaytan  -seduced  him,  so  he  started  doing  sins  and believed  in  more  than  one  God.  Eventually,  man  started  believing  in  and serving  the  stones,  the  sun,  the  moon,  the  stars,  the  animal  and  more.  By doing  that  he  wasted  Al-Amanah,  and  by  the  time  Al-Amanah  is  due,  when death  approaches  him,  he  is  to  meet  Allah  unable  to  pay  back  Al-Amanah  that he chose to bear.

Man  and  Al-Amanah

So  we  can  see  that  man  deliberately  carried  Al-Amanah,  but  did  he  bear  it against  the  will  of  Allah Ta’ala?  Did  he  give  himself  the  right  to  freely  do  or  not to  do,  or  did  Allah Ta’ala  offer  him  that  freedom?  Definitely  man  didn’t  give  himself anything.  Allah  Subhanahu  Wa  Ta’ala  with  His  mighty  power  and  divine  will  gave  man  the choice,  so  He  created  him  free  to  choose.  And  if  Allah Ta’ala  wanted to  create  him  oppressed,  it  would  have  been  that  way.  And  for  this  Allah Ta’ala  draws  our  attention  to  that  truth  in  his  words,

“If  We  will,  We  could  send  down  to  them  from  heaven  a  Sign,  to  which  they would  bend  their  necks  in  humility”  [Surah  Al-Shu’araa: 4]

And  Allah Azza Wa Jal  says,

“Have  not  then  those  who  believed  yet  known  that  had  Allah  willed,  He  could have  guided  all  mankind  (to  the  Right)?” [Surah  Ar-Ra’d: 31]

There  hasn’t  been  anyone  in  the  universe  getting  anything  except  through  the decree  of  Allah.  The  creatures  who  chose  oppression  got  it  by  the  will  of  Allah  Almighty  and  the  creatures  that  are  capable  of  choosing  got  that  choice  by  the  will of  Allah  Baari  Ta’ala.  So  everything  in  the  universe  submits  to  the  divine  will of  Allah,  its  Creator.  The  oppressed  to  obey  and  the  free  to  disobey  both  got what  they  have  by  the  will  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  None  is  exempt  from  Allah’s  decree.  In this  way  man  has  been  created  free  to  choose,  because  Allah  wanted him  to  have  this  freedom  and  Allah  being  Al-‘Adl  –  the  Fair  –  would  not  oppress man  to  choose.  Allah  offered  man  the  right  of  choice  and  he  accepted  it.  And that  offer  was  offered  to  him  by  the  will  of  Allah.

Here  the  question  to  ask  is,  why  man  was  created  free  to  choose?  And  here  we  say  that  the  oppressed  creations  of  Allah  prove  the  majestic,  oppressing and  dominating  qualities  of  Allah;  that  He  is  capable  of  oppressing  who  ever He  likes  to  do  what  He  wants.  But  there  is  also  the  loving  quality  of  Allah  Ta’ala  in  His  universe  and  this  quality  can’t  be  proved  except  from  a  creation  that  approach  Allah  with  love,  not  because  they  are  oppressed  to  do  that.  A  Creation that  would  serve  Allah  out  of  love  and  that  obey  Him  because  they  love  to  obey Him.  And  to  have  this  achieved,  that  creation  has  to  be  capable  of  believing  and disbelieving,  capable  of  obeying  and  disobeying.  A  creation  that  say  “O  God  I love  You  and  for  that  I  believe  in  You,  not  because  I  am  oppressed  but  out  of love, O God I love to obey  You and for that I do it. God I will do all  what  You  order me and will get away from what You forbid and God if I am capable of doing any sin,  it  is  the  lust  of  my  soul  and  the  evil  among  men  and  Al-Jinn  that  makes  sins alluring  to  me.  But  God  Your  love  in  my  heart  is  greater  than  that  of  the  whole world  and  Allah,  the  God  of  the  universe,  all  what  You  want  me  to  do  I  will  love to  do  because  I  love  You  Allah  and  I  love  to  please  You.”

That  is  the  real  meaning  of  choice  in  the  universe.  Allah Ta’ala  doesn’t  want submitting  figures  but  He  wants  humble  hearts  and  that’s  why  He  wants  man to  come  to  Him  with  a  loving  heart.  And  faith  –  Al-‘Imaan  –  would  examine  your love  for  Allah,  if  the  love  for  Allah  in  your  heart  is  great,  then  your  faith  in  His curriculum  will  be  greater.  But  if  His  love  in  your  heart  is  not  that  strong,  then you will be far away from His curriculum.

Privileges to Man

When  Allah  Ta’ala  created  man,  the  creature  that  will  come  to  Him  out  of love,  Allah  wanted  to  make  him  a  leader  of  the  universe  to  reward  him  for choosing  to  be  obedient.  Allah  also  wanted  to  prepare  man  for  the  difficult  test that  will  hit  him  throughout  his  life  (Al-Hayat  Al-Duniya).  That  is  because  the  lust of  the  soul  together  with  the  whispers  of  the  devil  –  Shaytan  –  and  the  appeal  of disobedience  will  need  strength  and  power  so  that  man  does  not  fall  into  sins. So  Allah  gave  man  a  universe  to  serve  him,  a  universe  that  has  everything  that  man  would  need  to  save  his  life  and  to  keep  it  going.  The  sun  provides  him  with  warmth  and  brightens  his  day  so  that  he  can  go  on  building  the  universe  as  Allah  ordered  him.  The  earth  provides  him  with  the  food,  not  only  the essential  elements  for  man’s  life,  but  also  gives  him  the  luxury  of  choice.  It produces  different  kinds  of  food  from  which  he  can  select  what  he  likes;  a  lot  of vegetables  and  fruits  with  distinct  tastes,  cattle  that  provides  the  meat  to  eat and  the  wool  to  wear.  In  that  universe  man  also  has  the  water  from  the  sky  –  the rain  –  to  save  his  life  and  to  give  life  to  animals  and  plants  that  serves  him.  And  in  that  way  Ar-Rahmaan  has  provided  man  a  universe  with  all  the  elements  of  life  in it,  so  that  he  does  not  get  distracted  by  those  elements  and  forgets  to  serve and  obey  Allah,  the  provider  of  life.  That  universe  is  the  first  privilege  that  Allah  Ta’ala  specified  to  man  who  is  capable  of  choosing.

The  second  privilege  is  that  Allah  created  all  those  elements  of  life  subject  to man.  They  can  not  stop  doing  their  role  in  life,  the  sun  can  not  say  that  it  will rise  today  and  not  tomorrow,  the  moon  can  not  suddenly  leave  the  sky  and disappear,  the  wind  can  not  go  far  from  the  earth  and  prevent  man  from  life, and  the  earth  can  not  say  it  will  not  blossom  the  plants.  Everything  that  serves man  in  the  universe  performs  its  role  perfectly.

And  that  oppressed  universe  is  the  unchanging  universe,  the  good  universe  that  never  tires  anyone  or  ruins  anything.  Its  rules  are  rigid  and  continuous  and it  is  all  done  by  the  decree  of  Allah  so  that  man  feels  safe  about  his  existence and  survival.  In  that  way  man  is  not  busy  with  the  timing  of  the  sunrise  nor  is  he worried  to  find  a  way  to  get  the  water  from  the  sky.  He  is  not  responsible  of  the succession  of  the  night  and  day  nor  does  he  need  to  find  out  the  ways  to maintain  the  atmosphere  around  the  earth.  Allah  relieved  man  from  all  those responsibilities  so  that  he  is  not  distracted  by  the  universe  from  the  Creator  of the  universe.

Ayat for the People

Then  came  the  third  privilege;  Al-Haqq  wanted  to  show  man  that  there  is a  God  capable  of  everything,  Allah  who  created  man  and  everything  in  the universe  for  serving  man  and  who  also  created  the  universe.  He  made  things that  are  stronger  than  man  millions  of  times  and  that  no  one  can  claim  creating it,  serve  man.  For  example,  the  sun  with  all  its  strength  and  power,  all  people gathered  cannot  claim  that  they  made  nor  created  it.  It  can  burn  the  whole universe  and  man  doesn’t  have  any  way  to  prevent  its  harm.  But  then  Al-Haqq made  the  sun,  provides  us  with  all  what  we  need  and  with  His  wisdom, knowledge  and  precision  in  His  creation  prevented  its  harm  from  reaching  us. Another  example  is  the  sea,  it  can  drown  the  whole  universe  but  Allah  Ta’ala  made  it  provide  us  with  the  different  kinds  of  fish,  food  to  eat,  jewelry  to  wear  as  in  pearl  and  coral.  He  made  it  carry  our  ships  from  one  country  to  another  and prevented  its  harm  from  reaching  us.

A  third  example  is  the  earth  that  can  shake  powerfully  and  destroy  man  and  all what  he  has  built,  but  Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala  submitted  it  and  made  it  calm  for  us,  to  be able  to  live  on  it. And  then  Al-Haqq  gave  us  the  fourth  privilege,  our  senses,  the ears  to  hear,  the  eyes  to  see,  the  tongue  to  talk  and  all  the  senses  that  makes us  aware  of  our  surroundings.  And  Allah  also  gave  us  the  mind  that  is  capable of  distinguishing.  All  those  things  that  serves  us  can  not  be  created  by  man, and  so  man  should  know  that  there  is  a  tremendous  power  out  there  that  had created  that  universe  and  its  above  all  our  strength  and  power.  Allah Ta’ala says,

“And  Allah  has  brought  you  out  from  the  wombs  of  your  mothers  while  you know  nothing.  And  He  gave  you  hearing,  sight  and  hearts  that  you  might  give thanks  (to  Allah)”  [Surat  An-Nahl: 78]

All the Ayat in  His  universe  that  shows  that  Allah Ta’ala  is  the  Creator – Al-Khaliq,  Allah Ta’ala  made  them  clear  and  obvious  so  that  the  human  brain  does  not  get  tired  of  searching  for  it  or  trying  to  reach  it.  He (Subhhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  did  not make  His  Ayat  unknown  or  hidden  nor  did  He  make  them  hard  to  reach  but  He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  made  everyone  able  to  see  and  watch  them  easily  with  no  effort  done. We  see  the  sun,  the  moon,  the  stars,  the  plants,  the  earth  and  we  breathe  the air.  We  see  that  Ayat  Allah Ta’ala  draws  our  attention  as  if  it  is  presenting  itself  and announcing its Creator with out any effort done from our side.

Then  Allah Ta’ala  demanded  from  us  to  look  at  the  universe  to  see  those Signs  –  Al-Ayat  –  so  that  we  do  not  distract  ourselves  and  get  lost  in  searching for  His  Ayat  in  the  universe,  and  so  that  we  do  not  forget  the  Creator  and  spend all  the  time  thinking  about  the  creation.  For  the  human  brain  in  general  with  no required  knowledge  can  see  and  recognize  those  Ayat  easily.  In  that  way  Al-Haqq  wanted  to  make  us  busy  with  Him  and  with  His  love,  without  getting  lost in  ambiguous  Ayat  in  His  universe.

Man and the Devil

Then  there  is  the  fifth  privilege;  before  we  start  the  period  of  test, Allah  wanted  to  teach  us  that  we  are  going  to  be  exposed  to  the  seduction  of  Iblis  (Shaytan). He (Subhanahu  Wa  Ta’ala)  wanted us to know  that  Iblis  seduction  is  a  lie  and  that  he is  our  enemy.  He  (Al-Shaytan)  deceives  us  with  wishes  that  never  come  true  and whispers  to  us  with  lies  that  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  reality  and  he  tries  to distract  us  from  the  path  of  love  and  obedience  of  Allah.  So  there  was  the experience  of  Adam  and  Hawwa’,  Allah  made  them  live  in  Heaven  and allowed  them  to  eat  from  all  its  fruits  except  for  one  tree,  exactly  in  the  same way  Allah Ta’ala  allowed  us  so  many  things  in  this  life  and  prevented  us from  the  least.

Adam  and  Hawa’  were  allowed  all  the  fruits  in  Heaven  except  that  one  tree, when  Iblis  –  Al-Shaytan  –  came  and  tempted  them  to  eat  from  it.  Al-Shaytan  lied and  told  them  that  the  tree  would  give  them  eternity  and  an  everlasting kingdom.  Al-Shaytan  witnessed  what  he  promised  them  and  it  was  a  lie,  but  Adam  and  Hawa’  believed  him  and  they  did  eat  from  the  tree.  Thereupon, instead  of  having  the  eternity,  their  nakedness  was  manifest  to  them.  And instead  of  providing  them  with  the  everlasting  money,  the  tree  took  away  the sustenance  of  Allah  that  they  used  to  get  without  any  work  or  effort.  So  they descended  to  the  earth  to  work  hard  and  suffer  for  their  living.  That  was  an introduction  to  life  on  earth  and  to  the  lies  that  Iblis  –  Al-Shaytan  –  promises  man to  let  him  fall  into  sins  and  disobedience.

And  for  man  not  to  fear  Iblis,  get  overwhelmed  by  this  fear  and  forget  about serving  Allah,  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  informed  him  that  Al-Shaytan  is  weak  and  that  he  cannot have  power  over  man  unless  man  listens  to  him  and  obeys  him.  And  He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  told  us  that  Al-Shytan  has  no  power  to  make  us  do  what  we  don’t want  to  do,  for  Allah  did  not  give  him  the  power  of  oppression  to  force  us  to disobey  nor  did  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  give  him  the  power  of  persuasion  to  convince  us  to do  sins. Allah Ta’ala says,

“Shaytan  had  no  authority  over  you”  [Surah Ibrahim: 22]

That  is  Shaytan  has  no  strength  to  oppress  or  convince  us  with  wrongdoing. Then  Allah  Ta’ala  wanted  to  ease  us  from  all  this,  so  He  told  us  that  if we  are  sincere  in  serving  Him  and  honest  in  our  love  to  Him  then  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  will save  us  from  the  evil  of  Shaytan.  And  this  is  proved  in  His  words,

“[Iblis  (Satan)]  said:  “O  my  Lord!  Because  you  misled  me,  I  shall  indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on the earth, and I shall mislead them  all.  Except  Your  servants  among  them,  sincere  and  purified  (by  Your grace).”  Allah  said:  “This  (Way  of  My  sincere  servants)  is  indeed  a  Way  that leads  straight  to  Me.  Certainly,  you  shall  have  no  authority  over  My  servants, except  those  who  put  themselves  in  the  wrong  and  follow  you”   [Surah  Al-Hijr: 39-42]

And  by  those  words  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  wanted  to  tell  us  that  whoever  stays  close to  Him,  serve  and  love  Him  sincerely  will  be  safe  from  Shaytan  and  that  Iblis evil  whispers  will  have  no  effect  on  him.  But  then  if  the  human  self  weakens,  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  informed  us  to  seek  protection  –  nasta’eez (i.e Audhubillahi minash Shaytan Nirrajeem)  – from the  wicked  devil by  Allah  so  that  the  evil  temptation  of  Shaytan  would  not  approach  us.  In  that Allah Ta’ala says,

“And  say:  “My  Lord!  I  seek  refuge  with  You  from  the  whisperings  (suggestions) of the  Shayatin  (devils).  And  I  seek  refuge  with  You,  My  Lord!  Lest  they  should come  near  me”   [Surah  Al-Mu’minun: 97-98]

And Allah Ta’ala says

“Verily,  those  who  are  Al-Mutaqun  (the  pious)  when  an  evil  thought  comes  to them  from  Al-Shaytan  (Satan),  they  remember  (Allah),  and  indeed  they  then  see (aright)”  [Surat Al-Aaraf: 201]

So  by  that,  Allah  Ta’ala  showed  us  the  way  to  overcome  Shaytan,  and  all what  we  have  to  do  is  to  nasta’eez  by  Allah  and  be  sincere  in  serving  Him  so that our minds do not get paralyzed with fear from Iblis and his seduction.

Witness of Allah

Then  there  is  the  sixth  privilege;  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  made  us  witness  Him  since  we were  still  in  the  world  of  dispersion,  and  by  that  He  put  the  instinct  –  fitra  –  of belief  in  our  souls  and  so  we  became  with  that  fitra  believers  of  Allah  the Creator  –  Al-Khaliq,  the  Magnificent  –  Al-‘Azeem.  And  that  witness  was necessary  so  that  man  would  not  come  on  the  Resurrection  Day  arguing  as  he always  do  and  deny  knowing  Allah.  And  although  we  cannot  see  Allah, whenever  His  name  is  mentioned  to  anyone  he  finds  Allah  familiar  to  him  and close  to  his  soul.  It  is  the  fitra  of  belief  that  Allah  Ta’ala  plants  in  us  before  we come  to  this  world  and  start  our  experience  with  the  choice  that  Allah  wanted  for  us  and  that  we  willingly  accepted.  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) says,

“And  (remember)  when  Your  Lord  brought  forth  from  the  Children  of  Adam, from  their  loins,  their  descendents  (or  from  Adam’s  loin  his  offspring)  and  made them  testify  as  to  themselves  (saying):  “  Am  I  not  Your  Lord?”  They  said:  “Yes! We  testify,”  lest  you  should  say  on  the  Day  of  Resurrection:  “Verily  we  have been  unaware  of  this.”  Or  lest  you  should  say:  “It  was  only  our  fathers  before  us who  took  others  as  partners  in  worship  along  with  Allah,  and  we  were  (merely their)  descendants  after  them;  will  You  then  destroy  us  because  of  the  deeds  of men  who  practiced  Al-Batil  (men  who  are  futile  committing  crimes  and  sins, invoking  and  worshiping  others  besides  Allah)?”  [Surah Al-A’raf: 172- 173]

We  have  showed  so  far  that  we  were  created  with  the  privilege  of  choice  that Allah  wanted  for  us  and  that  we  have  accepted. And  this  Ayah  Al-karima  approves  that  same  concept,

“But  ye  will  not,  unless  Allah  wills;  for  Allah  is  full  of  Knowledge  and  Wisdom” [Surat  Al-Insan: 30]

That  is  first  Allah  wants  for  us  to  be  free  to  choose  and  our  choice  comes  out  of His  divine  will.  And  Al-Haqq (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  guarantees  this  choice  in His  creation  of  the  universe  and  in  His  Ayat  in  the  universe  as  well  as  in  the journey  of  life,  so  that  nothing  distracts  us  from  serving  Allah,  which  is  the  main reason  behind  our  creation,  and  so  that  nothing  stops  us  from  loving  Allah  who arranged  this  life  for  us.

When  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  sent  His  messengers  to  show  us  the  right  path  that  we should  follow,  it  was  all  out  of  His  love  to  us.  He  loves  us  so  much  that  he  did not  want  to  trouble  us  with  looking  for  the  truth,  that  the  creator  is  Allah,  nor  with trying to find out what He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) wants us to do. So there have been the messengers  to  inform  us  that  the  Creator  –  Al-Khaliq  –  is  Allah  and  that  He wants  us  to  love  and  serve  Him  using  a  moderate  defined  law;  a  law  that  the messengers  have  applied  before  the  creation  of  Allah.  By  this  law  Allah  spared us  the  confusion  of  searching  for  Him,  the  Creator  and  finding  out  what  He wants  from  those  whom  He  created.

Yet,  the  human  choice  was  not  an  infinite  choice.  It  was  limited  in  what  to  do and  what  is  not  permissible  by  the  law  of  Allah.

