The super-imposed heavens in the Quran are the extra spatial dimensions in modern physics.
Astronomers have just confirmed the existence of Dark Matter. This mysterious Dark Matter is invisible however it provides the bulk of gravity that holds galaxies (not the regular matter that forms stars and planets). This invisible Dark Matter has weird collision properties (collisionless). Simply put: we cannot see Dark Matter nor collide with it but we can detect its gravity.
In this image, two huge clusters of invisible Dark Matter (in blue) clashed with each other:
With each cluster having a mass of 10,000 galaxies (each cluster a quadrillion times the mass of the Sun, 1015!!!)
In order to explain why this invisible Dark Matter neither collides with each other, nor does it collide with us but still we detect its gravity, physicists and cosmologists are working on theories with extra dimensions. Traditionally scientists thought that we live in a four dimensional universe: Time and the usual three spatial dimensions of length, width and height (x,y,z). However today there is evidence forsix extra spatial dimensions. So we cannot see nor collide with this Dark Matter because it is mass in the remaining six extra dimensions.
Video Link: Dark Matter 3D Map
According to the Quran, we cannot see nor collide with Jinn but they have weight:
[Quran 55.31] We [Allah] will settle your affair, both you of weight (man and jinn)
Thukl ثقل in Arabic means weight. Thakalain ثقلين means weight for two (binary mode). The Jinn have weight means that we can detect their gravity and they can detect our gravity. So according to the Quran we cannot see the Jinn nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity.
Just as the Jinn are of different type that we cannot see nor collide with but we can detect their gravity, there are six other Heavens that we cannot see nor collide with either but we can detect their gravity, superimposed above the visible one:
[Quran 41.12] So [Allah] decreed them as seven heavens (one above the other) in two days and revealed to each heaven its orders. And We [Allah] adorned the lowest heaven with lights, and protection. Such is the decree of the Exalted; the Knowledgeable.
According to the Quran, only the lowest heaven has visible light. This means that this Dark Matter exists in the six Heavens superimposed above the lowest one. Also according to the Quran, each of these remaining six Heavens is of a different type and each has its own planets like Earth:
[Quran 65.12] Allah is the one who created seven Heavens and from Earth like them (of corresponding type); [Allah’s] command descends among them so that you may know that Allah is capable of anything and that Allah knows everything.
Earth is not a unique planet in Islam. Other planets like Earth do exist throughout the other six Heavens. It is just that we cannot see them nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity.
General relativity predicted gravitational lensing, that is, the gravitational field generated by a galaxy causes the light passing through it to bend (change direction). Dark Matter does not emit any light but we can still map its location by using gravitational lensing, that is, by detecting where light is bending in places where it shouldn’t. In the above image and video light gets bent by invisible Dark Matter in places where it shouldn’t. Moslems say that this is how God challenges nonbelievers to detect the remaining six superimposed Heavens:
[Quran 67.3-4] [Allah] is the one who created seven superimposed Heavens “سبع سموات طباق”. You do not see variations in the formations of the Compassionate, so redirect your sight, do you see any creation (Futtur in Arabic فطور)? Then redirect your sight again, your vision returns to you in defeat and regret.
Futtur in Arabic فُطور is a noun meaning creation out of nothing (it does not mean “rip”). Its verb in past tense is Fattara فَطَرَ and is found in Quran 6.79 meaning “created” (The verb that does mean “ripped” or “destroyed” is its opposite: Tafattara تَفَطّرَ as in Quran 19:90. Its noun is Tafattur تفطُّر). So the question in the Quran is “Do you see any creation out of nothing?”. Your initial answer should be NO. But in the second verse, when you are supposed to redirect your sight your answer will change to YES, with defeat. Why should you redirect your sight when you observe Dark Matter? Why should you look to another direction and then back? Well the gravity of a massive object makes you see the background stars in another direction:
This is how we detect Dark Matter today, the background images are lensed at a certain angle. Since Dark Matter does not emit any light then we have to trace the light from the background galaxies. From the distances and the angle of lensing we estimate the mass of the Dark Matter. So when detecting the superimposed seven heavens you have to look away and then back in order to measure the angle. No angle no Dark Matter.
How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years have known that light could change direction? How could he have known about Dark Matter and Gravitational Lensing?
