The Islamic Month of Rabi’ul Thani

[Mufti Muhammad Taqi’ Usmani d.b]

This month is also called “Rabi ul-‘Aakhir”. No specific function or worship has been prescribed by the Shariah in this month. However, some people take the 11th of this month as the anniversary of Shaykh ‘Adb al Qadir al-Jilani (rahmatullah alayh), the great sufi and one of the most pious persons of our history. On these assumption, these people cook some special types of meals and distribute them among their acquaintants. Some of them believe that this practice  pleases the soul of the Shaykh and he will help us in fulfilling our worldly needs or in reaching our mundane or spiritual goals.

This practice is totally baseless for a number of reasons:

Firstly, it is not historically proved with certainity that the Shaykh (rahmatullah alayh), died on the 11th of this month. Some historians claim that he died on 9th and some of them hold that he died on 17th.

Secondly, even if it is proved that he had died on 11th of this month, the observations of anniversaries is not revognised by the Shariah, as we have explained it with more details in a separate post on Rabi al Awwal.

Thirdly, if the practice is based on the belief that the soul of the Shaykh will be pleased by it and help us in our worldly affairs, it is totally an erroneous idea and may amount to shirk.

Fourthly, even if these acts are performed for the purpose of Isal al thawaab only, there is no reason why a specific date is fixed for this purpose, and why the people not observing it are blamed and reproached.

Fifthly, the Isal al thawaab can be conceived where an ‘Ibaadah (act of worship) is done like Sadaqah, but here in this practice normally the meal is distributed among the well-off relatives or friends and not among the poor. It means that there is no intention to perform an ‘Ibaadah.

Sixthly, if some mundane benefits are sought by this practice, no thawaab is supposed to be achieved . How can it be an act of Isaal al-thawaab?

In short, looked at from any angle, this custom does not fit in the recognised principles of Shariah. Therefore, it should be abandoned in any case.

It must be remembered, however, that what we have said does not mean that one cannot make an Isal al-thawaab to the Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani. In fact the Isaal al-Thawaab is a recognized practice in Shariah. It becomes more commendable if it is done in favour of a pious person, like Shaykh ‘Abd al Qadir al-Jilani. But it should not be restricted to a particular date or a particular act. A Muslim can make Isaal al-Thawaab to the Shaykh any day and through any act of worship like salah, fasting, charity etc.

Number of Sunnah Mu’akkadah Raka’ats of Jumu’ah Salaah


With regards to the fatwa below, I had one correction. The questioner asked you if there is any ikthilaaf in the masla regarding all 6 sunnats after jumuah being sunnate muakkadah or not. You answered him saying there is an ikthilaaf wheher 4 or 6 is sunnat. You didnt answer his question correctly. There definitely an ikthilaaf in all 6 being sunnat e muakkadah or not which moulana should have told him.ulama like kabeeri, etc mention in their kitaabs that all 6 are sunnate muakkadah. If possible, please re-answer the question and send it out again and also mention that even though this is mufti kifaayathullah’s qaul, many other ulama say that all 6 are sunnate muakkadah, therefore the most precautionary measure is that a person regards all 6 as sunnate muakkadah. Awaiting your response.


In Fatwa #16633 (on the website) it is stated that “After the jummah salat, one will observe four rakats “sunnah muakada”, followed by two rakats sunnah “ghayr muakada.” So does this mean that if one were to leave out the two raka’ats sunnah then one will not be sinful since it is “ghayr muakada”? I was always taught that it is “sunnah muakada”. Is there a difference of opinion regarding this?


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Ulama differ as regards to how many rakats should be performed after Jumma salah. Some ulama are of the opinion that four rakats of Salah should be performed after Jumma whilst others hold the view that six rakats be performed. Mufti Kifayatullah رحمه الله تعالى explains that praying four rakats are sunnah muakkadah and the two rakats are sunnah ghair muakkadah. It is advisable that one perform all six rakats.

بدائع الصنائع – (ج 1 / ص 638) دار الكتاب ديوبند

وأما السنة قبل الجمعة وبعدها فقد ذكر في الأصل وأربع قبل الجمعة وأربع بعدها وكذا ذكر الكرخي وذكر الطحاوي عن أبي يوسف أنه قال يصلي بعدها ستا وقيل هو مذهب علي رضي الله عنه وما ذكرنا أنه كان يصلي أربعا مذهب ابن مسعود وذكر محمد في كتاب الصوم أن المعتكف يمكث في المسجد الجامع مقدار ما يصلي أربع ركعات أو ست ركعات أما الأربع قبل الجمعة فلما روي عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يتطوع قبل الجمعة بأربع ركعات ولأن الجمعة نظير الظهر ثم التطوع قبل الظهر أربع ركعات كذا قبلها وأما بعد الجمعة فوجه قول أبي يوسف أن فيما قلنا جمعا بين قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وبين فعله فإنه روي أنه أمر بالأربع بعد الجمعة  وروي أنه صلى ركعتين بعد الجمعة فجمعنا بين قوله وفعله قال أبو يوسف ينبغي أن يصلي أربعا ثم ركعتين كذا روي عن علي رضي الله عنه كيلا يصير متطوعا بعد صلاة الفرض بمثلها وجه ظاهر الرواية ما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال من كان مصليا بعد الجمعة فليصل أربعا وما روي من فعله صلى الله عليه وسلم فليس فيه ما يدل على المواظبة ونحن لا نمنع من يصلي بعدها كم شاء غير أنا نقول السنة بعدها أربع ركعات لا غير لما روينا

Mahmoodiyyah 8/344 Farooqiyyah

And Allah knows best
Ml. Ishaq E. Moosa,
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

As was stated in the answer to the previous question referred to in your query, there is a difference of opinion in the Hanafi Madhab with regards to how many rakats after jumuah salah are sunnah muakkadah.

Imam Abu Hanifa (Rahmatullah Alayhi) held the opinion that 4 rakats after jumuah salah are sunnah muakkadah. This is due to the Hadiths:

ن أبي هريرة أنه عليه الصلاة والسلام قال { من كان منكم مصليا بعد الجمعة فليصل أربعا } رواه مسلم

“Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (RadiyAllahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, “Whoever performs Jumuah Salah, should perform after it four rakats.'” (Muslim)

Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (RadiyAllahu Anhu), Sufyan Al-Thawri and Ibnul Mubarak (Rahmatullah Alayhima) also held the opinion of observing 4 rakats after jumuah.

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullah Alayhi) held the opinion that 6 rakats after jumuah salah are sunnah muakkadah. As for his proof, he takes the abovementioned Hadith of Abu Hurayrah (RadiyAllahu Anhu) in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) ordered 4 rakats to be prayed after jumuah, and he coupled that with the narration of Abdullah ibn Umar (RadiyAllahu Anhuma) which says:

روى عن النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- أنه كان يصلى بعد الجمعة ركعتين فى بيته

“Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) prayed two rakats in his home after Jumuah Salah” (Narrated in Tirmidhi)

Ibn Umar and Ali (RadiyAllahu Anhum) offered 2 rakats after jumuah salah and followed that with 4 more rakats.

The stronger opinion in the madhab with regards to which rakats are sunnah muakkadah is the opinion of Imam Abu Hanifa (Rahmatullah Alayhi) which states that 4 rakats are sunnah muakkadah and 2 are ghayr muakkadah. This means the 4 rakats must be observed at a minimum. However, it is advisable and preferred to perform all 6 rakats after jumuah salah, as is stated in Halabi Kabeer, so that both opinions are covered and ikhtilaf is avoided. It is obviously more rewarding as well to pray 6 rakats instead of 4 rakats.

 السنة قبل الجمعة أربع، و بعدها أربع)……….(و عند أبي يوسف رحمه الله تعالى) السنة بعد الجمعة (ست) ركعات، و هو مروي عن علي رضي الله عنه، و الأفضل أن يصلى أربعاً، ثم ركعتين للخروج عن الخلاف

(Halabi Kabeer, P. 388-389, Suhail Academy Lahore)

لا يخفى ما فيه فالظاهر الأول والدليل على استنان الأربع قبل الجمعة ما رواه مسلم مرفوعا { من كان مصليا قبل الجمعة فليصل أربعا } مع ما رواه ابن ماجه عن ابن عباس قال { كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يركع من قبل الجمعة أربعا لا يفصل في شيء منهن } وعلى استنان الأربع بعدها ما في صحيح مسلم عن أبي هريرة مرفوعا { إذا صلى أحدكم الجمعة فليصل بعدها أربعا } وفي رواية { إذا صليتم بعد الجمعة فصلوا أربعا } وذكر في البدائع أنه ظاهر الرواية وعن أبي يوسف أنه ينبغي أن يصلي أربعا ثم ركعتين وذكر محمد في كتاب الاعتكاف أن المعتكف يمكث في المسجد الجامع مقدار ما يصلي أربعا أو ستا

(Al Bahr al-Raa’iq 2/49, Rashidiyyah)

( وسن ) مؤكدا ( أربع قبل الظهر و ) أربع قبل ( الجمعة و ) أربع ( بعدها بتسليمة )

(Darrul Mukhtar, 2/12, HM Saeed)

سن قبل الفجر وبعد الظهر والمغرب والعشاء ركعتان وقبل الظهر والجمعة وبعدها أربع . كذا في المتون والأربع بتسليمة واحدة عندن

(Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, 1/124, Ilmiyyah)

ن سنة مؤكدة ) منها : ( و ) منها أربع ( قبل الجمعة ) لأن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم كان يركع قبل الجمعة أربعا لا يفصل في شيء منهن ( و ) منها أربع ( بعدها ) لأن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم كان يصلي بعد الجمعة أربع ركعات يسلم في آخرهن فلذا قيدنا به في الرباعيات فقلنا ( بتسليم

(Hashiyya Tahtawi ‘ala Maraqi al-Fallah, P. 389, Qadimi)

وأما السنة قبل الجمعة وبعدها فقد ذكر في الأصل : وأربع قبل الجمعة ، وأربع بعدها ، وكذا ذكر الكرخي ، وذكر الطحاوي عن أبي يوسف أنه قال يصلي بعدها ستا وقيل : هو مذهب علي رضي الله عنه وما ذكرنا أنه كان يصلي أربعا مذهب ابن مسعود ، وذكر محمد في كتاب الصوم أن المعتكف يمكث في المسجد الجامع مقدار ما يصلي أربع ركعات ، أو ست ركعات أما الأربع قبل الجمعة ؛ فلما روي عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنه { أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يتطوع قبل الجمعة بأربع ركعات } ؛ ولأن الجمعة نظير الظهر ، ثم التطوع قبل الظهر أربع ركعات كذا قبله

وأما بعد الجمعة فوجه قول أبي يوسف إن فيما قلنا جمعا بين قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وبين فعله فإنه روي { أنه أمر بالأربع بعد الجمعة } وروي أنه { صلى ركعتين بعد الجمعة } ، فجمعنا بين قوله وفعله قال أبو يوسف : ينبغي أن يصلي أربعا ، ثم ركعتين كذا روي عن علي رضي الله عنه كي لا يصير متطوعا بعد صلاة الفرض بمثلها ، وجه ظاهر الرواية ما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال : { من كان مصليا بعد الجمعة فليصل أربعا } وما روي من فعله صلى الله عليه وسلم فليس فيه ما يدل على المواظبة ، ونحن لا نمنع من يصلي بعدها كم شاء ، غير أنا نقول : السنة بعدها أربع ركعات لا غير!

