Examining the Narrations presented as proofs for Mawlid

[Mufti Abu Hajira d.b]

Bismillahi Ta’ala,

At the outset I wish to mention that normally I do not entertain these kind of point by point matters, as most of it were done during my time on Sunniforum. However, everything from sunniforum is now lost so much of these points are resurfacing. I have been informed of this particular video of Imam Isaa Henderson where he presents solid proofs for the establishing of Mawlid Gatherings. I do not know of him, and my observations are purely on this video and what he mentions.

Also, my observation are not through proper tahqeeq rather what is in my mind at the time of writing this and cursory look up on the references so that they can be mentioned. Also, please do not consider this a refutation rather academic observation, which I am penning down simply because the ones who have requested me mentioned that Imam Isaa has jam packed all solid proofs and have shaken things up. So this is an attempt to show my brethren that there is always more than what meets the eye.

His video is mentioned: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjc8VnPLQs0

The first clear evidence mentioned by him in this particular video:

➡(0:15)  Fasting on Mondays was by way of celebrating his own birthday.

Observation : 

The narration about Rasulullah ﷺ keeping fast on Monday is presented in most Shama’il books. However to deduce ruling from that hadeeth is has further problems. 

a. The Shurrah of the hadeeth do mention that Rasulullah ﷺ mentioning that he was born on this day, and that wahi was revealed to him on this day brings about the virtue of fasting on this day. However, if that reasoning is to be taken, then that in itself is virtue of monday and not of the wilada itself. The virtue of wiladah ought to be separate from monday. This is a technical aspect to the issue. Some may understand it and other may just see it as superflous. 

The fruit of this technicality is that if we consider this fasting to be honoring of the wiladah itself, then Rasulullah ﷺ included another illah (reason) for fasting to it, i.e wahi being revealed on the day. So the honor of wiladah itself becomes a portion of the honor given to Monday. This is not the case. Honor of the wilada is definitely higher and more virtuous.

If we consider this honoring for Monday, then all the different reasons for fasting on the day become aparent, and wiladah becomes one of other reasons to fast on Monday.

Mulla Ali Qari rahimahullah quotes from al Teebi rahimahullah that clearly that a day in which fortunate action occurs deserves to be remembered. However, this rememberance is by way of fasting.

مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح (4/ 1415)
 وقال الطيبي: اختيارا للاحتمال الثاني أي فيه وجود نبيكم، وفيه نزل كتابكم، وثبوت نبوته، فأي يوم أولى بالصوم منه

المفاتيح في شرح المصابيح (3/ 41)
 “وسُئل عن صوم الاثنين”: راوي هذا الحديث أيضًا أبو قتادة، عن عمر: أنه سأل رسولَ الله عليه السلام عن صوم يوم الاثنين، فأجابه بما يدل على أن هذا اليومَ مباركٌ وصومَه محبوبٌ.

b. This is what we understand from most shuruhaat of this hadeeth that the takhsees of honor is for Monday and not for wiladah in these cases. Although wiladah has been used as the illah for affording this honor. This would mean that if the Mawlid has to be held using this hadeeth as a basis, it should be on Mondays and not specific day of the year or even non-specific days of the year. 
 
It would infact impose that you not only take the celebration of mawlid from that hadith, rather also the modality of celebration as well. The way Rasulullah ﷺ is by fasting, and he tells sahaba that it is for remembering his birth, and someone turns around and make it the day of Eid which is a day of eating and enjoying? Moreover, when Rasulullah ﷺ shows that a gratitude is specifically being given in a certain manner, now it becomes incumbant to do it in that manner as well, AND in those times (i.e weekly on mondays and not yearly) as well.

➡(0:43) The sheikh also misunderstood the wording of this hadeeth and mentioned that the sahaba radi allahu anhum asked “when should I fast?”. This is not part of the hadeeth. rather Rasulullah ﷺ was questioned about fasting on Mondays. 

