The Baseless Shi’i Claim that the Saum of Ashura was an ‘Innovation’ Of the Umayyads

Fasting on Ashura is Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and Ahlul Bayt
All Praise belongs to Allāh, the Lord of the Worlds, and may the Peace and blessings of Allāh be upon his Messenger, his family and on all of his companions.

Throughout the year Allāh Ta’ala grants His servants with ample opportunities to have their past sins forgiven and to start anew. One of these special occasions is known as `Āshūra. The fast of ‘Ashura was prescribed before the fasts of Ramadhan. The Jews observed it and so did the people of Arabia before the dawn of Islam. The fast of ‘Ashura’, which we observe on the tenth day of the month of Muharram, is the day on which Allah, may He be exalted, saved Musa (alayhis salaam), and it is the day on which some of the Jews in Madinah fasted because of that. It is also the day on which Allah commanded the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) to fast at first, then the obligation to do so was abrogated when fasting Ramadhan was made obligatory, and fasting ‘Ashura’ became Mustahab (encouraged but not obligatory).

The claim that some of the Umayyad caliphs are the ones who put this day in Muharram is a Raafidhi claim. It is one of the many lies on which their religion is based and it is part of their belief to attribute all kinds of evil to the Umayyad caliphs and their era.

If the Umayyads had wanted to fabricate false hadiths and attribute them to Islam, they would have fabricated hadiths that made the day of ‘Ashura’ an Eid or festival! and not a day of fasting on which a person refrains from eating, drinking and sex.

Fasting is an act of worship in which one refrains from permissible things, and Eid is a celebration in which one partakes of those things. So, there is a clear difference between Fast and Eid.

In sha Allah! In this article, we will present before our readers sufficient evidences proving the Fast of Ashura to a Sunnah of the final Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, and it was in no way an innovation of Bani Umayyah.

Some Authentic Aḥādīth Regarding `Āshūra
1. A’isha (radhiyallahu anha) reported that the Quraish used to fast on the day of Ashura during the pre-Islamic days. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ then commanded to fast on that day till (fasting) in Ramadhan became obligatory. Then the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: He who wishes to fast should do so, and he who wishes to break it may do so. [Bukhari and Muslim]

2. Abū Musā al-Ash`arī (radhiyallahu anhu) said: The day of `Āshurā was one that the Jews respected and treated as a day of festival. The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ  instructed us: “You should also observe fast on this day.”   [Bukhari and Muslim]

3. Narrated Humaid bin `Abdur Rahman: That he heard Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan (radhiyallahu anhu) on the day of ‘Ashura’ during the year he performed the Hajj, saying on the pulpit,“O the people of Madinah! Where are your Religious Scholars? I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, ‘This is the day of ‘Ashura’. Allah has not enjoined its fasting on you but I am fasting it. You have the choice either to fast or not to fast (on this day).” [Bukhari and Muslim]

4. Narrated Ibn `Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu): The Prophet ﷺ  came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of Ashura. He asked them about that. They replied, “This is a good day, the day on which Allah rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day.” The Prophet ﷺ said, “We have more claim over Moses than you.” So, the Prophet ﷺ fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day). [Bukhari and Muslim].

5. Narrated Ar-Rubi’ bint Mu’awadh: “The Prophet ﷺ sent a messenger to the village of the Ansar in the morning of the day of ‘Ashura’ (10th of Muharram) to announce: ‘Whoever has eaten something should not eat but complete the fast, and whoever is observing the fast should complete it.’ “She further said, “Since then we used to fast on that day regularly and also make our boys fast. We used to make toys of wool for the boys and if anyone of them cried for, he was given those toys till it was the time of the breaking of the fast. [Bukhari and Muslim]

6. `Abd Allāh bin `Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated: “The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ observed the fast on the day of `Āshūra and ordered others to also fast. When fasting during Ramaḍhān was made compulsory, he left it.” `Abd Allāh would not fast on this day unless it coincided with his (normal days of) fasting. [al-Bukhārī and Aḥmad]