The Human Choice

Man  was  created  free  to  choose.  But  was  he  given  a  boundless  choice?  Some of  the  people  with  superficial  knowledge  who  claim  that  they  are  free  to  follow their  mind  and  their  own  thoughts  say  with  enthusiasm  that  they  have  the ultimate  freedom.  Some  people  even  go  further  and  say  that  a  smart  person  is capable  of  creating  his  own  destiny  and  that  he  can  place  himself  in  life wherever  he  likes.
We  tell  those  people  not  to  be  hasty,  for  what  they  are  saying  is  dismissed  by the  facts  of  life.  Allah  did  not  give  man  ultimate  choice,  He  gave  him the  choice  that  best  suits  his  role  in  life  for  He  is  the  perfectly  wise  –  Al-Hakim  –  and  everything  He  does  is  with  great  Wisdom.  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  is  the knower  of  all  –  Al-‘Alim  –  and  everything  going  on  in  His  universe  happens within  His  knowledge  and  not  just  haphazardly.  Actually,  things  going  on  are inter-related  and  linked  in  a  way  or  another,  and  man  has  not  been  given  the ultimate  choice  in  life.

And  if  everyone  of  us  looks  back  throughout  his  life  or  if  one  even  looks  to himself  and  his  soul,  he  will  find  a  lot  of  things  that  is  not  submitted  to  his  own will  or  choice.  He  will  find  that  the  majority  of  man’s  life  is  not  submitted  to  his choice.

Let’s  start  the  story  from  the  very  beginning,  when  man  comes  to  this  universe, when  he  starts  the  first  moment  of  his  life  breathing  air  into  his  lungs,  the moment  of  his  birth.  Did  he  choose  his  place  of  birth?   His  date  of  birth?  The hour  he  was  born  in?  None  of  us  ever  chose  his  hour  of  birth,  we  all  come  to life by the decree of Allah.  The  introduction  of  anyone  to  life  is  not  by  his own  choice  nor  is  the  place  of  his  birth  nor  is  his  mankind,  male  or  female.  He does  not  choose  his  nationality  whether  Arabic,  Britain  or  American.    And  he does  not  even  have  any  choice  over  his  own  body  whether  he  is  short  or  tall,  the color  of  his  eyes,  his  hair,  how  his  features  look  like.  He  does  not  choose  his parents  and  he  does  not  know  if  he  can  hear  and  see,  if  he  has  perfect  hands and  legs,  if  he  has  any  illness  in  his  body.  All  this  and  many  other  things  man does  not  choose  and  by  this  Allah Ta’ala  draws  our  attention  to  the boundaries  of  man’s  choice  from  the  moment  he  is  born.  And  in  that,  Allah   says

“He  it  is  who  shapes  you  in  the  wombs  as  He  wills.  There  is  no  god  but  He, the Exalted in Might, the Wise”  [Surat  Al-i-‘Imran: 6]

By  this  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  relates  everything  linked  to  the  moment  of  birth  and human  configuration  to  His  own  ultimate  power  and  He  does  not  give  man  any choice  in  being  born  white  or  black,  healthy  or  ill,  and  no  choice  in  how  his  face or  body  looks.

Choice and its Boundaries

To  those  who  say  that  man  has  been  given  ultimate  choice  in  this  universe,  we tell  them  that  the  moment  of  giving  birth  dismisses  what  they  are  saying  and that  man  even  at  the  moment  when  he  is  born  does  not  have  any  choice.  And  to complete  the  picture,  let  us  move  from  the  time  of  birth  when  man  comes  to this  world  up  till  the  time  of  death  when  he  leaves  it.  Does  man  have  any  choice when  it  comes  to  death?  Is  he  capable  of  saying  no  to  death?  Saying  that  he does  not  want  to  die  now  or  that  he  will  delay  his  death  to  the  next  day  or  the next  year?  Definitely  not,  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  warns  us  about  that  truth  in  many  of  his  Ayat  (Signs) in  Al-Qur’an  Al-Karim.  He  (Jalla Jallaluh)  says,

“And  every  nation  has  its  appointed  term;  when  their  term  comes,  neither  can  they  delay  it  nor  can  they  advance  it  an  hour  (or  a  moment)”   [Surat Al-A’raf: 34]

About  those  who  think  that  death  is  related  to  the  events  of  life  like  war  and conquests or accidents  and  who  think  that  man  by  staying  at  home  will  escape  death,  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) says,

“O  you  who  believe!  Be  not  like  those  who  disbelieve  (hypocrites)  and  who say  to  their  brethren  when  they  travel  through  the  earth  or  go  out  to  fight:  “If  they had  stayed  with  us,  they  would  not  have  died  or  been  killed.”   [Surah  Al-i-‘Imran: 156]

And  His  saying,

“(They  are)  the  ones  who  said  about  their  killed  brethren  while  they themselves  stayed  (at  home):  “If  only  they  had  listened  to  us,  they  would  not have  been  killed.”  Say:  “Avert  death  from  your  own  selves,  if  you  speak  the truth”  [Surah  Al-Imran: 168]

And the two Ayat Al-Karima talks about the  infidels  and  the  hypocrites  and  how they  linked  death  to  the  human  will  and  the  universal  events.  In  the  first  Ayah  the infidels  told  their  brothers  that  if  they  traveled  and  risked  their  lives  or  if  they went to fight they  might  die  or  get  killed.  But  if  they  stayed  at  home  and  did  not travel anywhere, they will avoid accidents and they  will  save  their  lives.  So  those  infidels  related  the  time  and place  of  death  with  the path  they  would  decide  to  take  or  with  their  decision  to travel,  and  they  claimed  that  it  would  be  a  reason  for  their  death.  They thought  that  those who  died  or  got  killed  would  have  been  alive,  if  they  had stayed in their homes. Death is a decree by Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala), there is no reason for it.  Man  dies  because  his  life  term  has  reached  an  end.  A  fighter  who  fights  in lots  of  wars  may  stay  alive,  when  another  man  staying  in  his  room  may  die.  For example  Khalid  Bin  Al-Walid (radhiyallahu anhu) who  fought  in  many  wars but  died  in  his  bed  and  he said  before  dying  “I  have  joined  a  lot  of  conquests  and  in  every  inch  of  my  body there  is  a  hit  by  a  sword,  a  wound  by  an  arrow  or  a  stab  by  a  spear  and  here  I am dying in my bed same way the animals  die.  May  the  eyes  of  the cowards  not  sleep.”

So  actually  death  is  not  related  to  being  in  war  joining  a  conquest  or  travelling somewhere.  A  man staying  at  home  may  die  while  an armyman  joining  a  battle or  in  a  journey may  come  back  safe. And  then  the  second  Ayah  shows  the  hypocrites  who  refused  to  go  to Battle, and  how  they  were  saying  to  their  fellow  hypocrites  that  if  the  believers  had listened  to  them  and  had  not  gone  to  fight,  they  would  have  not  died  and  that they  would  have  been  living  among  them.  Al-Haqq  tells  them  that  they  have  stayed  and  refused  to  fight  but  yet  if  their  concept  is  true  they  should  be able  to  keep  death  away  when  it  approaches  them.  Truly,  no  one  can  stop death  whether  one  is  in  a  battle,  hiding  at  home  or  anywhere  else.  Al-Haqq (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  explains  this  thoroughly  in  the  Ayat  that  were  descended  at  the  time  of  Ghazwat  ‘Uhud,  when  Muslims  were  defeated  and  the  hypocrites  and  the unconfident  said  that  if  the  decision  was  in  their  hands,  they  would  have  not gone  to  fight  and  those  who  died  would  not  have  been  killed. Allah answers  them  by  saying

“They  said,  “Have  we  any  part  in  the  affair?”  Day  [O  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)]: “Indeed  the  affair  belongs  wholly  to  Allah.”  They  hide  within  themselves  what they  dare  not  reveal  to  you,  saying:  “if  we  had  anything  to  do  with  the  affair,  none of  us  would  have  been  killed  here.”  Say:  “Even  if  you  had  remained  in  your homes,  those  for  whom  death  was  decreed  would  certainly  have  gone  forth  to the  place  of  their  death.”   [Surat  Al-i-‘Imran: 154]

They  kept  what  they  said  to  themselves  and  did  not  show  it  to  the  Messenger  of Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  so  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  wanted  to  reveal  the  truth  and  inform  his Messenger  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  about  it.  So  then  the  reply  came  from  Heaven,  from  Al-Haqq  and  He  asked  His  Prophet  to  tell  them  that  being  in  the battle  does  not  bring  them  death  and  does  not  drive  it  away  either.  For  those who  were  at  home  and  were  pre-destined  to  die  would  have  left  their  homes  to the  place  of  their  death  where  they  would  rest.  That  is,  being  conscious  about danger  and  trying  to  get  away  from  it  will  not  give  you  more  life  because  death is  pre-destined  by  Allah  and  it  is  going  to  happen  no  doubt.  Moreover  you  may find  that  a  person  pre-destined  to  die,  is  struggling  to  reach  the  place  of  his death.  For  example  a  man  insisting  to  find  a  seat  in  a  flight  and  may  be  paying more  money  for  it  not  knowing  that  it  is  the  reason  for  his  death,  that  this  flight is going to crash and all on board will die. And you may find someone else trying  to  reach  a  certain  place  and has  suffered  a  lot  of  trouble  to  reach  that place  and  then  find  death  facing  him  there.  Merely  death  is  a  decree  by  Allah and  no  one  can  run  away  from it.


Allah Ta’ala  explains  that  case  more  thoroughly  by  saying “Did  you  (O  Muhammad)  not  turn  your  vision  to  those  who  abandoned their  homes,  though  they  were  thousands  (in  number),  for  fear  of  death?  Allah said  to  them,  “Die”:  Then  He  restored  them  to  life.  Truly,  Allah  is  full  of  bounty  to mankind,  but  most  men  are  ungrateful”     [Al-Baqarah: 243]

This  Ayah  was  descended  for  the  people  of  a  village  who  were  so  scared  from death  due  to  a  plague,  that  they  had  to  leave  the  village.  Allah Ta’ala  wanted  to teach  them  that  they  can  never  escape  His  destiny  and  that  if  Allah  wants them  to  die  they  will  not  be  safe  by  leaving  that  village  to  anywhere  else.  So Allah  made  them  all  die  and  then  He,  answering  the  prayers  of  their  prophets, gave  them  life  again.

Decree  of  death  comes  at  a  pre-destined  time  that  cannot  be  delayed  or anticipated  for  a  single  minute  and  it  is  impossible  to  run  away  from  it.  Allah has  hidden  the  reason  of  death  and  the  time  it  is  appointed  so  that  no  one thinks  that  it  is  a  mechanical  procedure  where  we  are  born  and  then  after  aging we  die,  as  if  the  length  of  our  life  is  fixed  and  after  reaching  sixty  or  seventy  we should  die.  For  that  the  ultimate  power  of  Allah  made  death  with  no  fixed reason,  the  infant  dies  in  his  mother’s  abdomen,  the  sick  man  dies  as  of  his illness  and  the  healthy  dies  without  any  known  reason.  The  kid  dies,  the  young man  dies  and  the  old  man  dies  as  well.  This  proves  that  death  happens  by  the decree  of  Allah  and  that  reason  has  nothing  to  do  with  it,  for  two  men  may  have the  same  illness  and  both  are  treated  by  the  same  physician  and  you  find  that one  dies  in  few  days  and  the  other  lives  for  years.

Yet  there  are  people  who  debate  the  issue  of  death  saying  that  one  can  order the  execution  of  a  man  or  that  one  can  decide  to  kill  a  man  by  a  knife  or  a  gun and  by that  he  is  capable  of  controlling  death. 

Those  people  try  to  doubt  the issue  of  death  being  a  decree  by  Allah  and  they  claim  that  it  can  be  in  the hands  of  man.  We  say  that  those  people  are  confused  between  death  and murder.  Allah Ta’ala  only  can  give  and  take  life  and  man  can  never  do  that  but yet  he  can  murder. Al-Haqq Ta’ala  says

“Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  no  more  than  a  Messenger,  and  indeed  many Messengers  have  passed  away  before  him.  If  he  dies  or  is  killed,  will  you  then turn  back  on  your  heels  as  disbelievers)?  And  he  who  turns  back  on  his  heels, not  the  least  harm  will  he  do  to  Allah;  and  Allah  will  give  reward  to  those  who  are grateful” [Surah Al-i-‘Imran: 144]

So  death  is  different  than  murder,  because  Al-Haqq  says  “Died  or  got killed”  and  Allah Ta’ala differentiated  between  death  and  murder  in many of the Ayat in the Qur’an

“If  they  had  stayed  with  us,  they  would  not  have  died  or  been  killed”  [Surah Al-i-‘Imran: 156] 

“Those  who  emigrated  for  the  cause  of  Allah  and  after  that  were  killed  or  died, surely,  Allah  will  provide  a  good  provision  for  them”  [Al-Hajj: 58]


“And  Whether  you  die  or  are  killed,  verily,  unto  Allah  you  shall  be  brought together”     [Surah  Al-i-‘Imran: 158]

Death  and  Murder

So  Death  is  different  than  murder  because  in  the  case  of  the  former,  death comes  first  and  then  after  that  the  body  is  destroyed.  But  in  the  case  of  the Murder  the  body  should  be  destroyed  first  to  cause  death,  for  example  by  hitting one’s  head  and  breaking  it  or  by  shooting  him  several  times  in  the  head  or chest.

So  in  the  case  of  Murder,  you  have  to  destroy  the  body  first  to  get  the  soul  out and  cause  death.  On  the  other  side,  death  is  a  way  of  getting  rid  of  life  first  and then  the  destruction  of  the  body  follows,  and  that  can  happen  only  from  Allah Ta’ala  and  man  has  no  hands  in  it.  Yet,  murder  is  the  ruining  of  the  body  first and  consequently  death  follows.  And  that  man  who  disputed  with  Ibrahim (alayhissalaam)  about  his  God  because  Allah  has  granted  him  the  kingdom  argued with  Ibrahim  (alayhissalaam)  also  about  the  issue  of  Death  and  Life  as  in  the  Ayah  “When  Ibrahim  said  (to  him):  “My  Lord  is  He  who  gives  life  and  caused  death.” He  said:  “I  give  life  and  cause  death”   [Surat  Al-Baqarah: 258]

And  that  king  had  been  lying  about  what  he  said  because  only  Al-Haqq  can  give  and  take  life  and  man  can  only  murder,  he  can  not  cause  death. And  as  we  reach  the  point  where  man  has  no  control  over  life  and  death,  we also  need  to  consider  sleep  that  is  also  not  in  the  hands  of  man.  Sleep  is  a miracle  that  is  confusing  the  whole  world  because  it  is  still  an  unknown phenomenon.  How  man  by  just  closing  his  eyes  moves  from  one  set  of  laws  to another  in  a  moment.  For  in  the  life  of  vigilance  man  hears  with  his  ears,  sees with  his  eyes,  talks  with  his  tongue  and  walks  with  his  legs  and  he  is  bounded in  time  and  space,  limited  by  specific  rules;  for  he  can  not  travel  from  Egypt  to the  United  States  in  less  than  few  hours  and  he  has  to  follow  certain procedures.  In  that  case  he  should  go  to  the  airport,  check  in,  take  the  flight  and spend  some  hours  before  he  reaches  the  States,  and  then  he  checks  out  and so  on…

And  man  in  the  life  of  vigilance  (day  life)  sees  with  his  eyes  according  to  the strength  of  his  sight;  there  is  someone  with  good  sight  who  can  see  from  a  far distance  and  another  with  weak  sight  who  needs  medical  glasses  and  then material  objects  will  obstruct  his  sight  so  he  cannot  see  beyond  a  wall.  Also man  in  the  day  life  walks  with  his  legs  and  his  pace  is  limited  even  if  he  walks faster  and  he  is  bounded  by  his  materialism  so  that  if  he  falls  from  a  high  place he  is  killed  or  his  bones  are  broken.  Moreover,  there  is  a  lot  of  things  hindered from  man  in  his  day  life,  for  he  can  not  see  the  dead,  who  relocated  to  the mercy  of  Allah,  even  if  he  stands  in  front  of  their  tombs  nor  can  he  talk  to  them.And  there  is  an  endless  set  of  rules  in  the  life  of  vigilance  that  we  all  know about.

Dream  and  Consciousness

The  moment  man  sleeps  all  those  rules  are  cancelled,  for  he  can  travel  to  the States  and  come  back  several  times  in  few  moments.  He  can  also  see  strange things  and  new  places  that  he  has  never  visited  before.  All  that  he  can  see  with closed  eyes  although  if  someone  approaches  his  eyes  and  almost  touches  it, he  will  not  see  or  feel  it  because  the  eyes  are  closed,  but  yet  with  those  eyes closed  he  can  see  very  clear  and  he  may  say  strange  things  that  no  one  can argue  about  just  like  the  king  of  Egypt  saw  in  his  dreams  at  the  time  of  prophet Yousuf  (Joseph) (alayhissalaam).  Allah  says  about  what  the  king  saw  in  his  dreams: “I  saw  (in  a  dream)  seven  fat  cows,  whom  seven  lean  ones  were  devouring”  [Surah  Yousuf: 43]

Is  it  possible  that  a  cow  can  eat  another  in  our  day  life?  Of  course  not,  we  have never  seen  that  happen  before.  And  can  the  weak  cow  eat  the  strong  one?  No, that  is  really  unbelievable.  And  man  walks  in  his  dreams  with  his  legs  on  bed not  even  moving,  and  he  moves  from  one place  to  another  with  his  body  staying in  the  same  place,  not  even  few  centimeters  away.  Man  also  sees  the  people who  died  many  years  ago  and  chats  with them.  He  sees  himself  young  when he  is  already  old  and  he  sees  himself  fighting  a  lion  and  killing  it.

All  those  and  other  things  happen  to  us  in  our  sleep,  we  dream  about  it  and  we see  it  and  it  never  happens  outside  the  area  of  mind  and  memory  and  that’s why  when  we  wake  up  we  can  tell  people  what  we  saw  in  details  because  it  is stored  in  our  memories.  And  some  kind  of  seeing  device  other  than  the  eyes saw  what  happened  clearly  with  all  the  details or  else  how  could  we  describe our  dreams.  And  the  discussion  with  the  people  that  moved  to  the  hereafter  life is  one  that  we  are  aware  of  because  we  can  remember  it  and  repeat  may  be the  same  phrases  and  words.

So  man  moves  within  a  moment  from  some  set  of  laws  to  another  that  we know  nothing  about,  but to  which  we  submit  in  our  sleep.  The  question  here  is whether  we  have  will  or  control  over  those  laws  that  we  submit  to  while sleeping,  or  not?  That  is can  any  of  us  while  sleeping  chose  the  events  that  he would  like  to  see  in  his  dreams?  Can  he  say  that  he  is  going  to  see  this  and not  that?  Or  say  that  this  night  he  can  go  to  Europe  and  the  following  night  to the  Soviet  Union?  Of  course  not,  because  when  man  is  asleep  he  is  out  of  the area  of  human  choice.  He  is  not  free  to  choose  what  he  can  or  cannot  see  and he  is  no  more  able  to  choose  the  words  that  he  talks  with  and  those  that  he hides  within  himself  and  does  not  utter.