صحيح مسلم (2/ 820)
عَنْ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ، رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ الِاثْنَيْنِ؟ فَقَالَ: «فِيهِ وُلِدْتُ وَفِيهِ أُنْزِلَ عَلَيَّ»

This is replete in the Shuruhaat of this hadeeth. Shuruhat mention discussion on it. muhaditheen mention that 

“Is the question of Sahabi about whether Rasulullah ﷺ fasted on Monday” ,
OR
“Why is Rasulullah ﷺ fasting on Monday”

is explicit in nature of the question asked. Sahaba is not inquiring which days to fast, rather why do Rasulullah ﷺ seclude Monday for fasting. 

مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح (4/ 1415)
أي سئل عن فضيلته لأنه لا مقال في صيامه، فهو من الأسلوب الحكيم اهـ وفيه أن الظاهر أن السؤال عن العلة فيطابق الجواب السؤال، وعلى تقدير أن يكون السؤال عن نفس الصوم فالمعنى هل فيه فضل، فحينئذ ما ذكره أيضا فصل الخطاب لا من الأسلوب الحكيم في الحوادث

➡(0:48) The intention has not been given as “because it is the day I was born” rather multiple intention as I have alluded above. “And because I was revealed upon in this day”. (See hadeeth wordings above)

➡(1:22) The sheikh puts a rhetorical question that “How dare anyone say that Sahaba did not practice the mawlud?” 

I feel this question is incorrect. The Sheikh is side-stepping the entire discussion whether the fasting among the Sahaba is for mawlud or for any other reason. For indeed we have other riwayaat which mention fasting of Mondays and Thursdays

سنن الترمذي ت بشار (2/ 113)
745 – حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو حَفْصٍ، عَمْرُو بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الفَلاَّسُ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ دَاوُدَ، عَنْ ثَوْرِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ مَعْدَانَ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ الجُرَشِيِّ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ: كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَتَحَرَّى صَوْمَ الاِثْنَيْنِ وَالخَمِيسِ

or the Saheeh Hadeeth that deeds are taken up on Mondays and Thursday so Rasulullah wishes to be in state of fasting

سنن أبي داود (2/ 325)
 إِنَّ نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَصُومُ يَوْمَ الِاثْنَيْنِ وَيَوْمَ الْخَمِيسِ، وَسُئِلَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ، فَقَالَ: «إِنَّ أَعْمَالَ الْعِبَادِ تُعْرَضُ يَوْمَ الِاثْنَيْنِ وَيَوْمَ الْخَمِيسِ»

سنن الترمذي ت بشار (2/ 114)
 أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: تُعْرَضُ الأَعْمَالُ يَوْمَ الاِثْنَيْنِ وَالخَمِيسِ، فَأُحِبُّ أَنْ يُعْرَضَ عَمَلِي وَأَنَا صَائِمٌ.

It is understood that Sahaba did regard fasting on Mondays and Thurdays as a fulfillment of above, then to make takhsees of Sahaba’s aml for the first hadeeth only is incorrect.

➡(1:35) Definition of Mustadrak 

The Sh. talks about al-Mustadrak and defines it as a book which takes da’eef riwayat out and only keeps the saheeh. This is incorrect and would technically be a big blunder on the Sheikh’s part. al-Mustadrak has to do with Shara’it of Sihhah instead of making Tasheeh of some book. 

In light of this, al-Mustadrak in fact takes the conditions of authenticity of another book and compiles ahadeeth which were not put in the previous book. The Mustadrak in video is al-Mustadrak al-Hakim ala shart sahihayn. The Mustadrak takes the considtions of authenticity of Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim and presents ahadeeth which fulfil those conditions. 

علوم الحديث ومصطلحه (1/ 124)
والمستدركات جمع مستدرك، وهو ما استدرك فيه ما فات المؤلف في كتابه على شرطه. وأشهرها ” مستدرك الحاكم النيسابوري على الصحيحين ”

علم فهرسة الحديث (ص: 16)
 وَالمُسْتَدْرَكُ: في اصطلاح المحدثين هو كل كتاب جمع فيه مُؤَلِّفُُهُ الأحاديث التي استدركها على كتاب آخر مِمَّا فاته على شرطه مثل ” المستدرك على الصحيحين ” للحاكم النيسابوري (405 هـ)

This does not mean that these ahadeeth are authenticated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim. In fact there are ahadeeth in al-Mustadrak which Sheikhein would not have put in their Saheeh. So Sheikh’s definition is pretty flawed.