7. Ibn `Abbās (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated: “I do not know the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ singling out any days for fasting, and considering it more excellent than another, except for this day [the day of `Āshūra] and that month – meaning the month of Ramaḍhān.” [Bukhari and Muslim]

8. Abū Qatāda al-Anṣārī (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said: “Fasting three days every month and [fasting] the whole [month] of Ramaḍhān every year is a perpetual fast. The fast of the day of `Arafah, expiate the sins of the preceding and the coming year. The fast of the day of `Āshūra, expiate the sins of the preceding year.” [Muslim, Aḥmad, Abū Dāwūd and Ibn Khuzaymah] [Note: The predominant view among the scholars is that it expiates minor sins, as for major sins, repentance is required. This was explicitly expressed by al-Nawawī in al-Majmū` (6/382) and Ibn Taymiyyah in al-Fatāwā al-Kubrā (4/428)]

9. Ibn `Abbās (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that when the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ fasted on the day of `Āshūra and commanded that it be observed as a fast, they (his Companions) said to him: “Messenger of Allāh ﷺ , it is a day which the Jews and Christians hold in high esteem.” Thereupon the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said: “When the next year comes, Allāh willing, we will observe fast on the ninth.” The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ died before the advent of the next year. [Muslim, Aḥmad, Abū Dāwūd and Ibn Mājah]

10. Abū Mūsā (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that the people of Khaybar, [most of whom were Jews] observed the fast on the day of `Āshūra and treated it as a festive day. Their women would wear ornaments and beautiful dresses. The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said: “You (only) observe fast on this day.” [Muslim]

Sahaba (radhiyallahu anhum) who narrated about fasting on Ashura:
Here is a list of those Sahaba (companions) who have narrated or prescribed fasting on this day:

1. Ibn Umar [Bukhari and Muslim]
2. Aishah [Bukhari and Muslim]
3. Abdullah bin Mas’ud [Bukhari and Muslim]
4. Ibn ‘Abbas [Bukhari and Muslim]
5. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari [Bukhari and Muslim]
6. Salamah bin Akwa’ [Bukhari and Muslim]
7. Mu’awiyah [Bukhari and Muslim]
8. Jabir bin Samurah [Muslim]
9. Rabee’ bint Mu’awwidh [Bukhari and Muslim]
10. Abu Qatadah [Muslim]
11. One of the Azwaj Mutahharat [Nasai, Abu Dawud]
12. Muhammad bin Saifi [Nasai, Ibn Majah]
13. Hafsa [Nasai, Ahmad]
14. Qais bin Sa’d bin ‘Ubadah [Nasai, Ahmad]
15. Mu’adh bin Jabal [Abu Dawud]
16. Aslam [Abu Dawud]
17. Ali [Baihaqi, Tahawi, Bazzar, Ibn Abi Shaibah, Abdullah in Zawaid al-Musnad]
18. Hind bin Asma [Ahmad, Tahawi]
19. Abdullah Bin Zubair [Ahmad, Tahawi]
20. Abu Hurairah [Ahmad]
21. Jabir bin Abdullah [Ahmad]
22. Abdullah bin Badr al-Juhani [Ahmad]
23. Asma bin Haritha [Ahmad]
24. Zahir bin Aswad [Tabarani, Bazzar]
25. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri [Tabrani]
26. Ruzainah [Tabrani, Abu Ya’la]
27. Khabbab [Tabrani]
28. Ubadah bin Samit [Tabrani]
29. Ma’bad al-Qurashi [Tabrani]
30. ‘Aidh bin ‘Amr [Tabrani]
31. Ammar [Tabrani]
32. Abdullah bin Jarad al-Uqaili [Mshikhah Ibn Abi As-Saqar, Amali ash-Shajari]
33. Umar bin Khattab [Abdur-Razzaq, Ibn Abi Shaibah]

