The System of Takween & Tashri’ – The Secrets Of Divine Operations


Allah Ta’ala created this universe for mankind and created mankind for His worship and for the Hereafter.

Allah Ta’ala has instituted two types of system in this world.
1. Legislation    2. Creation

The first is clearly understood which is in regards to all the laws and commandments of Islam. The second system is not so well-known and many reject it, particularly in matters regarding mankind. Allah Ta’ala created mankind for this recognition. Recognising Allah Ta’ala can be through various means and ways. One method is to find out the rare and wonderful works of arts from amongst the creations of Allah Ta’ala and reveal it, so that the power and greatness of Allah Ta’ala and His excellent qualities and attributes can be understood. Allah Ta’ala mentions in Surah Talaaq, “Allah Ta’ala is that Being who created the seven heavens and earths same as the skies (i.e. seven)”. From this verse it is understood there are six more Earths that are like this very earth we are in. Mankind will discover and detect the other six earths as well. Proof of this claim is the announcement of Allah Ta’ala in the same verse where He further says, “so that you (mankind) understand that verily Allah Ta’ala has power over everything.”

In this scientific world, with technology increasing daily, it is no surprise that this knowledge of the other six are known.

Past nations were not blessed with this understanding and knowledge. The present nation has been given this honour specifically because after the demise of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) all the bounties Allah Ta’ala related to mankind has been bestowed to this nation.
The religion of Islam has been perfected till doomsday, no matter what conditions prevail, Islam will not change. All the bounties of Allah Ta’ala has been bestowed to this nation totally.

Previous nations were not privileged with what this nation has, so much so that even a two-wheeler cycle was not invented then. This nation is inventing and learning  new things daily and science and technology knows no bounds. Every invention is ultimate for a short while until something new is invented thereafter.

The wonders of the computer, internet etc, has the entire world mesmerising. This is the effects of the knowledge of the pen initiated by Allah Ta’ala and still much is to come in the future.

Mankind is proud of their inventions which is the result of the power of Allah Ta’ala. So what about the actual Divine Power of Allah Ta’ala Himself. This progress will reach its pinnacle and thereafter there will be decline.

We are still in the era of science and invention which will continue as Allah Ta’ala desires, then gradually everything will return to that of the old days. At that time it will be safe to say that creation and legislation has been almost complete and doomsday is close. Honorable saints and great scholars of this nation have been given the status and ranks of the Ambiya (Prophets) of the previous nations.

Just as the period and duration of this nation is extensive compared to that of the previous nations, and the same manner in regards to the breadth of this earth and population is also extensive by quantity and measure.

It is for this reason arrangements (cause and effect/causing to be) Takween is related/connected to many special individuals of this nation. The system of creation and legislation for this nation has large capacity.

Allah Ta’ala bestows his special servants with this knowledge, doctrine and science of Takween.
Although Allah Ta’ala has full power to enforce this system Himself without any medium, but since this world is a abode/place of means, therefore He subjected it-put it under control-of a unique system which is hidden from the public and this system is prevalent and continuing.

The incident of Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) connected with Takween and Tashree’

Allah Ta’ala disclosed the system of Takween in the Glorious Qur’aan by relating the incident of Musa and Khizr (alayhimussalaam).

Hadhrat Mufti Muhammad Shafi’i Usmani Sahab (rahmatullah alayhi) relates this incident with reference and quotations of narrations from Bukhari and Muslim Sharif:-

Once Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) stood up to deliver a sermon to his followers when some people asked “Who is the most learned person?” Since in the knowledge of Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) there was none more learned than himself, he replied, ‘I am the most learned’.

Although Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) was entirely correct in his reply considering the normal situation and his limited knowledge, but Allah Ta’ala desired to teach mankind a lesson to be careful in speech and refer important matters to Allah Ta’ala. It would have been better to reply that Allah Ta’ala is most learned. Allah Ta’ala informed Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) that there was a person more learned than him. Upon receiving this news, Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) desired to meet him to benefit from his knowledge, so he requests Allah Ta’ala to inform him about his whereabouts.

Allah Ta’ala commanded Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) to carry a fish in his basket and travel towards where two rivers or seas meet. (Seas of Rome and Persia). The place where the fish gets lost is the meeting place of this person.

