[Maulana Saeed Palanpuri D.B]
“As-haabee Kan Nujoom. Bi Ayyihim Iqtadaytum Ihtadaytum”
[My Sahaabah are like the guiding stars. Whosoever of them you will follow, you will be guided]
This Hadeeth has been narrated by six different Sahaabah:
1. Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)
2. Jaabir (radhiyallahu anhu)
3. Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)
4. Anas (radhiyallahu anhu)
5. Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu)
6. Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu)
It is also narrated Dhahhaak ibn Muzaahim Hilaali in a Mursal form.
1] The Narration of Ibn Umar: > Reference to Urdu Version (Pg 89, no 1)
In this Sanad, Hamza ibn Abi Hamza AlJazri is a weak narrator. Regarding him:
– Imaam Yahya Ibn Ma’een said: “He is not worth a cent”
– Imaam Bukhaari said: “He is Munkarul Hadeeth (rejector)”
– Dar Qutni said: “He is Matrook (discarder)”
– Ibn Adi said: “Most of his narrations are Matrook”
– Tirmidhi has included one of his narrations in his Kitaab (Baabul Istidhaan) but then said: “This Hadeeth is Munkar – Hamza is Dha’eef in Hadeeth. [Tuhfatul Ahwazee Vol. 3 pg. 391]
This Raawi (narrator) is Dha’eef Jiddan (very weak)
2] The Riwaayah (narration) of Jaabir > Reference to Urdu Version (Pg 90, no 2)
Regarding this Sanad:
– Dar Qutni said: This Riwaayah is not proven from Maalik and its Narrators are Majhool (unknown). [Lisaan]
– Haafiz has said: Jameel is not Ma’roof (known) [Talkhees]
– Abu Haatim Raazi said: Laa A’rifuhu (not known) [Lisaan]
Allaamah Ibn Abdil Barr has narrated it in ‘Jaami’ Bayaanil Ilm’ through this Sanad:
> Reference to Urdu Version (Pg 90, no 3)
But then he says: This Sanad is not strong enough to be used as Hujjat because Haarith Ibn Ghadheen is Majhool.
In Lisaanul Meezaan, Haafiz has narrated this statement of Allaamah Ibn Abdil Barr. He then wrote:
– Toosi has mentioned him in his ‘Tadhkirah Rijaalush Shee’ah’ – Ibn Hibbaan has mentioned him in his ‘Kitaabuth Thiqaat’
The Jarah (critical comment) in this Riwaayah is not very severe. The Raawi (narrator) is Majhool (unknown) but the two Sanads (chains of narrations) lend strength to each other. This Tareeq is Dha’eef (weak) but not Dha’eef Jiddan.
3] The Riwaayah of Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) > Reference to Urdu Version (Pg 91, no 4)
Razeen’s Tareeq has the following addition
> Reference to Urdu Version (Pg 91, no 5) – –
– The author of Mishkaat has included this Riwaayah in his Kitaab.
– Abu Bakr Al Bazzaar has also narrated it (Talkheesul Habeer pg. 404 and Jaami’ Bayaanil Ilm)
– Dhahabi has also mentioned it in Meezaanul I’tidaal This Tareeq is also Dha’eef.
– Bukhaari has said: Tarakoohu (the Muhadditheen have left him out)
– Ibn Ma’een said: Kadhaab (liar) and Laisa Bi Shai’ (he is nothing)
– Jawzjaani said: Ghair Thiqah (not reliable)
– Abu Haatim said: Turika Hadeethuhu (his narrations are left out)
– Abu Zar’ah said: Waahin (weak)
– Abu Dawood said: Dha’eef (weak)
Verdict: This Riwaayat is also Dha’eef because of Abdur-raheem.
4] The Riwaayah of Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) > Reference to Urdu Version (Pg 91/92, no 6)
This Tareeq is also Dha’eef Jiddan.
Regarding Ja’far ibn Abdil Ahad:
– Dar Qutni said: He fabricates Hadeeth –
– Abu Zar’ah said: He narrates baseless Ahaadeeth
– Ibn Adi said: He ‘steals’ Hadeeth and narrates Munkar Ahaadeeth
5] The Riwaayah of Anas (radhiyallahu anhu)
Bazzaar has narrated this Hadeeth but in Talkhees, Haafiz has said: Its Sanad is no good.
6] The Riwaayah of Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu)
Baihaqi has narrated this Hadeeth in ‘Al-Madkhal’ and Munaawi has mentioned it in Faidhul Qadeer Sharah Jaami’us Sagheer but he has not mentioned its Sanad nor has he commented on it.
> Reference to Urdu Version (Pg 92, no 7)
7] The Mursal Hadeeth from Dhahhaak
Ibn Hajar has mentioned it in Talkhees. He said: Abu Dhar Harawi has narrated it in Kitaabus Sunnah but its Sanad is Dhaeef.