Shia Ahadith of Imams from Ahle Bayt regarding fasting on Ashura:
Some ignorant Shias claimed that the Ahadith in which the Prophet ﷺ tells us to fast the tenth of Muharram “Ashura” is a fabrication by the Umayyads and they accuse Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) of this (Although it’s narrated by many others), but what those ignorant Shias didn’t know is that these Ahadith are found in al-Bukhari and Muslim which were written many years after the Umayyad Caliphate fell, so there was no “political pressure”. Anyways, the ahadith we mentioned from the saheeh Sunnah about the virtues of ‘Ashoora’, and the fact that fasting it expiates for the sins of a year, and that its date is fixed, on the tenth of Muharram – all of that is not unique to Ahl as-Sunnah. Rather it is also mentioned in the main reference book of the Shias! So how can this be reconciled with their claims that what we have are israa’eeliyyat (stories from Jewish sources), that were taken from the Jews or invented by the Umayyads??

Here are the Ahadith from the  Imams regarding fasting on Ashura from Shia books:

(i).

ـ وبإسناده عن سعد بن عبدالله ، عن أبي جعفر ، عن جعفر بن محمد بن عبدالله ، عن عبدالله بن ميمون القداح ، عن جعفر ، عن أبيه ( عليهما السلام ) قال : صيام يوم عاشوراء كفارة سنة .

Sa’ad bin ‘Abdullah from abu Ja’afar from Ja’afar bin Muhammad bin ‘Ubeidullah from ‘Abdullah bin Maymoun al-Qaddah from Imam Ja’afar from his father (as): “The fasting of ‘Ashura removes the sins of a year.” (Tahtheeb al-Ahkam 4/300 & Wasael al-Shia 10/457). [Grading: Sahih (authentic)]

(ii).

علي بن الحسن بن فضال عن هارون بن مسلم عن مسعدة بن صدقة عن ابي عبد الله عن أبيه عليهما السلام ان عليا عليه السلام قال: صوموا العاشورا التاسع والعاشر فانه يكفر ذنوب سنة. كتاب تهذيب الاحكام ج4ص299

‘Ali bin al-Hassan bin Faddal from Haroun bin Muslim from Masa’adah bin Sadaqah from Imam abu ‘Abdullah from his Father that ‘Ali (as) said: “Fast on ‘Ashura the ninth and tenth for it removes the sins of a whole year.” (Tahtheeb al-Ahkam 4/299 & Wasael al-Shia 10/457). [Grading: Muawaththaq (reliable)]

(iii).

وعنه عن يعقوب بن يزيد عن ابي همام عن ابي الحسن عليه السلام قال: صام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يوم عاشورا. كتاب تهذيب الاحكام ج4 ص299-300

Also from him, from Ya’aqoub bin Yazid, from abu Hamam, from Imam abu al-Hassan (as): “The messenger peace be upon him and his household fasted the day of ‘Ashura.” (Tahtheeb al-Ahkam 4/299-300).

(iv).

محمد بن الحسن باسناده عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن أبي همام، عن أبي الحسن عليه السلام قال: صام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يوم عاشوراء. كتاب وسائل الشيعة ج10ص457

Muhammad bin al-Hassan with its Isnad from ‘Ali bin al-Hassan bin Faddal from Ya’aqoub bin Yazid from abu Hamad from abu al-Hassan (as): “The Prophet (saw) fasted the day of ‘Ashura.” (Wasael al-Shia 10/457).

(v).

عن علي عليه السلام قال: {{صوموا يوم عاشوراء التاسع والعاشر احتياطاً،  فإنه كفارة السنة التي قبله، وإن لم يعلم به أحدكم حتى يأكل فليتم صومه}}
[مستدرك الوسائل (1/594)، جامع أحاديث الشيعة (9/475)].

Ali (ra) said: “Fast on the day of Ashoora 9th and 10th for substitution, for it is an expiation for the the past year, and if someone of you eats (by mistake) should continue his fasting.”
1- Al-Haj Hussein Al-Nuri Tabarsi in Mustadrak Al-Wasael 1/594,
2- Haj Brujardi in Jaa’me Ahadeeth Al-Shia 9/475.