As instructed, Musa (alayhissalaam), put a fish in the basket and left. His attendant, Yusha’ ibn Noon (alayhissalaam) accompanied him. On the way Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) rested and fell asleep. At once the fish came into motion put pf the basket and went into the waters/sea. Yusha’ (alayhissalaam) witnessed this but forgot to relate it to Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) when he awoke.

They left this place and travelled another full day and night. The next morning when Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) asked his companion to bring breakfast, then only did the incident of the fish came to mind.

He apologised; for the satan made him forget and thereafter explaimed the entire episode of how the fish came alive and went into the ocean in a unique manner. Upon hearing this, Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) reported, “That was our aim/desire”. Immediately they returned on the same route so that they find the exact spot. When they arrived at the spot, they found a person enjoying a care-free sleep, Hadhrat Musa (alayhisalaam) greeted. Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) enquired: ‘From where greeting was heard in this barren land?” Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) replied, “I am Musa” Hadhrat Musa enquired whether he is Musa of Bani Isra’eel. Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) replied that certainly he is Musa from Bani Isra’eel and requested him to teach that sacred knowledge which Allah Ta’ala has bestowed him with.

Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) said, “O Musa! You will not be able to exercise self-restraint with me. Allah Ta’ala has blessed me with such a knowledge/science which you do not have, and you have been given a science/knowledge which I do not know.

Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) was eager to learn so he replied, “If Allah Wills, you will find me patient and I will not contradict anything you do.” Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) said, “If you are certain to accompany me, then you will not question anything I do until I personally explain the reality and facts.”

Agreeing on this, both of them walked along the shore when by chance a ship came by and they spoke to them to take them aboard the ship. They recognized Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) and took them free of charge. As soon as they boarded the ship, Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) damaged the ship with an axe. Hadhrat Musa could not endure this and said, “These people have taken is aboard free of cost and in return you damaged their ship, so they drown. You have done a very bad thing.”

Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) replied, “I told you initially, that you will not be able to exercise self-restraint with me.” Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) apologized that he has forgotten his promise and that he should not be hard on him. They disembarked and walked along the sea-shore.

All of a sudden Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) noticed a boy playing with other boys and he severed the boy’s head from his body with his bare hands, resulting in the boy’s death. Hadhrat Musa was shocked and said, “You killed an innocent being, this is a very grave sin.” Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) repeated that didn’t I tell you that you will not be able to exercise self-restraint with me.

Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) realized that this matter is severe than the previous one, so he made a condition that if he asks anything again, then he should dismiss him. They continued on their journey  till they reached a village and made a request to the people there to host them, but, they refused.

Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) noticed that a wall was about to collapse,  so he straitened it with his bare hands. Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) was surprised and said, “These people refused to host us and you had just done a great job. If you wished, you could have taken a fee for that job.”

Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) replied, “This is the time of separation between you and me.”
Thereafter Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) explained the reality of his actions in the three circumstances. In the first he made a defect in the ship due to an oppressive king who took all perfect ships by force and this particular ship belonged to a group of poor people who earned their livelihood in the sea by charging a fee for their services. The damage could be repaired later, but the ship got saved.

The second incident of killing the young boy was a blessing in disguise for his parents; who were true faithed in Allah Ta’ala. Had this young boy lived on, he should have become a disbeliever, and due to the intense love and affection for this child, they would have also eventually disbelieve in Allah Ta’ala and follow their son, resulting in their eternal destruction. The outwardly loss of their child was a calamity, but it was a blessing of Allah Ta’ala. Later Allah Ta’ala blessed the couple with a beautiful daughter who married a prophet and a prophet was born from her, by the means of whom Allah Ta’ala guided an entire nation.

Allah Ta’ala had knowledge of this and commanded Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) to carry out this act. In the last incident, two orphans lived in that city whose father was a very pious person who buried treasure beneath that wall and due to the peity of the father. Allah Ta’ala desired to protect that treasure till the orphan matured and benefit from it later.

All these acts were by the command of Allah Ta’ala upon which Musa (alayhissalaam) could not exercise restraint because he is forced to follow and act upon what he sees and such acts are not permissible in the Shari’ah, whereas Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) performed his duty of Takween. Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) understood this and departed.

Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam)

Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) is an accepted entity in regards to perform Takweeni duties. From amongst the three incidents mentioned in the Noble Qur’aan, the result of the first was to be soon that if the ship was perfect it should have been usurped by the king. The second result took effect some time later when a daughter was born to the couple of the killed child. The effect of the third incident was much later when the orphans matured and when Allah Ta’ala decreed for them to get their treasure but they would not have any knowledge of the wall about to collapse and how and who miraculously straightened it.