The “blunder” I spoke above would be to say Imam Hakim presented ahadeeth from Bukhari and Muslim which were Saheeh and left out those not Sahih. How wierd would that be? : )

➡(1:55) Allama Suyuti rahimahullah’s fatwa in al Hawi lil Fatawa

The sheikh then mentions about Allamah Suyuti rahimahullah’s mention of aqeeqah for Rasulullah ﷺ and talk about the fatawa of imam Suyuti rahimahullah (al-Hawi lil Fatawa). This is ajeeb. Because:

1. The sheikh is establishing celebration of mawlid, the actual fa’l (action) of celebration as sunnah! Not only that, but gathering, feeding, langar etc. (2:15) But Imam Suyuti rahimahullah in this very fatwa says, “Sheikh al Islam Hafiz ibn al Hajar was asked about Mawlid and he mentioned that the original action of mawlid is a Bid’ah. It has not been mentioned by a single person from the Salaf as-Salih from the first three generations. However along with that goodness and its contrary are included within it. So whoever discretion in it goodness and abstains from its contrary (ills) then it is bid’ah hasanah otherwise not.”

الحاوي للفتاوي (1/ 229)
وقد سئل شيخ الإسلام حافظ العصر أبو الفضل ابن حجر عن عمل المولد، فأجاب بما نصه: أصل عمل المولد بدعة لم تنقل عن أحد من السلف الصالح من القرون الثلاثة، ولكنها مع ذلك قد اشتملت على محاسن وضدها، فمن تحرى في عملها المحاسن وتجنب ضدها كان بدعة حسنة وإلا فلا

Then where is the sheikh quoting from that Rasulullah ﷺ established it as sunnah?

2.  Imam Suyuti rahimahullah himself does not regard it all as a sunnah because just after this discussion he mentions mawlid as a mustahab.

الحاوي للفتاوي (1/ 230)
والعقيقة لا تعاد مرة ثانية، فيحمل ذلك على أن الذي فعله النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إظهار للشكر على إيجاد الله إياه رحمة للعالمين وتشريع لأمته كما كان يصلي على نفسه لذلك، فيستحب لنا أيضا إظهار الشكر بمولده بالاجتماع وإطعام الطعام ونحو ذلك من وجوه القربات وإظهار المسرات

3. Since Imam Suyuti rahimahullah is a Shafi’i in is madhab, a mustahab when mixed with munkarat (problemetic issues) is NOT abandoned rather the munkarat are prohibited from and mustahabat are enacted upon. It is for this reason he mentions in the same fatwa (again from Hafiz Ibn Hajar)

الحاوي للفتاوي (1/ 229)
وأما ما يعمل فيه فينبغي أن يقتصر فيه على ما يفهم الشكر لله تعالى من نحو ما تقدم ذكره من التلاوة والإطعام والصدقة وإنشاد شيء من المدائح النبوية والزهدية المحركة للقلوب إلى فعل الخير والعمل للآخرة، وأما ما يتبع ذلك من السماع واللهو وغير ذلك فينبغي أن يقال: ما كان من ذلك مباحا بحيث يقتضي السرور بذلك اليوم لا بأس بإلحاقه به، وما كان حراما أو مكروها فيمنع، وكذا ما كان خلاف الأولى. انتهى

➡(3:05) narration of relief of Abu Lahab

The generic responses to this narration to establish mawlid can be found else where. I will just put my observation.

صحيح البخاري (7/ 10)
لم ألق بعدكم غير أني سقيت في هذه بعتاقتي ثويبة

1. If the hadeeth has to be used for establishing barakah of the birth of Rasulullah ﷺ then that is accepted regardless that barakah of wilada of Rasulullah ﷺ is definitely there.

2. If the hadeeth is being used to establish rewards for muslimeen, then this is far fetched. Since the dhahir of the wording of Bukhari indicate decrease (this decrease is also mubham…decrease of what). 

3. Just as he explained the meaning of bid’ah i.e to establish a particular reward for particular action without basis. Then here too that which can be established is “decrease” and not reward. 

4. Even if we say that decrease in adhab is kind of a reward, then logic demands that if someone is in jannah he should gain positive reward of it.. then this is logic and ray’. We cannot establish these things with qiyas.