Esteemed Shia Ayatullah authenticated ahadeeth regarding fasting on Ashura:
Ayatullah Abul-Qasim Al-Khoie (former head of the Hawzah in Najaf and one of the greatest Shia Hadith scholars, teacher of Ayatullah Sistani) in his book al-Mustanad fi Sharh il-`Urwat il-Wuthqa, volume 12 stated:

وأمّا الروايات المتضمّنة للأمر واستحباب الصوم في هذا اليوم فكثيرة ، مثل: صحيحة القدّاح : «صيام يوم عاشوراء كفّارة سنة»
وموثّقة مسعدة بن صدقة : «صوموا العاشوراء التاسع والعاشر فإنّه يكفّر ذنوب سنة»

‘As for the encompassing narrations commanding and recommending the fast of this day, they are many, like the authentic (Sahih) narration of al-Qadaah [from Abu `Abdillah (as), from his father Abu Ja`far (as), who said: “The fasting of the day of Ashura is atonement for a year.”

And the reliable (Muwaththaq) narration of Mas`ada b. Sadaqa from Abu `Abdillah (as), from Abu Ja`far (as), who said that Imam `Ali (as) said: “Fast on Ashura, the ninth and the tenth, for verily it atones for the sins of a year.”   (Source: al-Mustanad fi Sharh il-`Urwat il-Wuthqa)

Esteemed Shia Ayatullah admits that the Shia ahadith which forbid fasting on Ashura are all Weak:

Ayatullah Abul-Qasim Al-Khoie (former head of the Hawzah in Najaf and one of the greatest Shia Hadith scholars, teacher of Ayatullah Sistani) states:

وكيفما كان فالروايات الناهية غير نقية السند برمتها، بل هي ضعيفة بأجمعها، فليست لدينا رواية معتبرة يعتمد عليها ليحمل المعارض على التقية كما صنعه صاحب الحدائق. واما الروايات المتضمنة للامر واستحباب الصوم في هذا اليوم فكثيرة، مثل صحيحة القداح: ” صيام يوم عاشوراء كفارة سنة ” وموثقة مسعدة بن صدقة: ” صوموا للعاشوراء التاسع والعاشر فانه يكفر ذنوب سنة ” ، ونحوها غيرها، وهو مساعد للاعتبار نظرا إلى المواساة مع أهل بيت الوحي وما لا قوه في هذا اليوم العصيب من جوع وعطش وساير الآلام والمصائب العظام التي هي أعظم مما تدركه الافهام والاوهام. فالاقوى استحباب الصوم في هذا اليوم من حيث هو كما ذكره في الجواهر أخذا بهذه النصوص السليمة عن المعارض كما عرفت . كتاب الصوم للخوئي ج2 ص305

“The narrations that forbid this (Fasting) do not have proper Sanad, they are all weak, in fact we don’t have any respectable narrations that we can rely on to prove that those that differ with them are Taqqiyah. As for the narrations that speak about fasting this day and that it is favourable to fast there are plenty of them, such as the SAHIH of al-Qidah: “Fasting the day of ‘Ashoora removes the sins of a year.” and the Muwaththaq of Masa’adah bin Sadaqah: “Fast ‘Ashoora the ninth and the tenth for it removes the sins of an entire year.” and others like them. This is acceptable taking into consideration the unimaginably great hunger and thirst and pain that Ahlul-Bayt had to go through on that hard day. So the strongest opinion would be that it is favoured to fast this day.“   (Kitab al-Sawm by al-Khoei 2/305).

Similarly Al-Khoie, in al-Mustanad fi Sharh il-`Urwat il-Wuthqa, volume 12 states:

فصحّ ما ادّعيناه من أنّ الروايات الناهية كلّها ضعيفة السند ، فتكون الآمرة سليمة عن المعارض ، فلم تثبت كراهة صوم يوم عاشوراء فضلا عن الحرمة التي اختارها في الحدائق ، بل هي جائزة ندباً ولا سيّما حزناً حسبما عرفت بما لا مزيد عليه .