The first two acts were not beyond understanding apparently since it could have done naturally, but to straighten a collapsing wall with bare hands is supernatural and could only be done by the power of Allah Ta’ala.

From this it is understood that those persons chosen to carry out takweeni duties are kept imformed and are given instructions with it as well and these matters are connected with divine revelation and inseparation.

The question arises whether Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) was a prophet or a saint? Scholars have a difference of opinion regarding this.

Hadhrat Maulana Muhammad Idris Saheb Kandhlawi (rahmatullah alayh) says that majority of the scholars agree that Hadhrat Khizzr (alayhissalaam) was a saint and not a Prophet. A group of scholars say that he was Prophet only, and not a Messenger. If he is accepted as a saint, then there is an objection to his actions which are not permissible by law, whether merely divine inspiration is acceptable as proof. Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (rahimahullah) answered that it is possible that divine inspiration was acceptable in the Shari’at (Code of Law) of Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam). If he is accepted as a prophet, then his actions will be acceptable for him alone and an exception to the general rule.

Hadhrat Mufti Shafi’i Saheb (rahmatullah alayh) said:- from the incidents related in the glorious Qur’an, it is established that Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) was a Prophet. He was comanded by Allah Ta’ala to perform certain duties which were apparently contrary to the Shariah, but these are exceptional matters. These were takweeni duties which Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) was not informed about and had no knowledge of.

Hadhrat Qadhi Thanaullah Panipati (rahimahullah) says that there are duties of such nature which are generally carried out by angels, but Allah Ta’ala also chose special Prophets to carry out some exceptional takweeni duties and Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) was amongst them. Some examples of these types are: save a certain drowning person, destroy someone, Improve conditions of some etc. These matters are not a concern for the general public and the rules are of another nature.

Learned scholars are also not aware of such conditions, therefore there will be duty bounds to pass a verdict on unlawful in such matters which are unlawful in the Shariah, but the person who carried out the act with the command of Allah Ta’ala is excused and totally on the truth.

In reality, there is no contradiction, each one is duty bound in their own way. To compare the actions of Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) in the three incidents which are an exception to the general rule and giving a ruling of permissibility, with other actions of saints and make lawful that which is unlawful, is irreligious and not acceptable.

Hadhrat Maulana Muhammad Idrees Saheb Kandhlawi (rahimahullah) says, “My tutor, Hadhrat Maulana Sayyid Anwar Shah Kashmiri (rahimahullah) would mention a golden principle, if a difference of opinion is found regarding anything between the Learned scholars and the Saints, then if it is a matter of Shariah wherein a ruling of lawfulness or permissibility has to be given, then give preference to the view of the Learned Scholars (Ulama), because they are more aware of all the rules and laws and if it is something to do with Takween and secrets of worldly matters, then give preference to the view of the Saints, because they get inspirations from Allah Ta’ala  and undoubtedly they are a group of pious people”

There is a difference of opinion in regarding whether Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) is still alive or he has passed away. A group of learned scholars say he is still alive and substantiate their claim with proof and another group also produces proof for their claim that he has passed away.

Hadhrat Maulana Mufti Shafi’ Saheb (rahimahullah) studies the viewa and opinions of both groups with their proofs and says that Hadhrat Thanaullah Panipatti (rahimahullah) mentioned that the solution to all the objections and doubts in this matter is in the view of what Hadhrat Mujaddid alf-Thani Sayyid Ahmad Farooqi al-Sirhindi (rahimahullah) has mentioned from his experience of having a discussion with Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) in Alam e Kashf (i.e. a state of inspiration) and upon this matter Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) said, “Hadhrat Ilyas (alayhissalaam), we both are not alive, but Allah Ta’ala has given us this power that we present ourselves in the form of living persons and assists people in different situations and conditions.” (Allah Ta’ala knows best).

Nonetheless, this is not an issue to dwelve into and really be concerned about. Hadhrat Maulana Badr e Aalam (rahimahullah) mentions a few points after discussing the incidents of Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) with Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam):

1.  To really perceive the inner wisdom of the doings of Allah Ta’ala is beyond the intellectual capacity of Mankind.

2.  When Allah Ta’ala commanded Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) to perform such duties which are extraordinary, then Allah Ta’ala also bestowed him that much a power as well, therefore he could straighten a fallen wall with little effort which did not fall thereafter, until the orphans who were the rightful of the treasure, become strong young men.