(Badaai’ al-Sanaai’, 1/638, Darul Kitab Deoband)

حدثنا ابن أبى عمر حدثنا سفيان عن سهيل بن أبى صالح عن أبيه عن أبى هريرة قال قال رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- « من كان منكم مصليا بعد الجمعة فليصل أربعا ». قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث حسن صحيح. حدثنا الحسن بن على حدثنا على بن المدينى عن سفيان بن عيينة قال كنا نعد سهيل بن أبى صالح ثبتا فى الحديث. والعمل على هذا عند بعض أهل العلم. وروى عن عبد الله بن مسعود أنه كان يصلى قبل الجمعة أربعا وبعدها أربعا. وقد روى عن على بن أبى طالب رضى الله عنه أنه أمر أن يصلى بعد الجمعة ركعتين ثم أربعا. وذهب سفيان الثورى وابن المبارك إلى قول ابن مسعود. وقال إسحاق إن صلى فى المسجد يوم الجمعة صلى أربعا وإن صلى فى بيته صلى ركعتين. واحتج بأن النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- كان يصلى بعد الجمعة ركعتين فى بيته وحديث النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- « من كان منكم مصليا بعد الجمعة فليصل أربعا ». قال أبو عيسى وابن عمر هو الذى روى عن النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- أنه كان يصلى بعد الجمعة ركعتين فى بيته وابن عمر بعد النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- صلى فى المسجد بعد الجمعة ركعتين وصلى بعد الركعتين أربع

(Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 1/117-118, HM Saeed)

ويصلي قبلها أربعا وفي رواية ستا الأربع سنة والركعتان تحية المسجد وبعدها أربعا أو ستأ على حسب الاختلاف في سنة الجمعة وسننها توابع له

(Al-Hidayah, 1/230, Multan)

(Fatawa Mahmudiyya, 8/344-345, Jamia Faruqiyya)

(Fatawa Rahimiyya, 6/111, Darul Isha’at New Print)

(Fatawa Rahimiyya, 7/312-313, Darul Isha’at Old Print)

(Imdad al-Ahkam, 1/459, Maktaba Darul Uloom Karachi)

(Ahsan al-Fatawa, 3/485-486, HM Saeed)

And Allah knows best


Ml. Asif Umar.

Islamic Guidelines for the First Night of Nikah (Marriage)

We live in a hypersexualised world. Yet, when that hour  beckons, many of those who have lived a chaste life would admit to being quite clueless about how to spend those first few jewelled moments in intimacy together.

As a complete mode of living, it should come as no surprise that Islam offers solutions for this time and all other occasions and eventualities that may come with marital life.

And fully cognisant of the psychologies of both husband and wife, and the natural reservations and inhibitions of two individuals who have barely met each other, Islamic guidelines for the first night pay more attention on confidence building, psychological bonding and nurturing the spiritual foundations of the sacred union of Nikah, than sexual relations itself.

“It is important to note that engaging in sexual relations on the first night is not necessary,” writes Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam al Kawthari in his Islamic Guide to Sexual Relations.

“The husband should not hasten in taking his wife’s virginity, but rather he should approach the matter with extreme calmness, even if it takes a few days. The newly married couple have all their lives before them for sexual relations, and there is no need to make haste in this regard. Much of the time during the first night should be spent in getting to know one another, sharing each other’s outlook on life and how their marital life should be lived in accordance with Islamic teachings. They may, however, begin to be intimate with one another, if they feel comfortable.”

Here are 4 practical Islamic guidelines for what you can do as a couple on your first night of Nikah:

1. Give a Gift

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Exchange gifts, as that will lead to increasing your love to one another.” [Al-Bukhari].

Regarding the first night of marriage, there is no stipulated gift – it could involve anything permissible, big or small, according to one’s means.

A husband could also offer his wife something to drink as is found in the hadith narrated by Asma’ bint Yazid ibn As-Sakan (radhiyallahu anha) who said: “I beautified ‘Aa’ishah for Allah’s Messenger, then called him to come to see her unveiled. He came, sat next to her, and brought a large cup of milk from which he drank. Then, he offered it to ‘Aa’ishah, but she lowered her head and felt shy. I scolded her and said to her: “Take from the hand of the Prophet.” She then took it and drank some. Then, the Prophet said to her, “Give some to your companion.” At that point, I said: “O Messenger of Allah, rather take it yourself and drink, and then give it to me from your hand.” He took it, drank some, and then offered it to me. I sat down and put it on my kness. Then, I began rotating it and following it with my lips in order that I might hit the spot from which the Prophet had drunk.”  [Musnad Ahmad]

2. Read Salaah Together

It is desirable for the husband and wife to pray 2 rakaat together on their wedding night. This has been narrated from the earliest generation of Muslims:

‘When your wife comes to you, pray 2 rakaat. Then, ask Allaah for the good of that which has come to you, and seek refuge in Him from its evil. Then it is up to you and it is up to your wife.’” [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah]

It is also narrated on the authority of Shaqeeq who said: “A man named Abu Hareez came and said: ‘I have married a young girl, and I am afraid that she will despise me.’ ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) said to him: “Verily, closeness is from Allah, and hatred is from Shaitaan, who wishes to make despicable that which Allah has allowed. So, when your wife comes to you, tell her to pray behind you 2 rakaat.’”  [Ref: Ibn Abi Shaybah and at-Tabaraani and ‘Abdur-Razzaaq: Saheeh]

3. Sprinkle the water of love and make Dua for each other

On the first night of marriage, when in seclusion with one’s wife, hold the forelocks (hair of the forehead) of her head, sprinkle water upon her and recite the following Du’a:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ خَيْرَهَا وَخَيْرَ مَا جَبَلْتَهَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّهَا وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا جَبَلْتَهَا عَلَيْهِ

(O Allaah, I ask You for the goodness within her and the goodness that You have made her inclined towards, and I take refuge with You from the evil within her and the evil that You have made her inclined towards) [Bukhari/Abu Dawud]

The wife should also make dua for her husband, just adapting the wording of the Dua’ above:

Allahumma inni asaluka khairahu wa khaira ma jabaltahu alayh; wa a’oothu bika min shari-hee wa shari ma jabaltahu alayh

Besides this stipulated Dua’, one can make any other Dua’s from the heart and also include Qur’anic Duas for marital bliss such as:

4. Seek the protection of Allah Ta’ala from shaytaan

If the couple decide to get intimate, the couple should recite the following before involving themselves in relations:

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ اللَّهُمَّ جَنِّبْنَا الشَّيْطَانَ وَجَنِّبْ الشَّيْطَانَ مَا رَزَقْتَنَا

In the name of Allah, O Allah, distance shaytaan from us and distance shaytaan from that which you grant us. [Bukhari]

We make Dua’ that your union be a blessed one, where not only the bodies meet, but the hearts meet as well

[Cii Broadcasting]

Differences in the Salah of Men & Women and the Batil Arguments of the La-Madhabiyyah

[Compiled from various sources]

Difference in Salah between men and women

The La-Madhabiyyah (so called ‘ahlul hadith’) are of the view that all the laws of salah are common to both men and women, and that there is no difference between them. They also claim that the hadith ‘Pray as you have seen me praying’ is general and, therefore, should be applied equally to both men and women. It should be realised, however, that our own interpretation and logical inference of this hadith cannot compare with the other ahadith of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عايه وسالم) and the verdicts and practice of the Sahabah and Tabi’un (رضئ الله عنهم) quoted below.

The La-Madhabiyyah are of the view that all hadith should be accepted and understood on the literal meaning. It is because of this fallacy they have fallen in the wrong path of anthropomorphism
(tajsim). If we take the literal meaning of this hadith in which prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Pray as you have seen me praying” then no human being on the face of this earth can pray, because no one alive today has seen the way of prophet’s prayer. This explains that this hadith has to be understood in a way in which the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah have explained.

The Shariah has ordained distinct rules for men and women in many important questions of salah.

For example:

1. Jumu’ah is fardh upon men but not on women, and the Eid prayer is wajib for men but again not for women.

الجمعة حق واجب على كل مسلم في جماعة إلا أربعة : عبد مملوك أو امرأة أو صبي أو مريض

Sayyiduna Tariq bin Shihab (رضئ الله عنه) reports that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said, ‘Jumu’ah in congregation is an obligatory duty upon every Muslim except four people: a slave, a woman, a child, and one who is sick.’’
[Sunan Abi Dawud, Hadith 1067 and Mustadrak Imam Hakim  Hadith, 1062. Imam Hakim declared it sahih and Imam Dhahabi agreed.]

Sayyidatuna Umm ‘Atiyyah (radhiyallahu anha) says as part of a longer hadith, ‘We have been forbidden from following funerals and there is no Jumu’ah upon us.
[Sunan Abi Dawud, Hadith 1139,  Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah, 1722]

2. Unlike men, women should not give adhan or say the iqamah.

Women are not allowed to call out the adhan whereas men are encouraged to do so.

Sayyidatuna Asma (radhiyallahu anha anha) narrates as part of a longer hadith that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘There is no adhan, iqamah or Jumu’ah upon women.’ [Sunan Bayhaqi, Hadith no.1921]

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) says ‘There is no adhan or iqamah upon women.’

ليس على النساء أذان ولا إقامة

[Musannaf Abdur Razaaq,  Sunan  Bayhaqi, Hadith 1920.]

Imam Ibrahim Nakhai [(rahmatullah alayh) d.96 AH] , a great tabi’i and faqih (jurist) of Iraq who was also the teacher of Imam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayh) states that adhan and iqamah are not compulsory upon  women

3. There is a great difference in the awrah of a man and that of a woman in salah. Women must cover their entire body including the hair, leaving only the face, hands and feet exposed.

Ummul Mu’mineen Aisha (radhiyallahu anha) reports that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said, ‘Allah does not accept the salah of a mature female without a scarf.’

لا تقبل صلاة حائض إلا بخمار

[Musnad Ahmad, 24012, Sunan Ibn Majah, 655, Sunan Abu Dawud, 641, Sunan Tirmidhi, 377, Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah, 775,  Mustadark of Imam Hakim 917 and Sunan Bayhaqi, 3254.

Imam Hakim declared it sahih and Imam Dhahabi agreed.

4.  Women cannot lead men in salah.

Abu Bakr (رضئ الله عنه) reports that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said ‘Never will those people succeed who have appointed a woman over them.

لن يفلح قوم ولوا أمرهم امرأة

[Musnad Ahmad 19507, Sahih al Bukhari 4163, Sunan Tirmidhi 2262 and  Sunan Nasai 5388.]

Jabir bin Abdullah (رضئ الله عنه) reports as part of a longer hadith that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said, Know that a woman should not lead a man in salah.’

ولا تؤمن امرأة رجلا
[Sunan Ibn Majah 1081 and  Sunan Bayhaqi 5131]

5.  For the purpose of correcting or deterring someone in salah, men should say ‘subhanallah’ loudly, whilst women are only allowed to clap their hands.

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said, ‘Tasbeeh is for men, and clapping is for women.’

التسبيح للرجال والتصفيق للنساء

[Sahih Bukhari 1145]

6. The different postures and positions of the females

The different postures, positions and rulings concerning the prayers of the female are not the invention of a group or an individual but teaching of the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) himself. He was the very first person differentiate between the prayer of a man and a woman.

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has clearly differentiated between the sajdah of men and women.

Yazid bin Abi Habib reports that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) passed by two women who were praying salah. He said, ‘When you prostrate, let part of your body cling to the earth, for women are unlike men in this regard’.

