(1) Jumu’ah Salaat at a university campus: According to the Hanafi Math-hab, one of the conditions for the validity of Jumu’ah is Ithnul Aam which means General Consent. If the Jumu’ah is held at a place which is not open to all, then the Jumu’ah Salaat will not be valid there. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the Jumu’ah in such a place which everyone can attend unhindered. If the university campus is not open to all Muslims during the duration of the Jumu’ah Salaat and Khutbah, then Jumu’ah will not be valid there in terms of the Hanafi Math-hab. Hanafis cannot then perform Jumu’ah at such a campus.
According to the Maaliki Math-hab, the necessary condition for the validity of Jumu’ah is that the Jumu’ah be conducted in a properly erected Jaami’ Musjid. Thus, according to the Maaliki Math-hab, Jumu’ah is not valid on a university campus. In this case followers of the Maaliki Math-hab will have to perform Zuhr Salaat if there is no Jaami’ Musjid in the city.
NUMBER OF MUSALLIS
According to the Hanafi Math-hab, the minimum number of musallis necessary for the validity of Jumu’ah is three, the forth being the Imaam. According to the Shaafi Math-hab, the minimum number is 40 resident male adults who are all Muqeem. They should not be musaafir. Muqeem in this context here means a permanent resident of the place as well as a traveller who has made the intention of staying at the place for at least four full days. Thus, if in the congregation there are 39 residents and one traveller or one minor, then the Jumu’ah will not be valid for Shaafis. According to the Maaliki Math-hab, the minimum number is 12 adult males who are residents of the place.
According to the Maaliki Math-hab a Muqeem is either a permanent resident or a traveller who intends to stay for at least four days in the place where Jumu’ah is being performed. The number of musallis has to be twelve besides the Imaam.
In terms of the Hambali Math-hab the validity of Jumu’ah is dependant on 40 adult males who are permanent residents of the place. This number includes the Imaam.
A MIXED CONGREGATION
If the congregation consists of musallis following different Math-habs, the following ruling will be applicable:
(a) If the place where Jumu’ah is being performed is a university campus which does not allow the general Muslim public to enter during the duration of Jumu’ah, then Jumu’ah will not be valid regardless who the Imaam may be, even if he is a follower of any other Math-hab.
(b) If the number of musallis is 40 or more (residents), and the Imaam is a Shaafi or a Hambali, then the Jumu’ah on the campus will be valid for Shaafis, Hambalis as well as Maalikis, but not for Hanafis as mentioned earlier.
If in this case (40 performing on the campus), the Imaam is a Maaliki or a Hanafi, then the Jumu’ah of the Maalikis, Hambalis and Hanafis will not be valid. But, the Jumu’ah of the Shaafis will be valid.
If in this same case the Imaam is a Hanafi, the Jumu’ah of the Hanafis, Maalikis and Hambalis will not be valid while that of the Shaafis will be valid.
If in this same case (40 or more performing on the campus) the Imaam is a Hambali, then the Jumu’ah of the Hambalis, Shaafis and Maalikis will be valid while that of the Hanafis will not be valid.
FROM THE ABOVE IT WILL BE SEEN THAT IN THE ABOVE CASE THE JUMU’AH OF HANAFIS WILL NOT BE VALID UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES.
(c) If the number of musallis performing on the campus is less than 40, then the Jumu’ah will not be valid in terms of all four Math-habs whether the Imaam happens to be Hanafi, Shaafi, Maaliki or Hambali.
Even if the Imaam is a Maaliki and the number of musallis exceed 12 adult resident males, Jumu’ah will not be valid for Maalikis on a university campus because one of the conditions for the validity of Jumu’ah according to the Maaliki Math-hab is that the Jumu’ah has to be performed in a Jaami’ Musjid.
(2) It is not permissible for the Khateeb to be without a beard nor is it permissible for him to cut his beard less than a fist length which is the prescribed minimum length. Although the Jumu’ah will be validly discharged even if the Salaat/Khutbah are conducted by such a faasiq Imaam, nevertheless, it is sinful to appoint such a faasiq to be the Imaam. The reward of the Jumu’ah is diminished or destroyed.
Likewise it is not permissible for the Khateeb to be without Islamic dress. It is forbidden to wear western/kuffaar garb. Nevertheless, despite the prohibition and the sin involved, the Jumu’ah will be valid even if such a faasiq conducts it.
It is permissible to be without a staff. The Khateeb need not take a staff when delivering the Khutbah. In fact, in these days it is not permissible to hold a staff on the Mimbar because this practice has become a bid’ah (innovation). People have been misled to believe that it is compulsory for the Khateeb to hold a staff when delivering the Friday Khutbah.
(3) Recitation of both Khutbahs in Arabic is essential. This has been the practice of the Ummah from the earliest days of Islam. To depart from this practice is sinful. Nevertheless, the Jumu’ah will be valid even if the Khateeb commits the sin of reciting part of the Khutbah in Arabic and part in another language. But, it should be well remembered that it is not permissible to recite the Khutbah in any language other than Arabic. There is a difference between validity and permissibility. While it is not permissible to recite in any other language, nevertheless, the Khutbah will be valid if part of it is in English.
(4) It is not a requisite for the Khutbah to consist entirely of Qur’aanic and Hadith narrations. In addition to such narrations, other admonition may also be incorporated.
(5) The second Khutbah is more praise and prayer while the focus of the first Khutbah, beside the praise and prayer, is also on Naseehat (admonition/Tableegh).
(6) THE KHATEEB (The one who delivers the Khutbah)
The Imaam of the Musjid has the prior right to conduct the Jumu’ah Salaat and Khutbah in his Musjid. If there is no fixed or permanent Imaam, any qualified Muslim may be appointed to execute this duty. It may be a different person each week. It should be remembered that according to the Maaliki Math-hab, the same person who recites the Khutbah should lead the Jumu’ah Salaat. If different persons execute this, then the Jumu’ah will not be valid in terms of the Maaliki Math-hab.
It is permissible to ask a traveller from a different country to perform this duty. However, the conditions for the validity of Jumu’ah in terms of some Math-habs should not be overlooked in this case, e.g. if the traveller who has not made an intention of staying four days or more, is appointed to conduct the Jumu’ah and the number of musallis is 38, then the Jumu’ah will not be valid for Hambalis, Shaafis and Maalikis although it will be valid for Hanafis (i.e. if performed in a Musjid or a place where the condition of General Consent is found).
(7) Both Khutbahs should be delivered by the same Khateeb.