3.  Rules and regulations of matters concerning Takween differ from that of normal Shariah ruling and Allah Ta’ala has appointed His special servants to review them also, but they are so discreet that it is not necessary for Prophets also to have knowledge of that entire system.

4.  Such persons who are chosen for Takweeni duties are kept unknown by Allah Ta’ala from the public so that their peculiar actions do not create disorder from the system of the laws of Shariah.

5.  The status of the knowledge of legislation is greater than Takween.

6.  If a most prominent and honourable person (i.e. Prophet) does not have knowledge of the exceptional acts of Takween, this does not create any difference in his prominence and honour.

7.  It is not desirable to search for such Takweeni saints and one should not consider for oneself an honour to be in such a persons company.

If per chance co-incidently if one meets such a person, then it will be incorrect to object their actions.

Hadhrat Musa and Hadhrat Khizr (alayhimussalaam) were bestowed with “ilm Laduni” (inspired knowledge) which are not dependant on earning a skill or any apparent means. Allah Ta’ala bestowed Khizr (alayhissalaam) with the knowledge of hidden secrets and internal wisdom, whilst He blessed Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) with the knowledge of Shariah (Code of Laws). When they met, Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) informed Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) that, “I have a knowledge from Allah which you do not possess and you have a knowledge which I do not know”

Services of Pious Saints of Legislation (Tashri’) and Creation (Takween)

‘Allamah Jalaluddeen Suyuti (rahimahullah) writes in his book:-

In a book of Allamah Yaafi’i (rahimahullah), it is related, “There are many pious people who mix and live with the masses so that they can guide anr reform people in their worldly and religious matters. Their situations are well known to all. There is another group of distinguished noble people who amount to about three hundred in the world and their conditions are hidden from the public specifically, but amongst themselves, they are aware of each others conditions. These people are known as Nujabaa.
Nujabaa is a plural for Najeeb.

One group of headmen who amount to forty only, are known as Nuqabaa. A single headman is known as Naqeeb. These people only mix and gather with the special servants of Allah.

Another group of only seven are found in major cities. Only one is found generally in a city at any given time and when he passes away, he is replaced with another. Very fortunate are those people who have two at one time amingst them. These saints are known as Abdaal (sing. is Badl).

A group of four saints who are known as Autaad (sing. is Watad)
are found in Yemen and Syria and in the East and the West. This is a special type of saints.

There is one chief saint known as Qutb whom Allah Ta’ala circulates around the world. His conditions are concealed from all.

When a Qutb passes away then the most prominent from amongst the four Autaad is chosen and nominated as a Qutb. A very exalted Badl is appointrd as a Watad, when from amongst the four Autaad, one passes away. When a badal passes away, then the most excellent of forty Nuqabaa fill in that place. The noblest of Three hundred Nujabaa is given the status of being a Naqeeb after one of them passes away, and when one najeeb passes away, then the most excellent of virtuous and pious persons takes his place.

When Allah makes the decision for the final day of resurrection, then all these saintly people will be taken away. Allah Ta’ala removes many calamities and misfortunes and sends rain by virtue of the existence of these people of Takween.

A Takweeni incident of Hadhrat Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani (rahimahullah) is also narrated in the same book. “One night Hadhrat left home and I was giving him a jug to use for wudhu but he did not take it. He walked towards the madrasah so the doors were opened for him, then he went and I followed him. Thereafter the door closed. Hadhrat walked out of the city of Baghdad with me following him closely. We walked a short distance and all of a sudden we fpund ourselves in an unfamiliar place. We entered a building resembling a guest house and unexpectedly found six men who greeted Hadhrat first and I hid behind a pillar. I heard sounds of groaning and crying from one end of the place and after a while there was silence.

One person entered, went towards the place where the sounds were heard from and emerged with a body over his shoulder. Another bare headed person with a long moustache entered and sat in front of Hadhrat. Hadhrat made him read the Kalimah and had his hair and moustache shaved and made him wear special clothing. Hadhrat kept his name Muhammad and addressed the other thus: “I have been ordered that this new Muslim be in place of the deceased.” They replied: “most willingly.” We returned and the next day I made Hadhrat promise to tell me what happened the last night.