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مر على امرأتين تصليان فقال إذا سجدتما فضما بعض اللحم إلى الأرض فإن المرأة ليست في ذلك كالرجل

[Abu Dawud in his al Maraseel  (Muassasah al Risalah edition), and  Sunan Bayhaqi 3201]

Sayyiduna Ibn ‘Umar (رضئ الله عنه) narrates that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said, ‘When a woman sits in salah she should place one thigh over the other, and when she prostrates she should press her stomach to her thighs in a manner that is the most concealing for her. Indeed Allah looks at her saying, “Oh my angels! I make you witness that I have forgiven her.”

عن عبد الله بن عمر قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا جلست المرأة في الصلوة وضعت فخذها على فخذها الاخرى وإذا سجدت الصقت بطنها في فخذيها كالستر ما يكون لها وان الله تعالى ينظر إليها ويقول يا ملائكتى اشهدكم انى قد غفرت لها
[Sunan Bayhaqi 3199.]
The above Hadith is reliable due to the fact that it is supported by many other Ahadith.

7. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has not allowed women to raise their hands up to the ears in salat as men do.

Sayyiduna Wa’il bin Hujr (رضئ الله عنه) reports that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said, ‘Oh Ibn Hujr! When you pray make your hands level with your ears. And the woman shall raise her hands close to her bosom.’

يا وائل بن حجر إذا صليت فاجعل يديك حذاء أذنيك والمرأة تجعل يديها حذاء ثدييها
[Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer 22/19 no.28. Hafidh Abu Bakr Haythami says in Majma’ Al-Zawaaid 2/103, ‘Tabarani has narrated it as part of a long hadith on the virtue of Wa’il bin Hujr , with a chain of Maymoonah bint Hujr narrating from her auntie Umm Yahya bint Abdul Jabbar.]

Abdu Rabbihi reports: “I saw Ummu Darda raising her hands up to her shoulders in salat”

رأيت أم الدرداء ترفع يديها في الصلاة حذو منكبيها
[Juz Raf’i Yadain by Imam Bukhari]

8. Woman cannot stand in the Saff (row) of men. They have to stand  behind men.

صليت أنا ويتيم في بيتنا خلف النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم وأمي أم سليم خلفنا

‘Anas (radiyallaahu anhu) reports: An orphan and I performed salat behind Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), and my mother, Ummu Sulaym, stood behind us
[Sahih Bukhari]

This hadith indicates that even if a woman is alone, she has to stand behind the saffs (rows) of males and still not join the males in their saff (row).

9 . The reward of congregational salat for men is twenty seven times more than that of an individual salat. Contrary to this, the more rewarding salat of a woman is that which is most concealed and performed within the confines of her home and of her innermost living quarters.

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud (رضئ الله عنه) reports that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said, ‘The prayer of a woman in her makhda’ (partition) is better than her prayer in her hujrah (chamber), and her prayer in her hujrah is better than her prayer in her bait (house).’
[Abi Dawud 570 and Ibn Khuzaimah 1690].

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah (رضئ الله عنه) narrates that the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) said, The most beloved salah to Allah of a woman is one that she performs in the darkest spot of her home.’
[Ibn Khuzaimah 1691, and Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer as mentioned by Hafidh Haythami 2/35. Hafidh Haythami also says that its narrators are authentic.

صلاة المرأة في مخدعها أفضل من صلاتها في بيتها و صلاتها في بيتها أفضل من صلاتها في حجرتها
[Sahih Ibn Khuzaimah]

Abdullah bin Mas’ood (radiyallaahu anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: The most beloved salat to Allah of a woman is the one that she performs in the darkest spot of her home.

ما صلت امرأة من صلاة أحب إلى الله من أشد مكان في بيتها ظلمة
[Majma’ Al-Zawaaid– Hafidh Haythami has classified all the narrators as authentic]

We derive some very important and fundamental principles about the prayer of a woman from all the above ahadith. The laws of salah are not always the same for men and women.

The sunnah posture of a female in any position of salah is that which is the most concealing for her. The following chapters of hadith explain this meaning in detail.

As mentioned earlier, this variation in the salah of a woman has been prescribed by none other than the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم) himself.

It has remained the practice of the whole ummah till this day and is also reflected in the rulings of the Sahabah and Tabi’un.

The ulama and fuqaha of all the four madhabs have always recognised this difference, and, as is evident in their books of fiqh, have always observed the above principles whenever making a ruling about the salah of a woman.

Following are a few narrations detailing the verdicts and practice of the Sahabah and together with the verdicts of some of the Tabi‘un and the ulama of the different schools of fiqh.

Verdicts and practice of the Sahabah (رضئ الله عنهم)

1  Ali (radhiyallaahu anhu) said: When a woman makes sajdah (prostrates), she should practise ihtifaaz and keep her thighs close together.

[“Ihtifaaz”: where a woman draws herself close together and leans onto one side by resting on their left buttocks and completely contractingthemselves.To draw out the right leg to one side of the body and place the left leg beneath one’s right thigh. In this way the posterior will come to rest on the ground rather than on the left leg. She would, therefore, not be resting on her legs, but on her posterior as mentioned in the narration of Sayyiduna Ali]

عن علي ، قال : إذا سجدت المرأة فلتحتفز ، ولتضم فخذيها
[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol 2, pg 504, #2793, Al-Majlis al-Ilmi]

Abdur-Razzaq has taken it from Isra’il from Abu Is’haq from Harith from Ali and Ibn Abi Shaybah took it from Abul-Ahwas from Abu Is’haq and Bayhaqi took it from Abul-Ahwas, with the mentioned sanad.

Imam Abdur-Razzaq has quoted the following hadith in his Musannaf: Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) says, “When a woman prostrates, she must practise ihtifaz and keep her thighs close to her stomach.”
[al-Musannaf Abdir-Razzaq: vol. 3 p 138]

2. Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallaahu anhu) was asked about the salaah of a woman; he replied: She must draw herself close together and do Ihtifaz.

عن ابن عباس ؛ أنه سئل عن صلاة المرأة ؟ فقال : تجتمع وتحتفز
[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, vol 2, pg 505, #2794, Al-Majlis al-Ilmi]

3.  Khalid bin al-jalaaj reports: Women were commanded to do tarabbu’ when they sat in salah and that they should not sit like men on their buttocks.

عن خالد بن اللجلاج ، قال : كن النساء يؤمرن أن يتربعن إذا جلسن في الصلاة ، ولا يجلسن جلوس الرجال على أوراكهن
[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol 2, pg 506, #2799, Al-Majlis al-Ilmi]

[“Tarabbu’”: to sit cross legged, that is, to draw out one’s right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg.]

4. Nafi’ reports that Safiyyah (radhiyallahu anha) used to perform salat while in the tarabbu’ position.

عن نافع ؛ أن صفية كانت تصلي وهي متربعة
[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol 2, pg 506, #2800, Al-Majlis al-Ilmi]

5. Nafi’ reports: The womenfolk of Ibn ‘Umar would do tarabbu’ while in salat.

عن نافع ، قال : كن نساء ابن عمر يتربعن في الصلاة.
[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol 2, pg 507, #2805, Al-Majlis al-Ilmi]

6.  Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was asked: how women performed their salah during the era of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)? He replied: Initially they performed tarabbu, then they were ordered to do Ihtifaz.

عن ابن عمر أنه سئل كيف كن النساء يصلين على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : كن يتربعن ثم أمرن أن يحتفزن
[Sharh Musnad Abi Hanifa, pg 191, Ilmiyya, Jaami’ ul-Masaaneed: vol. 1 p 400)

Note: This Hadith clearly indicates that the practice of “Tarabbu’” was abrogated and women were not allowed to sit in the “Tarabbu’” posture anymore.

2. The chains of narrators in the above Hadith are authentic.

Verdicts of the Tabi’un and other ‘Ulama.

1. Ibn Jurayj reports, ‘I asked ‘Ataa: Should a woman move her hands at the time of takbeer as a man does? He replied, “she should not raise her hands with takbeer in the manner of men.” ‘Ataa then demonstrated (the way in which she should.) He placed his hands very low and then pulled them towards him. He then said, “the posture of a woman in salah is not that of a man.”
[Musannaf Abdul Razzaq 5066 and Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah 2474]

Hammad ibn Salamah al-Basri used to say that a woman should raise her hands parallel to her breast when beginning salah.
[al-Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah]

2. ‘Ataa also says, ‘A woman should pull herself together when she bows down into ruk’u: she should bring up her arms to her stomach and pull herself together as much as possible. When she prostrates she should bring up her arms close to her and press her bosom and stomach against her thighs: she should pull herself together as much as possible.
[Musannaf Abdul Razzaq 5069]

3. Hasan al Basri (rahmatullah alayh) says: a woman should pull herself close together in sujud.
[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah 2781]

4. Hasan al Basri and Qatadah both say, “when a woman prostrates she should pull herself together as much as possible. She should not allow for any space between her limbs so that her posterior is not raised.”
[Musannaf Abdul Razzaq 5068.]

5. According to the narration of Abu Dawud, Imam Ahmad (rahmatullah alayh) was asked about how a woman should sit in salah. He replied, “she should press her thighs together.”

6. Imam Mujahid used to dislike that a man attach his stomach to his thighs as a woman does.
[al-Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah vol. 1, p 270]

7. Imam Ahmad (rahmatullah alayh) was asked about how a woman should prostrate and sit for tashahhud. He replied, “she should do whatever is more concealing for her.” He added, “she should do tarabbu’ in tashahhud and draw her legs to one side.”
[Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by his son Abdullah]

8. Imam Bayhaqi says, ”all of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her.”

قال الشيخ) رحمه الله وجماع ما يفارق المرأة فيه الرجل من احكام الصلوة راجع إلى الستر وهو انها مامورة بكل ماكان استر لها
[Sunan Al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi, vol 2, pg 222, Idarat Al-Talifaat]

9. Qadhi ‘Iyadh (rahmatullah alayh) has also quoted from some Salaf that the sunnah for women is tarabbu’.
[Awjaz al Masalik 2/119.]

All the above quite clearly demonstrates that the prayer of a woman is different in some aspects from that of a man, and that this distinction was first made by none other than the Prophet (صلى الله عايه وسالم), and then maintained by the prominent Sahaabi and Tabi’un. Furthermore, as can be seen in their works, there is almost an universal agreement amongst the scholars of all schools of fiqh on this issue.

List of differences between the prayer of a man and a woman

Some of the differences as mentioned in the books of fiqh are listed below.

In all the postures and movements of salah, including qiyaam, ruku’, sajdah and tashahhud a woman should adopt that which is the most modest and concealing for her.

Raising hand:

At the beginning of salah a woman should not raise her hands to her ears but only to her shoulders or close to her bosom.  Men raise their hands all the way to the ear for Takbeer while women raise their hands only up to their shoulders.

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahmatullah alayh) also says that she should raise them slightly and, according to one narration, she should not raise them at all.

Qiyam (The standing posture)

(1) In Qiyam (the standing posture) Men place their hands below Navel while women place their hands on their chest. In qiyam, (the standing posture) women are to place their hands on their bosoms. They can fasten them in any one of the different ways ‘akdh’ (grasping) or ‘wadh’ (placing), or they can simply rest the right palm on the left one.

Ruku’ (The bowing posture)

In Ruku’ (the bowing posture) Men’s back is horizontal while women suppose to bend their back only far enough to touch their knees. Looking from far it will look like a bow arc. They won’t flatten their back.