He  is  not  controlling  anything  he  sees  although  his  dream  coincides  with  the notion  of  the  human  brain.  For  example  if  someone  tells  you  that  he  saw something  in  his  dream,  you  do  not  deny  him  that  and  you  do  not  argue  with him  because  you  know  that  there  is  dreams  and  that  sometimes  you  are exposed to it. So you do  not  accuse  him  of  bringing  out  a  subject  that  is  above the  human  mind,  but  instead  you  give  the  day  life  laws a  break  so  you  do  not use  it  as  a  measure  to  what  happens  during  sleep.  Your  mind  also  does  not question  anyone’s  dream  and  you  do  not  try  to  argue  with  him  about  it  because you  know  from  your  own  experience  that  man  can  see  in  his  dreams  things  that does  not  submit  to  the  normal  day  life  laws.

But  still  no  one  is  able  to  give  us  a  scientific  explanation  for  the  laws  that controls  man  in  his  sleep  and  how  the  soul  moves  from  one  set  of  laws  to another  within  the  same  moment  and  then  returns  to  the  day  life  laws  the moment  he  wakes  up  from  his  sleep  and  again  back  to  the  sleep  time  laws. And  no  one regardless  of  the  scientific  degree  that  he  reaches,  can  explain how  this  transfer  from  one  law  to  another  happens,  but  we  know  that  sleep  is  a reality  and  that  everyone  experiences  it.  We  also  know  that  in  the  sleep  time laws  we  go  beyond  the  measures  of  time  and  that’s  why  when  Allah Ta’ala made  the  people  in  the  cave  (Ahl  Al-Kahf)  asleep  for  three  hundred  and  nine hijri  years, by the time they were awake they did not  know  how  long  they  slept. And  although  they  have  slept  all  those  years,  what  did  they  say  by  the  time  they woke  up?  Al-Haq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  says “Said  one  of  them:  “How  long  have  you  stayed  (here)?”  They  said:  “We  have stayed  (perhaps)  a  day  or  part  of  a  day”   [Surah  Al-Kahf: 19]

So  man  when  sleeping  does  not  feel  the  time  and  that’s  why  the  seven sleepers  –  Ahl  Al-Kahf  –  measured  the  time  that  they  have  slept  by  the  normal sleep  time  measures  which  is  usually  part  of  the  day  or  by  most  a  whole  day  if he  is  very  exhausted,  but  not  more  than  that.

And to apply that on our  selves,  when  we  go  to  sleep  and  then  wake  up  we  do not  know  for  how  long  have  we  been  sleeping  until  we  look  to  some  kind  of  time  measurement  device  as  the  watch  or  any  other  sign  for  time measurement  like  day  and  night.  So  we  might  have  slept  in  the  day  light  and then  wake  up  late  at  night  or  vice  versa,  but  no  one  can  know  the  actual  number of sleeping hours unless he turns his eyes to the watch.

Unreachable  Laws

Al-Haqq  wanted  to  save  us  from  searching  for  the  laws  that  governs sleep  and  to  let  us  know  that  we  will  not  be  able  to  discover  it.  So  Allah Azza Wa Jal  said 

“It  is  Allah  that  takes  the  souls  (of  men)  at  death;  and  those  that  die  not  (He takes)  during  their  sleep;  those  on  whom  He  has  passed  the  decree  of  death, He  keeps  back  (from  returning  to  life),  but  the  rest  He  sends  (to  their  bodies)  for a  term  appointed.  Verily  in  this  are  Signs  for  those  who  reflect”
[Surah Az-Zumar: 42]

So we know that sleep submits to the laws of Al-Barzakh  and  we  don’t know  anything  about  the  rules  of  life  in  Al-Barzakh,  except  what  Allah  has informed  us  about.  All  what  we  know  about  that  laws  of  sleep  is  that  there  are things  that  we  can  see  with  and  that  it  is  different  than the  eyes  that  we  use  in the  day  life,  and  that  we  can  move  with  something  other  than  our  legs  that keeps  us  moving  in  the  day  life,  and  that  there  are  words  uttered  with  what  is different  than  the  tongue  that  we  speak  with  in  the  day  life,  and  that  the  world  of Al-Barzakh  does  not  rely  on  the  physical senses  that  is  totally  idle  during  sleep. Actually  we  have  other  senses  that  we  use  in  the  world  of  Al-Barzakh  and  that world  just  like  sleep  does  not  have  any  human  choice  or  any  feel  of  the  time and  in  that  world  we  meet  with  people  who  have  left  this  life  and  moved  to  the mercy  of  Allah  before  us,  just  as  we  meet  them  in  our  sleep  world.

Allah  Ta’ala  gave  us  all  that  in  mercy  of  our  minds  and  to  know  that  there  are things  existing  in  the  unseen  that  we  know  nothing  about  so  that  the  image  of the world of Al-Barzakh  gets  closer  to  our  minds  and  also  to  know  that  moving from the day life to the  life  of  Al-Barzakh  can  happen  in  a  moment  and  then  we can  understand  the  meaning  of  what  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said  “By  the witness  of  Allah  you  are  going  to  die  in  the  same  way  you  sleep  and  you  are going  to  be  resurrected  in  the  way  you  wake  up”

By  now  we  have  agreed  that  the  human  choice  in  life  is  not  absolute  choice,  but a  limited  one  and  we  have  explained  how  man  cannot  choose  the  time  and place  of  his  birth,  his  parents,  nationality,  sex,  homeland,  how  he looks,  the color  of  his  eyes  and  hair  and  many  others.  He  also  can  not  choose  the  time  of his  death  and  he  does  not  choose  anything  in  his  sleep  which actually  narrows down  the  area  of  choice  that  will  get  much  more  narrower  as  we  proceed  in specifying the choice that Allah gave to his servants.

Choice and The Body

We  mentioned  that  man  was  not  given  the  ultimate  choice  from  Allah,  only  a limited  choice  that  best  suits  his  mission  in  life  and  that  coincides  with  the needs  of  the  law  of  Allah  that  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  assigned  to  man. And  now  we  move  to  another  area,  the  human  body,  to  see  whether  the  body  is a  property  of  man  that  he  can  do  whatever  he  wants  with  or  whether  Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  wanted  us  to  know  that  the  human  body  is  owned  by  Allah  and  that  we  are  only  heirs  of  it  in  our  life  time  which  is  actually  a  testing  period  for  us.

Most  of  the  parts  in  the  human  body,  the  parts  that  are  related  to  life  and  its functionality,  and  more  are  oppressed  by  Allah Ta’ala.

For  in  our  bodies  there  are  many  organs  that  we  know  nothing  about  and  we  do not  notice  them  unless  they  are  destroyed  or  infected,  but  as  long  as  they function  in  a  normal  way  we  do  not  feel  them.

First  we  will  start  with  those  parts  of  the  body  that  are  completely  oppressed  by Allah Ta’ala  and  then  we  move  to  those  parts  that  are  still  oppressed  by  Allah  but  that  we  have  some  kind  of  control  over  them.

If  we  look  to  the  life  cycle  in  our  bodies  we  find  that  we  eat  the  food,  chew  it  with our  teeth  and  then  it  goes  through  the  esophagus  to  the  stomach  where  it  is digested  in  a  complex  mechanical  process.  Then  the  food  goes  to  the  small intestine  where  the  nutrients  that  are  the  fuel  of  human  life  get  absorbed  and carried  by  the  blood  to  different  parts  of  the  body  and  then  the  body  gets  rid  of the  waste  through  the  intestine.  Starting  with  the  food,  do  we  have  anything  to do  with  the  reacting  process  taking  place  between  food  and  the  body?  Truly  not, when  the  food  reaches  the  stomach  where  different  enzymes  are  secreted upon  it,  it  is  a  question  of  oppression,  for  no  one  willingly  tells  his  stomach  to start  secreting  the  required  enzymes  and  no  one  can  stop  the  secretion  of enzymes  from  digesting  the  food.  It  is  a  process  that  takes  place  in  our  bodies and  we  don’t  feel  it.  If  we  watch  a  movie  showing  what  happens  to  the  food inside  our  stomach  we  will  sure  be  stunned  from  the  divine  power  that  made all  those  processes  take  place  in  the  stomach  without  man  knowing  anything about  it.  There  have  been  a  lot  of  people  that  lived  and  died  without  knowing how  their  stomach  digested  the  food  or  what  were  the  glands  that  secreted  the enzymes  necessary  for  the  digestion  process.

Then  if  we  move  to  the  liver  for  example,  that  has  main  functions  in  the  body,  do we  know  what  the  liver  does?  Do  we  feel  it  starting  to  work?  Of  course  not,  for the  liver  is  working  in  the  body  without  us  knowing  or  feeling  that  process  and  it can  go  on  like  that  for  years  as  long  as  it  is  functioning  in  a  normal  way.

Do  we  know  what  does  the  small  intestine  do?  And  can  we  make  the  heart beat  or  stop  beating  when  we  want?  And  with  the  process  of  oxygen  and carbon  dioxide  exchange  taking  place  continuously  in  your  lungs  day  and  night, is  it  you  that  manages  that  exchange?  And  the  blood  circulation  that  is  taking place  in  your  body,  do  you  know  anything  about  it?  The  blood  contains  tens  of the  cells  among  which  are  the  red  and  white  cells  and  many  more,  do  you know  about  them?

There  is  battles  going  on  inside  your  veins,  by  the  time  the  microbe  enters  the patient’s  body  the  white  blood  cells  starts  to  face  it  by  preparing  the  immune necessary  to  kill  the  microbe  and  retain  your  health.  Do  you  do  that?  Of  course not  for  that  is  all  subjected  to  Allah  Ta’ala,  you  do  not  know  anything  about  it and  if  you  see  it  you  are  stunned  that  all  those  processes  are  taking  place  in your  body  without  you  knowing  anything  about  it.

And  more  important  is  that  you  have  no  control  what  so  ever  over  all  those processes  taking  place  in  your  body,  they  do  not  take  any  instructions  from  you and  you  cannot  make  them  function  or  stop  functioning  and  that  is  mercy  from Allah  Ta’ala.  For,  if  they  were  subject  to  your  will,  it  would  have  been  a  big problem.
Imagine  that  you  are  asked  to  order  the  heart  to  beat,  the  stomach  to  work  and the  lungs  to  breath.  Surely  you  will  not  have  the  time  to  do  all  this  and  even  if you  have  the  time  you  will  not  be  able  to  seek  your  living,  improve  your civilization  and  apply  the  laws  of  Allah.  You  will  not  be  able  even  to  sleep  and how  can  you  sleep  when  you  are  the  one  who  orders  the  heart  to  beat,  it  will sure  stop  beating  by  the  time  you  sleep.  And  how  could  a  little  kid  who  still doesn’t  know  anything,  make  those  devices  work  without  stopping?

Oppression and The Body

You  are  oppressed  in  most  of  your  body  and  that  oppression  is  a  mercy  from Allah  Ta’ala  so  that  you  can  go  on  with  your  life  and  do  your  work, otherwise  if  you  had  choice  in  your  body,  you  would  not  have  been  able  to survive.

So  the  majority  of  the  human  body  is  subjected  to  Allah  Ta’ala  and  it  functions by  oppression  and  not  by  choice,  it  does  what  Allah  Ta’ala  wants  it  to  do  and  it stops  when  the  Creator  orders  it  to  stop.

And  so  you  have  no  choice  in  that  majority  of  your  body  and  you  do  not  have knowledge  about  it,  except  what  Allah  wants  you  to  know.  If  He  (Allah Ta’ala) wills  to  hide  information  about  your  body  from  the  whole  humanity,  He  sure  will hide  it.  And  if  you  find  that  this  is  awkward,  remember  that  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  hides the  information  about  the  soul  from  all  His  servants.  He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  says:

“They  ask  you  concerning  the  Spirit  (of  inspiration).  Say:  “The  spirit  (comes) by  command  of  my  Lord:  of  knowledge  it  is  only  a  little  that  is  communicated  to you  (O!  men)”  [Surah  Al  –  Israa’: 85]

Where is The Soul

All  of  the  scholars  in  religion  could  not  tell  us  where  is  the  soul  that  gives  the life  to  the  body.  Is  it  in  the  heart?  Or  in  the  brain  that  thinks?  Or  in  the  blood circulation  that  never  stops?  Or  in  the  feet  that  moves?  Or  in  the  eyes  that  see? Or  in  the  ears  that  hear?  Where  is  it?  A  question  that  science  cannot  answer, because  it  is  a  secret  that  no  one  knows  except  Al-Haqq,  and  it  will remain  a  secret  that  only  Allah  knows.

So  if  you  could  feel  the  soul  that  is  a  creature  in  your  body  and  you  know  its effect  because  it  is  giving  you  life,  but  yet  you  do  not  know  anything  about  it because  Allah  Ta’ala  hides  all  information  about  it  from  you,  how  come  you  say that  your  body  is  subject  to  your  will?  No  it  is  not  subjected  to  you  but  to  the  will  of  its Creator, Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala).

If  we  move  after  that  to  the  things  in  your  body  that  Allah  has  made  subject  to your  will.  For  example,  Allah  has  made  the  tongue  subject  to  your  will,  that’s why  it  obeys  you  when  you  want  to  witness  that  there  is  no  deity  but  Allah  “La illaha illallah”   and  it  speaks  the  words  –  Al-Shahadah.  And  it  also  obeys  you when  you  want  to  say  the  word  of  infidelity,  Allah  forbids.  And  your  eyes  obeys you  when you  want  to  see  what  is  Halaal  and  when  you  want  to  meditate  the Signs – Ayat – of  Allah  throughout  His  universe,  or  when  you  look  to  what  does not  belong  to  you  and  is  forbidden  by  Allah  –  Haraam.

The  hands  obey  you  when  you  want  to  help  with  it  a  disabled  man  to  cross  the street  and  it  also  obeys  you  when  you  want  to  physically  assault  someone weak  or  to  kill  your  enemy.  And  the  feet  obey  you  by  going  to  the  mosque  or  by going  to  places  that  serve  wine and  allow  iniquity.

All  those  organs  will  obey  you  in  all  that  you  order,  whether  it  is  to  obey  Allah  or to  disobey  Him,  because  they  are  tools  subjected  to  your  choice.  But  you should  know  two  important  facts:  first  that  all  those  organs  are  praising  Allah Ta’ala,  and  Allah  has  created  your body  from  dust.  And  the  atoms of  dust  that  the  body  is  created  from  chose  to  be  oppressed  to  obey  and  so  they are  by  themselves  praising  Allah.  They  obey  the  infidel  in  what  he  wants  but  at the  same  time  curse  him  and  at  the  Day  of  Resurrection,  will  bear  witness against  him  and  that  witness  will  be  a  cause  for  sending  him  to  Hell.  Read what  Al-Haq  says:

“On  the  Day  when  their  tongue,  their  hands  and  their  feet  will  bear  witness against  them  as  to  their  actions”   [Surah  Al-Nur: 24]

And  Allah also says:

“They will say  to  their  skins:  “Why  do  you  bear  witness  against  us?”  They  will say:  “Allah  has  caused  us  to  speak,  He  causes  all  things  to  speak:  and  He created  you  the  first  time  and  to  Him  you  are  made  to  return” [Surah  Fussilat: 21]

Therefore  all  those  organs  that  are  submitted  to  your  choice  are  only  apparently submitted  to  your  orders,  but  in  fact  they  are  praising  Allah  and  at  the  Day  of Resurrection  when  the  infidel  will  go  to  Hell,  those  organs  of  the  body  will  be  in ultimate  happiness  because  they  cause  pain  for  the  infidel  and  punish  him  for his  sins.

And  if  you  want  to  go  through  a  perceptible  experience  that  confirms  those meanings,  look  at  the  pilgrims  at  the  time  of  HAJJ  and  you  will  find  that  they sleep  very  little  of  the  night.  Yet  their  bodies  can  endure  the  fatigue  and  short  of sleep  to  a  marvelous  extent  so  that  one  can  wake  up  after  two  hours  sleep  full of  energy.  Why?  Because  the  body  that  is  praising  Allah  is  comfortable  with  the praise,  the  prayers  and  all  the  HAJJ  ceremonies.  For  that  the  body  does  not  want to  sleep  or  to  overlook  the  glorification  of  Allah,  the  praise  and  the  prayers except  for  the  least  time  possible  and  with  that  harmony  the  believer  does  not feel  any  fatigue  in  his  body.

On  the  contrary,  the  infidel  who  does  not  do  anything  except  the  sins,  you  will find  the  atoms  of  his  body  always  exhausted  from  those  sins.  That  is  why  he sleeps  till  noon  and  even  when  he  wakes  up,  he  would  still  have  the  feeling that  he  wants  to  sleep  again  because  the  parts  of  his  body  that  are  tired  from doing  sins  are  hating  to  do  them  and  are  trying  to  have  a  break  from  those  sins, and  sleep  is  the  only  way  to  keep  that  infidel  away  from  performing  sins  and  so the  body  will  look  tired  and  exhausted  pushing  that  man  to  sleeping  for  long intervals  of  time. That  is  why  when  the  people  go  to  HAJJ,  you  will  hear  many  of  them  say  to  you that  they had  an  incredible  strength  while  performing  the  HAJJ  ceremonies,  so that  they  used  to  sleep  few  hours  of  the  night  and  still  were  extremely  active. They  will  tell  you  that  they  never  had  the  feel  of  sleep  and  they  wanted  to  remain awake  all  the  night  as  well  as  the  day.

Truly  that  happens  but  no  one  notices  the  reason  behind  it.  The  atoms  of  the body  are  harmonious  with  the  obedience  of  their  Creator  and  they  do  not  want to  overlook  that  obedience  except  for  the  least  possible.  This  is  the  fact  of  Faith related  to  the  human  body.

No Choice in Your Body

So  there  are  organs  of  your  body  that  are  oppressed  and  do not  submit  to  your choice,  and  there  are  other  organs  that  submit  to  your  choice  by  Allah’s exploitation  of  those  organs  to  obey  you  and  not  by  your  own subjectivity.  Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  gave  you  that  choice  and  made  those  parts  of  your  body  submitted  to your  orders  so  that  they  will  witness  you  on  the  Resurrection  Day  and  will witness  the  best  of  the  obedience  that  you  offer  and  the  most  evil  of  the  sins that  you  commit.

Al-Haqq  wanted  to  draw  our  attention to  that  so  that  we  do  not  think  that those  organs  are  submitted  to  us  by  our  subjective  abilities.  For  example,  we think  that  we  see  with  our  own  abilities  and  there  are  people  with  open  eyes and  yet  cannot  see.  And  if  sight  were  subject  to  man,  there  would  not  be anyone that  cannot  see  with  his  eyes.  Also  Allah  Ta’ala  made  some  men  with feet  that  cannot  walk  so  that  we  know  that  the  feet  do  not  walk  by  the  ability  of man  but  with  the  power  of  Allah  or  else  how  would  it  be  possible  that there  are  people  that  cannot  walk  with  their  feet.  And  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  also  made those  people  with  ears  that  cannot  hear  and  if  hearing  was  subject  to  the  ears, everyone  with  ears  would  have  the  ability  to  hear  and  everyone  with  a  tongue would  be  able  to  talk.

Those  few  examples  Allah  made  in  His  universe  to  give  us  a  hint  that  our organs  are  subjected  to  us  by  the  power  of  The  Creator  and  not  by  our  own abilities.

And  Allah  compensated  all  those  people  whom  he  denied  the  sight,  hearing, walking  or  any  other  senses  by  providing  them  with  other  abilities  that  give them  privileges  that  exceeds  what  the  have  lost  and  more.  And  He  gave  us examples  of  His  power,  by  showing  that  loosing  those  senses do  not  prevent the  people  from  reaching  superiority  in  life  especially  in  the  area that  needs  those  missing  senses.  And  He  made  other  examples  of  superiority  in  many fields  that  man  would  not  be  superior  in  without  loosing  some  senses. Allah  Ta’ala wanted  by  those limited  examples  among  His  people  to give  us  the  proof  that  the  human  power  over  anything  is  not  subjective  to  man, but  it  is  dedicated  from  Allah  who  made  it  subject  to  man.