Hadhrat explained that they were in a city where six Abdaals were present and the seventh was leaving this world. Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) took him away. The person who came was a Christian from Constantia and I was ordered that he acquire the place of the deceased, thus he came, accepted Islam and now he is included amongst them.

In this system of Takween, Allah Ta’ala takes special services, therefore, in whomsoever he finds that they have the ability to perform the desired tasks as He wishes, He chooses such persons for those ranks according to his capability and entrusts them with certain duties.

Some great saints who are strict followers of the Shari’ah, are also people of Takween  with some duties. But the status of Shariah superior and apparent. There is a possibility of being both.

In the era of Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddith Dehlwi (rahimahullah) few such incident are related from which it is understood that the people in charge of Takween, have a connection with the order and the arrangement of the place they are in, and according to the actions of the place, Allah Ta’ala appoints a Takweeni saint.

Once there was no law and order in the city. A person came to Hadhrat Shah Saheb (rahimahullah) and complained of the situation and he wanted to know the reason for this. Hadhrat mentioned that presently the person in charge of Takween is slow and negligent. The person enquired as to who that Takweeni saint is. Hadhrat Shah Saheb (rahimahullah) said that in the market place there is this person selling melons at a certain spot and he was in charge. This person decided to test this Takweeni saint anr went to him. First he enquired as to how much he was selling his melons and a price per kilogram was fixed. The person who was testing the takweeni saint asked whether the melons were sweet and he received a positive answer. This person said that he will first taste the melons and see if they are sweet, then he will purchase.

The melons were cut for him one by one and he tasted each one and put it aside. Eventually all the melons were cut and now this person gets up to go away and tells that none were sweet. The person selling the melons who was actually a takweeni saint did not say anything and without asking for the money he let the other person go away. He did not express any anger or displeasure. This person came to report to Shah Saheb (rahimahullah). That most drfinitely that takweeni saint was a unique person.

After some time there was some order in the city and the management has been restored. The person who had come to Shah Saheb (rahimahullah) and experienced the incident with the melon seller, came back to ask about the strange happenings and how law and order have been restored in the city. Hadhrat told him that the takweeni saint has been changed, therefore a change in the city. This person again expressed his desire to meet this saint and asked Hadhrat to inform him of his whereabouts. Hadhrat told him that he is a water-carrier who has a water bag on his shoulder and gives water to people to drink, he can be found near the Fatehpur Masjid.

This person went to the place and after meeting the takweeni saint, he asked hom as to how much he charges for his water. The saint told him an amount per glass and he requested a glass of water. This saint was not like the melon seller and asked for the money first. The money was given and he filled the glass with water and he gave it. This person saw something inside the glass and said there is something in the water and he threw the water away. Now this person is asking for another glass of water. The saint wanted money first. The person said that the first glass of water was not good so he should give him another glass of water.

The saint gave him a hard punch and asked him whether he thought he was the melon seller. This person returned from there with pain. Hadhrat Shah Saheb had said that now this is the takweeni saint in charge and he will straighten things up.

After relating this incident, Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi Saheb (rahimahullah) said, “Understand well that outward arrangements is dependant on the internal management. This internal order has something more internal and that is the command of Allah Ta’ala which is judged by obedience and disobedience. If one displeases Allah Ta’ala, then first the internal management is distrupted which will be followed by trails and difficulties later. The solution for this is to please Allah Ta’ala, then no difficulty will come.”

Someone asked Hadhrat Shah Saheb, “How do these saints carry out takweeni duties?”. Hadhrat made some lines on a piece of paper and told him to give it to a shoe-maker whom he will find on the road near the parade geounds opposite the fort. As soon as the cobbler read the note he began to collect and wrap up his belongings. On the ground the military brigade were all scattered around. The bugle was blown and the army was commanded  to prepare to leave.

Then the cobbler tossed his bag over his shoulder and all the men in the army mounted their horses. The cobbler walked and the army were ordered forward march. All of a sudden the cobbler stopped and the army stopped as well. The cobbler took the bag off his shoulders and put it on the ground, at the same time the military dismounted. The cobbler then opened his bag and took out all his belongings. The army removed the saddles of the horses and put them away. Now the cobbler spread out all his things and sat down. The military as well put all their things down and sat.

The cobbler performed this act thrice and each time it was just as the first. The person who came with the note witnessed the entire scene and went away.