“So it is correct what we have claimed, that the prohibitive narrations are all da`if (weak) in sanad.  So, the authoritative is free of opposition, and the karahat (dislike) of the fast of Ashura is not established, let alone its prohibition which was the view hold in al-Hada’iq (of Yusuf al-Bahrani). Rather, it is permissible, recommended  especially (if done) mournfully according to what you have recognized by what there is no exceeding upon it.“ (al-Mustanad fi Sharh il-`Urwat il-Wuthqa).

Who deviated from the teaching of Ahlul bayt in regards to fasting on Ashura; Sunnis or Shia?
Famous Shia scholar al-Muhaqqiq al-Sha’rani says in his commentary on the book “al-Wafi” by al-Faydh al-Kashani, 22/505:

وقد يتفق لبعض الرواة الغالين في عداوة المخالفين والمبالغين في خلاف المنحرفين عن أهل البيت عليهم السلام أن يجاوزوا الحد ويلزموا أمورا من غير عمد ليخالفوا أهل الخلاف تدعوهم إلى ذلك شدة علاقتهم بالتشيع كما نرى جماعة في الأعصار المتأخرة ينكرون استحباب صوم عاشوراء مع الاتفاق على استحبابه ليخالفوا المخالفين ،
ويلتزمون بتحريف القرآن ليطعنوا به على أعداء أهل البيت عليهم السلام ، مع أن مطاعنهم في الكثرة بحيث لا يحتاج معها إلى إثبات التحريف وهدم أساس الدين

[It happens that some of the narrators who are extreme in their hatred for the Mukhalifeen (Sunnis), those who exaggerate the differences and deviate from the school of Ahlul-Bayt (as), that they may go overboard in certain beliefs un-intentionally only so they may oppose the Mukhalifeen. They do this because of their strong relation to Tashayyu`, as we see a group in the late times who deny that fasting `Ashura is liked (Mustahabb) by agreement, just so they can oppose the Mukhalifeen, and they stick to the belief that the Qur’an is corrupted so they can use this to criticize the enemies of Ahlul-Bayt (as), although there are many criticisms against them and there is no need to prove Tahreef (corruption) and demolish the foundations of the religion.]

Fact#1: Those Shias who reject the fast of Ashura by claiming it to be innovation of Umayyids or deny the fasting of Ashura being Mustahab, are the ones who deviated from the teachings of Ahlul-bayt. And the reality is known to everyone that the present day Shias reject the fasting of Ashura, whereas the Sunnis as a whole observe and recommend the fast of Ashura. Hence one doesn’t need to understand that, the Shias have deviated from the teachings of Ahlelbayt, whereas Sunnis are the ones who are the true followers of Ahlelbayt.

Fact#2: The extremist Shias of yesterday are the average Shia of today.

Fact#3: There was agreement regarding fasting on Ashura being Mustahab (encouraged), but the Ghulats (extremists) attacked the Sunnah of Prophet ﷺ and Ahlelbayt by calling it Umayyad innovation, with this they were able to replace the Sunnah of fasting on Ashura with several innovation (bid’ah) which had no relation with Islam nor with the teachings of Prophet ﷺ, infact those innovations were contrary to the teachings of Prophet ﷺ and Ahlul-bayt.

Clarification of some Shia Misconceptions regarding the Fasting of Ashura

Misconception #1:
Some Shias quote the below Shia hadith, which was authenticated by esteemed Shia scholar Sayed al-Khoei, and using this hadith they try to claim that Fast of Ashoora was abandoned.

محمد بن علي بن الحسين بإسناده عن زرارة بن أعين ومحمد بن مسلم جميعا ، أنهما سألا أبا جعفر الباقر ( عليه السلام ) عن صوم يوم عاشوراء ؟ فقال : كان صومه قبل شهر رمضان ، فلما نزل شهر رمضان ترك

Muhammad b. `Ali b. al-Husayn (Shaykh Saduq) with his isnad from Zurara b. A`yan and Muhammad b. Muslim, both of them, that they asked Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (as) about the fast of the day of `Ashura.  So he said:  Its fast was before the month of Ramadhan, so when the month of Ramadan descended, it was abandoned.  (sahih)

Response:
Sayed al-Khoei himself explained this hadith saying, that this is not actually prohibitive, but is describing that the fast of `Ashura was in place prior to the fasting of the month of Ramadhan, after which it was not an obligation to fast on `Ashura, i.e. that this had become mansukh (abrogated).