Unlike men, in ruk’u, women should tuck their arms into the body and not spread them outward. They should also merely place their hands over their knees with closed fingers, and not grasp them with the fingers spread wide open.

In some books of Hanafi fiqh it has been suggested that in ruku’ they should also bend their backs and knees slightly. The Hanbali scholar Imam Kharqi also says as part of a longer statement, “the woman should gather herself in ruku’ and sujud.” [al Mughni 1/134]

In fact, women should try to keep their fingers close together in all the postures of salah.

Sujud (Prostation)

During prostration men should allow for some space and distance between their stomachs and thighs, and arms and the side of the body, whilst women should press these limbs together. Again in prostration, men should raise their arms off the ground and allow for some distance but women should let them cling to the ground.

In Sajdah, men’s back portion is raised from ground and hands apart from body and fingers of feet twisted while women suppose to be gathered in a way so that all their body parts are close together and abdomen placed over her thighs. Both feet and ankles sticking out to the right and lower portion of back touching the ground.

Sitting in between two prostrations and sitting to recite Tashahhud

During Jalsa and Qaida (sitting between Sajdah and during Attahyat) men sit on their left ankle and their right foot’s fingers are twisted while women sit on floor and their both ankles and feet sticking out towards right hand side.

During the sitting of tashahhud, men are to rest on their legs and raise their right foot with the toes facing qiblah, whereas women are to take out both their legs towards the right hand side of the body and rest on the posterior without raising their right foot.

Statements of Imams of Fiqh concerning salah of women

Hanafi Fiqh

Imam Muhammed Amin Ibn ‘Abidin As- Shami [(rahmatullah alayh) d.1252 AH] writes:

A woman should raise her hands till her shoulders. She should not take her hands out of her sleeves. She must place her one palm over the other on her breast. She must bend slightly in ruku’. She will not spread her fingers out in ruku but rather keep them close together and place her palms on her knees without clasping them. She must bend her knees slightly. She must contract herself in ruku and sajdah. She must place her arms flat on the ground. She must sit with her legs out and resting on her posterior in tashahhud. In tashahhud she must keep her fingers close together. If any mistake occurs in salah, she must clap her hands without uttering anything. She cannot make Imamat of a male. It is makruh to have female only congregation. The female Imam will stand in their midst. It is makruh for her to attend the congregation. In a mixed congregation the females will stand at the rear. Jumu’ah is not obligatory on her but if she attends it, she will be absolved of responsibility. Neither is (salah of) ‘Eid compulsory on her nor the takbir of tashriq. It is  not mustahab for her to perform fajr when it brightens up. In the loud salahs, she will not raise her voice.

[Radd alMuhtar ala ad-Dur al-Mukhtar Vol 1, page 504]. With reference from Bahrur Raiq and Ghunyat almutamalli fi Sharh Munyat al-musalli]

Imam Muhammed Amin Ibn Abidin As- Shami (rahmatullah alayh) writes:

A woman should bend slightly in ruku’ without spreading her fingers out completely. However, she must contract herself and place her palms on her knees and bend them slightly. She must not spread out her arms.
[Radd alMuhtar ala ad-Dur al-Mukhtar, Vol.1, p504]

Mulla Ali Qari [(rahmatullah alayh) d.1014 AH] writes:

A woman will raise her hands till her shoulders (when performing takbir e tahrimah).
[Sharh Niqaya, Vol 1 p 239]

Imam Badrud din Ayni [d.855 AH] writes:

According to Ummud-Darda, Ata, Zuhri and Hammad, the ustadh of  Imam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayh), a woman should raise her hands till her breasts.
[alBinaya fi sharh alHidayah, Vol 2, p 187]

Muhammed Ibn Muqatil narrates the same verdict from the hanafi jurists. [as above]

Imam Burhan Uddin Ali bin Ali Marghinani [(rahimahullah) d. 511 AH], the author of Al-Hidayah states that this is the correct and accepted version. [Al hidayah, Vol 1, p 50]

Imam Abu Jafar At-Tahawi  [(rahimahullah) d. 321 AH] writes:

As for woman, our scholars (hanafi) state that she must sit in a manner that is most concealing.

[Mukhtasar Ikhtelaf alUlama, Vol 1, p 212]

It is stated in the Fataawaa Aalamgiriyyah:

As for a female she must bend slightly in ruku’ without spreading her fingers out. She must keep them together on her knees by merely placing the palms. She must bend her knees slightly and not spread her arms out.

A female should not spread out in ruku’ and sajdah while she will sit on her legs. In sajdah she will make her stomach rest on her thighs.

A woman will sit on her left buttock and position her legs out to the right side.
[al-Fataawaa al-Alamgiriyyah: vol. 1 p 75]

Imam Abu Ja’far at-Tahaawi (rahimahullah):

As for a woman, our scholars (Hanafi) state that she should sit in a manner that is most concealing.
[Mukhtasar ikhtilaaf al-ulamaa’: vol. 1 p.212]

Maliki Fiqh

Imam Dardir writes in Sharh al –saghir:

As for a woman she will remain contracted in all postures.
[Sharh al saghir, Vol.1, p 329]

Imam Abu Zayd Qayrawani (rahmatullah) [ d.386 AH] writes in his book Ar-Risala:

A woman should contract herself during sajdah (prostration).

Shafi’I Fiqh

Imam Abu Zakariyya An Nawawi [rahmatullah alayh (d.676 AH)] writes:

A woman will join her limbs together.
[al-Majmu’ sharh al-Muhadhdhab]

Hafiz Ibn Abdal Barr [d.463 AH] writes:

Imam Shafi [d.204AH] said: A woman should sit in the most concealing position.
[Al –Istidhkar, Vol 4, P 268]

Imam  Ibn Hajar al asqalani rahmatullah [d.852AH] writes:

A woman should not spread her limbs out (during prostration).
[Talkhisul Habir, Vol 1 ,p 252]

Hanbali Fiqh

Imam Abdullah Ibn Qudamah Al Maqdisi (rahmatullah alayh)[620 AH] writes:

A woman should draw her legs out to her right side. Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal  preferred this position for women. [Al mughni, Vol 1, p 562]

Imam Ibn Qudamah writes further:

Concealment is preferred for a woman. It is for this reason that extending the limbs out is not mustahab for a female. [Al mughni, Vol 2, p 202]

The Ahadith and the statements of the jurists indicate that a woman should contract herself completely during salah and try to conceal her as much as possible. From the ahadith it can be seen that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) has clearly differentiated between the sajdah of men and women and also other postures in the salah (prayer).

The companions, tabi’i, tabe tabi, all of them have accepted and practiced this method of salah for women. There has been no difference of opinion in this ummah on this issue. There is no statement of any sahaba, tabi’I or jurist that declares the salah of males and females as the same.

Recently a deviant sect known as ‘ahle hadith’ have started to propagate the view that salah of males and females is one and the same. This has no basis from Qur’an, sunnah or the actions of the salaf as saliheen.

Their Objection and its refutation

Ghayr Muqallid scholar Albani  who died in 1420 AH/1999 wrote a book “Sifat Salat al Nabi” [Prayers of the Prophet] . This book has many mistakes and it contains rulings which are against Qur’an and Sunnah. In this book Albani has expressed his view that the salah of males and females is one and the same. This view of Albani is against Ahadith of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), and actions of the companions.

Analysis of Ghayr Muqallid’s evidence and its refutation

Ahle hadith evidence No1:

Hadith of the prophet [ sal allahu alayhi wa sallam] says “صلوا كما رأيتموني أصلي (pray as you have seen me pray). This hadith is a general hadith and does not distinguish between salah of male and female. Hence male and female should perfom salah with same postures. [Sifat Salat al-Nabi, p. 189]

Analysis and Refutation:

If we take  literal meaning of the Hadith ‘Pray as you have seen me pray’, it will mean no human being on face of this earth can pray because none among us have seen with our eyes the method of prophet’s prayer.

This Hadith cannot be used to prove that women are like men in all aspects of Deen. The Ahadith above are sufficient evidence to show that men and women are not equal in all aspects of Deen. The meaning of the above Hadith is that women resemble men with regards to their body constitution. This is because Hawwa’ (alayhis salaam) was created from Adam (alayhis salaam) and thereof the progeny of men and women began.

The general principle is that women are equal to men in all religious rulings, because of the hadith: Women are counterparts of men (reported by Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal), except when there is evidence of a specific ruling which applies only to women. One of the cases in which the scholars mention specific rules for women is Prayer (salah). Since a specific ruling overtakes a general ruling, all those ahadith which differentiates between salah of males and females will be accepted and acted upon.

Not a single traditional Muhaddith and expert commentator of Hadith has interpreted the above Hadith as it is interpreted by Ghayr Muqallideen. Thus, it will be illogical for us to accept this new wahabi interpretation. Even if we had to accept this “principle” that women are like men in all aspects, then this principle only applies to those cases where there are no proofs indicating to the contrary. In the issue of women’s salat, there are many Ahadith in which Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) differentiated between the salat of both genders.

La-Madhabiyyah evidence No. 2:

Albani writes:
وهو قول إبراهيم النخعي قال
( تفعل المرأة في الصلاة كما يفعل الرجل )

أخرجه ابن أبي شيبة ( 1 / 75 / 2 ) بسند صحيح عنه

This is the view of Ibrahim An-Nakha’i who said:

تفعل المرأة في الصلاة كما يفعل الرجل

A woman does in prayer as does a man.

It has been transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaybah with an authentic chain. [Sifatus Salat al Nabi by Albani)

Analysis and Refutation:

Ibrahim An Nakh’ai (rahmatullah alayh) was a famous tabi’i. By quoting him Albani is trying to prove Ibrahim Nakh’ai was of the opinion that salah of male and a female is one and the same.

Albani has misquoted Ibrahim Al Nakhai!

Actual hadith found in the Musannaf of Imam Ibn Abi  Shaybah is

تقعد المرأة في الصلاة كما يقعد الرجل

which means “A woman sits in prayer as sits a man”

As a side note, this athar of An-Nakha’i (rahimahullah) actually means it is only permissible for a woman to sit in the same posture of a man. This quotation indicates permissibility.

In fact another narration shows Ibrahim An-Nakha’i said that a woman should sit to her side (which Al-Albani conveniently overlooked):

إبْرَاهِيمَ قَالَ : تَجْلِسُ الْمَرْأَةُ مِنْ جَانِبٍ فِي الصَّلَاةِ

Ibrahim said “A woman sits to the side in prayer.” [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah]

La-Madhabiyyah evidence No. 3:

Imam Bukhari reported in at-Taareekh as-Sagheer (p.95) with a sahih sanad from Umm ad-Dardaa’, “that she used to sit in her prayer just as a man sits, and she was a woman of understanding.”

Analysis and Refutation:

Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) has quoted this narration without any chain of narration. Hence it cannot be accepted.

However Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah has also quoted this hadith in his musannaf. Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates: Makhul reports that Umm ud-Dardaa used to sit like males in salaah. [al-Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270]

It is incorrect to use this narration for the following reasons:

1. Hafiz Jamaal ud-Din Yusuf al-Mizzi has mentioned her among the Taabi’in. (Tahzheeb al-Kamaal fi-Asmaa ir-Rijaal: vol.22 p 464).

The practice of a lone tabi’i is incorrect to adopt even if it may not be contrary to the principles.

Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalaani states in Fath ul-Baari:

The practice of a lone Tabi’i, even though it may not contradict any principle, will not be used as proof. [Fath ul-Baari: vol. 2 p 243]

Al-Haafiz stated in Fath al-Baari that Abu’l-Darda’ (radhiyallahu anhu) had two wives, both of whom were called Umm al-Darda’. Haafiz Ibn Hajar has only counted her among the Taabi’in. He says:

It can be realised from the narration of Makhul that it narration refers to the younger Umm ud-Dardaa, the Tabi’iyyah, not the elder sahabiyyah because Makhul met the former not the latter. [Ibid]

2. Even if it accepted that she was a Sahabiyyah, then the narration becomes munqati’ [broken] and will not be acceptable according to the principles of the Muhaddithin. It will also be regarded as her opinion. She did not encourage anyone else to follow her practice. Neither did she present any action or statement of Rasulullah nor the fatwa of any Khalifah.

Accordingly, with regard to the salah of women, the position of this opinion in the face of the practically adopted method of the ummah (tawaatur) is like the position of shaaz qira’ah as opposed to mutawaatir qira’ah. It is very clear that no muslim leaves the mutawaatir qira’ah for the shaaz qira’ah.

3. Furthermore, if one examines the words of this narration carefully, it supports the view of the majority. The sitting posture of Umm ud-Dardaa’ has been compared to the posture of males in this narration which infers that the posture of the other Sahaabiyyaat was different as mentioned previously.

4. Imam Abu Ja’far at-Tahaawi (rahimahullah) has narrated the following hadith:
Ibrahim Abi Abalah reports that he saw Umm ud-Dardaa’ performing salaah cross-legged.

[Tuhfat al-Akhyaarbi-Tarteebi Sharh Mushkil al-Aathaar li-Abi Ja’farat-Tahaawi: vol. 2 p 338, and Hafizh Mizzi has narrated this athar in Tahzheeb al-Kamaal: vol. 22 p 468]

قال رأيت أم الدرداء تصلي متربعة

Ibrahim bin Abi Ablah narrates: I saw Ummu Darda’ performing salat in the Tarabbu’ position. (Tuhfa Al-Akhyaar, vol 2, pg 338, Dar Balansiyya)

This narration contradicts the one mentioned by Ibn Abi Shaybah (rahimahullah).

It will accordingly not remain worthy of substantiating any Shar’i law. In another narration of Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (vol. 1 p270), one finds the following words:

Ibrahim said: A woman should sit in salah as a man does.

Ghayr Muqallid evidence No. 4:

The hadith of Abu Mutee’ al-Hakam ibn ‘Abd-Allaah al-Balkhi from ‘Umar ibn Dharr from Mujaahid from ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Umar who said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: When a woman sits during the prayer she should place one thigh against the other and when she prostrates she should press her stomach against her thighs, compressing herself in the most concealing manner, for Allaah looks at her and says: O My angels, I call you to bear witness that I have forgiven her.
[Sunan al-Bayhaqi al-Kubra, 2/222.]

This hadeeth is da’eef,[ weak] because it was narrated by Abu Mutee’ al-Balkhi.

Ibn Hajar said:

Ibn Mu’een said: He is nothing. On one occasion he said: He is da’eef. Al-Bukhaari said: He is da’eef. Al-Nasaa’i said: He is da’eef.

[Lisaan al-Mizaan, 2/334. ]

Ibn ‘Adiyy said: It is clear that Abu Mutee’ is da’eef in his ahaadeeth and everything that he narrated, and for most of his narrations there are no corroborating reports.

[Al-Kaamil fi Du’afa’ al-Rijaal, 2/214 ]

Analysis and Refutation:

According to the principles of “hadith”, laid down by the Fuqaha and Muhadithun, this hadith can be relied on, since it is supported by many other Ahadith and verdicts of Sahaba, who were the students of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). It is supported by many “Shawahid” (a term of Usul al Hadith).

Ghayr Muqallid evidence No. 5:

A third hadith was narrated from Yazeed ibn Abi Habeeb, saying that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) passed by two women who were praying. He said: “When you prostrate, press some of your flesh to the ground, for women are not like men in that.”

This was narrated by Abu Dawood in al-Maraaseel (p. 118) and by al-Bayhaqi (2/223).

This hadeeth is mursal, which is a category of da’eef (weak).

Analysis and Refutation:

The issue of woman’s salat is purely a fiqhi issue and has to be dealt with in the light of what the Fuqaha state. They were masters in understanding the meanings of the Ahadith as stated by the great Muhaddith and student of Imam Bukhari, Imam Tirmidhi (rahimahumullah). The Fuqaha of all four madhaahib accept “Mursal” ahadith, but obviously with certain conditions (Athar Al-Hadith). Therefore, it will be totally incorrect to blatantly state that “this hadeeth is mursal, which is a category of da’eef (weak)”, indirectly inferring that this hadith cannot be accepted.

La-Madhabiyyah evidence No. 6:

The only evidence that counts is the words of Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

Analysis and Refutation:

It is incorrect to state“but the only evidence that counts is the words of Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)” . This statement infers that the statements of Tabi’un and Ulama cannot be accepted. This is totally incorrect and goes against the teachings of the Qur’an and the Ahadith. Allah Ta’ala mentions in the Qur’an:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ

“O those who believe obey Allah and obey his messenger and those in authority amongst you” (Sura Nisa: 59)

Early commentators of Qur’an such as Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Hasan Basri have stated that “those in authority amongst you” refer to the Fuqaha and Ulama (see: Ma’arif Al-Qur’an). We are commanded to follow the teachings of Tabi’un and Ulama for their teachings are based on the Qur’an and Ahadith.

Why The Mujlisul Ulama’ has “Harsh/Rude Attitude”??

We keep getting Messages and mails on why Majlisul Ulama (from whom we share most of our Articles) are “Rude in tone” “Harsh” “Humiliating” etc etc…

The Head of Majlisul Ulama, Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai (Daamat Barakatuhum) himself answers the Question in the topic:

Respected Brother,
Your e-mail dated 12 March 2011  refers.

While we do not answer letters  questioning our attitude and  methodology, we shall go this extra mile to assist you to  understand reality.

People who have no real  intention of following the Deen, present the excuse of ‘harsh attitude’ and ‘akhlaaq’ to justify  their misdeeds. With this red  herring they deflect the minds of  people from the problem and the  corruption.

For example, when a Molvi engages in prayers, sits in a  church under twelve crosses alongside priests these critics do not see the harshness and the  lack of akhlaaq and the kufr of  this practice. But when someone  criticizes the kufr, he is reviled on the basis of his ‘harshness’.

When molvies commit capital  kufr by abrogating the ahkaam  of the Shariah with their kufr MMB, people accept such harsh perpetration of kufr, But when  we criticize this perpetration, we  are reviled for being ‘too harsh’.  Furthermore, what you are  blissfully unaware of is that our  ‘harsh attitude’ is instituted after  all other methods of consulting  and convincing the miscreants  have failed.

When they are not prepared to  listen and meaningfully discuss  in privacy, then our ‘harsh’ attitude becomes Waajib, nay  Fardh

Since all of these critics enjoy the haraam activities which the  molvies have halaalized nowadays, they try to justify and  defend the evil practices and the  errant molvies. But in the process  of doing so they are unable to  refute our arguments. They only  harp on our attitude and  methodology. In this way they  detract attention from the  problem.

Our attitude is commensurate  with the crime. If our tone  appears to be ‘too harsh’, then their crime is too vile. The  attitude is the effect of the  villainy of the sin.

Most people fail to understand  the permissibility, efficacy and necessity  of  the  ‘harsh’ attitude  because they lack knowledge of  the variety of attitudes  among  the Ambiya and Sahaabah. While  they the harp on one dimension  of Rasulullah’s attitude, they are  ignorant or deliberately blind to  the other ‘harsh’ dimension which dictated even gourging out the eyes of criminals. They forget  that in Daarul Islam the  consequence of the type of kufr they are perpetrating nowadays is execution with the sword. We do  not know if execution with the sword is ‘too harsh’ or within the  confines of ‘good akhlaaq’. We do not know if whipping the public  is perhaps ‘too harsh’ or not  within the limits of ‘good  akhlaaq’.

Once Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi  wasallam) remarked to a person who looked into the house, that  he felt like throwing a scissors into his eyes. Nabi (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam) said that hot iron rods will be inserted into the  eyes of a man who looks at the  beauty of a strange woman. Are  these comments perhaps ‘too  harsh’, and do they not form part  of ‘good akhlaaq’.

Nabi Musa (alayhis salaam)  without making the slightest investigation to establish the factual position grabbed hold of  the hair and beard of Nabi Haaroon (alayhis salaam), his elder brother, and violently shook  him. Allah Ta’ala did not upbraid  him for this act. Allah Ta’ala upheld it. Was his violent act against his elder, Nabi brother perhaps ‘too harsh’. Was his  action beyond the confines of  ‘good akhlaaq’?

When the Qur’aan and Rasulullah  (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) describe the believers and doers  of immorality and kufr to be kaafiroon, fasiqoon, faajiroon,  jaahiloon, munaafiqoon, etc., are these epithets ‘too harsh’ and  beyond the confines of  ‘good akhlaaq’?

Is the halaalizing and consumption of rotten, diseased  haraam carrion a tolerable deed?  Is it not ‘too harsh’ to make  halaal what that Allah has made haraam’. Does ‘good akhlaaq’  allow that we feed carrion and poison to your children? If your  beloved child is about to ingest a lethal poison and we who are  observing this suicidal act leave  the child to consume the poison  because he/she refuses to accept  our soft an ‘akhlaaqi’ approach to abstain from the poison will you  praise and commend us for our  ‘good akhlaaq’ and not abstain  from adopting ‘too harsh a tone’,  when you see the dead body of  your dead because we contented child – dead because of the poison and we contented ourselves with ‘good akhlaaq’? Or will you praise shower on us other rewards if we had harshly grabbed your child’s hand and rudely snatched the  poison from his  hand and left him kicking up a  tantram like Sanha and Radio Shaitaan?

Once when a molvi said that he  felt like becoming a Christian, Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (rahmatullah alayh) gave  him a full and a hard clout full in  the face and shouted at him: ‘Shaitaan! Get away and become  a Christian!’ Those who have read  the writings of Hadhrat Thanvi  can testify to his ‘too harsh’ attitude. So ‘harsh’ was his  attitude and methodology that even The Majlis would not have  become his mureed if it (The  Majlis) had existed if during    Hadhrat’s lifetime.  Was the  action and attitude of Hadhrat Hakeemul Ummat then ‘too rude’ and beyond the confines of ‘good  akhlaaq’ merely because we may not be able to tolerate it?

Hadhrat Gangohi (rahmatullah  alayh) said in his fatwa that  those who believe against and propagate against polygamy like  the MMB crowd, will ‘hang upside  down in Jahannum’; they are ‘kaafirs, murtads, enemies of Allah, enemies of the Rasool, etc..etc. Was his attitude ‘too harsh’ and beyond the limits of ‘good akhlaaq’?

Brother, we can write a volume of  examples from the lives of the  Ambiya, Rasulullah (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam), the Sahaabah  and the Auliya to show the  beloved ‘harsh attitude’ which by  Allah Azza Wa Jal is an act of  ibaadat of the highest merit. You  will not hesitate to permit the  doctor to treat you harshly by  stabbing into your body and  cutting you up and opening up  your heart to save you from the  disease which threatens to destroy you. Because you understand physical and worldly  benefits, you will praise and reward the doctor who had  treated you harshly. But since deep down in your heart Deeni  benefit is an insignificant issue, the ‘harsh/ rude/ insulting attitude’ argument is a  convenient scape-goat for  justifying the maladies of kufrfisq and fujoor. But when we  adopt ‘harsh attitudes’ to  operate on Muslims who are  suffering from spiritual cancer  and spiritual Aids, then there is a  clamour of baseless criticism. People should look at their  crimes and their harsh attitudes  of pride and arrogance, not at  our ‘harsh’ remedial attitude. The problem, disease and cancer are their sins while our ‘harsh’ attitude is the medicine and the  cure for the malignant cancer devouring their hearts, souls and  bodies.