Bounded Choice

We  can  see  that  man’s  choice  over  his  own  body  is  bounded  by  the  energy  that Allah  gave  him  and  made  it  subject  to  his  obedience.  And  all  that  man  could  do is  to  direct  that  energy  which  is  created  by  Allah  to  take  the  action  that  he  wants. But  is  that  it?  Is  it  the scope  of  choice  wide  open?
We say that there  are  a  lot  of  things  in  this  life  that  goes  beyond  your  scope  of choice,  first  of  all  is  the  power  of  Allah. For  you  have  no  choice  over  the  predestined  things  that  happen  to  you,  they  occur  beyond  the  choice  domain.

For  example  if  you  are  walking  down  the  road and  a  car  hits  you,  or  if  a  stone falls  on  you,  or  even  if  you  get  ill  with  some  disease,  is  it  within  the  domain  of your  choice?  Could  you  stop  an  accident  that  is  pre-destined  by  Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala from  happening  to  you.  Could  you  prevent  a  disease  or  stop  it  from  attacking your  body.  Of  course  you  could  not,  for  none  of  us  has  the  power  to  push  the fate  of  Allah  that  inevitably  happens  to  us  and  over  which  we  have  no  control.

This  is  the  first  thing  that  narrows  down  the  scope  of  choice,  for  all  of  us  are subject  to  the  fate  of  Allah  that  we  cannot  do  anything  about.  None  of  us  nor  the people  around  us  can  do  anything  about  it  and  that  is  why  regardless  of  what has  been  said  about  the  human  choice  it  could  not  exceed  the  limits  that  Allah Ta’ala  has  drawn  around  it.  For  you  cannot  push  harm  that  has  been  predetermined  by  Allah  Ta’ala  away  from  yourself  or  your  children  and  you  cannot also  stop  benefits pre-destined  for  you  by  Allah.  And  that  applies to  all  of  us,  the  rich  and  the  poor,  the  strong  and  the  weak,  the  powerful  among us  (Kings  and  Emperors)  and  the  powerless  who  do  not  own  anything.  And  we should  consider  what  Al-Haqq  says  in  that:

“Say:  “O  Allah!  Possessor  of  Power  and  (Rule),  You  give  the  kingdom  to whom  You  will,  and  You  take  the  kingdom  from  whom  You  will,  and  You  endue with  honor  whom  You  will,  and  You  humiliate  whom  You  will.  In  Your  Hand  is the  good.  You  have  power  over  all  things” [Surah  Al-i-Imran: 26]

If  we  read  this  Ayah,  we  will  know  that  the  power  and  kingdom  come  from  Allah and  they  are  not  a  result  of  human  planning.  Allah  Ta’ala  provides  the  reasons leading  to  power  and  kingdom  to  those  whom  He  wills,  and  by  that  He  enables them to have it.

And  how  many  times  has  fate played  a  role  where  a  man  could  find  himself  in great  power  without  being  qualified  or  powerful  enough  to  acquire  it.  Everyone likes  kingdom  and  power  and everyone  works  on  getting  it,  but  they  never  have it  except  by  the  pre-determination  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  Because  He  is  the  true Possessor  of  Power  and  Rule  and because  earth  with  everyone  and  everything on  it,  all  belong  to  Allah  and  Allah  gives  his  kingdom  to  who  ever  He pleases.  And  if  the  kingdom  has  been  reachable  by  the  subjective  abilities  of human  beings,  they  would  have  kept  it  for  themselves  and  it  would  have  not been  taken  away  from  them.  But  Allah  Ta’ala  says:

“In  Your  Hand  is  the  good.  You  have  power  over  all  things” [Surah  Al-i-Imran: 26]

And  this  Ayah  is  a  proof  that  the  kingdom  is  taken  by  force  from  man  and  that  no one  would  ever  want  to  leave  it  deliberately.

And  that  is  why  you  find  the  person  with  the  top  most  power,  his  orders  being obeyed  and  everyone  is  submitted  to  him  and  all  of  a  sudden,  in  a  moment when  the  fate  of  Allah  applies  you  will  find  the  closest  people  to  him  are walking  out  of  him  and  he  then  becomes  scared  trying  to  hide  away  and  save his  life  by  any  means.

The  diminishing  of  power  away  from  him  is  not  within  his  own  abilities,  but  it  is by  the  power  of  Allah  and  it  is  totally  a  question  of  inheritance  on  earth. For  no  one  believes  that  he  reaches  power  or  even  maintains  it  with  his  own abilities.  Allah Ta’ala  gives  kingdom  to  who  ever  He  likes  and  removes  it  from who  ever  He  wants.

Fate and Choice

The  events  of  the  universe  are  the  fate  of  Allah  Ta’ala  and  they  are  the  real  aim of  Allah  in  His  universe  and  no  one  could  prevent  or  stop  or  even  intervene  in the  real  will  of  Allah  in  His  universe  as  it  is  executed  on  everyone  and  there  is no  choice  in  it.

The events that happen by the fate of  Allah  are  not  within  the  bounds  of  choice, the  same  as  the  events  that  happens  to  you  from some  other  person,  you  have no  choice  in  it.  If  you  are  walking  down  the  street  and  someone  came  and slapped  you  on  the  face  or  threw  a  stone  at  you  or  shot  a  bullet  at  you  or  even attacked  you  at  home,  all  those  events  and  others  that  happen  to  you  by  some other  person  are  outside  the  scope  of  your  choice.  For  you  have  no  choice  in people  verbally  or  physically  assaulting  you,  by  making  you  hear  what  you  do not  like  or  by  beating  or  killing  you.  All that  is  outside  the  boundaries  of  your human  choice.

By  that,  we  see  that  the  scope  of  choice  is  narrowed  so  that  it  is  restricted  to one  thing,  and  that  is  what  you  do  or  what  you  say.  All  other  remaining  life events you have  no  choice  in.  You  have  no  choice  in  your  birth,  death  or  hours of  sleep.  You  also  have  no  choice  in  what  happens  to  you  and  is  pre-destined by  Allah  Ta’ala  nor  in  what  is  happening  to  you  by  some  one  else.  So  the remaining  scope  is  what  you  really  do  and  even  in  that  narrow  scope,  your choice  is  bounded  by  part  of  it  and  the  rest  you  have  no  choice  in.

Choice and Al-Takleef

Our  discussion  about  Al-Qadda  wa  Al-Qadar  and  the  Choice  has  reached  a limited  point.  You  have  no  choice  except  for  what  you  actually  do,  and  even  in that you  do  not  have  ultimate  choice.  Still  your  choice  in  what  you  do  is  limited and  not  everything  you  want  to  do  is  subject  to  your  choice.  Actually  there  are few  things  that  you  do  and  are  subject  to  your  choice.

Before  we  go  further,  we  should  understand  the  meaning  of  the  deed.  There are  three  terms  the  saying,  the  work  and  the  deed  and  each  of  the  three  has  a different  meaning.  The  saying  is  the  work  of  the  tongue  whose  role  is  to  speak. And  the  work  is  the  role  of  the  senses  that  execute  what  man  wants  and  the doing  is  the  coordination  of  the  talk  and  the  work.  For  that  Al-Haqq  says:

“O,  you  who  believe!  Why  do  you  say  that  which  you  do  not  do?  Most  hateful  it is  with  Allah  that  you  say  that  which  you  do  not  do.”  [Surah As-Saff: 2-3]

So  there  are  sayings,  work  and  doings.  Man  can  own  the  saying  but  he  cannot own  the  doing.  Why?  Because  the  deed  has  conditions,  that  are  not  subject  to his  choice.  The  first  two  of  those  conditions  are  the  time  and  the  place  for  each action  needs  time  and  place  to  take  part  at. Time  is  measured  by  the  events  or actions  that  take  place.

And  for  anything  to  happen  in  man’s  life  he  needs  time  which  can  be  at  least few  seconds.  In  our  worldly  life  we  measure  our  life  by  time,  a  task  can  take  a year  while  another  can  take  two  years.  An  event  could  have  happened  a  year ago  and  another  could  have  passed  for  thousands  of  years.  Something  could happen  tomorrow  or  the  day  after  or  even  after  a  year.  The  man  is  20  years  of age  and  that  other  man  is  70  or  80  years  old.

Therefore  the  events  of  life  for  man  are  measured  by  time  that  is  owned  by Allah  who  created  the  time.  We  do  not  own  the  time  on  the  contrary  it  is  time that  owns  us.  For  man  cannot  stop  the  time,  he  does  not  have  the  power  to remain  a  kid  and  not  to  grow  up.  He  cannot  remain  a  youth  without  aging  and he  cannot  have  the  power  to  return  to  the  past  and  go  back  in  time  for  a  year  or more.

Also  no  one  of  us  owns  the  future  so  that  he  can  go  twenty  years  ahead  in  one day.  So  if  we  cannot  control  the  time,  then  we  will  not  be  able  to  control  its events. By that  anything  that  we  do  is  beyond  our  power  of  choice  with  respect to  time  because  we  do  not  own  except  the  moment  that  we  are  currently  living.

Deeds … by Whom?

If  you  say  that  you  will  do  something  tomorrow,  we  will  tell  you  that  you  are saying  what  you  cannot  or  do  not  own  to  fulfill  because  you  might  not  live  till  that  day. And if you are still alive  by  that  day  you  might  have  an  illness  that  prevents you  from  doing  what  you  wanted  to  do.  You  might  not  have  the  strength  or power  to  carry  it  out.  You  might  have  a  reason  to  stop  you,  for  example  one  of your  kids  might  get  ill  or  die  and  by  that  you  will  not  complete  what  you  have planned  to  do.

The  same  thing  could  happen  to  the  other  partner  that  is  sharing  the  same deed  with  you.  For  example,  you  have  decided  with  another  person  to  meet tomorrow  at  a  specific  place.  Then  that  man  had  an  urgent  incident  or  a  sudden illness  or  he  had  passed  away.  The  meeting  would  never  take  place  and  so  the act  of  meeting  would  not  be  executed.

Every  action  requires  time  and  place.  That  is  the  measures  of  earth  and  the Worldly life, Al-Hayat Al-Dunya. If Allah  gave  you  the  factor  of  time,  He  might  not give  you  the  place.  If  for  example  you  want  to  build  a  building,  you  could  wake up  in  the  morning  and  find  out  that  the  piece  of  land  had  been  marked  by  the city  for  public  use  or  as  a  historical  area.  You  could  also  have  someone  stopping  you  and  claiming  the  ownership  of  the  land.  You  could  not  find  the engineer  to  monitor  the  construction  or  you  might  not  find  the  contractors needed  to  get  the  work  done.  You  might  not  find  the  products  to  use  in constructing  the  building.  You  do  not  own  all  that  for  you  do  not  own  the elements  of  the  deed,  but  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  owns  them.  And  for  that  Allah  Ta’ala  says:

“And  never  say  of  anything,  “I  shall  do  such  and  such  thing  tomorrow”,  Except (with  the  saying),  “If  Allah  will!”  And  remember  your  Lord  when  you  forget  and say:  “It  may  be  that  my  Lord  guides  me  unto  a  nearer  way  of  truth  than  this.”
[Surah Al-Kahf: 23-24]

That  is  you  should  behave  in  what  you  say  and  relate  the  deed  to  Allah  who owns  it.  You  should  not  relate  it  to  yourself  and  say  that  you  are  going  to  do  this or  that,  but  you  should  always  relate  it  to  Allah  because  He  is  the  one that  owns  the  true  elements  of  the  deed.  He   owns  your  life,  He  keeps you  till  you  finish  what  you  wanted  to  do  or  He  ends  your  life  before  you  can  do anything.  He  owns  the  strength  and  provides  it  to  you  to  be  able to  do  what  you  want  or  He  takes  your  strength  away  so  you  are  not  able  to  do anything.  He  owns  the  elements  of  place,  He  keeps  it  in  a  good  state  for  you  to go  on  with  doing  what  you  want  or  He  makes  it  impossible  for  you  to  complete the  task.  And  He  has  the  power  to  make  whoever  He  wants  from  his  servants subject to you, to execute what you want. Or  He  does  not  make  them  subject  to you and by that you cannot even start what you want to do. So if  all  the  elements of  action  is  in  the  hands  of  Allah,  you  should  relate  it  all  to  Him  and  say “If  Allah  wills”.

So  for  the  deed  to  happen  and  get  completed,  it  is  only  in  the  hands  of  Allah.  No one  of  us  has  the  power  to  do  what  he  wants  except  if  Allah  wills  or  if  Al-Haqq Ta’ala  gave  him  the  life  and  energy  to  do  it.

The Deed and Al-Qadar

Even  with  the  things  that  are  subject  to  you,  that  Allah  Ta’ala  have  apparently submitted  to  your  will,  still  nothing  happens  without  the  will  of  Allah.  The  feet  do not  move  one  step  except  if  Allah  gave  them  the  power  to  step  and  the  hand  will not  move  without  Allah  giving  it  the  power  to  move.  There  are  a  lot  of  people who  try  to  question  that,  and  we  tell  them  to  look  at  themselves  and  to  the movements  that  they  choose  to  do.  They  know  that  it  all  happens  with  the power  of  Allah  Ta’ala.    For  when  you  are  sitting,  all  what  you  do  to  stand  up  is that  you  feel  you  would  like  to  get  out  of  your  chair  and  then  Allah  gives  you  the power to do that. And if you claim that you do  this  with  your  own  power,  then  tell us  how  many  muscle  moves  as  you  move  from  your  chair?  How  many  muscle contracts  and  how  many  expands  to  get  you  stand  up?

The  answer  is  that  most  of  us  does  not  know.  The  specialists  in  that  area would  probably  know  the  answer,  but  yet  even  the  specialists  move instantaneously.  And  if  man  moves  with  his  own  power  he  will  have  to  give orders  to  specific  muscles  to  contract  and  relax.  He  would  of  course  in  this case  take  more  time  before  he  could  stand  up  and  that  would  be  the  time needed  to  give  orders  to  the  muscles.

Also  when  man  walks  he  does  not  know  anything  about  the  movement  that takes  place  inside  his  body.  There  are  many  processes  that  take  place  inside his  body  when  he  wants  to  jog  or  run.  The  heart  beats  faster  to  provide  the  body with  more  oxygen  needed  for  running.  The  circulatory  system  also  goes  faster and  so  does  the  rate  of  inhaling  and  exhaling.  The  muscles  move  differently from  the  case  of  walking.  All  those  changes  do  not  happen  with  one’s  own choice,  it  happens  with  the  will  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  For  it  is  He  who  gives  the body  the  energy  to  do  all  that  with  out  any  intervention  from  man.  And  if  that  is not  the  case,  it  would  have  been  very  hard  for  the  people  to  move  and  their movement  would  have  been  very  slow.

Will  and  Movement

So  the  type  of  movements  that  we  call  voluntarily  or  mechanical  movements, happen  very  fast  and  they  do  not  deal  with  the  human  choice.  Man  does  not  tell   the  movement  to  start  or  to  stop.

It is actually an energy that Allah Ta’ala provided  you  with  its  power.  No  one  can claim  that  it  is  an  internal  power  or  that  it  happens  by  man’s  own  choice.  Allah  placed  this  energy  in  you,  the  energy  to  move  and  then  he  made  you  free to direct it. For  you  can  direct  the  energy  inside  you,  that  is  created  by  Allah,  to  good  or  evil. You  can  walk  to  the  mosque  or  you  can  walk  to  the  bar,  Allah  forbids.  That  move you  made  is  not  of  your  own  power,  but  the  power  of  moving  is  from  Allah  and you  directed  that  power  to  good  or  to  evil.

Your  hands  can  hold  the  knife  to  cut  the  food  to  pieces  small  enough  for  you  to eat.  You  can  also  hold  the  same  knife  to  kill  someone  with  it.  You  did  not  bring the  energy  in  your  hands  to  do  what  you  did,  but  that  energy  has  been  provided to  you  from  Allah.  You  only  directed  that  energy  that  is  provided  from  Allah  to  the  hands  that  are  also  created  by  Allah,  to  do  the  good  or  evil.

And the  tongue  could  say  the  truth  or  it  could  lie,  it  could  witness  the  right  or  it could  be  wrong  about  it.  It  could  say  a  good  word  or  an  evil  word,  but  still  you  do not  own  any  internal  power  to  make  your  tongue  talk.    You  only  directed  that talking  energy  that  Allah  Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala  provided  to  your  tongue  to  obey  or  disobey. The  same  with  all  other  organs  of  your  body,  that  appears  to  submit  to  your choice.  That  choice  is  actually  not  from  within  yourself,  because  all  those organs  do  not  move  according  to  your  choice,  but  it  moves  by  the  power  of  Allah  that  He  put  in  them  and  you  only  direct  that  power  to  the  good  or  bad.

That  is  the  scope  of  choice  that  Allah  gave  you.  It  is  limited  to  directing  the energy  to  the  good  or  evil,  and  that  is  the  responsibility  that  we  are  accounted for.  It  is  the  Amanah  that  man  bore.  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  wanted  to  create  us  free  to choose  and  if  it  were  that  Allah  did  not  create  us  free  to  choose,  we  would  have not  owned  to  choose  anything.  Yet  we  are  only  free  to  choose  in  the  scope  of our  duty  and  from  among  the  divine  gifts  that  Allah  wanted  us  to  enjoy  in our  life.  For  example  we  can  choose  what  we  like  of  food,  drinks,  clothes  and other  blessings.  But  other  than  that  we  do  not  have  any  power  of  choice.

Choice in the Law

So  we  are  free  to  choose  in  applying  the  law  of  Allah,  the  right  approach  to  do and  not  to  do.  That  law  is  actually  the  straight  path  that  we  are  accounted  for  in the  Hereafter  because  the  meaning  of  “Takleef“  is  to  follow  that  straight  path and  get  away  from  what  is  forbidden.  That  is  strictly  to  do  and  not  to  do.  And man  by  law  should  not  move  what  Allah  ordered  him  to  do  to  the  scope  of  what is  forbidden.   Also  man  by  the  divine  law  of  Allah  should  not  move  what  is forbidden  to  the  scope  of  what  should  be  done.   For  that  would  be  mere disobedience.  For  you  disobey  Allah’s  decree  if  you  do  what  He  forbids  you from  doing  and  if  you  do  not  do  what  He  orders  you  to  do.  So  that  is  the  scope of  your  choice,  and  you  will  be  accounted  for  it  in  the  Hereafter.

By  that  we  reach  the  real  scope  of  choice  for  man  in  the  worldly  life  Al-Hayat al-duniya,  or  to  the  area  that  Allah Ta’ala  has  created  and  within  which  He granted  us  the  ultimate  freedom  so  that  choice  takes  place  with  the  free  will  of man.

But  why  do  we  disobey  the  law  of  Allah  and  do  what  He  asked  us  not  to  do? And  why  do  we  refuse  doing  what  He  orders  us  to  do?  Because  Allah  Ta’ala  in  that  specific  part  made  us  free  to  choose.  And  if  He  did  not  make  us free  to  choose,  we  would  not  own  the  power  to  do  or  not  to  do.  For  we  do  what conflicts  with  the  will  of  Allah  according  to  His  law,  from  the  concept  that  He gave  us  the  freedom  to  choose.  So  the  will  of  Allah  to  make  us  free  to  choose comes  first  and  that  is  what  gives  us  the  power  to  choose.