Later the military officer ecplained that he does not understand what overcame him that he repeatedly gave orders to the army in this manner.

Those saints whom Allah Ta’ala has shouldered takweeni responsibilities with are from are two types of honorable pious friends of Allah Ta’ala.

Hakim al Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi Saheb (rahimahullah) has narrated few valuable points on the discussion of Takween.

1. There are two types of saints. Firstly those who give guidance to people to reform themselves, gain nearness to Allah Ta’ala, cleanse the inner-self, to conform to the commandments of Allah Ta’ala. These saints are known as the “Ahle-Irshad” and from amongst them whoever is the most excellent and virtuous, whose favours and bounties are widespread, is known as “Qutbul Irshad”, and such saints are deputies of the Prophets in reality.

The second type are those saints whose duties revolve around the reformation of a soviety, management of worldly affairs and removal of calamities. Allah Ta’ala grants them the strength and courage to carry out the duties with his permission. These saints are known as “Ahle Takween” or “Ahle Khidmat”. The one that is if highest status and the chief over others is known as “Qutbut Takween. Their conditions is that like angels. Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) is understood to be of this second type.

2. Many acts are performed by the saints with internal knowledge, like the straightening of the wall with bare hands by Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam).

3. In every matter there are some causes, but legislation will not be abandoned due to the takweeni causes. Cause and effect will take place and continually does so always. We are bound by Shariah and are accountable for not following any law. One will be taken to task for leaving any act of Shariah out. Since takweeni causes are not in our control, we are not accountable for any such acts.

4. To be connected to takween is a special post. Whoever is chosen is given the necessary knowledge, but his actions are not proof for others to follow. The condition of a Takweeni saint is similar to that of Hadhrat Khizr (alayhissalaam) and the angels. They can safely say: “I did not do anything by my own will.”

5. It is necessary for Qutbut takween to have knowledge of his status, whereas for the Qutbul Irshad it is not necessary. Qutbul Aqtaab is only one in the world and he is known as ‘Ghaus’.

6. Allah Ta’ala has bestowed Hadjrat Maulana Ya’qub Saheb (rahimahullah) with the status of Qutbul Irshad and for a while also the lofty status of Qutbut takween. He was also given responsibilities of takweeni services and no majzoob could come there without his permission which was unique with him only. (Majzoob is a saintly person who whilst not in full possession of his senses is absorbed in divine meditation), Hadhrat Maulana Gangohi (rahimahullah) was also a qutbul Irshad.

7. Muslims and non-Muslims, both benefit from takween. Even when a non-Muslim is sleeping, angels are appointed to protect him. If anyone is assisted in any way by some takweeni saint, then this is not really a sign of his acceptance in the sight of Allah Ta’ala.

8. It is absolutely futile to search for and find takweeni saints. They are in the control of Allah Ta’ala. What is meant to take place will most definitely happen whether you be kind to the takweeni saint and assist him in any way or not. It will be more of use to please the One who uses these saints.

From the above explanation, it is understood that some saints are only involved with the shariah and advice and guide people towards good, and warn them of evil. Some saints are only involved with takween.

There is one group who are appointed with both duties and from amongst this group, some have major responsibilities with takween and some are more with shariah and seldom perform takweeni duties.

The rank of those saints fully involved with the shariah is superior by Allah Ta’ala because they discuss and strive in those actions of the public which they have power and control over. Those who carry out duties of takween are merely like servants who follow the commands of Allah Ta’ala.

The general public is advised to spend their lives in accordance to the dictates of the shariah.

Takween is like Taqdeer (fate) and whatever is divinely decreed, that will happen at its appropriate time. Whilst having faith in fate, one still acts upon the commandments of Allah Ta’ala  to the best of one’s ability without negligence.

This system of Takween is Allah Ta’ala’s secret department in different matters. Generally every country has C.I.D’s working secretly and their investigations are not publicized since it is not beneficial to the public.

Some Takweeni saints are fully sensible and understand everything. They are like normal people who have different jobs as a cover up but it reality are engaged in Takweeni duties.

Takweeni saints meet together when necessary and are introduced to each other by the command of Allah Ta’ala which takes place in different ways. They sometimes use normal modes of transport tp get to their destinations and fullfil their duties. At other times they are miraculously taken to far off places by the command of Allah Ta’ala bodily and at times only by soul. When taken by soul only, then sometimes a similar body are given also.