A.S.  Desai

For Mujlisul Ulama of S.A.

The view of Mufti Ebrahim Desai on Mujlisul Ulama

The editor of the Majlis, Hazrath Moulana Ahmad Sadeck Desai Saheb Madda Zilluhu is an Aalim of a very high calibre. He has a deep understanding of Shariah. This is clearly gauged from his innumerable publications. Hazrath Moulana is the Khalifa of Hazrath Maseehullah Khan Saheb rahmatullah alayh. Hazrath has been selflessly dedicated to Amal bil Maroof and Nahi Anil Munkar for the past few decades. Hazrath is also engaged in various other activities. It is surprising how much one person can do. Allah has granted Hazrath great courage and strength. He is a person of high level of taqwa and mujahadah. He does not go after position and fame. If that was the case, Hazrath would not have selflessly and openly condemned many wrongs and evils for the fear of becoming unpopular. Many people throughout the world continue to benefit from Hazrath Moulana’s publications.

Television is haraam and we concur with Hazrath’s view on that. It is possible that the different radio stations err in some issues. If Hazrath points that out, it should be accepted and corrected. It is incorrect to brand Hazrath of being over extreme when he is fulfilling his obligation on Nahi Anil Munkar. Those that claim that Hazrath is extreme, what is their measure to claim that? If people violate the laws of Shariah and Hazrath rightfully condemns that, how can that be extremism? What do such people expect Hazrath to do? Keep quiet? What will that be then? Complacence, which is a sin.

It should also be pointed out that differences of opinions among academics is regarded as academic honesty. This is common even among academics in secular qualifications. The different views among the Ulama, based on academics is a mercy upon the ummah and should be tolerated. If other Ulama have differing views from Hazrath’s views and both are based on academic substantiations, then it will be incorrect to brand any one view as being an extreme view. While we concur with Hazrath on the issue of television and open wrongs of television and radio stations, we may differ with him on other issues. However, we will respect his view and tolerate it as Hazrath’s views are generally substantiated by Shariah.

If anyone claims to have an academically different opinion and he does not stand up to the academic challenges made to him, that is academic dishonesty and such an opinion cannot be tolerated as that is regarded as academic dishonesty.

Another issue is the tone and manner of condemning a vice. This is based of hikmah and wisdom. At times, the Quran condemns certain wrongs in certain ways, medium to harsh. This is based on what is best in the interest of that time and matter. An Aalim of Deen is imbued with hikmah. He exercises that hikmah and whatever he honestly feels between him and Allah is the most efficient tone in condemning a wrong, he does that.

The different ways of Ulama condemning wrongs, some with softness and others harshly etc. should be viewed in this light. Concentrate on the actual issue pointed out rather than focus on the style and tone.

When the laws of Shariah are violated and people, especially Ulama, keep quiet, that incurs the wrath of Allah. The silence of Ulama will lead to distortion of Shariah and Deen. Allah condemned the Ulama of the Yahood and Nasaara for keeping quiet against open violation of the Shariah. Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

“This knowledge of Deen will be carried by just people from pious predecessors. They will refute distortions of extremists, refute baseless claims and wrong interpretations of ignorant people”.

And Allah knows best


Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Madrassah In’aamiyyah.

Prawn “Halaalizing” Obsession

Question:  Please view the article which Mufti Taqi wrote on the  issue of prawns (shrimps). Are  prawns a fish, hence halaal?

Answer by Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai: 

It appears to us that prawn addiction induces prawn  hallucination which constrains the honourable Muftis to view  this perennial issue irrationally in order to fabricate permissibility by hook or crook.

There is absolutely no doubt in  the principle which the Hanafi  Math-hab has adopted for the  hillat (being halaal) of  sea  animals. There is no ikhtilaaf  (difference of opinion) among  the Hanafi Fuqaha in holding the  view that only samak (fish) is  halaal.. Whatever samak is, there  is unanimity of our Fuqaha that  only samak is halaal. To  understand the meaning of  samak (fish) there is no need for  dictionaries nor for zoologists.  One only needs to have some    sane brains – brains which have  not become corrupted by carrion consumption and addiction to  crabs and prawns.

No person whose brains are not    deranged will say on physical  viewing that a crab is a fish. If a  prawn is ‘fish’, then a crab too is  ‘fish’. There is no difference  between a crab and a prawn. The  basic difference is only in the  size of the two creatures. It is  meaningless, in fact, moronic to  say that a big crab/lobster is  haraam and a small crab/lobster  (prawn) is halaal. As long as  la  person is not physically blind  and not mad, he will give a 100%  correct fatwa  if he sees a prawn/ shrimp.

Confusion has been created by  citing from Hayaatul Haiwaan.    Allaamah Dameeri does not say  that ‘Al-B(P)rawn samakun’, nor  does he say: “Al-Jheengha  samakun.” He says: “AR-RUBAYAAN SAMAKUN SAGHEERUN.”  We fail to unravel  the conundrum which says that  rubayaan is prawns/ shrimps.  From whence did they gain the  idea that rubayaan is prawns?  Rubayaan is tiny fish which could  be sardines or the even smaller  than sardine type of fish which  people eat in African countries  and in Bangladesh.

We are not interested in the Shaafi’ definition of ‘samak’. We  are Hanafis and we say that what  is not fish to us is haraam. A fish  is what our brains and eyes tell  us is a fish. The definition of the  zoologists while helpful in  deciding a sea animal which we  have never seen nor are aware  of, is not of decisive importance.  Thus, if the zoologists, for  example, say that whales and  dolphins are fish, we shall say  that these animals are haraam  because our brains and eyes tell  us that they are not fish, but are  mammals. So what Makhzan    says is of no consideration if our brains and eyes issue the ruling    that a crab is a crab and not fish.

Mufti Taqi Sahib is in error for  saying: In Hayaatul hayawaan it  is written that prawns are a type  of  fish.” This is not stated in  Hayatul Hayawaan as mentioned  above.  The word prawns does  not appear in the kitaabs, nor  the term jheengah, the Urdu  equivalent.  What is the daleel  for the claim that rubayaan is  prawns? No one doubts the  reality of prawns simply because  of the name. No one says that  prawns are not fish on account  of the word ‘prawn’ as implied by Mufti Taqi.  We  don’t say that hake is not fish because of the word hake nor do we negate   Red Roman and Marlin being fish  on the basis of the terms Red  Roman and Marlin, nor do we say  that shark is not a fish because    of the term shark. We say prawns  are not fish because prawns are a kind of crabs (sartaan). Those  who say that prawns are not  crabs, should devote some time,  not to studying the books of  zoology, but to physically put a  crab alongside a prawn, then    compare the two and seek a fatwa from their brains and eyes. That  is  what Hadhrat Khalil Ahmed  Sahaaranpuri (rahmatullah alayh) did.

If we see and examine an eel, our  brains and eyes will be able to  determine whether it is a fish or  any other sea animal. Regardless  of what has been said about it,    our brains and eyes are sufficient  to determine what exactly the  animal is. We are not in need of  the fatwas of the zoologists for  this determination.   

We do not agree with the view  that a fish does not have specific  characteristics. It simply must  have specific characteristics.  Some of its characteristics are  common to all sea animals, and    some are specific to it (i.e. fish).  Whatever the characteristics may  be, our brains and eyes are  sufficient adjudicators to make a determination without the   opinions of the zoologists and the guesswork of our Ulama who  have issued the fatwa of permissibility without having seen with their naked eyes what a prawn/shrimp is.

As for the urf  (custom in vogue)  argument, it is a deception.  Those communities addicted to  consuming prawns, e.g. the  Bangladeshi and Gujerati  Muslims, have been eating prawns since time immemorial. They  consume prawns because they  were born into the world of   prawns. They simply followed the dietery practices of their  forefathers. From birth they  discovered every person eating  prawns. They eat prawns not  because they say that these  creatures are fish, but because  they grew up eating prawns fully  understanding the difference  between prawns and fish. Thus,  they don’t say that prawns are  fish. They say that prawns are  jheengha and fish is machli. It is  only in very recent times that it  has been dinned into the ears of  people that prawns are  consumed because they are fish.

If in an urf consuming rats has  become an accepted practice or  consuming dogs, then such urf  will not render rats and dogs  halaal on the basis of the  argument that dogs are like sheep because a number of characteristics in sheep are to be  found in dogs as well. Thus, such  consumption of dog meat will not render the canine ‘beef’ and ‘mutton’ halaal.

The argument that the view of  Aimmah Thalaathah (Imaam  Maalik, Imaam Shaafi’ and Imaam  Ahmad Bin Hambal –  rahmatullah alayhim) has  introduced takhfeef (mitigation/extenuation/relaxation in  rigidity) on this issue is not valid.  Is there takhfeef for Hanafis in  bush-rat meat because this is the  ‘urf’ of Maalikis? Is fox-meat tolerable for Hanafis because it is  permissible for Shaafis? In short,  to understand whether a prawn  is a fish or some other species of  aquatic animals, simply utilize the  bounty of your eyes. You need  not sap any energy from your  sensorium to understand that prawns, crabs and lobsters are not fish. Was-salaam.

We have also put up more detailed articles regarding the Hanafi view on Aquatic foods in the following link:

1. Shrimps–Halaal Or Haraam? (Hanafi View)

2. The Animals of the Ocean and the Hanafi Dalaa’il (Proofs)

Ar-Rijsul Mal’oon — The Accursed Filth [Islamic View on Gayism, Lesbianism, Masturbation, etc]

[Majlisul Ulama]


Verily we have ennobled the Children of Adam (Insaan), and We have carried them on the land and the sea, and We have nourished them with Tayyibat (halaal and wholesome food), and We have granted them superiority over numerous of Our creation [Surah al-Israa’: Aayat 70]

Allah Ta’ala has deputed the Mu’min man to be His Vicegerent on earth. Insaan is a creation enjoying vast superiority over all other forms of creation. Even the Malaaikah had been commanded to prostrate to Aadam (alayhissalaam). The Sujood was commanded to illustrate Insaan’s superiority over even the sinless Malaaikah.

Insaan will remain ennobled and superior as long as he retains his Insaaniyat (humanity). When man extinguishes his attribute of Insaaniyat, then he denegrates to depths far below the level of even dogs and pigs.

The methodology by which secular education is imparted in this age, i.e. the western secular system, effaces almost every attribute of Islamic Insaaniyat. All the noble attributes of moral excellence which sustain insaaniyat uttrerly distinguished by the libertinism which is innate in the western system of education. The immoral, debased, perverted lifestyle of the students of western universities is vociferous and conspicious evidence for this reality.

One of the prime effects of the immoral cult of westernism is sexual perversion – perversion which puts even the shayaateen to shame – perversion which not even the lowly beasts of the jungle indulge in. Western education cloaks sex perversion such as gayism, lesbianism, homosexuality, masturbation, oral sec and many other forms of sexual perversion initially unknown to even the shayaateen, with respectability. Even such perverts which put the shayaateen to shame are accorded respectability in western civilization.