The meaning of (Al-Takleef)

If  we  reach  that  point  then  we  should  know  by  now  the  meaning  of  (Takleef)  and what  is  the  choice  with  regards  to  humans.  We  should  also  know  that  man’s  choice  is  according  to  the  decree  of  Allah  in  what  to  do  and  what  not  to  do  and that  it  is  the  basics  upon  which  we  will  be  accounted  for  in  the  Hereafter.

But  there  might  be  some  inevitable  power  that  might  interfere  with  man’s choice.  We  might  be  forced  to  do  things  and  by  that  we  are  not  free  to  choose the  right  path  (Manhaj).

In  that  case,  we  say  that  the  burden  of  duty  (Takleef)  is  raised  and  you  are  not accounted  for  what  you  do.  That  is  the  Fairness  of  Allah  for  He  will  not  make you  accounted  for  something  when  you  are  prevented  to  freely  direct  your energy  to  do  good  or  evil. For  example,  imagine  that  a  man  came  and  tied  me  with  some  chains  so  that  I could  not  pray.  Would  I  be  accounted  for  not  praying?  Or  would  I  not  be accounted  for  it?  Consider  that  someone  came  and  ordered  me  to  prostrate  to someone  other  than  Allah?  Would  I  be  accounted  for  that?  Of  course  not because  Allah  Ta’ala  says:

“Whoever  disbelieved  in  Allah  after  his  belief,  except  him  who  is  forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith.”   [Surat  An-Nahl: 106]

So  the  force  is  not  accounted  for  when  Allah  Ta’ala  gave  us  the  choice  in applying  His  law.  He  gave  us  the  freedom  to  choose  under  the  condition  that we  choose  with  our  own  free  will.  For  Allah  Ta’ala  wants  us  to  approach  Him lovingly  and  willingly.  By  that  He   wants  us  to  prove  the lovingness  to  the  great  essence  of  His  Highness.  So  whoever  did  any  sin unwillingly  or  by  force  is  not  accounted  for  his  sin.  Similarly  anyone  who  obeys  Allah  by  force  or  without  his  own  free  choice  is  not  rewarded  for  the  good  deeds  that  he  committed.  For  worship  should  be  done  to  truly  prove  the  lovingness  of Allah  Ta’ala.  If  there  is  no  true  love  for  Allah  in  the  believer’s  heart  and  if  there  is no  sincere  devotion  to  Allah,  then  none  of  our  deeds  will  be  accepted.    For example,  if  a  man  gives  some  charity  to  get  praised  as  the  most  generous  and the  most  religious  or  to  be  called  the  man  of  righteousness,  he  will  not  be praised  by  Allah  and  will  not  be  rewarded  for  his  deed  as  he  did  not  do  it  out  of love  to  Allah  but  actually  out  of  love  to  celebrity  and  to  get  praised  by  people.

And  if  someone  goes  to  a  charity  that  is  organized  by  the  wife  of  someone  in power  and  donates  a  big  amount  of  money  to  get  some  favor  done  to  him  at work,  he  will  not  be  rewarded  for  it  because  he  has  chosen  to  get  an  advantage in  the  worldly  life  (Al-Hayat  Al-Dunya)  and  he  did  not  do  it  out  of  his  love  to  Allah. Same  as  with  whoever  prays  to  get  people  to  say  that  he  is  praying  and whoever  goes  to  do  the  Hajj  procedure  to  be  called  “Hajj”,  he  will  not  be rewarded  for  it  as  he  headed  for  celebrity  and  he  had  no  true  love  in  his  heart for  Allah.  In  that  the  Prophet  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  says:
“All the  deeds  are  according  to  one’s  intention  and  everyone  will  get  what  he intended  to  do.  For  that  who  immigrated  to  Allah  and  his  messenger  will  have his  immigration  to  Allah  and  his  messenger  and  that  who  immigrated  for  a  life that  he  wanted  or  a  wife  that  he  married  will  have  his  immigration  to  what  he wanted”.

So  ultimate  freedom  of  using  one’s  mind  in  directing  the  energy  created  by  Allah  to  obey  or  to  disobey  is  a  main  condition  for  Account  in  the  Hereafter. Also  forcing  people  to  do  grievous  sins  of  adultery  is  not  accepted  in  Islam  and Allah  says  about that:

“And  force  not  your  maids  to  prostitution,  if  they  desire  chastity,  in  order  that you  may  make  a  gain  in  the  (perishable)  goods  of  this  worldly  life.  But  if  anyone compels  them  (to  prostitution),  after  such  compulsion,  Allah  is  Oft-Forgiving, Most  merciful  (to  those  women,  i.e.  He  will  forgive  them  because  they  have been  forced  to  do  this  evil  act  unwillingly).”  [Surat An-Nur: 33]

And  so  we  see  that  even  with  the  grievous  sins  like  disbelief  and  adultery,  if  it  is practiced  by  force  than  there  is  no  punishment  for  it.  All  deeds  should  be completed  by  freely  choosing  to  use  our  minds  to  direct  the  energy  created  for us  by  Allah  Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala.  That  energy  should  be  directed  to  do  good  deeds  or  to  do evil  deeds.  That  is  why  the  Fairness  of  Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala  ruled  that  the  “Takleef” should  be  raised  from  the  insane  whose  mind  is  unable  to  direct  the  energy freely  to  good  or  evil.  That  is  because  the  insane  could  not  distinguish  between what  is  useful  and  what  is  harmful.  The  same  with  the  child  because  his  mind is  not  yet  mature  enough  to  direct  him  to  the  scope  of  correct  choice.

Willing and Unwilling

Some  people  question  how  Al Haqq  gave  man  the  ultimate freedom  in  the  scope  of  “Takleef”  in  what  is  permitted  and  what  is  prohibited and  yet  He  made  us  accounted  for  our  true  intensions  and  not  the  apparent intensions.  This  is  complying  with  what  says  about  the  day  of Resurrection

“The  Day  when  all  the  secrets  (deeds,  prayers,  fasting,  etc.)  will  be  examined (as  to  their  truth).  Then  he  will  have  no  power,  nor  any  helper.”  [Surah At-Tariq: 9-10]

If this  is  the  case  and  if  man  is  given  the  choice  in  the  divine  law  “Al_Manhaj”, so  how  does  Al-Haqq  says:

“And  unto  Allah  (Alone)  falls  in  prostration  whoever  is  in  the  heavens  and  the earth,  willingly  or  unwillingly,  and  so  do  their  shadows  in  the  mornings  and  in the  afternoons.”  [Surah Ar-Ra’d: 15]

We  say  that  this  Ayah  is  referring  to  the  worldly  life  and  the  Hereafter.  For whoever  is  in  the  heavens  and  the  earth  willingly  bow  down  in  worship  for  Allah Ta’ala. They do it “Taw’ann” with  their  own  choice  in  this  worldly  life.  Everything in  the  universe  except  for  man  and  the  Jann  bow  down  in  worship  for  Allah “Taw’ann”  as  they  have  chosen  the  oppression  “Al-Qhahr”.  They  are  oppressed with  their  own  choice.  But  for  man  and  the  Jinn  whoever  of  them  chose  to  bow down  in  worship  will  do  it  willingly  in  this  worldly  life.  But  after  this  life,  in  the Hereafter  there  is  no  more  choice  for  man  or  Jinn  and  they  become oppressed.  If  Al-Haqq  wants  them  to  bow  down  in  worship  they  will  do  it against  their  will,  none  of  them  can  disobey.  And  if  Al-Haqq  wants  them to  be  unable  to  bow  they  will  unwillingly  not  be  able  to  do  it,  complying  with  His saying:

“(Remember)  the  Day  when  the  Shin  shall  be  laid  bare  (i.e.  the  Day  of Resurrection)  and  they  shall  be  called  to  prostrate  themselves  (to  Allah),  but they  (hypocrites)  shall  not  be  able  to  do  so.  Their  eyes  will  be  cast  down  and ignominy  will  cover  them;  they  used  to  be  called  to  prostrate  themselves  (offer prayers),  while  they  were  healthy  and  good  (in  the  life  of  the  world,  but  they  did not).” [Surah  Al-Qalam: 42-43]

So  bowing  down  in  worship  “Prostration”  is  done  willingly  in  this  life  and  then  it is  done  unwillingly  in  the  Hereafter because  choice  ends  by  death  and  all become  oppressed  to  Allah  Ta’ala.

Choice and Deprivation of Choice

We  should  be  aware  of  an  important  point  to  which  Allah  Ta’ala  wanted  to  draw our  attention  and  that  is  the  choice  we  are  granted  in  life  is  with  the  power  of  Allah  and  is  according  to  His  will.  And  if  He  wanted  to  deprive  us  that  choice,  He would  do  it  because  it  is  granted  to  us  with  His  own  will.  That  is  why  Allah  says  about  Abu  Lahab,  the  uncle  of  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  and  one  of  the chiefs  of  infidelity  who  had  vigorously  fought  against  the  religion  of  Allah:

“Perish  the  two  hands  of  Abu  Lahab  (an  uncle  of  the  Prophet)  and  perish  he! His  wealth  and  his  children  will  not  benefit  him!  He  will  be  burnt  in  a  Fire  of blazing  flames!  And  his  wife,  too  who  carries  wood  (thorns  of  Sa’dan  which  she used  to  put  on  the  way  of  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  or  use  to  slander  him).  In  her neck  is  a  twisted  rope  of  Masad  (palm  fibre).”  [Surah Al-Masad]

Al-Haqq  Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala  announces  in  the  Qur’an  –  which  is  never  changed  or  replaced and  that  is  brought  down  upon  His  Messenger  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  to  worship  Allah  by reading  it  till  the  day  of  Resurrection  –  that  Abu  Lahab  will  die  as  an  infidel  and that  he  will  go  to  Hell.

So  what  would  be  the  case  if  Abu  Lahab  have  gathered  the  people  and  said “Muhammed  mentions  in  the  Qur’an  –  that  he  claims  to  be  brought  upon  him from  Allah  –  that  I  will  die  as  an  infidel  and  will  then  go  to  hell  and  here  I  am saying  in  front  of  you  that  I  witness  that  there  is  no  God  but  Allah  and  that  Muhammed  is  His  messenger  so  that  you  all  know  that  there  is  nothing  sent  to Muhammed  from  Heaven”.  Abu  Lahab  could  have  said  that  even  out  of hypocrisy  to  destroy  the  whole  case  of  the  religion.

But  Allah  defies  Abu  Lahab  in  something  that  is  within  the  scope  of choice.  And  yet  it  never  occurred  to  the  mind  of  Abu  Lahab,  to  use  this  defiance  in  destroying  the  religion  that  he  strongly  hated  and  opposed. Actually  a  lot  of  the  main  chiefs  of  infidelity  like  Abu  Sufyan,  Khalid  ibn  Al-Waleed,  Amr   ibn  Al_’Aas  and  others  fought  Islam  strongly  but  after  that  they had  strong  faith  in  Islam,  except  for  Abu  Lahab  who  rejected  Faith  till  the  last moment  of  his  life.

Al-Haqq  wants  to  draw  our  attention  to  the  fact  that  He  provided  man  with  choice  and  that  if  He  wills  to  take  it  away,  man  will  have  no power  of  choice.  That  is  what  happened  with  Abu  Lahab,  Allah  took  away choice  partly  from  him  and  then  placed  in  his  hands  a  case  by  which  he  can destroy  the  religion  of  Allah  but  he  could  not  do  it  and  it  never  hit  his  mind  to use  it  because  in  that  specific  point  he  did  not  own  the  choice.

And  so  we  find  out  with  the  definite  proof  that  Allah  gave  man  the  freedom  to choose  in  what  to  do  and  what  not  to  do  and  that  if  Allah  wills,  He  can  take  it away  partly  or  fully  from  man.

By  that  we  reach  the  point  that  the  deed  is  from  Allah  nothing  happens without  His  consent  and  His  will  because  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  alone  owns  all  the elements  of  deed.  Man’s  choice  is  only  in  directing  the  energy  that  Allah  created for  him  to  do  the  good  or  evil.  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  gave  man  complete  freedom  within the  scope  of  “Takleef”  to  do  and  not  to  do.  Man  can  be  able  to  go  for  what  Allah forbids  and  he  can  get  away  from  what  Allah  orders  him  to  do  and  only  within that  scope  there  is  reckoning.   Even  that  freedom  of  choice  is  subject  to  the  will of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala), He  can  take  it  away  fully  or  partially  whenever  He  wants.  So  we should  understand  that  the  freedom  of  choice  is  from  Allah  not  from  man  and that  Allah  Ta’ala  wanted  to  make  man  free  to  choose.

Except what Allah wills

We  have  pointed  out  how  the  freedom  granted  by  Allah  to  man  is  represented in  the  way  man  directs  the  energy  created  by  Allah  in  his  body  towards  obeying or  towards  disobeying,  And  we  have  mentioned  that  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  has  given  man the  ultimate  freedom  to  direct  that  energy  towards  what  he  wants  so  that judgment  will  be  just.  At  this  point  we  can  find  some  people  pausing  at  the noble  verse  where  Allah  says:

“And  We  sent  not  a  Messenger  except  with  the  language  of  his  people,  in order  that  he  might  make  (The  Message)  clear  for  them.  Then  Allah  misleads whom  He  wills  and  guides  whom  He  wills.  And  He  is  the  All-Mighty,  the  All-Wise”
[Surah  Ibrahim: 4]

And  in  His  saying:

“Thus  Allah  leads  astray  whom  He  wills  and  guides  whom  He  wills.  And  none ca  know  the  hosts  of  your  Lord  but  He” [Surah Al-Mudaththhir: 31]

And  there  are  a  lot  of  verses  in  the  Noble  Qur’an  that  we  are  going  through  in this  chapter  and  they  all  confirm  that  Allah leads  astray  whom  He  wills  and guides  whom  He  wills.  If  that  is  the  truth  where  the  will  of  Allah  is  what  leads  astray  or  leads  to  the right  path,  then  how  will  the  judgment  be just?  And  do  any  of  us  hold  anything  in  his  hands  against  the  divine  will  of  Allah  Ta’ala?

First,  we  say  that  Allah  Ta’ala  has  the  ultimate  power  in  His  universe  for  all  the rulings  of  this  universe  are  created  by  Allah  and  the  creature  can never  control  the  will  of  his  creator.  That  is  why  Al-Haqq  the  creator  of  the universal  laws  has  breached  them  for  His  Prophets.  He  made  the  fire  whose  ruling  is  to  burn,  cool  and  peaceful  for  Ibrahim  (alayhissalaam)  and  He  made  the  sea with  its  ruling  to  istitraq,  splits  for  Musa  (alayhissalaam)  and  He  gave  ‘Eesa  (alayhissalaam) with  His  own  leave  the  ability  to  heal  those  who  are  born  blind,  the lepers  and  to  resurrect  the  dead.  Allah  gave  all  those  miracles  to  His  prophets to  strengthen  their  proclamation  of  Allah,  but  He  (Azza  Wa  Jal)  did  not  want  to limit  the  absolute  power  to  His  prophets  only.  For  we  can  see  that  absolute-power  every  day  in  watching  the  weak  having  victory  over  the  strong,  or  the discriminated  having  victory  over  the  compelling,  or  a  powerless  person  having victory over the powerful.

The Absolute Power

If  anyone  of  us  looks  back  to  his  life,  he  will  find  out  that  one  day  he  must  have out  cried  from  within  himself  with  the  feel  that  God  is  Great,  that  God  is  around, or  that  God  adjourns  punishment  but  never  disregards  it.  We  do  not  say  this except  if  we  are  watching  an  event  where  the  divine  power  is  absolutely obvious.   For  if  we  reason  what  we  are  watching  we  will  not  say  or  feel  the same  because  it  will  then  be  a  normal  thing.  We  do  not  say  God  is  there  when we  see  the  strong  having  victory  over  the  weak  because  what  has  happened  is ruled  by  reason,  the  law  that  we  see  every  day.  The  victory  of  the  wrong  doers over  the  oppressed  people  does  not  let  us  say  that  God  adjourns  and  never disregards  because  it  is  also  reasoned  by  the  law,  that  we  see  daily  when  the oppressors  have  victory  over  the  oppressed  people.  But  we  do  not  see  the absolute  power  except  in  the  injustice  inflicted  upon  man.  That  is  because  the judgment  in  everything  is  postponed  till  the  day  of  Resurrection.  The  only exception  is  the  oppression  of  man,  for  Allah  Ta’ala  takes  revenge from  those  who  devour  people’s  rights  in  the  worldly  life  so  that  the  life  is balanced  and  so  that  the  people  will  know  that  there  is  a  worldly  revenge  for injustice  besides  the  hereafter  revenge. That  is  why  Rasulullah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  says:
“Beware  the  prayer  of  the  person  treated  unjustly  for  there  is  no  barrier  between it and Allah. Allah lifts it over  the  clouds  and  says:  ‘With  My  Might  and  Majesty  I will  give  you  victory  even  if  it  is  after  a  long  period  of  time'”

The meaning of Guidance

But  Allah’s  Justice  wanted  to  give  man  the  freedom  of  choice  in  the  course  ‘Al-Manhaj’.  So with  that  freedom  how  do  we  say  that  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  leads  whom  He wills  to  the  right  course  and  leads  astray  whom  He  wills?  Before  we  discuss that  point  we  first  need  to  know  what  is  the  meaning  of  the  guidance  ‘Al-Huda’.   The  guidance  is  the  lead  to  the  way,  for  when  someone  asks  you  about  a  specific  direction,  you  tell  him  to  go  to  a  specific  place  then  to  go  right or  left  to  reach  that  direction  as  if  you  have  guided  him  to  it.  And  at  the  same  time  the  guidance  is  used  in  the  sense  of  facilitating  the  way.  When  someone asks  about  the  way  to  go  to  a  specific  place  and  you  tell  him  that  there  are  two routes  leading  to  that  place  and  you  advise  him  to  take  the  second  route because  it  is  safe  and  illuminated  while  the  first  route  is  surrounded  by  danger and  there  is  a  lot  of  burglars  in  it  making  it  unsafe,  then  by  that  you  have  not only  led  him  to  the  way  but  you  have  also  helped  him  to  reach  it  safely.

The  first  type  of  guidance,  leading  to  the  right  way  is  from  Allah  to  all  His servants.  The  Prophets  and  Messengers  came  to  lead  the  people  to  the  right path,  the  way  to  Allah’s  course  ‘Al-Manhaj’.  To  convey  the  message  to  the people  upon  who  the  Messengers  were  sent,  means  to  lead  them  to  the  way  of guidance  to  Allah’s  course  and  to  show  them  the  way  that  pleases  Allah  and the way that  leads  to  Allah’s  wrath  and  by  clarifying  that,  the  guidance  reaches all  the  creatures.  After  the  last  of  the  Messengers, Prophet  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  came with  the  message  of  Islam  the  nation  of  Prophet Muhammad  was  asked  to  lead  the people  to  the  way  to  Islam.  That  is  to  talk  to  the  people  about  it  and  to  show them  what  Islam  has  brought  to  them  and  if  the  Muslim  nation  does  not  do  that then  they  will  be  accounted  for  it.