This narration about abandonment of fast of Ashura is actually about abandonment of wujoob (obligation) of Fast of Ashura. Its wujoob (obligation) was abandoned after the revelation of Ramadan and it doesn’t contradict the ahadith which speaks of istihbab of fasting on day of Ashura. As Syed al-Khoei says:

ولكنّها ـ كما ترى ـ لا تتضمّن نهياً ، بل غايته أنّ صومه صار متروكاً
ومنسوخاً بعد نزول شهر رمضان ، ولعلّه كان واجباً سابقاً ، ثمّ اُبدل بشهر رمضان كما قد تقتضيه طبيعة التبديل ، فلا تدلّ على نفي الاستحباب عنه بوجه فضلا عن الجواز

And, similar ahadith are even present in Sunni books:

Narrated `Aisha (radhiyallahu anhu): ‘Ashura’ (i.e. the tenth of Muharram) was a day on which the tribe of Quraish used to fast in the prelslamic period of ignorance. The Prophet ﷺ also used to fast on this day. So when he migrated to Madinah, he fasted on it and ordered (the Muslims) to fast on it. When the fasting of Ramadhan was enjoined, it became optional for the people to fast or not to fast on the day of Ashura. (Sahih al-Bukhari #3831).

Misconception #2:
Some Shias use the below hadith, and claim that the Fast of Ashura shouldn’t be complete day fast, but it should be broken after Salat of Asr.

Muhammad b. al-Hasan in al-Misbah from `Abdullah b. Sinan said: I entered upon Abu `Abdillah (as) on the day of `Ashura [and I met him melancholic in color, sorrowful in appearance – in the masdar] and his tears were dropping upon his eyes like dripping pearls.  So I said: What is your crying from?  So he said: Are you in (a state of) heedlessness?  Do you not know that al-Husayn (as) was afflicted in the like of this day?  So I said: What is your saying in regards to its fast?  So he said to me: Fast it without tabyeet, and break it without tashmeet, and do not make it a complete day of fasting, and your iftar is to be after the salat of `asr by an hour upon a drink of water, for verily in the like of that time from that day did the battle appear from the family of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.

Answer:
Firstly, those Shias who use this hadith have indirectly admitted that, Fasting on Ashura isn’t from the innovation of Bani Umayyah, as some ghali (extremist) Shias claim and attack the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. In regards to the reliability of this Shia hadeeth, then it is daeef (weak) because of unknown tareeq from Shaykh Tusi to Abdullah b. Sinan [not the book of Abdullah b. Sinan]. The taraiq mentioned in al-Mashaykh or in al-Fihrist would not apply in the case of Tusi’s al-Misbah. Read Syed al-Khoei’s explanation for this:

والظاهر أنّها ضعيفة السند ، لجهالة طريق الشيخ إلى عبدالله بن سنان فيما يرويه في المصباح ، فتكون في حكم المرسل .
وتوضيحه : أنّ الشيخ في كتابي التهذيب والاستبصار التزم أن يروي عن كلّ من له أصل أو كتاب عن كتابه ، فيذكر أسماء أرباب الكتب أوّل السند مثل : محمّد بن علي بن محبوب ، ومحمّد بن الحسن الصفّار ، وعبدالله بن سنان ، ونحو ذلك ، ثمّ يذكر في المشيخة طريقه إلى أرباب تلك الكتب لتخرج الروايات بذلك عن المراسـيل إلى المسانيد ، وقد ذكر طريقـه في كتابيه إلى عبدالله بن سنان ، وهو طريق صحيح .
وذكر (قدس سره) في الفهرست طريقه إلى أرباب الكتب والمجاميع ، سواء أروى عنهم في التهذيبين أم في غيرهما ، منهم : عبدالله بن سنان(1)  ، وطريقه فيه صحيح أيضاً .
وأمّا طريقه (قدس سره) إلى نفس هذا الرجل لا إلى كتابه فغير معلوم ، إذ لم يذكر لا في المشيخة ولا في الفهرست ولا في غيرهما ، لأنّهما معدّان لبيان الطرق إلى نفس الكتب لا إلى أربابها ولو في غير تلكم الكتب .
وهذه الرواية مذكورة في كتاب المصباح ، ولم يلتزم الشيخ هنا بأنّ كلّ ما يرويه عمّن له أصل أو كتاب فهو يرويه عن كتابه كما التزم بمثله في التهذيبين حسبما عرفت .
وعليه ، فمن الجائز أن يروي هذه الرواية عن غير كتاب عبدالله بن سنان الذي له إليه طريق آخر لا محالة ، وهو غير معلوم كما عرفت ، فإنّ هذا الاحتمال تطرّق بطبيعة الحال ولا مدفع له ، وهو بمجرّده كاف في عدم الجزم بصحّة السند .
بل أنّ هذا الاحتمال قريب جدّاً ، بل هو المظنون ، بل المطمأنّ به ، إذ لو كانت مذكورة في كتاب عبدالله بن سنان فلماذا أهملها في التهذيب والاستبصار مع عنوانه (قدس سره) فيهما : صوم يوم عاشوراء ، ونقله سائر الروايات الواردة في الباب وبنائه (قدس سره) على نقل ما في ذلك الكتاب وغيره من الكتب ؟! فيكشف هذا عن أنّ روايته هذه عنه عن غير كتابه كما ذكرناه . وحيث إنّ طريقـه إليه غير معلوم فالرواية في حكم المرسل ، فهي أيضاً ضعيفة السـند كالروايات الثلاث المتقدّمة .
فصحّ ما ادّعيناه من أنّ الروايات الناهية كلّها ضعيفة السند ، فتكون الآمرة سليمة عن المعارض ، فلم تثبت كراهة صوم يوم عاشوراء فضلا عن الحرمة التي اختارها في الحدائق ، بل هي جائزة ندباً ولا سيّما حزناً حسبما عرفت بما لا مزيد عليه

-End Quote-

Conclusion:
Without a shred of doubt, the injust, biased and polemic claim that the fasting of Ashura is merely a Jewish tradition and that the Sahaba and later on the Umayyads introduced it into Islam to belittle the tragedy of Karbala’ and to celebrate on that day by fasting is a blatant LIE, yet  we will be faced with this SHAMELESS lie on major Shia TV channels, Shia websites, Shia preachers and even by their major scholars, despite the fact that its an established fact from the books of Shias that, the fasting of Ashura was a HIGHLY RECOMMENDED Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad and the Imams from Ahle bayt. Hence we would like to advice the objective Shia readers that, whatever your stand as a Shia is going to be, whether you want to follow the beautiful Sunnah of Prophet ﷺ & Ahlul-bayt or you want to skip it and engage in self-flagellation, and the other similar innovations, it’s upto you, but think twice before calling the Sunnah of Prophet ﷺ and Ahlelbayt as an innovation of Bani Umayyah.

We had given them ears, eyes, and hearts but none of their ears, eyes, and hearts proved to be of any benefit to them; they rejected the revelations of God and the torment which they mocked brought upon them utter destruction.  [Quran 46:26]

AASHURA AND GIFTS

Question: Is exchanging of gifts on the Day of Aashura permissible? A Mufti say that it is permissible as long as not believed to be necessary or Sunnat.

Answer (by Mujlisul Ulama): Now why would someone ask about the permissibility of gifts when every person regardless of how ignorant he may be knows that making gifts or exchanging gifts is permissible? The Mufti Sahib did not apply his mind when answering this question.

Gifts are permissible all year round, so why is this question related to specifically the Day of Aashura? The reason is that ignorant people have developed it into a custom associated with 10thMuharaam, the Day of Aashura.