5. He has mentioned the conundrum of theological paradox of adhab not being reduced and adhab of kafir being reduced here with statement from Ibn Hajar rahimahullah that this is because of the karamah of Rasulullah ﷺ. I wonder if Ibn Hajar rahimahullah entire ibarah actually establishes this or not.

فتح الباري لابن حجر (9/ 145)
وَكَانَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ أَعْتَقَهَا فَأَرْضَعَتِ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ظَاهِرُهُ أَنَّ عِتْقَهُ لَهَا كَانَ قَبْلَ إِرْضَاعِهَا وَالَّذِي فِي السِّيَرِ يُخَالِفُهُ وَهُوَ أَنَّ أَبَا لَهَبٍ أَعْتَقَهَا قَبْلَ الْهِجْرَةِ وَذَلِكَ بَعْدَ الْإِرْضَاعِ بِدَهْرٍ طَوِيلٍ وَحَكَى السُّهَيْلِيُّ أَيْضًا أَنَّ عِتْقَهَا كَانَ قَبْلَ الْإِرْضَاعِ وَسَأَذْكُرُ كَلَامَهُ قَوْلُهُ أُرِيَهُ بِضَمِّ الْهَمْزَةِ وَكَسْرِ الرَّاءِ وَفَتْحِ التَّحْتَانِيَّةِ عَلَى الْبِنَاءِ لِلْمَجْهُولِ قَوْلُهُ بَعْضُ أَهْلِهِ بِالرَّفْعِ عَلَى أَنَّهُ النَّائِبُ عَنِ الْفَاعِلِ وَذَكَرَ السُّهَيْلِيُّ أَنَّ الْعَبَّاسَ قَالَ لَمَّا مَاتَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ رَأَيْتُهُ فِي مَنَامِي بَعْدَ حَوْلٍ فِي شَرِّ حَالٍ فَقَالَ مَا لَقِيتُ بَعْدَكُمْ رَاحَةً إِلَّا أَنَّ الْعَذَابَ يُخَفَّفُ عَنِّي كُلَّ يَوْمِ اثْنَيْنِ قَالَ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وُلِدَ يَوْمَ الِاثْنَيْنِ وَكَانَتْ ثُوَيْبَةُ بَشَّرَتْ أَبَا لَهَبٍ بِمَوْلِدِهِ فَأَعْتَقَهَا … قَوْلُهُ بِعَتَاقَتِي بِفَتْحِ الْعَيْنِ فِي رِوَايَةِ عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ بِعِتْقِي وَهُوَ أَوْجَهُ وَالْوَجْهُ الْأَوْلَى أَنْ يَقُولَ بِإِعْتَاقِي لِأَنَّ الْمُرَادَ التَّخْلِيصُ مِنَ الرِّقِّ 
وَفِي الْحَدِيثِ دَلَالَةٌ عَلَى أَنَّ الْكَافِرَ قَدْ يَنْفَعُهُ الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ لَكِنَّهُ مُخَالِفٌ لِظَاهِرِ الْقُرْآنِ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى وَقَدِمْنَا إِلَى مَا عَمِلُوا من عمل فجعلناه هباء منثورا 
وَأُجِيبَ أَوَّلًا بِأَنَّ الْخَبَرَ مُرْسَلٌ أَرْسَلَهُ عُرْوَةُ وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ مَنْ حَدَّثَهُ بِهِ وَعَلَى تَقْدِيرِ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَوْصُولًا 
فَالَّذِي فِي الْخَبَرِ رُؤْيَا مَنَامٍ فَلَا حُجَّةَ فِيهِ وَلَعَلَّ الَّذِي رَآهَا لَمْ يَكُنْ إِذْ ذَاكَ أَسْلَمَ بَعْدُ فَلَا يُحْتَجُّ بِهِ 
وَثَانِيًا عَلَى تَقْدِيرِ الْقَبُولِ فَيَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ مَا يَتَعَلَّقُ بِالنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَخْصُوصًا مِنْ ذَلِكَ بِدَلِيلِ قِصَّةِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ كَمَا تَقَدَّمَ أَنَّهُ خُفِّفَ عَنْهُ فَنُقِلَ مِنَ الْغَمَرَاتِ إِلَى الضَّحْضَاحِ 
وَقَالَ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ مَا وَرَدَ مِنْ بُطْلَانِ الْخَيْرِ لِلْكُفَّارِ فَمَعْنَاهُ أَنَّهُمْ لَا يَكُونُ لَهُمُ التَّخَلُّصُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَا دُخُولُ الْجَنَّةِ وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يُخَفِّفَ عَنْهُمْ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ الَّذِي يَسْتَوْجِبُونَهُ عَلَى مَا ارْتَكَبُوهُ مِنَ الْجَرَائِمِ سِوَى الْكُفْرِ بِمَا عَمِلُوهُ مِنَ الْخَيْرَاتِ 
وَأَمَّا عِيَاضٌ فَقَالَ انْعَقَدَ الْإِجْمَاعُ عَلَى أَنَّ الْكُفَّارَ لَا تَنْفَعُهُمْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَلَا يُثَابُونَ عَلَيْهَا بِنَعِيمٍ وَلَا تَخْفِيفِ عَذَابٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَشَدَّ عَذَابًا مِنْ بَعْضٍ 