Let  us  consider  the  case  when  a  man  lives  alone  in  a  cave  away  from  the whole  world  and  no  one  has  conveyed  the  course  of  Heaven  to  him.  That  man will  not  be  accounted  for  on  the  day  of  Resurrection,  yet  the  conveyance  of Allah’s  message  is  still  valid  up  till  now  and  the  evidence  for  that  are  the  orients (westerners),  who  try  to  find  every  possible  way  to  defame  the  religion  of  Islam. This  means  that  those  orients  have  attained  some  knowledge  about  a  religion and  a course  of  Allah  known  to  be  the  religion  of  Islam.  But  there  are  some people  who  know  that  there  is  an  Islamic  course  and  religion  but  they  never care  to  know  or  read  about  that  religion.  Those  people  will  be  accounted  for because  man  in  every  aspect  of  his  daily  life  when  he  hears  about  anything  that interests  him,  he  starts  asking  and  reading  about  it.  If  he  wants  to  occupy  a specific  job,  he  will  be  totally  prepared  for  it  by  joining  the  college  that  will qualify  him  for  that  position  and  he  will  start  studying  and  reading  from  other references  to  add  to  his  knowledge  about  that  position.  And  also  if  a man wants  to  buy  something,  he  will  do  a  survey  about  all  the  competitor’s  products in  the  market  and  do  a  price  comparison  before  he  selects  one.

Even  in  the  luxury  events  like  the  tourism  for  example,  if  a  man  would  like  to  visit a  specific  country,  he  will  read  about  it  to  know  the  popular  places  to  visit  and  to choose  a  place  to  stay  in  during  his  visit.  If  that  is  the  way  with  our  daily  life interests,  then  should  we  not  give  some  more  attention  towards  the  most important  aspect  of  our  life,  the  religion  of  Allah,  and  towards  worshiping  Allah more  and  in  a  better  way.

Absolutely, that  should  have  been  happening  but  some  of  us  are  interested  in the  most  trivial  aspects  of  life  and  if  they  hear  about  the  religion  of  Allah  that  leads  to  the  right  path  and  that  either  sends  man  to  lasting  delights  or  enduring punishment,  they  will  not  listen  to  it  and  that  is  why  they  are  accounted  for.

So  the  guidance  is  the  lead  to  Allah’s  path  so  that  the  people  know  the  religion of  Allah,  worship  Him  and  obey  Him  in  what  He  orders.  But  there  is  another  way to  Allah’s  path  and  that  is  the  help  from  Allah  Ta’ala,  which  He  made  exclusive to  His  faithful  believers.  If  a  man  is  sincere  in  his  belief,  Allah  will  help  him  and will  provide  him  with  more  guidance  and  in  that  Allah  says:

“While  as  for  those  who  accept  guidance,  he  increases  their  guidance  and bestows  on  them  their  piety”  [Surah  Muhammad: 17]

And  if  you  read  what  Al-Haqq    said  to  His  Messenger  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“Verily  you  [O  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)]  guide  not  whom  you  like,  but  Allah  guides whom  He  wills”  [Surah  Al-Qassas: 56]

And  if  you  also  read  what  Allah  Ta’ala  says:

“And  verily,  you  [O  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)]  are  indeed  guiding  mankind  to  the Straight  Path  (i.e.  Allah’s  Reilgion  of  Islamic  Monotheism)”  [Surah  Al-Shurah: 52]

We  find  that  Al-Haqq  has  affirmed  the  guidance  to  His  Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  and  that  He  has  also  disapproved  him  the  guidance.  Then  how  come can  the  messenger  of  Allah  Ta’ala lead  to  the  right  path  and  still  he  cannot lead  the  people  he  loves  to  the  right  path?  When  you  ask this  question  we  say that  you  have  not  understood  the  meanings  of  the  Qur’an.  For  the  guidance  that Al-Haqq  has  approved  to  his  Messenger  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  the  leading guidance.  Prophet Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  has  led  the  people  to  the  way  of  belief  and  to the  way  of  obedience  and  he  has  clarified  to  them  what  brings  Allah’s  wrath and  punishment.  But  the  other  guidance  that  Allah  has  disapproved  from  His Messenger  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  the  aiding  guide  in  the  way  Allah  Ta’ala  adds  more guidance  to  everyone  walking  in  the  right  path  and  how  He  facilitates  their  way and  makes  them  more  loving  to  their  Faith.

That  is  why  Allah Ta’ala  says  about  His  Divine  Entity:

“But  Allah  has  endeared  the  Faith  to  you  and  has  beautified  it  into  your  hearts, and  has  made  disbelief,  wickedness  and  disobedience  (to  Allah  and  His Messenger  sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  hateful  to  you.  Such  are  they  who  are  the  rightly  guided”  [Surah  Al-Hujurat: 7]

Actual Intention and Prescribed Intention

Allah  Ta’ala  has  an  actual  intention  in  His  universe  and  because  that  intention is  surely  befalling,  no  one  can  withstand  it.  And  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) also  has  a prescribed  intension  in  His  universe,  in  the  religion  that  He  has  established  for the  people.  In  that  prescribed  intension  of  Al-Haqq  Ta’ala,  He  gave  man  the freedom  to  obey  or  to  disobey.  He  gave  them  the  freedom  to  follow  or  to withstand,  and  that  prescribed  intension  in  what  to  do  and  not  what  to  do  is what  the  servants  of  Allah  withstand.  But  no  one  can  ever  withstand  the  actual intention  in  the  deeds  that  take  place  in  Allah’s  universe,  For  that  when  you read  what  Al-Haqq  says:

“And  as  for  Thamud,  We  showed  and  made  clear  to  them  the  Path  of  Truth (Islamic  Monotheism)  through  Our  Messenger,  (i.e.  showed  them  the  way  of success),  but  they  preferred  blindness  to  guidance”  [Surah  Fussilat: 17]

Allah Ta’ala  showed  Thamud  the  way  to  guidance  and  made  it  clear  for  them, but  they  preferred  to  disobey  and  withstood  following  Allah.  Everyone  can  do  the same  through  Allah’s  will  by  which  He  has  created  man  free  to  choose how  to  apply  the  law  of  Allah  (Shar’i  Allah)  or  how  to  follow  the  path  of  sins. Allah  being  merciful  on  us  has  clarified  to  us  the  consequences  of  following  the  way  of  guidance  as  well  as  the  consequences  of  following  the wrong  path.  It  is  His  mercy    that  He  made  the  key  to  Heaven  and  the  key  to  Hell  in  our  own  hands.  It  is  every  one’s  choice  to  walk  the  way  of Heaven by having Faith  in  Allah  or  to  walk  the  way  to  Hell  by  disobeying Allah.

Allah Ta’ala  clarified  to  us  what  He is  doing  to  those  who  take  the  road  of  Faith  and  to  those  who  take  road  of  sins  and  infidelity.  For  every  one  who  reached  the road  of  Faith  and  got  what  Allah  has  promised  him,  has  got  the  will  of  Allah fulfilled  in  him.  And  everyone  who  chose  the  road  of  sins  and  infidelity  and  got what  Allah  has  warned  him,  has  also  got  the  will  of  Allah  fulfilled  in  him.  The faithful  will  not  get  away  from  Allah’s  will  and  the  same  with  the  wrong  doer,  he will  not get  away  from  Allah’s  will.  And  the  judgment  in  both  cases  is  just, because  man  chooses  with  his  free  will  the  way  to  go,  whether  it  is  the  way  of belief  or  the  way  of  sins  and  that  is  after  Allah    has  clarified  to him  the  consequences  of  taking  each  way.

NO Punishment except with a Text

Allah  Ta’ala does  not  punish  for  a  sin  except  after  He  first  prohibits  it.  From there,  the  societies  came  up  with  the  legal  concept  that  there  is  no  quilt  implied without a text. For the text has  to  come  first  before  a  deed  can  be  considered  a guilty  action.  That  is  why  after  the  noble  versus  (Al-Ayat  Al-Karima)  have  been descended  showing  what  Allah  has  prohibited,  anyone  doing  those  illicit  acts would  be  considered  guilty  and  entitled  to  punishment.  And  Allah   clarified  to  us  what  would  happen  to  those  who  follow  the  path  of  Faith.  He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) says:

“While  as  for  those  who  accept  guidance,  He  increases  their  guidance  and bestows  on  them  their  piety”
[Surah Muhammad: Ayah  17]

And He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) says:

“But  Allah  has  endeared  the  Faith  to  you  and  has  beautified  it  in  your  hearts, and  has  made  disbelief,  wickedness  and  disobedience  (to  Allah  and  His Messenger  Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  hateful  to  you.  Such  are  they  who  are  the  rightly  guide”.   [Surah  Al-Hujurat: Ayah 7]

And  Almighty  says:

“Whoever  brings  a  good  deed  (Islamic  Monotheism  and  deeds  of  obedience to  Allah  and  His  messenger  Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  shall  have  then  times  the  like  thereof  to  his credit” [Surah Al-An’am: Ayah  160]  

And  His  saying:

“The  likeness  of  those  who  spend  their  wealth  in  the  way  of  Allah,  is  as  the likeness  of  a  grain  (of  corn);  it  grows  seven  ears,  and  each  ear  has  a  hundred grains.  Allah  gives  manifold  increase  to  whom  He  wills.  And  Allah  is  AllSufficient  for  His  creatures’  needs,  All-Knower” [Surah  Al-Baqarah: Ayah 261]

And  many  other  noble  versus  that  show  the  good  that  is  awaiting  the  man  that walks  in  the  path  of  Belief.  Moreover,  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  clarified  how  He  will  help the  believer  and  how  He  will  reward  him  and  facilitate  his  way.  All  that  is  in  the worldly  life  and  we  are  not  talking  about  the  Hereafter  here  for  there  is  another book  about  that  topic.  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  says  in  a  holy  narration  (Al-Hadith Al-Qudsi):

(I  am  up  to  my  servant’s  expectations  and  I  am  with  him  when  he  remembers Me.  If  he  remembers  Me  in  his  soul  I  remember  him  in  My  soul.  And  if  he remembers  Me  in  a  group,  I remember  him  in  a  better  group.  And  If  he  gets closer  to  Me  by  a  length  of  a  hand,  I  get  closer  to  him  by  a  length  of  an  arm (twice  as  much)  and  if he  gets  closer  to  Me  by  the  length  of  an  arm,  I  get  closer to  him  by  the  length  of  a  ba’a  (4  times  as  much).  And  if  he  came  to  Me  walking,  I come to  him  with  a  quicker  pace).

All  those  blessing  from  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  for  facilitating  the  way  of  Belief,  Allah Ta’ala  mentioned  them  and  clarified  them  and  He  determined  the way, for if we took the way of Faith all those  blessings  are  awaiting  us.  It  is  very important  that  we  take  the  first  step  and  after  that  we  will  get  Allah’s  help  and aid.  If  we  take  the  first  step  in  believing  and  walked  the  road  of  Belief  we will  get  all  those  graces  (ISA)  by  the  will  of  Allah.  And  if  we  take  the  road  of infidelity  and  get  away  from  Belief,  Allah  forbid,  then  what  happens  to  us? Allah says:

“And  whoever  takes  Shytan  (Satan)  as  a  Wali  (protector  or  helper)  instead  of Allah,  has  surely  suffered  a  manifest  loss”
[Surah An-Nisa’: Ayah  119]    

And  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  says:

“And  recite  [(O  Muhammad  Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)]  to  them  the  story  of  him  to  whom  We  gave our  Ayat  (proofs,  evidences,  versus,  lessons,  signs,  revelations,  etc.),  but  he threw them away;  so  Shytan  (Satan)  followed  him  up,  and  he  became  of  those who went astray” [Surah Al-A’raf: Ayah 175]

And  His  saying:

“And  whosoever  turns  away  blindly  from  the  remembrance  of  the  Most Gracious  (Allah)  (i.e.  this  Qur’an  and  worship  of  Allah),  We  appoint  for  Shytan (Satan-  devil)  to  be  a  Qarin  (a  companion)  to  him” [Surah Az-Zukhruf: Ayah 36]

And His saying:

“Verily,  We  made  the  Shayatin  (devils)  Auliya’  (protectors  and  helpers)  for those  who  believe  not”  [Surah Al-A’raf: Ayah 27]

And  His  saying  (Subhanhu Wa Ta’ala):

“Shall  I  inform  you  (O  people!)  upon  whom  the  Shayatin  (devils)  descend? They  descend  on  every  great  liar,  sinful  person”  [Surah  Ash-Shu’ara: Ayah  221,222]

And  many  other  verses  in  the  noble  Qur’an  show  us  that  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  abandons the  non  believer  and  leaves  him  to  the  devils  (Shayatin)  who  adorn  the  false  to him  and  drag  him  to  the  way  of  sins  so  that  he  becomes  more  guilty  and  more disobeying.  And  that  will  entitle  him  to  the  punishment  and  Allah  will  set  a  seal on  his  heart  so  that  he  never  gets  out  of  his  infidelity  and  he  might  even  be  one of  the  human  devils,  and  all  other  things  that  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  has prepared  for  the  infidels  who  are  going  astray.

For if you believe, you will  enter  the  Will  of  Faith  and  Allah  will  give  you  all  what is  promised  to  the  believers.  And  if  you  enter  the  Will  of  Infidelity,  then  you become  with  the  devils  (Shayatin)  and  in  either  case  you  do  not  get  out  of  the Will,  that  is  you  do  not  get  away  from  what  Allah  wills  for  the  way  to  Faith  and  the way to Infidelity.

Whom Allah does not Guide

Then  Al-Haqq Ta’ala  clarified  to  us  those  whom  He  does  not  admit  to  his guiding  will.  Allah  Almighty  says:

“And  Allah  does  not  guide  the  disbelieving  people”  [Surah  Al-Baqarah: Ayah  264] 

And Allah Almighty  also  says:

“And  Allah  guides  not  the  people,  who  are  Zalimun  (wrong  doers)  [Surah  Al-Baqarah: Ayah  258]

And  His  saying:

“And  Allah  guides  not  the  people  who  are  Al-Fasiqun  (the  rebellious, disobedient  to  Allah”
[Surah  At-Taubah: Ayah  24] 

And His saying (Azza wa Jal):

“Truly,  Allah  guides  not  him  who  is  a  liar,  and  a  disbeliever”

[Surah Az-Zumar: Ayah 3]

And  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) says:

“Verily,  Allah  guides  not  one  who  is  a  Musrif  (a  polytheist,  or  a  murderer  who shed  blood  without  a  right,  or  those  who  commit  great  sins,  oppressor, transgressor),  a  liar” [Surah  Ghafir: Ayah  28]

And  by  that  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  showed  us  who  is  prevented  his  guidance.  For  if  you are  an  infidel  (Kafir)  or  a  wrong  doer  (Zalim)  or  a  disobedient  to  Allah  (Fasiq)  or a  liar  or  a  transgressor  against  your  soul  (Musrif),  then  Allah  will  not guide  you  and  guidance  here  means  the  help  to  reach  the  way  of  Faith  and  the help  to  increase  that  Faith.  And  Al-Haqq  clarified  that  to  us  so that  we  get  away  from  those  things  and  stop  doing  them  so  that  we  end  up entering  Allah’s  will  of  guidance.

And  in  both  cases,  you  enter  the  will  of  Allah  and  you  do  not  get  out  of  it.  If  you choose  to  get  away  from  the  infidelity,  the  wrong  doing  and  disobeying  Allah then  you  enter  to  the  will  of  Allah’s  guidance.  And  if  you  take  the road  to infidelity,  wrong  doing  and  disobeying  Allah  then  you  will  enter  the  will  of  Allah by not guiding you.  So  in  both  cases  you  do  not  get  out  of  the Will  and  nothing will  happen  to  you  except  what  Allah  wills  for  you,  for  there  is  no  way  out  from Allah’s  will  in  what  ever  choice  you  take.

This  is  the  mere  truth  and  you  should  know  it  so  that  you  do  not  think  that  if  you believe  or  if  you  disbelieve,  you  are  getting  out  of  the  Divine  Will  with  your  Faith or  with  your  Disbelief.  All  what  has  happened  is  that  you  either  obeyed  or disobeyed  Allah’s  prescribed  intention  and  you  did  not  leave  of  the  Divine Will and  you  are  not  leaving  it.

By  that  we  have  reached  the  point  where  everything  happening  is  by  Allah’s  will   and  truly  Allah  has created  a  leading  guidance  for  all  the people,  the  believing  and  the  disbelieving.  And  He  also  created  a  helping  guidance,  and  that  is  only  for  the  true  believers  with  which  Allah  increases  their Faith.  And  Allah  has  showed  us  what  He  pleases  for  those  who  believe  in  Him and  what  He  pleases  for  those  who do not  believe  in  Him, and  He  clarified  for  us  how  He  increases  the  Faith  and  guidance  of  the  believer and  how  He  abandons  the  infidel  and  leaves  him  to  the  devils  (Shayatin)  who beautify  the  sins  to  him  and  persuade  him  to  disobey  Allah  and  then  He  seals  his  heart  so  that  the  disbelief  stays  and  does  not  get  out  of  his  heart.

And  you  if  you  chose  to  believe  or  not  to  believe,  what  Allah  pleases  will  happen to  you,  either  by  increasing  your  guidance  or  by  following  the  devil  (Al-Shaytan). But  in  both  cases  you  are  entering  the  Divine  Will  and  you  are  submitted  to  it,  if you  obey  the prescribed  will  of  Allah  in  His  universe,  then  you  will  enter  the  Will and  if  you  oppose  and  disobey  Allah’s  prescribed  will  in  His  universe,  you  willalso  enter  the  Divine  Will.

Allah Encompass All Things

We  talked  about  the  believers  and  the  infidels  and  how  both  of  them  do  not  get away  form  Allah’s  will,  but  they  only  obey  or  disobey  Allah’s  prescribed intension  in  His  universe.  But  the  dispute  of  the  non-believers  leaves  us several  points  that  need  to  be  addressed.  For  man  is  in  most  things contentious  and  he  tries  to  find  a  way  to  escape  Allah’s  punishment  and  he claims  that  the  punishment  is  Allah’s  will  and  that  he  has  no  choice  in  it.

We  say  yes,  punishment  is  the  will  of  Allah,  but  it  is  you  who  choose  the path  to  Allah’s  will  to  enter  his  mercy  and  bliss  or  the  path  leading  to  his  wrath and  punishment.  The  key  is  in  your  own  hands,  for  when  you  believe  Allah increases  your  faith.  When  you  wake  up  to  worship  Him  in  the  middle  of  the night  Allah  raises  you  in  position  and  when  you  read  the  Qur’an  Allah  increases your  reward.  When  you  do  the  good  deeds  Allah  raises  you  to  a  high  position and  when  you  decline  from  all  that  Allah  distances  you  more  from  his obedience  and  leaves  you  to  Satan  (Al-Shaytan). And  here  we  come  to  the  noble  verse  that  a  lot  of  people  dispute. Al-Haqq  says:

“And  surely,  We  have  created  many  of  the  Jinn  and  mankind  for  Hell.  They have  hearts  wherewith  they  understand  not,  and  they  have  eyes  wherewith  they see  not,  and  they  have  ears  wherewith  they  hear  not  (the  truth).  They  are  like cattle,  nay  even  more  astray;  those!  They  are  the  heedless  ones” [Surah Al-A’raf: Ayah 179]

Those  who  want  to  wrongfully  dispute  would  say  since  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  has created  those  people  for  Hell  (Jahannam)  and  since  He  made them  with  hearts that  do  not  understand  and  eyes  that  do  not  see  and  ears  that  do  not  hear,  then what  is  their  guilt  to  be  punished  in  Hell?