Mazjoobs:- As explained earlier, a Mazjoob is a saintly person who is absorbed in divine meditation and is not in full possession of his senses.

Some Takweeni saints are Mazjoobs. They are found normally everywhere or wherever Allah Ta’ala wills, they arrive there. From amongst this group, some feel the effects of thirst, hunger, cold etc  due to a certain degree and Allah Ta’ala provides from them accordingly. Some dress up like normal people and eat normally, but don’t really do any work. They offer Salaah etc anyhow with no real regards to proper postures or number of rakaats.

Some are stark naked or barely covered up and are aloof from people. They are always in an absorbed state and talk very little which hardly makes sense also. There is no restriction of age amongst them. It can be from ten years old to old aged.

The wisdom of using such people also for Takween is that due to their mental state, they are excused from practicing the commandments of Shariat. If they do acts which are apparently against the Shariat, then there is no reproach for them.

Many people become confused in matters related to mazjoobs and sense of moderation is lost sometimes which results in extremism in either way. Therefore it is necessary to understand the reality totally so that no misunderstanding remains.

Hakimul Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (rahimahullah) has written few points on this subject:-

(1) Ahle Khidmat: (Those persons chosen forTakweeni duties) are mostly majzoobs

(2) Majnoon (insane) is a person whose understanding/ intellect fails due to Malignant humours of the Body. The four humours of the body are:- 1. Blood 2. Phlegm 3. choler 4. Melancholy (Black Bile); and a ‘Majzoob’  is whose understanding fails / vanishes due to unseen occurrences.

Sometimes changes in the humours of the human body are due to different conditions and incidents, therefore it is difficult to identify / recognise a Majnoon from a Majzoob on a pretence is difficult.

One sign of a Majzoob is that by sitting near him one experiences an attraction towards the hereafter and the saints / pious people of that era do not oppose him. Every Majnoon is not a Majzoob.

The reason why people search for a Majzoob is that whatever he says happens, whereas it does not happen because he says it, but because Allah Ta’ala had ordained for it to happen. This can be understood simply by the example of a person who receives telegrams. As the messages arrives, he writes them down and sends it to the persons concerned. The person who writes down the messages has no interference in the message relayed. If the telegram does not come through, there is nothing to write down. Now if the people begin to distribute sweetmeats and give presents to the person writing down the messages, then this will be considered as foolishness.

The person writing the telegram cannot alter the message of the telegram even if the people have to praise him or be bad to him. There is really no effect  in what the majzoob says. People unnecessarily waste their valuable time in the company of a majzoob since there is no worldly or other benefit by him. In the company of true saints, who give advice sincerily  and good guidance, there is all types of benefits.

(3) Majzoobs are transferred to places such as government offices.

(4) ‘Aqtaabut Takween’  are mostly majzoobs.

(5) An ‘Aalim asked Hadhrat Ashraf Ali Thanwi (rahimahullah) that he heard, “Takweeni matters are related to majzoobs, so how do they carry out their duties without intellect?”

Hadhrat replied that although they are in such a state, whatever duties are conferred to them, for such duties there is no need for intellect, therefore they perform their duties very well.  

(6) These majzoobs are in charge of takweeni matters and pious saints who are involved in serving mankind to become better people are engaged in worship of Allah Ta’ala are in fact deputies of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and inheritors of the prophets. Their status and rank is very lofty.

(7) There is great wisdom in the matters of takween being given to majzoobs. Since they are excused in Shariah due to their mental defects, some of their actions although outwardly do not conform to the teachings of Islam, they are overlooked.

(8) The damage of delving into the concerns of Majzoobs is the people begin to take the Shariah and understand it to be useless.

Fundamentals of Divine Inspiration and miracles of pious Saints

Nowadays many people either totally reject miracles and Divine inspirations of pious Saints or some believe in them to such an extent that when some supernatural power is witnesses by a pious saint, then some people attribute divine qualities to them. Both groups are wrong and the reality is in between the two. Moderation is recommended in everything.

It is very much possible for the miracles to be performed at the hands of a pious saint, but in it is the power of Allah Ta’ala that contributes to the effect to take place. It means that the existence of the miracle is the doing of Allah Ta’ala and not that of the saint. He is merely just the means. Whenever Allah Ta’ala wills, He can make it possible for a miracle to be produced via a saint. Sometimes the saint does not even perceive or have knowledge of a miracle being possibly revealed by him. Therefore, to attribute divine qualities to saints due to miracles, etc is a sign of ignorance in regards to this subject.

