JUMU’AH ON A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS

[Mujlisul Ulama]

(1)  Jumu’ah Salaat at a university campus: According to the Hanafi Math-hab, one of the conditions for the validity of Jumu’ah is Ithnul Aam which means General Consent. If the Jumu’ah is held at a place which is not open to all, then the Jumu’ah Salaat will not be valid there. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the Jumu’ah in such a place which everyone can attend unhindered. If the university campus is not open to all Muslims during the duration of the Jumu’ah Salaat and Khutbah, then Jumu’ah will not be valid there in terms of the Hanafi Math-hab. Hanafis cannot then perform Jumu’ah at such a campus. 

According to the Maaliki Math-hab, the necessary condition for the validity of Jumu’ah is that the Jumu’ah be conducted in a properly erected Jaami’ Musjid. Thus, according to the Maaliki Math-hab, Jumu’ah is not valid on a university campus. In this case followers of the Maaliki Math-hab will have to perform Zuhr Salaat if there is no Jaami’ Musjid in the city. 

NUMBER OF MUSALLIS

According to the Hanafi Math-hab, the minimum number of musallis necessary for the validity of Jumu’ah is three, the forth being the Imaam. According to the Shaafi Math-hab, the minimum number is 40 resident male adults who are all Muqeem. They should not be musaafir. Muqeem in this context here means a permanent resident of the place as well as a traveller  who has made the intention of  staying at the place for at least  four full days. Thus, if in the  congregation there are 39  residents and one traveller or one minor, then the Jumu’ah will not be valid for Shaafis. According to  the Maaliki Math-hab, the  minimum number is 12 adult males who are residents of the  place. 

According to the Maaliki Math-hab a Muqeem is either a  permanent resident or a traveller  who intends to stay for at least  four days in the place where  Jumu’ah is being performed. The number of musallis has to be twelve besides the Imaam.

In terms of the Hambali Math-hab  the  validity of Jumu’ah is  dependant on 40 adult males  who are permanent residents of  the place. This number includes the Imaam.

A MIXED CONGREGATION

If the congregation consists of  musallis following different  Math-habs, the following ruling will be applicable:

(a) If the place where Jumu’ah is  being performed is a university campus which does not allow the  general Muslim public to enter during the duration of Jumu’ah,  then Jumu’ah will not be valid regardless who the Imaam may  be, even if he is a follower of any other Math-hab.

(b) If the number of musallis is 40  or more (residents), and the  Imaam is a Shaafi or a Hambali,  then the Jumu’ah on the campus  will be valid for Shaafis, Hambalis  as well as Maalikis, but not for  Hanafis as mentioned earlier.

If in this case (40 performing on  the campus), the Imaam is a  Maaliki or a Hanafi, then the  Jumu’ah of the Maalikis, Hambalis  and Hanafis will not be valid. But, the Jumu’ah of the Shaafis will be valid.

If in this same case the Imaam is  a Hanafi, the Jumu’ah of the  Hanafis, Maalikis and Hambalis  will not be valid while that of the  Shaafis will  be valid.

If in this same case (40 or more  performing on the campus) the  Imaam is a Hambali, then the  Jumu’ah of the Hambalis, Shaafis  and Maalikis will be valid while that of the Hanafis will not be valid.

FROM THE ABOVE IT WILL BE SEEN THAT IN THE ABOVE CASE THE JUMU’AH OF HANAFIS WILL  NOT BE VALID UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES.

(c) If the number of musallis  performing on the campus is less than 40, then the Jumu’ah will not  be valid in terms of all four Math-habs whether the Imaam happens  to be Hanafi, Shaafi, Maaliki or Hambali.

Even if the Imaam is a Maaliki and  the number of musallis exceed 12  adult resident males, Jumu’ah will  not be valid for Maalikis on a  university campus because one of the conditions for the validity of  Jumu’ah according to the Maaliki  Math-hab is that the Jumu’ah has  to be performed in a Jaami’ Musjid.

(2) It is not permissible for the  Khateeb to be without a beard nor is it permissible for him to  cut his beard less than a fist  length which is the prescribed  minimum length. Although the  Jumu’ah will be validly discharged  even if the Salaat/Khutbah are  conducted by such a faasiq Imaam, nevertheless, it is sinful  to appoint such a faasiq to be  the Imaam. The reward of the  Jumu’ah is diminished or destroyed.

Likewise it is not permissible for  the Khateeb to be without  Islamic dress. It is forbidden to  wear western/kuffaar garb.  Nevertheless, despite the prohibition and the sin involved,  the Jumu’ah will be valid even if  such a faasiq conducts it.

It is permissible to be without a  staff. The Khateeb need not take  a staff when delivering  the Khutbah. In fact, in these days it  is not permissible to hold a staff  on the Mimbar because this  practice has become a bid’ah  (innovation). People have been misled to believe that it is  compulsory for the Khateeb to  hold a staff when delivering the Friday Khutbah.

(3) Recitation of both Khutbahs  in Arabic is essential. This has  been the practice of the Ummah  from the earliest days of Islam.  To depart from this practice is  sinful. Nevertheless, the Jumu’ah  will be valid even if the Khateeb  commits the sin of reciting part  of the Khutbah in Arabic and part in another language. But, it  should be well remembered that  it is not permissible to recite the  Khutbah in any language other  than Arabic. There is a difference  between validity and  permissibility. While it is not permissible to recite in any other  language, nevertheless, the  Khutbah will be valid if part of it is in English.

(4) It is not a requisite for the  Khutbah to consist entirely of  Qur’aanic and Hadith narrations.  In addition to such narrations,  other admonition may also be incorporated.

(5) The second Khutbah is more  praise and prayer while the focus of the first Khutbah, beside the  praise and prayer, is also on  Naseehat (admonition/Tableegh).

(6) THE KHATEEB (The one who delivers the Khutbah)

The Imaam of the Musjid has the  prior right to conduct the  Jumu’ah Salaat and Khutbah in  his Musjid. If there is no fixed or permanent Imaam, any qualified  Muslim may be appointed to  execute this duty. It may be a different person each week. It  should be remembered that  according to the Maaliki Math-hab, the same person who recites  the Khutbah should lead the  Jumu’ah Salaat. If different  persons execute this, then the  Jumu’ah will not be valid in terms of the Maaliki Math-hab.

It is permissible to ask a traveller  from a different country to  perform this duty. However,  the  conditions for the validity of  Jumu’ah in terms of some Math-habs should not be overlooked in  this case, e.g. if the traveller who has not made an intention of  staying four days or more, is  appointed to conduct the  Jumu’ah and the number of  musallis is 38, then the Jumu’ah will not be valid for Hambalis,  Shaafis and Maalikis although it  will be valid for Hanafis (i.e. if  performed in a Musjid or a place  where the condition of General Consent is found).

(7) Both Khutbahs should be  delivered by the same Khateeb.

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