The Quran insists on seven superimposed heavens. We are in the lowest heaven, Angels on your shoulders are in the seventh heaven, and Satan (Jinn) passing through you are in one heaven in-between. However all seven heavens are superimposed. We cannot see nor collide with Angels and Jinn but we can detect their gravity, however these are the exact same properties of Dark Matter, we cannot see them nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity. String Theory explains what they are: They are mass in other dimensions.
Traditionally physicists thought that the smallest particles in atoms were point like, that is, they looked like points. However recently discovered evidence suggest that the smallest particle is not point like, as previously thought, but rather a vibrating string of energy. But physicists also discovered that these strings need more than three spatial dimensions to vibrate in. Particularly they need six extra spatial dimensions. In all versions of String Theory there are 10 dimensions: “Time” plus the usual three spatial dimensions x,y,z (4 dimensions, our observable universe) plus six extra spatial dimensions making a total of ten dimensions (1 time + 9 spatial = 10 dimensions).
Video: The Model of M-theory
In this animation (In the video of the above link) the strings with different colors are actually vibrating in different dimensions. They do not interact with each other except gravitationally. The two dimensional membrane that they are attached to in this animation is the three dimensions that we are used to projected on 2D (for this presentation). Photons only travel on this 2D plane (again for this presentation), and this is why we cannot see them. We can only detect the strings’ gravitational shadow on the 2D plane. Other competing theories like M-Theory has one extra spatial dimension (making the total 11 dimensions), however this extra spatial dimension is for the description of strings themselves (whether a string is a one-dimensional object like a thread, or whether a string is a rolled up two-dimensional membrane like a tube). If the strings have thickness (or variable thickness as in this animation) then we need this 11th dimension in order to describe them (to describe the tube). However if the strings have no thickness (always unity) then there is no need for the 11th dimension. In any case, in all currently competing theories, this Dark Matter is strings vibrating in six extra spatial dimensions. And in all those theories gravity is a force carried by gravitons (just like magnetism is carried by photons). Gravitons are emitted from strings and are then absorbed by other strings even those vibrating in other dimensions (different colors in this presentation). The place where gravitons travel is called the bulk (different than the 2D plane where light travels in this presentation).
[Quran 20.6] To Him belongs what is in the Heavens and what is on Earthand what is between them and what is under the soil.
Not only does the superimposed heavens (extra dimensions) belong to Allah but also what’s between them (برزخ, the bulk where gravitons travel). The bulk is a location just like under the soil is a location.
From a physics point of view, we are not living in a “Universe” but rather in a “Multiverse”; several universes superimposed above each other. Gravity is the only thing shared between these parallel universes:
Video Link: From Universe to Multiverse
The invisible Dark Matter is simply mass in other dimensions.
You might ask what do those six extra spatial dimensions look like:
Video Link: String Theory
Extra dimensions are tiny and curled up at each point in space. To envision a single extra dimension imagine the ant in the above video shrinking billions of times. Then this ant becomes small enough for transition to the extra circular dimension (like a roller coaster):
However instead of one extra circular dimension there are six dimensions and not necessarily circular; but they are all curled up at each point in space. The ant would encounter multiple routes like this:
As long as the ant remains in any of those extra dimensions we would not be able to see the ant nor collide with it but we would still detect its gravity. Dark Mater is not only mass in other dimensions but they are in parallel universes (where the laws of physics might not be the same as ours). The only thing shared among those superimposed parallel universes is gravity. Add our universe to those parallel universes you get the Multiverse.
On the other hand God swears by the heaven that has weaves
[Quran 51.7] And the heaven that has weaves (Hubuk in Arabic).
Hubuk is plural of Habka which means a knot or a weave. Doesn’t the route that this ant needs to take look like a weave? Of course. Actually those Seven Heavens (Multiverse) are parallel universes woven together (literally).
God also swears that someday we will travel to one of those extra dimensions:
[Quran 84.16-18] I swear by the afterglow of sunset… You will ride one layer from another layer.(لتركبن طبقا عن طبق)
Here “Tabak طبق” is a noun meaning “a layer”. The adjective “Tibak طباق” means “super-imposed” and is used in describing the seven heavens “سبع سموات طباق”. The superimposed heavens in the Quran are the extra spatial dimensions in modern physics.
Today we are sure that we are not living in a “Universe” but rather in a “Multiverse”.
Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years have known that we are living in a Multiverse?
[Quran 40.57] The creation of the heavens and earth is greater than the creation of mankind, but most of the people do not know.
(No physicist today believes that we are living in the three-dimensional universe of the Christian Bible where not even time is a dimension!)