Whilst Muslims of all persuasions still are unanimous in the rejection of the immoral villianies of gayism, lesbianism and homosexuality, their emulation of the western kuffaar has made sexual acts of perversion such as masturbarion and oral sex acceptable. Thus it is known that these satanic misdeeds of sexual perversion are widely practised by even Muslims of this age.

Some scholars, citing obscurities and blissfully unaware of reality, bestow the mantle of permissibility and acceptabiloty to these filthy, demeaning, immoral, accursed acts of sexual perversion. Acts of sexual perversion are morally destructive and physically debilitating. It should be well understood that  everything which Allah Ta’ala has made haraam – everything whuch is filth (rijs), in addition to the spiritual ruin following in its wake, the physical body too is harmed. Two well known physically harmful effects of the perversion of masturbation are weakening of vision, weakenung of sexual prowess and even impotency.

The worst destruction wrought by sexual perversion is the total darkening of the spiritual heart. The Noor of Imaan is effaced. The Noor of Aql is effaced. Zulmat (spiritual darkness) envelops the heart. When man’s spiritual stamina is destroyed, his insaaniyat vanishes and he becomes sub-bestial – worse than dogs and pigs. May Allah Ta’ala save us from the evil lurking in our nafs and from the snares of deception of shaitaan, the accursed one.


Allah Ta’ala says in the Holy Qur’an That He has not placed on any persons a burden or a responsibility which the person cannot bear. Every command and prohibition which Allah Ta’ala has ordered Muslims to observe are fully within their control. However, the nafs and shaitaan convince people that they are unable to control their desires. This idea is fixed into the imagination and the deceived person starts to believe that he is unable to withdraw himself from the crime or evil in which he is involved.

The sin of masturbation is an evil of exceptionally grave implications in both this world world and the Aakhirah. For a couple of minutes of nafsaani and carnal pleasure, the Mu’min sacrifices his everlasting pleasure of the Aakhirah and in addition invites great worldly calamities on himself. Among the calamities of the hereafter for this evil act, is the disgrace mentioned in the following Hadith:

“The Masturbator is Mal’oon (cursed by Allah Ta’ala).”

“On the day of Qiyaamah the masturbator’s hand will be pregnant”

Everyone will then see the disgrace of the masturbator. Besides these, there are other severe punishments in store for these evil act.

Among the worldly punishments for this crime is the later sexual impotency which the masturbator will suffer. In later years after marriage he will regret when it is too late to regret. The Masturbator becomes sexually weaker with each act of Masturbation until it will reach a degree that he will not be able to satisfy his wife’s sexual desire.  This will lead to grave problems in married life. Numerous people who had involved themselves in this abomination run around for medical treatment in a bid to gain sexual prowess, but every treatment fails because the impotency is a punishment from Allah Ta’ala for having committed the unnatural abuse.

It is therefore, essential that you sum up courage and seek Allah’s aid and suppress your nafs. Remember that nothing can be achieved without struggling against the nafs. Mujaahadah is essential. Dua’ is not sufficient is such things. The need is to struggle and ask Allah’s help.

Ask yourself the question: “If the urge for this evil rises in me and even if it appears to be overwhelming, will I indulge in it if my Ustaadh is standing in my presence? Will I indulge in this act if I know that my father is awake in the room watching me? Will I do this evil deed if for example Hazratji is sleeping in the bed alongside me and he is awake?”

Most certainly you will say: “No!” That you will never commit this act in such circumstances. This indicates. Allah Ta’ala has in fact created sufficient willpower in every person to combat the urge of the nafs. But we are deceived and tricked by shaitaan to believe that we are unable to restrain ourselves. If one truly is unable to restrain oneself, then how come a person is able to restrain himself when in the presence of his seniors?

Now you should ponder that Allah Ta’ala is watching your every move in the darkness of the room. While you are perpetrating the vile deed, Allah Ta’ala looks on. The two recording Angels are standing nearby looking on, shaking their heads in shame and recording the evil deed with great grief. Is your Ustaadh, your father and Hadhratji more important than Allah Ta’ala? Nauthubillah!

You can restrain yourself if you know your seniors are with you in the room, but you think that you cannot restrain yourself when even you have the knowledge of the fact that Allah Ta’ala and the Malaaikah too are with you in the room where you are committing this very grave and immoral misdeed.

Tell yourself, “What would be my condition, if my maut (death) comes while I am indulging in this act? How will I face Allah Ta’ala on the Day of Qiyaamah if I have to die in the process of this very evil deed? People have died in such vile circumstances, thereby destroying their life of the Aakhirah.

When the urge for this evil deed rises in you. Immediately recite Audhubillahi.. and Wala Haula.. Get up, perform Wudhu and two rak’ats of Nafl Salaah and sit a few minutes in Thikrullah. By repearedly doing so and pondering in the way explained above, Insha-Allah, you will overvome the onslaught of the nafs and regain your purity.

If you are not going to muster up courage and make mujaahadah against your nafs, your ilm will be devoid of noor. There will be no Barakat in the knowledge you pursue and no Barakat in your life. You will be constantly under the Wrath and Curse of Allah Ta’ala. May Allah Ta’ala save us all. The walls, the bed, the floor and everything in the room will bear evidence in the Aakhirah of the vile deed you are indulging in.

I take an oath by Allah Ta’ala that it is not difficult to suppress your nafs and over come its evil urge. You only have to abandon your imagination and a few times muster up courage. Break out of the room when the urge comes and take wudhu.

When the bandah tries, Allah Ta’ala will then send His Aid. But if you are not going to struggle,  you should not expect Allah’s aid. We make dua’ that Allah Ta’ala saves us all from the evil lurking in our nafs.


“We have created man in the most beautiful form; then, We return him to the lowest of the low ones”   [Surah Teen]

Man has been created as a bearer of high and noble attributes. In him, he mirrors the attributes of divinity (Sifaat-e-Ilahiyyah) such as life, knowledge, power, will, sight, hearing, speech, love, etc. In the authoritative tafseer of the aforementioned aayat it is said that Insaan (man) gas been adorned with the noor of Aql (The light of intelligence). This celestial faculty of intelligence creates in Insaan the capacity for the manifestation of the lofty and divine attributes of Allah Ta’ala. By virtue of the Noor of Aql mam becomes incandescent by being a mirror for these lofty attributes and manifestations (Tajalliyaat-e-Zilliyah and Sifaat-e-Zaatiyah). As a direct consequence of this lofty pedestal which Insaan occupies in the Divine Scheme, the Mantle of Khilafah (Vicegerency) has been conferred on him. Stating this fact, the Qur’aan declares: “Verily I shall be creating on earth a Khalifah  In the Tafseer of the aayat mentioned at the beginning, it is also said that  in relation to all other species of life, man has been endowed with the most beautiful form. All other animals have been created in a lowly form with their heads downwards. Their faces constantly pointing downwards to the earth indicate their low rank in relation to man. In contrast, man has been created upright and he eats his food by means of raising it with his hands unlike the lowly beasts with faces downwards.


In the tafseer of the Aayat it is said that when man willingly destroys his natural ability to progress to the pedestal of elevation, he degenerates and falls from his lofty mansion. He then falls to the levels lower than every vile creature. According to the authentic tafseer he reaches levels lower than than the levels of dogs, pigs and even shayaateen.


According to the authentic tafseer, prior to the creation of Aadam (alayhissalaam), the Malaaikah (angels) entertained the opinion that Allah Ta’ala will not create any being superior to them. Allah Ta’ala negated this opinion of the Malaaikah by creating Adam (alayhissalaam) and making him a manifestation of Divine attributes. To illustrate Insaan’s superiority over all species of all creation, Allah Ta’ala commanded the Malaaikah to make sajdah (prostration) to him (Nabi Aadam alayhissalaam). The superiority of man is well emphasised by the statement of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam): “Allah created Aadam in His (Allah’s) Form”. Insha-Allah, this Hadith will be explained in greater detail at some later stage.
Here it is sufficient to mention the interpretation of the shariah who explain the similarity on the grounds of man’s attributes of intelligence, sight, hearing, etc. These lofty attributes are located in that part of the human body called the head.

It is for this reason the Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) forbade striking or slapping the face of any human being or even an animal. In the tafseer of the Qur’anic aayat which permits husbands to beat wives in cases of necessity, it is said, “The face shall not be slapped”. Explaining the reason for this prohibition  of slapping the face, Imam Nawawi (rahmatullah alayh) says in Sharhul Muslim: “Because the face is the embodiment of man’s beauty in addition to it being of sublime nature”.


In man there are six metaphysical or non-material or spiritual faculties know as Lataa’if-e-Sittah. Two of these lofty faculties, viz., Lataa’if Khafi and Latifah Akhfa are located in the head. The Latifah Akhfa is located in the centre on the brain while the location of Latifah Khafi is between the eyebrows. The functions of these faculties are the highest states of reflection and contemplation, progressing from the high state of Fanaa to Fanaa-ul-Fanaa. These are spiritual or ruhaani stages which shall not be discussed in this article.


In the Ahadith, the following narration appears:

“Verily your mouths are the pathways of Qur’aan, therefore purify your mouths with miswaak”.

The Makhaarij or places from whence the Qur’aanic Huroof  (letters) emanate are located in the mouth. The highest ibaadat of Tilaawat of the Qur’aan Shariff is effected via the mouth, hence the hadith describes the mouth as “The Pathway of Qur’aan”. Since it is, literally speaking, the channel for the recitation of the Qur’aan Shareef, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi Wasallam) emphasised much the maintainance of its purity. The emphasis on the purity of the mouth could be gauged from the many times Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) would use the miswaak everyday to clean his mouth. The practice of the miswaak is strongly stressed by the Shariah. In one hadith, Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“When the servant of Allah uses the miswaak and the performs Salaat, an angel stands behind him, listening attentively to the recitation of the Qur’aan Shariff. The angel draws closer and closer to the reciter and places his mouth on the mouth of the musalli. Thus every word emanating from the mouth of the musalli enter’s the angel’s mouth, therefore maintain your mouth pure and clean for the Qur’aan.”


The actual purpose underlying the creation of man is Zikrullah or the Remembrance of Allah Ta’ala. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ordered Muslims to maintain their tongue fresh with the zikr of Allah Ta’ala.

The facts mentioned above will indicate that Insaan is Ashraful Maqlooqat (the noblest of creation) and the noblest part of his body is his head which is the location for lofty faculties and attributes whivh earn for him the designation of “the form of Allah”. In order that he maintains his lofty rank and progresses continously towards loftier mansions and closer Divine Proximity, it is essential that man exercises restraint over his physical and animal qualities. If he fails in this respect, he will descend to a level below the lowly beasts. Allah Ta’ala has endowed man with intelligence, will-power and shame. He must employ these attributes to subdue his animal and carnal desires and refrain from indulgence in the excesses of his lust. If he fails in this achievement he will annihilate himself spiritually and degenerate to sub-animal levels.

The sublimity of Islam is of such lofty degree that it exhorts its adherents to adopt dignity, deportment and propriety in even sexual relationship. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) advised his Ummah to abstain from total nudity when indulging in sex and behave “like asses” . Since Islam is a culture of transcendal values calculated to ensure maximum remembrance of Allah Ta’ala, a Muslim should not debase himself to a sub-animal level by resorting to the vile practice of oral-sex.