Hadhrat Hakeemul Ummat (rahimahullah) says, ” I gave a speech regarding miracles in a gathering where there were few Ghayr Muqallids who had a trace of ‘Shirk’  in the belief of miracles (A Ghayr Muqallid is one who does not follow any school of thought and has liberal and independent views), (Shirk here means to attribute some qualities of Allah Ta’ala to saints. In this lecture, I gave the answer to the question of; Who is the being who reveals / discloses miracles and males miracles become possible at the hands of saints? Is it Allah Ta’ala or the saint himself?

We believe that Allah Ta’ala is the Sole Being who discloses miracles and it is clear that the power of Allah Ta’ala is limitless; thereafter the most extraordinary miracle is possible.

Those who believe the saint reveals miracles, they limit the miracles to his power  and in this manner, fall prey to shirk.”

A miracle is super-natural and revealed upon such saints hands who follow in the footsteps of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) totally, If a person does not follow Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) totally, although he may claim to, but his appearance and actions are contrary to his teachings, then his acts are not considered as miracles. Those people that accept every super-natural act  of any person as miracle  or become their followers are in error and are astray. Examples of such persons are people who are involved with mesmerism, invocation of spirits, black magic, witchcraft, superstitious remedy, conjuration, juggling, etc.

There are two types of miracles:

1. Those miracles that are apparently noticed and seen. E.g flying in the air, walking on water, etc

2. Those miracles which are significant, but not taken seriously. E.g. To be firm and constant on the Shariah, to have commitment and be punctual of good deeds, to become accustomed and habituated  with good character and clear the heart and self from evil character, etc.

Research scholars agree that miracles of the second nature are higher in rank.

A famous saying in Arabic is:-

Al-Istiquamatu Fawqal Karaamatu

‘Steadfastness is greater than Karaamat’

Amongst the work of Hadhrat Hakeemul Ummat (rahimahullah), the following statements in regards to miracles and divine inspiration is found:-

(1) Some divine inspirations are such that there is absolutely no doubts of any error / uncertainity, but then too it is no proof in shariah and at the same time it will not be understood as far-fetched. The question arises is that, if there is absolutely no oubt of any uncertainity, then why can it not be proof in Shariah? This can simply be understood by way of an example of a person who sights the Eid moon on the 29th of Ramadhan; and sighting is something which is apparent and clear in which there is no doubt, then too it will be necessary for him to bear witness of his sighting because it is very much possible that there is another witness / testimony, although according to his knowledge he is only one person, but he should not think that the evidence of one person is not accepted, so what benefit is there in giving evidence.

If many individuals sight the moon and all thino to themselves that, ‘I am alone and the testimony of  one person is insignificant’, and in this manner each one reserves his evidence, then, how can the sighting be valid and confirmed?

Anyhow, one person goes and testifies that he saw the moon, but co-incidently there was no other evidence, therefore judgement was passed that one testimony is not proof for confirmation of sighting. Nevertheless, this person also will have to the 30th fast of the Ramadhan, although he had most definitely seen the moon.

(2) ‘Kashf’: Divine inspiration is what the perception / insight of the heart testifies to, which is better termed as ‘Ilhaam’. Perception, insight, wisdom and intelligence are very similar. The difference is that the wise people ‘Uqualaa’ reason out  / prove through apparent means; and perception and insight of saints are intuitional.

(3) Some saints are of the opinion that in ‘Il-Haam’ (inspiration) there is no mistake / error just as the person whose senses are not afflicted, there is no error and mistake. Majority are of the opinion that inspiration is not imperative and conclusive.

(4) People understand inspiration to be something very great and excellent, whereas it is really nothing much and has nothing to do with proximity to Allah Ta’ala. Some have a natural connection with it and others don’t just as some are born far-sighted  and some are near-sighted.

(5) ‘Ghayb’ – invisibility / mystery has two meanings:- 1. Real  2. Additional

Real is where there is no means of such knowledge and this is attributed solely to Allah Ta’ala.
Additional is in which circumstances some people are informed of things by different means and mediums. Therefore inspirations are from Allah Ta’ala to his special servants.

[Next Part will be posted later Insha Allah]


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