We  say  that  you  did  not  understand  the  meaning  of  the  noble  verse  for  Allah  has  created  those  people  with  hearts  that  understands  but  they  do  not want  to  use it  and  He  has  gave  them  eyes  that  can  see  but  they  do  not  see  with it  and  He  created  them  with  ears  that  listen  but  they  do  not  want  to  listen.

For  if  we  take  their  hearts  for  example  and  the  heart  is  the  place  where  the  Faith settles  after  it  has  been  debated  fully  by  the  mind,  we  find  out  that  they  refuse the  correct  logical  notion.  They  say  as  was  mentioned  in  the  Qur’an:

“And  (remember)  when  they  said:  “O  Allah!  If  this  (the  Qur’an)  is  indeed  the truth  (revealed)  from  You,  then  rain  down  stones  on  us  from  the  sky  or  bring  on us  a  painful  torment” [Surah Al-Anfal: Ayah 32]

Could  that  be  the  words  of  people  with  hearts  that  understand?  Would  not  the logic  make  them  say  that  if  that  is  the  righteous  from  Allah  then  may  God  guide us  to  it.  But  in  that  specific  point  they  would  rather  take  the  wrong  path  and  they would  prefer  the  punishment  above  the  belief  in  “Al-Haqq”,  the  righteous.  Never the  less  we  should  emphasize  that  in  their  worldly  life  and  their  trade  they  take the  right  decisions  to  increase  their  wealth.  They  prepare  for  the  shipments  and deal  with  money  very  well,  for  those  who  say  such  words  are  the  elites  of Quraysh  (Greatest  group  in  Makkah)  and  the  wealthiest  among  the  Arabs.  But when  it  comes  to  religion  and  the  righteous,  they  get  away  from  the  correct understanding  and  correct  logic  and  they  start  talking  as  if  they  have  no  hearts to  know  or  understand.  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  did  not  create  them  with  hearts  that  do  not understand,  He  created  them  with  normal  hearts  and  they  refused  to  use  it. More  than  that  they  are  so  negligent  that  they  know  that  the  message  of Prophet Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  the  Right  but  they ask  for  punishment  rather  than believe  in  the  Message.

The Eye Sees .. But ..

And  if  we  talk  about  their  eyes  for  example,  we  find  that  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  made  their eyes  able  to  see  but  they  do  not  use  that  function.  For  Musa  (alayhissalaam)  came  to  the  people  of  Fir’awn (Pharaoh)  with  a  lot  of  signs that  they  had  seen  with  their  eyes  and  in  that  Al-Haqq  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  says:

“We  sent  on  them:  the  flood,  the  locusts,  the  lice,  the  frogs,  and  the  blood  (as a  succession  of)  manifest  signs,  yet  they  remained  arrogant,  and  they  were  of those  people  who  were  Mujrimun  (criminals,  polytheists,  sinners)”   [Surah Al-A’raf: Ayah 133]

All  those  signs  that  Al-Haqq    sent  to  the  people  of  Pharaoh  were  signs that  could  be  seen  by  the  eyes  without  any  effort. The  wholesale  death  that drowned  the  earth  was  obvious  for  every  one  of  them.  The  locusts  that  ate  the crops  were  watched  by  all  the  people,  and  also  were  the  lice  and  the  frogs  that they  found  in  their  food.  And  the  water  that  turned  to  blood  whenever  they  tried  to drink  it.  Were  not  all  those  signs  visible  to  all  of  them?  Yes  but  although  they saw  it  they  did  not  believe  as  if  their  eyes  did  not  see.  Because  the  objective  of seeing  is  to  know  something,  make  sure  you  see  it  right  and  believe  what  you see.

But  those  people  saw  things  and  they  did  not  believe  it  and  by  that  they  were the  same  as  those who  are  not  able  to  see.  When  the  infidels  asked  the Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  for  the  moon  to  split  as  a  sign  from  God  to prove  that  he  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  is  the  Messenger,  the  moon  was  split.  Did  the  infidels then  believe  in  what  they  saw?  No  and  they  said  that Prophet Muhammad  did  magic  to their  eyes  and  by  that  they  were  the  same  like  those  who  could  not  see because  they  watched  and  refused  to  believe.

And  for  their  ears  that  do  not  listen,  did  not  the  infidels  of Quraysh  say  as mentioned  in  the  Qur’an:

“And  those  who  disbelieve  say:  “Listen  not  to  this  Qura’n,  and  make  noise  in the  midst  of  its  (recitation)  that  you  may  overcome”   [Surah  Fussilat: Ayah  26]

As  if  their  hearing  devices  is  working  and  could  hear,  but  they  themselves stopped  using  them  to  listen  to  the  words  of  Allah  and  they  asked  the  people not  to  listen  when  they  themselves  should  have  listened  and  understood.

Didn’t  they  say  about  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  that he  was  a  poet,  a soothsayer  and  possessed?  Was  that  applicable  with  the  right  logic  typical  to the  sayings  and  acts  of  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)?

Did  the  Messenger  of  Allah  say  one  line  of  poetry  before  he  has  been responsible  for  conveying  the  Message  so  that  they  call  him  a  poet?  Did  he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  practice  any  supernatural  deeds  before  the  Message  was  sent  upon him  so  that  they  call  him  a  soothsayer?  Did  they  hear  anything  from  the Messenger  of  Allah  other  than  the  best  words  and  the  best  deeds?  They  used to  call  him  the  Faithful  and  the  Trustworthy  and  they  all  bore  witness  that  he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  had  the  highest  standards  of  character  and  manners  and  when  he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  came  with  the  Message  they  called  him  possessed.

Could  those  words  that  they  said  about  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  be applied  to  what  they  have  seen,  heard,  reasoned  or  understood  from  the  most honorable  man,  Prophet Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  Of  course  not  but  their  senses  functioned normally  before Prophet  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  conveyed  the  Message  of  Allah  and  that was  why  they  called  him  the  Trustworthy  and  described  him  to  be  the  man  with high  standards  of  character  and  manners  who  never  lies  or  betrays  their  trust.

But  after  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  was  made  responsible  of  conveying the  Message  they  revoked  their  brains,  their  eyes  and  their  ears  and  started talking  with  their  vain  desires  as  if  they  did  not  understand,  see  or  hear.

Rejected Logic

Saying  that  Al-Haqq  did  not  create  for  them  hearts  to  understand  or  eyes to  see  or  ears  to  hear  is  not  correct,  but  they  unutilized  their  senses  because they  do  not  want  to  believe  so  they  did  not  use  them  and  if  they  have  utilized them  correctly  they  would  have  believed.

But Al-Haqq says “And  We  have  made” that  is  We  have  created,  for since  the  origin  of  creation  Al-Haqq  has  ruled  that  those  people  are  in Hell  although  by  that  time  they  did  not  do  anything  yet.

We  call  that  Allah’s  Knowledge  that  encompasses  His  Universe,  for  Allah’s knowledge  has  no  boundaries  and  He  knew  the  moment  He  created them  that  they  are  going  to  be  among  the  people  of  Hell.  And  how  would  some people  say  that  this  is  a  strange  thing  knowing  that  Allah’s  Knowledge includes  everything  in  this  worldly  life  and  in  the  Hereafter.

Did  not  Nooh  (alayhissalaam)  say  as  mentioned  in  the  Qur’an:

“And  Nuh  (Noah)  said:  “My  Lord!  Leave  not  one  of  the  disbelievers  on  the earth!  If  You  leave  them,  they  will  mislead  Your  slaves,  and  they  will  beget  none but  wicked  disbelievers” [Surah  Nuh: Ayar 26, 27]

Who  told  Nooh  (alayhissalaam)  that  those  people  are  infidels  and  that  they  will  give birth  only  to  wicked  and  ungrateful  generations?  He  took  the  wisdom  from  the earlier  signs  that  he  saw  in  front  of  him  while  trying  to  convey  the  Message  of Allah  to  his  own  people  whom  he  had  lived  among  for  a  thousand  year  less  fifty years  (950  years). And  Satan  (Iblees  Al-Shaytan)  did  not  he  say  as  mentioned  in  the  Qur’an:

“[Ibees  (Satan)]  said:  “By  Your  Might,  then  I  will  surely  mislead  them  all, except  Your  chosen  slaves  amongst  them  (i.e.  faithful,  obedient,  true  believers of  Islamic  Monotheism”  [Surah  Sa’d: Ayat  82,  83]

Who  told  Satan  (Iblees  –   Al-Shaytan)  that  he  is  going  to  divert  every  servant  who is  unfaithful  to  Allah  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)?  Al-Haqq  clarified  to  us  that  in  His saying: “And  indeed  Iblees  (Satan)  did  prove  true  his  thought  about  them:  and  they followed  him,  all  except  a  group  of  true  believers  (in  the  Oneness  of  Allah)”   [Surah  Saba’: Ayah 20]

So  Satan  (Iblees  –  Al-Shaytan)  said  that  by  guessing  because  he  felt  the acceptance  of  Adam  and  Hawwa  to  the  diversion.

Allah’s Encompassing Knowledge

If  we  look  at  the  normal  human;  for  example  if  you  see  that  your  son  is  not studying  and  is  careless  about  his  classes,  you  will  say  to  him  that  he  will  not pass  his  exams  and  definitely  he  will  not.  Did  you  know  the  unknown  future then?  Or  had  you  concluded  that  from  the  facts  around  you.  And  the  same  with the  teacher  who  explains  the  lessons  to  a  class  of  20  students  and  says  that only  ten  of  the  twenty  students  are  going  to  pass  the  exams  and  actually  only ten  students  pass.  Does  this  teacher  predict  the  future?  Or  did  he  judge  them by  evaluating  their  work  in  class.

If  that  happens  with  the  humans  who  are  Allah’s  creation  with  their  limited knowledge  and  weak  power,  do  you  think  that  it  is  hard  for  Allah Ta’ala  and  He is  the  Creator  and  the  All  Knowing  to  know  by  fact  that  some  of  his  own creatures  are  in  Hell.  If  the  Creatures  of  Allah  could  guess  some  predictions that  turn  out  to  be  true,  would  not  Allah’s  knowledge  reach  definite conclusions  by  surety?  Of  course  it  does  and  Allah  knows  by  surety.  This is  confirmed  by  what  He says:

“Should  not  He  Who  has  created  know?  And  He  is  the  Most  Kind  and Courteous  (to  His  slaves),  All-Aware  (of  everything)”  [Surah Al-Mulk: Ayah 14]

Allah’s  knowledge  is  beyond  our  power  and  beyond  all  the  knowledge  that  we could  possibly  have.  That  is  why  it  is  easy  for  Allah Ta’ala  to  know  the  destiny  of His  creatures.  But  some  people  would  stop  at  the  words  of  Prophet Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  Al-Hadith Al-Nabawi

(A  man  amongst  you  acts like  the  people  deserving  Paradise  until  between  him and  Paradise  there  remains  but  the  distance  of  a  cubit,  when  suddenly  the writing  of  destiny  overcomes  him  and  he  begins  to  act  like  the  denizens  of  Hell and  thus  enters  Hell…..)

So  how  would  the  judgment  be  just  when  someone  who  is  performing  the deeds  of the  dwellers  of  Paradise  until  he  becomes  very  close  to  entering  it and  then  he  stops  doing  that  as  it  is  pre-destined  for  him  and  he  ends  to  be among  the  people  of  Hell.  And  how  would  one  of  us  doing  the  deeds  of  the dwellers  of  Hell  because  of  his  destiny  turns  out  to  be  among  the  people  of Paradise.  For  if  it  is  already  written  in  the  book  it  seems  as  if  entering  Paradise or  Hell  is  already  pre-destined  irrespective  of  what  he  does  because  the  book has  already  changed  the  consequences  of  his  actions.  Those  words  are spoken  a  lot  and  is  taken  as  an  excuse  for  those  who  have  transgressed  on themselves  and want  to  blame  others  for  what  they  do  or  want  to  say  that  it  is out  of  their  hands  and  it  is  already  pre-destined  for  them,  the  same  as  the Pagans  say as  Al-Haqq  clarified  to  us  in  the  Qur’an.  He  (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)  says:

“Those  who  took  partners  (in  worship)  with  Allah  will  say:  “  If  Allah  had  had willed,  we  would  not  have  taken  partners  (in  worship)  with  Him,  nor  would  our fathers,  and  we  would  not  have  forbidden  anything  (against  His  will)” [Surah  Al-An’am: Ayah 148]

The  Pagans  who  are  associating  partners  (in  worship)  with  Allah,  by  saying that  they  want  to  throw  the  responsibility  of  their  faults  on  the  will  of  Allah. We  tell  them,  yes  you  have  not  been  out  of  Allah’s  will  as  we  have  already shown  that  those  who  believe  and  those  who  disobey  are  both  not  out  of Allah’s  will.  The  one  who  believed  entered  the  will  of  Faith  and  so  Allah  helped him  to  the  way  of  Guidance  and  he  endeared  Faith  to  him  and  he  will  end  to  be in  Paradise.  And  the  one  who  expiated  and  associated  partners  with  Allah  (We seek  refuge  from  Allah  to  protect  us  against  that  –  wal ‘uiaz  be  Allah)  entered the  will  of  Infidelity.  Allah  Ta’ala  has  not  helped  him  to  guidance  and  has  left him  for  the  devils  (Al-Shayatin)  to  send  him  astray.  So  neither  the  believer  nor  the infidel  has  walked  out  of  Allah’s  will.

Warning From Satan (Al-Shytan)

We  go  back  to  the  Hadith  of  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  He  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  wanted to  warn  us  from  the  obsession  of  Satan  (Al-Shaytan)  and  from  the  vain  desires  of our  souls.  He  also  wanted  to  open  the  gate  of  hope  in  front  of  us  and  not  to close  it  so  that  those  who  believe  would  take  every  precaution  and  those  who disobey  would  hang  to  Allah’s  repentance  and  forgiveness.  That  is  why in  Al-Hadith  we  see  that  a  man  will  do  all  the  good  deeds  that  makes  him deserve  to  be  among  the  people  of  Paradise,  but  is  then  tempted  by  Satan  (Al-Shaytan)  who  concentrates  on  seducing  the  faithful  believers  and  never  leaves them  alone.  Just  as  Al-Haqq  tells  us  that  Satan  (Al-Shaytan)  concentrates his  seduction  on  the  believers  in  the  noble  verse:

”Surely,  I  will  sit  in  wait  against  them  (human  beings)  on  Your  Straight Path” [Surah Al-‘Araf: Ayah 16]

So  Satan  (Al-Shaytan)  does  not  concentrate  his  effort  on  the  places  of  amusement  and  wickedness  where  there  is  wine  served.  For  he is  already done  with  the  people  in  those  places  and  they  do  not  need  to  be  tempted  any  more  as  they  have  already  fallen  into  seduction.  Their  lusts  and  vain  desires have  responded  to  the  seduction  and  they  have  become  helpers  of  the  devils (Al-Shayatin)  and  that  is  why  Satan  does  need  to  spend  any  effort  with  them  but he  focuses  his  effort  on  the  people  who  do  their  prayers,  the  ones  who  obey. He  approaches  them  by  all  means;  he  tempts  them  with  illegal  money  and  if they  resist  he  will  tempt  them  to  do  adultery  by  beautifying  women  to  them  and if  that  does  not  work  he  will  seduce  them  to  take  bribes  or  to gamble  or  lie  or drink  wine.

And  by  that  Satan  (Al-Shaytan)  keeps  on  beautifying  the  wrong  deeds  to  the believer  until  he  falls  into  doing  the  sins.  If  Satan  fails  in  driving  man  into  sins, he  never  loses  hope  and  he  starts  approaching  him  from  the  acts  of  worship. He  for  example,  whispers  to  man  to  make  him  doubt  his  ablution  (wudhu)  and repeat  it  many  times.  And  every  time  man  makes  ablution  (wudhu),  Satan would  whisper  to  him  that  his  ablution  (wudhu)  is not  accepted  and  he  would  do the  same  when  man  makes  his  prayer.  And  in  that  way  Satan  (Al-Shaytan)  keeps approaching  man  from  the  side  of  Faith  and  keeps  whispering  to  him  until  the acts  of  worship  becomes  hard  on  him,  although  religion  is  meant  to  be  easy.

The  main  objective  of  Satan  (Al-Shaytan)  is  to  make the  acts  of  worship  hard  on the  believer  so  that  he  would  hate  it  or  to  make  the  believer  think  desperately that  his  devotion  is  not  accepted  from  Allah  so  that  he  would  stop performing  it  altogether.

The  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  wants  to  draw  our  attention  to  the  access points  that  Satan  (Shaytan)  uses  with  the  believer  so  that  we  would  know  it. For  our  prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  wants  us  to  know  that  Satan  (Shaytan)  will  not  leave  us until  our  life  term  ends.  Shaytan  never  loses  hope  and  he  keeps  whispering  to us  to  stop  our  devotion  by  saying  that  we  have  Paradise  guaranteed.  He  keeps repeating  those  words  until  we  are  wrongly  convinced  by  his  concept  and  we reduce  our  devotion  and  do  less  good  things.  Then  Shaytan  tempts  us  to  do sins  until  we  slip  into  it  one  after  the  other  and  then  the  writing  of  destiny overcomes  us.  The  writing  that  Allah  pre-destined  for  the  sinners  and  for those  who  walk  away  from  his  course  and  by  that  are  deprived  of  Allah’s  lead  to  guidance.

But  also  those  who  perform  sins  should  pay  attention  that  the  door  of repentance  is  open  as  long  as  they  live  and  as  long  as  the  time  of  death  has not come yet. That is why they  have  to  be  quick  in  the  race  for  forgiveness  for  if they  do  that  and  act  like  the  dwellers  of  Paradise,  they  would  enter  the  will  of Allah’s  guidance  and  He  would  then  help  them  to  guidance  and  would  endear Faith  and  beautify  it  in  their  hearts.  Allah Ta’ala  would  change  their  evil  into good  and  they  would  become  among  the  people  of  Paradise.

So  we  can  see  how  the  Noble  Hadith  does  not  mean  that  the  person  who performs  good  deeds  would  irrespective  of  his  good  deeds  go  to  Hell.

We  Bear  Witness  Against  Ourselves

Then  comes  a  question  that  is  repeated  by  those  who  want  to  doubt  Allah’s  fairness  and  put  despair  in  the  hearts  of  people  so  that  they  would  stop their  acts  of  worship.  Those  people  say  that  if  in  the  knowledge  of  Al-Haqq  that a  person  is  among  the  people  of  Paradise  or  among  the  people  of Hell,  will  not  that  be  sufficient  without  any  need  to  work  on  it? We  say  to  those  people  that  the  worldly  life  is  a  place  of  examination  for  man and  there  is  a  difference  between  the  saying  and  the  doing.  For  a  man  might say  a  lot  of  things  that  he  will  not  do  when  the  time  comes  for  doing  it.  For example,  a  soldier  before  going  to  the  battle  might  tell  you  that  he  will  kill  twenty soldiers  from  the  enemy’s  side,  but  when  the  fighting  actually  starts  he  is  the first  to  run  away  and  leave  the  battle.  And  also  a  person  might  tell  you  that  he will  give  you  a  thousand  dollars  if  you  do  something  for  him  and  when  the  time comes  for  paying  he  is  stingy  and  does  not  give  you  anything.