قُلْتُ وَهَذَا لَا يَرُدُّ الِاحْتِمَالَ الَّذِي ذَكَرَهُ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ فَإِنَّ جَمِيعَ مَا وَرَدَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فِيمَا يَتَعَلَّقُ بِذَنْبِ الْكُفْرِ وَأَمَّا ذَنْبُ غَيْرِ الْكُفْرِ فَمَا الْمَانِعُ مِنْ تَخْفِيفِهِ وَقَالَ الْقُرْطُبِيُّ هَذَا التَّخْفِيفُ خَاصٌّ بِهَذَا وَبِمَنْ وَرَدَ النَّصُّ فِيهِ 
وَقَالَ بن الْمُنِيرِ فِي الْحَاشِيَةِ هُنَا قَضِيَّتَانِ إِحْدَاهُمَا مُحَالٌ وَهِيَ اعْتِبَارُ طَاعَةِ الْكَافِرِ مَعَ كُفْرِهِ لِأَنَّ شَرْطَ الطَّاعَةِ أَنْ تَقَعَ بِقَصْدٍ صَحِيحٍ وَهَذَا مَفْقُودٌ مِنَ الْكَافِرِ الثَّانِيَةُ إِثَابَةُ الْكَافِرِ عَلَى بَعْضِ الْأَعْمَالِ تَفَضُّلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَهَذَا لَا يُحِيلُهُ الْعَقْلُ فَإِذَا تَقَرَّرَ ذَلِكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ عِتْقُ أَبِي لَهَبٍ لِثُوَيْبَةَ قُرْبَةً مُعْتَبَرَةً وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يَتَفَضَّلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بِمَا شَاءَ كَمَا تَفَضَّلَ عَلَى أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَالْمُتَّبَعُ فِي ذَلِكَ التَّوْقِيفِ نَفْيًا وَإِثْبَاتًا 

قُلْتُ وَتَتِمَّةُ هَذَا أَنْ يَقَعَ التَّفَضُّلُ الْمَذْكُورُ إِكْرَامًا لِمَنْ وَقَعَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِ الْبِرُّ لَهُ وَنَحْوُ ذَلِكَ وَاللَّهُ أعلم

The crux of above discussion is that Ibn Hajar rahimahullah says that any decrease or benefit for a non muslims is domain of Allah and He shall decide what he wishes to pardon or not. Al bayhaqi has mentioned (as in above text) that the jahannam is for the sin of kufr, but it is perhaps possible for Allah to lighten the adhaab which was necessitated by other than kufr. 

All in all, the ibarah has no emotionalism in it about barakah or fadh of mawlid.

6. Moreover if the ibarah is to be used then it only mentions this benefit on monday. Again a takhsees for Monday is being made and the speciality is for Monday. Hence If something so grand and so significant such as Eid al Mawlid is to be established, then it should be weekly monday and not some singular day of the year. This is the scheme throughout all such narratives.

Wassalam.

* The Title of the post is our’s.

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