[End of the seven Tareeqs of this Hadeeth]
This Hadeeth has been narrated through several chains. After putting all of them together, it reaches the level of Dha’eef at the very least.
In ‘At ta’leequs Sabeeh’ – the Sharah of Mishkaat, the following has been said: “its Sanad is weak but the various Sanads complement each other as has been mentioned in Zafarul Amaani, the Sharah of Mukhtasar Jurjaani”
Similar to this is the Hadeeth: “The minimum Haidh is 3 days and the maximum is 10” which has also been narrated from 6 Sahaabah and all six Tareeqs are very Dha’eef. After putting all the chains together, the Hadeeth reaches the level of Dha’eef.
According to the Ahnaaf, a Dha’eef Hadeeth is given preference over the Rai (opinion) of any Mujtahid and therefore they accept it.
The Hadeeth we are discussing also reaches the level of Dha’eef and a Dha’eef Hadeeth concerning Fadhaail is accepted unanimously.
Ibn Hazam Zaahiri has said: “This Hadeeth is Makdhoob Mawdhoo’ Baatil” but his verdict is not worth considering. Bazzaar has said: “It is not Saheeh”. This verdict is correct since a Hadeeth which is not Saheeh is Dha’eef and not Baatil and Mawdhoo’.
There is a worlds difference between the two!
Bazzaar has raised another objection to this Hadeeth. He says: “This Hadeeth contradicts the Saheeh Hadeeth of Rasulullaah ρ: ‘Hold on to my Sunnah and that of the rightly guided Khulafaa after me’ in that there were differences among the Sahaabah and these cannot be clearly understood.”
But Allaamah Ibn Abdil Barr gave the following answer:
“The Kalaam of Bazzaar is not completely correct. Each Sahaabi in his own right was on Haqq and thus worthy of being followed. As for their internal dispute, this too was a source of guidance for the Ummat.”
Generally you will find that whenever the Ahnaaf have a Riwaayat in support of their Madh-hab and the Ashaabul Hadeeth don’t, then their common argument is that the Riwaayat is Dha’eef or Ghair Mu’tabar (not reliable). There are many examples of this.
In the Mas’alah of laughing aloud breaking Salaat and Wudhu; the minimum and maximum periods of Haidh; Qiraa’at Khalfal Imaam etc. this is the argument of the others. Yet in most of these Masaa’il, the Ahaadeeth in question are Mu’tabar. For details refer to I’laaus Sunan.
The Ahnaaf use the Hadeeth “As-haabee kan Nujoom” in support of their Madh-hab that the Aqwaal and Fataawa of the Sahaabah are Hujjat in Deen.
According to the Ahnaaf, the saying of a Sahaabi is an accepted Hujjat in Deen even if there is no consensus among them.
The other Imaams only accept the Ittifaaq of Sahaabah as Hujjat. In the case of a single Athar (saying) of a Sahaabi, he may accept it or reject it with his own Ijtihaad.
Shah Waliyullaah has quoted the saying of Imaam Shaafi’ee in this regard: “it is not necessary to follow the individual Sahaabi unless there is Ittifaaq among them…” (Hujjatullaah pg 147)
According to the Ahnaaf, if an Athar of a Sahaabi is presented, the Mujtahid will not make his own Ijtihaad.
So according to their habit, the As-haabul Hadeeth declare this Hadeeth as Ghair Mu’tabar. Strangest of the lot is Haafiz Ibn Hajar who after gathering all the Turuq of this Hadeeth besides that of Ibn Abbaas, then brings Ibn Hazams Qowl (saying). Yet wherever it suits him, he would gather 2 or 3 Turuqs of a Hadeeth and then say: ‘these few Turuqs strengthen each other, the Hadeeth is therefore acceptable’! Here he turns the table completely. Ibn Hajar is notorious for these types of inconsistencies.
-If a Hadeeth has several chains, all linking up to one Sahaabi, then this is a Daleel (proof) that the Riwaayat (narration) has an Asal (origin/basis)
-If a Hadeeth has several chains, leading to several Sahaabah, and if they are Dha’eef, the Riwaayat will be Hasan li Ghairihi.
-If a Hadeeth has several chains from several Sahaabah, and they are very Dha’eef, then all put together will become Dha’eef.
Keeping all these Usools in mind, the Hadeeth we are discussing at the very least will be said to be Dha’eef.
In fact, Mulla Ali Qaari has declared this Hadeeth Hasan li Ghairihi (see Maudhoo’aat Al-Kubraa)
Allaamah Abdul Ali Bahrul Uloom has also called it Hasan li Ghairihi.
The content of this Hadeeth is also supported by several others: “All my Sahaabah are Adool (righteous and just)” etc.
The Hadeeth ‘As-Haabee kan Nujoom’ is thus acceptable as Hujjat. After putting all of this together, the Usool of the Ahnaaf stands that ‘The Aqwaal of Sahaabah are Hujjat in Deen and will gain preference over the Ijtihaad of any non Sahaabi’
10 Muharram 1417