Al-Haqq  draws  our  attention  to  that  in  His  mighty  book  and  says:

“And  when  there  came  to  them  (the  Jews),  a  Book  (this  Qur’an)  from  Allah confirming  what  is  with  them  [the  Taurat  (torah)  and  the  Injeel  (Gospel)], although  aforetime  they  had  invoked  Allah  (for  coming  of  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)) in  order  to  gain  victory  over  those  who  disbelieved,  then  when  there  came  to them  that  which  they  had  recognized,  they  disbelieved  in  it,  So  let  the  Curse ofAllah  be  on  the  disbelievers” [Surah  Al-Baqarah: Ayah 89]

This  is  regarding  the  Jewish  people  for  they  were  telling  the  infidels  from  Al-Madinah  that  the  time  has  come  for  a  new  Messenger  that  they  the  Jews  would believe  and  follow  and  with  the  Messenger  they  would  kill  the  infidels  in  the same  way  the  People  of  Ad  and  Thamud  were  killed.  But  after  the  Messenger  of Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  was  sent,  the  Jews  were  the  first  to  reject  him  and  fight  him  and they  plotted  conspiracies  to  kill  him.

And the  people  of  Pharaoh  asked  Musa (alayhissalaam)  and  upon  our  Messenger,  to lighten  the  penalty  on  them  and  they  promised  him  Faith  and  when  Allah answered  Musa’s (alayhissalaam)  call   they  did  not  believe  and  continued  to  reject. And in that Haqq Ta’ala  says:

“But  when  We  removed  the  punishment  from  them  to  a  fixed  term,  which  they had  to  reach,  behold!  They  broke  their  word!” [Surah Al-A’raf: Ayah 135]

And  the  noble  Qura’n  is  full  of  verses  that  shows  us  how  the  non-believers  and the  hypocrites  and  others  say  and  promise  things and  when  time  comes  to fulfill  their  promises  they  do  not  perform  them.

So  there  is  a  difference  between  the  words  and  the  deeds,  and  to  prevent  man from  coming  on  the  Day  of  Resurrection  to  dispute  and  say  to  God  that  if  He had  invited  him  to  Faith  he  would  have  believed  and  that  if  He  had  sent  a Messenger  he  would  have  followed  him  and  that  if  He  had  asked  him  to  do good  deeds  he  would  have  done  them,  there  should  be  a  practical  test  for  man to  go  through  so  that  he  would  witness  against  himself  on  the  Day  of Resurrection. In  that  case  man  would  not  come  to  say  that  if  God  had  guided  him  to  Faith  he would  have  believed  because  Guide  came  to  him  but  he  did  not  follow  it  and  he would  not  claim  that  if  God  had  sent  a  Messenger  he  would  have  been  the  first to  help  him  because  Allah  had  actually  sent  the  Messenger  but  he  was  the  first to  fight  him.

So  on  the  Day  of  Resurrection  man  should  witness  against  himself  and  should not  dispute  at  the  time  of  Account  because  he  experienced  the  practical  test and  failed  it. And  that  is  according  to  what  Allah  Azza Wa Jal  says:

“(It  will  be  said  to  him):  “Read  your  book.  You  yourself  are  sufficient  as  a reckoner  against  you  this  Day”   [Surah  Al-Isra’: Ayah 14]

But that test, the test of  Faith  in  the  worldly  life  does  not  happen  because  Allah is  not  knowledgeable  or  because He  wants  to  increase  his  knowledge,  for Allah’s  knowledge  encompasses  everything,  but  that  test  is  only for  people  to  bear  witness  against  themselves. Exactly  in  the  same  way  we  have  exams  for  the  university  students,  for  the university  does  not  do  those  exams  to  learn  from  the  students,  for  it  has provided  them  with  the  knowledge,  but  it  actually  do  it  so  that  every  student  bear witnesses  against  himself.  If  a  student  comes  and  claims  that  he  did  well  in the  exam,  they  will  get  out  his  answers  and  he  will  see  that  he  has  failed  and cannot  then  dispute. Here  we  reach  the  point  that  those  people  who  Allah  has  described them  in  the  noble  Qur’an  to  have  hearts  that  do  not  understand  and  eyes  that do  not  see  and  ears  that  do  not  hear,  they  themselves  have  ruined  their  own sensing  devices  and  they  have  not  used  them  in  what  Allah  has  created  them for.  Also  man  should  beware  from  the  whispering  of  Shaytan because  if  he follows  it,  then  it  will  move  him  from  the  will  of  Faith  to  the  will  of  Infidelity, though  in  both  cases  he  does  not  get  out  of  Allah’s  will.  We  also  reach the  point  that  this  present  life,  the  worldly  life  is  a  test  for  us  so  that  we  would bear  witness  against  ourselves  and  so  that  we  do  not  come  on  the  Day  of Resurrection  to  dispute  but  to  know  that  Almighty  Allah’s  knowledge  encompasses  everything.

A Response to Doubts raised by Maududi on the Science of Hadith Verification

Maududi expounds his views extensively on hadith and the science of hadith verification in his book Tafhimaat (vol.1, p.359–362 / Islamic Publications Limited, Lahore 2000 CE). Under the heading, ‘Maslak-e-Eitidaal (The Moderate Position)’, he says,

“…Rather our intention is to clarify that those (the Muhadditheen) who have criticized or praised individuals were after all human. They too had human weaknesses. Is it necessary that those whom they have declared as trustworthy were trustworthy beyond doubt and trustworthy in all their narrations… Moreover, to accurately ascertain each individual’s memory, good intention and self-restrain, etc., is further difficult…

It is due to this and similar reasons that the knowledge of isnad, Jarh and Ta’deel cannot be considered correct in its entirety. This material is reliable to the extent that it helps in the research of Prophet’s Sunnah and Aathaar and it may be given due consideration, but it is not of the status that it may be relied upon completely.”

On page, 356-57 he writes,

“The first thing that is examined in judging a narration is the  status  of  the  narrators.  In  this  regard,  each  and  every narrator  is  examined through various manners, whether he is  a  liar,  careless  in  narrating  narrations,  sinner  or  heretic, dubious  or  weak  in  his  memory,  whether  his  condition  is unknown or his condition is known. By all these conditions the  status  of  the  narrators  were  examined  by  the Muhadditheen,  and  they  thus  presented  a  glorious collection  on  Asmaa’  ar-Rijaal  (the  study  of  the  narrators) which  are  beyond  doubt  invaluable.  But  what  amongst  this is  not  prone  to  mistakes?  Firstly,  it  is  difficult  to  accurately know  the  biography  of  the  narrators,  their  memory  and their  other  inner  qualities.  Secondly,  those  people themselves  who  formed  an  opinion  about  them  were  not free  from  human  weaknesses.  Nafs  (desires)  accompany everyone  and there  is  a  strong  possibility  that  personal opinions  interfered  in  forming  an  opinion,  good  or  bad, about individuals…


Firstly:  The science  of hadith and isnads (chains of narrators) is one of  the  special  characteristics  of  this  ummah.  No  other nation  paid  attention  as  this  ummah  did  to  the chains  of  narration  through  which  their  books and  their  religion  were  transmitted.  This  is why  the  texts  of  other  nations  were subjected  to  distortions  and  fabrications, and it became impossible for them to know  the  pure  religion  and  to  find  out  about  the  stories  of  the Prophets in a sound and authenticated manner.

The  scholars  of  hadith  have  striven  hard  and  reached  a prominent  position  in  that  field,  as  Allah  has  honoured  them  with efforts  to preserve His religion and the Sunnah of His Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

Muhammad ibn Haatim ibn al-Muzaffar (rahimahullah) said,

“Allah  has  honoured  this  ummah  and  favoured  it  over others  by  blessing  it  with  the  isnaad.  No  other  nation  has  this blessing,  and  they  do  not  distinguish  between  that  which  was revealed  in  the  Tawrah  and  Injeel  and  was  brought  by  their Prophets, and that  which  was added to their books of narrations transmitted  from  inauthentic  sources.  This  ummah  narrates hadith  from  a  trustworthy  individual  who  was  known  at  his own  time  for  sincerity  and  honesty,  from  another  of  similar character,  and so on until the end of the chain of narrators. Then they  researched  very  carefully  to  find  out  who  had  the  stronger memory  and  was  more  precise,  and  who  spent  more  time  with the  one  from  whom  the  report  was  transmitted,  and  who  spent less  time,  then  they  would  write  down  the  hadith  from  more than  twenty  chains  of  narration,  so  that  they  could  be  sure  that they had eliminated  any  mistake or error from it,  and they  wrote it  exactly  as  it  was  narrated.  This  is  one  of  the  greatest  blessings that  Allah  has  bestowed  upon  this  ummah.  We  ask  Allah  to inspire us to thank Him for this blessing and we ask Him to make us  steadfast  and  to  guide  us  to  that  which  will bring  us  closer  to Him  and  make  us  adhere  to  obedience  to  Him.” [End  quote  from Sharaf Ashaab al-Hadith (40)]

Secondly: They are the best people who strove the most to ensure that their judgement and transmission of hadith was done on the basis of honesty  and sincerity,  and  they  were  the  ones  who strove the most to avoid  errors  and  mistakes  to  the  extent  that  they  set  the  highest example  of  fairness  and  avoiding  favoritism  when  it  comes  to preserving the religion of Allah. 

So we see ‘Ali ibn al-Madini  ruling that his father was da’eef (weak),  and  he  knew  that  this  ruling  regarding  his  father  would guarantee an end to his position as a scholar, but  that  did  not  prevent him from stating his opinion concerning him.

Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi (rahimahullah) said,

“None  of  the  people  of  hadith  should  show  any  favoritism with regard to the science of hadith, whether it is to his father or his  son.  ‘Ali  ibn  ‘Abd-Allaah  al-Madini,  who  was  a  prominent scholar  of  hadith  in  his  time,  never  narrated  even  a  letter  to suggest  that  his  father  was  strong  in  hadith,  rather  what  was narrated from him was the opposite of that.” [End  quote  from  Sharaf  Ashaab  al-Hadith  (41)]

Ibn Hibbaan said in al-Majrooheen (2/15),

“Ali  ibn  al-Madini  was  asked  about  his  father  and  he  said, ‘Ask  someone  else.  They  said,  ‘We  asked  you.  He paused  then  he  raised  his  head  and said,  This has  to  do with religion;  my  father  is  da’eef (weak).” 

Yahya  ibn  Ma’een (rahimahullah) spoke about a friend of his whom  he  loved,  and  al-Husayn ibn Hibbaan narrated that he said of Muhammad ibn Saleem al-Qaadi,

“By Allah, he is our friend, and he is dear to us, but there is no way  to  praise  him  and  I  do  not  recommend  anyone  to  narrate from him or encourage others to do so.” and he said, “By Allaah, he heard  a  great  deal  and  he is  well  known, but he  does not limit himself  to  what  he  heard,  rather  he  includes  things  that  he  did not  hear.”  I  said  to  him,  “Should  he  be  narrated  from?”  He  said, “No.”                                   [See, Tareekh Baghdaad (5/325)]

Jareer ibn ‘Abd al-Hameed said concerning his brother Anas, “He should not be narrated from. He tells lies when he talks to people.”           [Al-Jarh wal-Ta’deel (2/289)]

Imam  al-Bukhari (rahimahullah) narrated  a  great  deal  in  his  Sahih  from  his Shaykh,  Muhammad  ibn  Yahya  al-Dhuhali  in  spite  of  the  harm  that he  was  subjected  to  as  a  result  of  a  misunderstanding  between  him and the Shaykh who forsook him. But that enmity did not prevent him from accepting and narrating his hadith.

They  would  accept  hadith  from  those  who  held  different opinions and beliefs to their own – if it was proven that (the narrator) was  honest  and  sincere.  The  fact  that  a  narrator  was  a  follower  of bid’ah did not prevent them from judging him on the basis of fairness, because  they  paid  heed  to  the  Words  of  Allah,  “O  you  who  believe! Stand  out  firmly  for  Allaah  as  just  witnesses;  and  let  not  the  enmity and  hatred  of  others  make  you avoid justice.  Be  just,  that  is  nearer  to piety,  and  fear  Allah. Verily,  Allaah  is Well  Acquainted with  what  you do.” [Surah al-Maidah 5:8]

Yahya ibn Ma’een (rahimahullah) was asked about Sa’eed ibn Khuthaym and he said,

“He  is  a  Kufi  and  there  is  nothing  wrong  with  him;  he  is trustworthy.”
It was said to Yahya, “Is he Shi’i?”
He said, “A trustworthy Shi’i, a trustworthy Qadari.” [Tahdheeb  al-Kamaal  (10/414)]

Abbaad  ibn  Ya’qoob  al-Rawaajini  al-Kufi  was  a  fanatical  Shi’i,  but despite that Ibn Khuzaymah said in his Sahih (2/376), “The  one  who  is trustworthy  in  his  narration  but  dubious  in  his religious commitment, ‘Abbaad ibn Ya’qoob, told us… ”

Thirdly:  Just  as  they  understood  the  seriousness  of  tarnishing people’s  honour  unlawfully,  they  also  understood  the  seriousness  of speaking  badly  about  any  of  the  narrators,  because  it  could  affect  the issue of accepting or rejecting the hadith of the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) from  them.  Muhammad  ibn  Sireen (rahimahullah)  said,  “This  knowledge  is  the (foundation  of)  religion,  so  watch  from  whom  you  learn  your religion.”  [Narrated by Muslim in the Introduction to his Sahih]

Ibn Daqeeq al-‘Eid said,

“The  honour  of  the  Muslims  is  a  pit  of  Hellfire.  Two  groups are  standing  at  the  edge  of  this  pit;  the  muhadditheen  and  the judges.”         [See: Tadreeb al-Raawi (2/369)]

Such great  piety  and  awareness  must  inevitably have  a  great  effect  of fairness  and  seeking  to  be  right  when  judging  narrators.  This  is  what was  stipulated  by  the  scholars  for  everyone  who  wants  to  examine narrators and pass judgement concerning them.

Al-Dhahabi said in al-Mooqizah (82),

“Judging narrators requires a great deal of piety and freedom from  whims  and  desires  and  bias,  along  with  complete experience in the science of hadeeth and the faults and narrators thereof.” 

Al-Mu’allimi (rahimahullah) said in al-Tankeel (1/54),

“The  imams  of  hadith  are  knowledgeable  and  careful, andthey  strive  to  avoid  mistakes,  but  they  differ  with  regard  to that.”  

Fourthly:  Yes,  none  of  them  is  infallible  and  it  is  possible  that  there may be mistakes in what some of them say. It is also possible that the cause  of  some  of  these  mistakes  may  be  love  or  hate  for  someone. Some  things  of  that  nature  did  indeed  happen,  for  no  human  being can  be  entirely  free  of  that.  But  that  should  not  be  a  reason  for doubting all of their judgements, and this is for the following reasons:

1  – Because these are a few mistakes when compared with the great  legacy  that  the  leading  scholars  of  hadith  and al-jarh  wa’l-ta’deel  have  left  behind,  the  vast  majority  of which  is  based  on  honesty  and  fairness,  so  it  is  unfair  to overlook that because of a few mistakes.

2  –  Because  the  scholars  highlighted  these  mistakes  and pointed them out in their comments. Whatever the motive was,  whether  it  was  enmity,  envy  or  a  difference  of madhhab, they would reject unfair judgements and would issue fair judgements concerning a specific narrator.

Hence none of the scholars accepted the view of Imam Malik (rahmatullah alayh) concerning  Muhammad  ibn  Ishaaq,  the  author  of  al-Maghaazi,  that he  was one of the  fabricators,  when  they  realized  that  this  statement was  based  on  resentment  and  personal  reasons;  rather  they  judged him  as  “hasan  al-hadith”  (i.e.,  a  good  narrator)  and  the  leading scholars  of  hadith  used  his  reports  as  evidence.  And  they  did  not accept the view of al-Nasaa’i concerning Ahmad ibn Salih al-Masri, or the  view  of  Rabi’ah  concerning  Abu’l-Zinnaad  ‘Abd-Allaah  ibn Dhakwaan. [See, al-Raf’ wa’l-Takmeel (409-432)].

Abu Hatim al-Raazi (rahimahullah) said,

“There has never been in any nation since Allah created Adam (alayhissalaam), safekeepers  who preserve the  legacy of the Messengers except in this  ummah.  A  man  said  to  him,  “O  Abu  Hatim,  perhaps  there were  narrations  which  have  no  basis  and  are  not  sound?”  He said,    “Their scholars will recognize the sound from the unsound. So  they  preserved  this  science  (of  hadeeth)  so  that  the  people who  came  after  them  were  able  to  distinguish  between  reports and  preserve  them.”  Then  he  said.  “May  Allah  have  mercy  on Abu Zur’ah; by Allah he strove very hard to preserve the legacy of the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).”        [Sharaf Ashaab al-Hadith (43)]

You should understand that Allah has  preserved  this religion  by  His  grace  and  blessing  and  that  the Sunnah  has  been  preserved  as  Allah guaranteed  to  preserve  His  religion.  So  it  is not  possible  for  the  scholars  to unanimously agree to authenticate  a weak narrator  or  to  criticize  or  condemn  a sound narrator. Rather you will inevitably find  that  truthfulness  and  fairness  are very  apparent  in  the  views  of  the  majority of scholars and in most issues of religion.

Imam  al-Dhahabi  (rahimahullah)  said  in  al-Mooqizah (84),

“The  same  Imam  may  be  more  generous  or  more kind  with  regard  to  a  report  that  is  in  accordance  with  his madhhab  or  the  madhhab  of  his  Shaykh  than  with  regard  to other  reports  that  say  the  opposite.  But  it  is  only  the  Prophets who are infallible.  But this religion  is  supported and protected by Allah, may He be  exalted,  and  its  scholars  will  never  agree  on  misguidance, either deliberately or by mistake. So no two scholars will agree on classing  a  weak  narrator  as  sound,  or  a  sound  narrator  as  weak. Rather  their  differences  will  be  with  regard  to  how  strong  or weak a narrator is.  The  one  who passes such judgements speaks on  the  basis  of  his  own  effort,  strength  and  knowledge.  If  it  so happens that  he  makes a  mistake in  judging,  then  he will have  a single reward. And Allah is the source of strength.” 

Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah) said in al-Baa’ith al-Hatheeth (1/11),

“As  for  the  words  of  these  imams  who  took  on  this  task  (of examining  hadith),  they  should  be  accepted  without questioning  or  mentioning  the  reason  because  of  their knowledge  of  it  and  their  deep  understanding  of  this  field  and because  of  their  being  known  to  be  fair,  religiously  committed, experienced  and  sincere,  especially  if  they  agree  unanimously that a narrator is weak, or matrook (to be ignored) or a liar and so on.  The  skilled  muhaddith  will  not hesitate  to  agree  with  them  when they  take  a  decision  of  that  nature because  of  their  honesty, trustworthiness  and  sincerity.  Hence  al-Shafi’i (rahimahullah) said  in  many  instances  when commenting  on  Ahadith,  “None  of  the scholars would regard this hadith as sound,” so he would reject it and not quote it as evidence on that basis.” 

Finally, one should be content with the blessing that Allah has bestowed  upon  this  ummah  by  means  of  this  noble  branch  of knowledge, and do not get carried away with doubts about the sahih ahadith.  Reason  dictates  that  we  should  not  reject  the  efforts  of thousands of sincere scholars throughout the centuries on the basis of a  few  mistakes  here  and  there.  To  appreciate  the  science  of  Hadith verification,  one  must  strive  to  read  the  numerous  books  on  the subject,  and  one  cannot  help  but  be  astonished  by  the  huge  efforts that  were  put  into  verifying  a  single  hadith

Even  the  Orientalist Margoliouth said, “The Muslims may boast about their science of hadith.”