The mouth of Insaan is the pathway of the Qur’aan Majeed, his tongue has been commanded to remain fresh with Zikrullah; his mouth is situated in the noblest part of his body; the functions of his mouth are noble and lofty; his mouth is the passageway for transference of the recited Qur’aan Majeed into the mouth of the listening angel. He cannot, therefore, debase and dishonour himself so disgracefully by resorting to the revolting practice of oral sex. A Muslim should not dishonour that head and face which the shariah of Islam commands to be honoured. Allah Ta’ala honoured the human head with noble qualities, the highest being the Noor of Aql, but man debases that lofty part of his body by indulging in an act of bestiality not even vommitted by the lowly beasts. It does not behove man in general, and a Muslim in particular to degrade himself in this manner.

The Mu’min’s link with Allah Ta’ala is so strong or ought to be so strong that the Shariah gas prescribed a particular dua’ to be recited even when a man approaches his wife for sexual relations. Even at the moment of reaching climax and ejaculation, the Mu’min is required to read in his mind (without moving the lips) a special dua’ so that he remains protected from any shaitaani interferences. We learn from the Hadith of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) that shaitaan attempts to interfere with man even while he indulges in lawful sex, hence the wordings of the special dua’ for this occasion is:

“O Allah! Protect us from shaitaan and protect the offspring you grant us, from shaitaan”

Allah Ta’ala has honoured man highly, hence the Qur’aan says: “Verily, We have honoured the sons of Aadam (alayhissalaam).” He is therefore not allowed to debase himself with bestial acts which even the lowly beasts do not commit.

The mouth is an honoured part of the physical body. It is not a receptacle of impurity. The shariah emphasises the maintenance of purity, even in the developing foetus, Allah Ta’ala has arranged for the maintenance of the purity of the mouth. The umbilical cord connects the developing embryo to its mother. It is the passageway in which exchange of nutrients and waste materials with the circulatory system of the mother takes place. In man the umbilical cord arises at the navel below which is the location of the rebellious nafs which reduces man to sub-animal levels if not restrained. Why does Allah Ta’ala not create the foetus with the umbilical cord attached to its mouth so that its nutrition reaches it in the normal way, viz., via the mouth? Right until the very last moments prior to its emergence into the external world, the baby’s nutrition is via the umbilical cord. Immediately on reaching the outside world its nourishment reaches it from the mouth. Since the umbilical cord is also the passageway for impure waste matter, its connection is near to the lowly nafs. The mouth has thus been guarded against impurities.

The facts presented in this article should be sufficient to convey to Muslims that their Imaan and the spirit of the teachings of Islam do not permit them to grovel in the dregs of debasement and perpetrate moral injustice by utilising the mouth for deriving sexual pleasure. This is not the function of the mouth. It is misappropriation of an amaanat (trust). All parts of the body are amaanat which have to be utilised in accordance with the instructions of Allah Ta’ala. Such contamination and moral pollution as entailed by oral sex are most unbecoming the dignity and rank of man, especially if the Insaan happens to be a follower of the illustrious shariah of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Allah Ta’ala states in the Qur’aan Shariff:

“Verily, Allah Loves those who purify themselves.”

Question: A Young Mufti says that Oral Sex is Jaaiz. Please comment

Answer: The debasing and sub-human act called oral sex is not permissible. The young mufti sahib has much to learn.

Question: A Shafi’i alim told me that according to his Madh-hab sperm is paak (clean/tahir, not impure), hence oral sex is permissible.

Answer: Tell this man that inspite of sperm being ‘paak’ in his Madh-hab, his Madh-hab says that when he ejaculates sperm he becomes so polluted that ghusl becomes wajib. The degree of pollution which sperm causes prohibits him from even using his tongue to recite even one verse from the Qur’aan Shareef. This is the type of qiyaas (analogical reasoning) which the juhhaal (ignoramuses) of today employ to legalize evil, immorality and haraam acts. May Allah Ta’ala save Muslims from such deceits who parade as Alims.


One of our reader writes, “Recently I met a person who appeared very feminine. However, I was informed that the person is a Muslim male. Could you please explain such persons – homosexuals and the like – in the light of Islam? This subject is never dealt with. How does one identify such persons? For example: A child is born male but whilst growing up some changes may occur such as an inclination to feminine way of speech and dress. In some cases a person appears as a normal male but has a tendency towards male relationship. How does one cope with such a problem Islamically, socially, medically, etc.? In some cases, some persons possess both male and female sexual organs. Please enlighten us.”

Answer: A homosexual is a person who engages in unnatural sexual relations with a member of his own sex, i.e. with a male. Female ‘homosexuals’ are known as lesbians. Such unnatural acts are evil, immoral and haraam. The punishment for this type of abomination is severe in this world as well as in the Hereafter. If convicted in an Islamic court of Law, severe punishment is meted out.

Homosexuality is not the consequence of mental imbalance or insanity. It is the result of the evil of the nafs (man’s lowly carnal self) in the same way as fornication and other acts of immorality and sins are the effect of the evil nafs. A person who indulges in adultery does so because of the evil of his/her nafs, not because of any defect in the mind. The same applies to those who indulge in the immoral and unnatural act as homosexuality.

Those born with both male and female sexual organs are known as khunthaa (hermaphrodites).
They are not homosexuals. According to the shariah there are three types of khunthaa:

(1) Those born with both male and female organs, but the male sexual organ is functionary i.e. if the urination is by the male organ. The shariah classifies such hermaphrodites as males.

(2) If the Khunthaa urinayes via the female organ, the person is classified as a female.

(3) If the urination is by the way of both male and female organs, it will have to be ascertained from which organ the urination occurs first. If by the male organ first, the child will be classified a male and if by the female organ first, it will be a female.

This system of classification will apply to the new-born baby.

When the hermaphrodite attains buloogh (puberty) classification will be determined by physical development of the various organs and inclination. If for example a beard grows or by nature the khunthaa is attracted to females then the person will be classified as a male. If female breasts appear or haidh (menstruation) occurs, the khunthaa will be classified a female. Of neither male nor female signs assert themselves and no particular tendency is dominant, the person will be described as khunthaa-Mushkeil. Neither male nor female.

Once the hermaphrodite has been positively classified, the persons will be a member of the sex to which he/she has been assigned and all shari’i rules will apply.

With regard to the tendencies and inclinations of the hermaphrodites, there are two kinds. The one type of hermaphrodite imitates the opposite sex by deliberate design. Such hermaphrodites have been cursed by Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Their expulsion was ordered by Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Women have to adopt Purdah for them. Such accursed persons should not be permitted to appear in the presence of females according to the shariah.

The second type of hermaphrodite has certain inclinations and tendencies by nature. They do not consciously simulate a particular sex. This class is ma’zoor (excused) and liable for punishment. Hermaphrodites, while having the deformity of two sets of sexual organs do not normally suffer deformity of the mind. They are not insane. Once the hermaphrodite has been positively classified, he or she will have to abide by the restrictions and rules applicable to his/her sex. If the khunthaa has been classified as a male and he indulges in sexual relations with a man, he will be guilty of the sin of homosexuality.

A child born with only male organs will be a male even if female inclinations develop in him at a later stage. Such a person, i.e. with only male organs, is neither a hermaphrodite nor a homosexual. Yes, if he commits homosexuality, he will be he will be known as a homosexual liable for the punishment which an Islamic court will prescribe. But, he is a male and according to the Shariah he is prescribed to control his emotions even if he is abnormal and unnatural. He has to make mujaahdah (strive) against the nafs just as the man who desires to commit fornication has to strive against his nafs. A man under severe nafsaani temptation to fornicate cannot argue extenuating circumstances for his sin. The Shariah will not accept his arguments. Similarly, the one who commits homosexuality has no valid reason to vindicate himself for indulgence in unnatural acts of abomination.

It is not the Aql (intelligence) which produces the desire to commit evil, be the evil natural such as sexual relations with the opposite sex, or unnatural such as sexual relations  with members of the same sex. The carnal nafs in the human beings impelled by the shaitaan induces the person to perpetrate immorality of all kinds. Every person is therefore commanded by Islam to resort to mujaahadah (striving) against his carnal desires and evil promptings.

If the hermaphrodite has been classified as the member of a particular sex, it will be permissible for that person to resort to medical aid to eliminate the other unwanted sexual organ, etc.

If the person is a khunthaa mushkiel (neither male or female) medical aid may be resorted to with a view to bringing about the assertion of the functions of one set of organs  so that the peraon may be classified. When a khunthaa mushkeil dies, ghusl will not be given to the body. Yes, Tayammum will be made for it.


“Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) cursed such males who imitate women and such women who imitate men” -Bukhari


The Dead Sea region was the land of the homosexuals and the gays. The region with its entire population destroyed by Allah’s terrible punishment comprised of the towns and cities of Mee’ah, Sa’rah, Asra, Dawma and Sadoom. Sadoom was the largest city. All these cities together with all the inhabitants were utterly annihilated by Allah’s punishment which came in three forms:

(1) A mighty scream which shattered their ears and internal organs.

(2) Overturning of the cities. The Angel dug his wing deep into the earth under these vile locations and taking the entire region into space, flipped it upside down to be crushed into obliteration.

(3) A horrendous shower of brimstones. Each stone was inscribed with the name of a homosexual who was struck with precision by the stone ordained for him.

Narrating the episode of the homosexuals and their annihilation, the Qur’aan says: 

“And remember Loot when he said to his people: ‘What do you commit such immoral abomination which no one in the universe had perpetrated before you?’ Verily, you approach for sexual gratification men instead of women. In fact, you are a grossly transgressing people.” 

The response of his people was nothing but that they said: ‘Expel them (Loot and his group) from your town. They are a group who seek to be holy.’ 

Then We saved him and his family, except his wife (who was a kaafir) She was of those who remained behind (to be obliterated by the punishment).” 

We showered on them torrential rain (of brimstone as mentioned in other verses). So see what was the disastrous end of criminals.” [Surah Al- A’raaf, aayaat 80 – 84]

The villainy and destruction of the homosexuals are mentioned in several places in the Qur’aan Majeed. The people of Nabi Loot (alayhis salaam) were the first on earth to initiate the unnatural, immoral, filth of homosexuality. This filth had so deranged their hearts and brains, rendering them incapable of distinguishing between male and female. Homosexuality became the accepted and ‘natural’ norm among them in the same way as the South African constitution has created honour and respect for this abomination. 

The stones which struck each and every homosexual was a special type of hard-baked pebble, each pebble bearing the name of the filthy criminal it had to strike. Every homosexual was overtaken by the chastisement except one man who was at that time on a trade -journey in the Haram of Makkah. He was saved from the  punishment for 40 days due to his presence in Makkah. After  40 days, as soon as he reached outside the precincts of the  Haram, the stone on which his name was inscribed struck him, and he too perished. 

Also, all homosexuals who were not inside the doomed towns when the punishment struck, but who were on journies were killed by their respective stones. Nabi Loot’s wife who was a kaafirah was also killed by the punishment.

The Dead Sea remains to this day an ominous monument to remind mankind of the terrible fate which overtook the nation of gays and homosexuals. Similar fates await nations in this age who have legalized and bestowed respect on homosexuality, lesbianism and gayism. Allah’s Athaab will most certainly overtake and utterly destroy the perpetrators and legalizers of this filth and unnatural abomination which puts dogs, pigs and devils to shame. Since the act of homosexuality is unnatural – an upside down act of filth – one form of the punishment was also ‘upside down’ to symbolize  the wickedness of the rijs (filth) of this abomination. The ‘upside down’ dimension of the three-fold punishment was that Hadhrat Jibraeel (alayhis salaam) took the entire region decadent with the filth of homosexuality, to a certain height in space, then smashed it to earth upside down.

May Allah Ta’ala save us all from the evil in our nafs and from His Wrath.