Jumuah Salaat consists of 14 raka’ts as follows:
4 raka’ts Sunnatul Muakkadah
2 raka’ts Fardh
4 raka’ts Sunnatul Muakkadah
2 raka’ts Sunnatul Muakkadah
2 raka’ts Nafl
After the 4 Sunnatul Muakkadah raka’ts, the Imaam has to recite two Khutbahs from the Mimbar in the standing position. The Imaam will sit on the Mimbar for a short pause after completing the first Khutbah.
The Khutbah has to be compulsorily recited before the Fardh Salaat. If it is recited after the Fardh Salaat, it (the Jumuah Salaat) will not be valid.
THE OBLIGATION (WUJOOB) OF JUMUAH
Jumuah is Waajib on the following persons:
1. MUQEEM (resident of a place) — Muqeem means person who is a permanent resident or a musaafir (traveller) who has made an intention of staying 15 days or more at the place where Jumuah is being performed. Thus, Jumuah is not incumbent on a Musaafir.
2. SAHEEH (Healthy person) – Jumuah is not Waajib on such ailing and aged persons who are unable to go to the Musjid.
3. FREE MEN – Jumuah is not compulsory on slaves.
4. MALES — Jumuah is not compulsory on females.
Exemption from Jumuah, (i.e. Jumuah will not be Waajib) will apply in the following cases:
1. Excessive rain, wind/storms, etc.
2. Caring for a gravely ill person who requires constant attention.
3. Fear of enemies or other danger.
4. Minors – Jumuah is not compulsory on those who have not attained puberty. If any of these persons on whom Jumuah is not obligatory, attends Jumuah, their Salaat will be valid.
CONDITIONS FOR THE VALIDITY OF JUMUAH
The conditions for the validity of Jumuah are:
1. CITY — The place where Jumuah is performed should be a city or town. Jumuah is not valid in villages or in the forest. A village in this context is a small settlement in which all the daily requirements of the community are not available. It also lacks important facilities such as a court, police station, etc., which bestow the character of a city or town to a place.
2. ZUHR TIME – It must be the time of Zuhr. Jumuah is not valid before or after Zuhr time.
3. KHUTBAH – Recitation of the Khutbah facing the jamaat (congregation).
4. JAMAAT (Congregation) – The presence of three Muqtadis in addition to the Imaam is essential. The three Muqtadis should be present from the beginning of the Khutbah until at least the Sajdah of the first raka’t. It is also essential that the three Muqtadis be adult males.
5. ITHNUL AAM (General Consent) – Jumuah Salaat should be performed in a place where all have access. If Jumuah is performed in such a venue which is not open to the general Muslim public, then it (the Jumuah) will not be valid. If the Musjid doors are closed, thereby preventing some Muslims from entering, then the Jumuah Salaat will not be valid. Jumuah will also not be valid in a prison on account of the lack of the condition of Ithnul Aam.
If Jumuah is held at a university where all Muslims do not have the permission for attending the Jumuah, then it (Jumuah) will not be valid.
1. After the Imaam has seated himself on the Mimbar, the Muath-thin will stand directly in line with the Imaam (i.e. between the Mimbar) and recite the Athaan. Although the Muath-thin preferably stands in the first saff when reciting this Athaan, it is permissible to stand in any saff but he should ensure that he is in line with the Mimbar.
2. The Imaam should stand while reciting both Khutbahs.
3. The sitting pause between the two Khutbahs has to be the duration of three ‘Subhaanallaah’, i.e. as long as it will take to say ‘Subhaanallaah’ thrice. The pause may even be a bit longer.
4. Before commencing the Khutbah, the Imaam should recite silently Ta-awwuth (i.e. A-oothu billaah…)
5. Both Khutbahs should be in Arabic.
6. When the Imaam rises with the intention of proceeding to the Mimbar, then everyone present must cease all acts of Ibaadat. It is Waajib to listen to the Khutbah. It is not permissible to engage in any act, be it thikr, while the Imaam is reciting the Khutbah.
5. If the Khutbah commences while one is performing the 4 raka’ts Sunnatul Muakkadah, these should be completed.
8. When the Imaam mentions the name of our Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) during the Khutbah, the audience should ‘recite’ Durood in their hearts.
9. There should be no delay in commencing the Fardh Salaat after the termination of the Khutbah. If indulgence in a worldly act causes a considerable delay, then the Khutbah should be repeated. A delay caused by a Deeni act such as Wudhu, will not necessitate the repeat of the Khutbah.