It is not Sunnah to exchange gifts on the Day of Aashura. This practice has no relevance to the 10th Muharram. By saying that it is permissible, the Mufti perpetuates an erroneous idea and custom which will become an entrenched bid’ah if people are not given the proper view and ruling.

If a man wishes to give his wife or children gifts, why does he choose to relate it to Aashura? Since the concept of gifts on the Day of Aashura is baseless, it is a bid’ah which is not permissible. The correct answer is that exchanging gifts on the Day of Aashura is not permissible.

A developing bid’ah should be nipped in the bud, not allowed to germinate with ambiguous answers. When Hadhrat ‘Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu), during his Khilaafate, observed people gathering under the mubaarak tree under which Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had taken the  Pledge of Maut from the Sahaabah, he promptly ordered the tree which is mentioned in the Qur’aan Majeed to be cut down. He foresaw future bid’ah and shirk developing at the tree site, hence he nipped it in the bud. He did not say that it is permissible to sit under the tree under which Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahaabah had sat for the sacred Pledge.

Inanimate Objects & Souls

[Mujlisul Ulama]

Question:  Do  trees,  stones  and  lifeless  objects  have  souls  and  do  they  have  emotions?

Answer:  They  are  not  lifeless.  According  to  the  Qur’aan  every creation  of  Allah  Ta’ala  engages  in  Tasbeeh,  glorifying  Him. The  Qur’aan  Majeed  states:

“The  seven  heavens  and  the earth,  and  whatever  is  in  them recite  His  Tasbeeh,  but  you  do not  understand  their  Tasbeeh.”   

There  are  numerous  verses  in the  Qur’aan  and  numerous Hadith  narrations  which  confirm  that  all  created  things,  including  inanimate  objects    engage  in  Tasbeeh  of  Allah Ta’ala. 

Allah  Ta’ala  spoke  to  the heavens  and  the  earth  and  they  responded.  Stones  would  offer  Salaam  to  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam),  and  the  trunk  of  a  tree  had  wept when  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu alayhi  wasallam)  no  longer  leaned  against  it.

All  things  have  souls,  but  obviously  there  is  a  great  difference  in  the  souls  of  humans,  jinn  and  other  specimens  of  creation.  The  growth  and  life  of  vegetation  clearly  confirm  the  existence  of  souls  for  plants.  The  stone  crying  and  pleading  to  Nabi  Musa  (Alayhis  salaam)  to  intercede  on  its  behalf  so  that  it  may  not  be  cast  into  Jahannam  on  the  Day  of Qiyaamah  also  confirms  soul  and  emotion.  There  are  many  such  episodes  which  confirm  life  and  souls  for  all  created  objects – animate  and  inanimate.

Regarding  emotions  of  inanimate  objects,  it  is  obvious  that  if  they  are  utilized  correctly  for  the  purposes  for  which  Allah  Ta’ala  has  created  them,  they  will  not  suffer  pain  and  grief.

However,  if  these  inanimate  objects are  misused  and  abused,  it  will  also  be  zulm  (cruelty/injustice),  and  they  will  testify  against  the  zaalim (oppressor)  on  the  Day  of  Qiyaamah.  It  therefore  does  not behove  a  Muslim  to  abuse  any creation  of  Allah  Ta’ala,  be  it  a stone.

8 POINTS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE SACRED MONTH OF MUHARRAM

[Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng]

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful

1. Why is this month sacred?

Alhamdulillah, we thank Allah Ta’ala for blessing us with the opportunity of opening another new year of the Islamic Calendar. The month of Muharram is the first month of the Islamic Calendar and is one of the four sacred months. A true believer is one who is ceaselessly searching for a means to atone his wrongs and to gain closeness to his Sustainer, to achieve the esteemed and elite favor and pleasure of his Creator. The true believer is he who respects and holds sacred what Allah, Most High has decreed as sacred. Allah, Most High announces in the Holy Qur’an,

“Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein” [Surah At-Tawbah 9:36].

The sacredness of Muharram is expounded in this hadith narrated by Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhu that the Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: 

“Time has come back to its original state which it had when Allah created the Heavens and the Earth; the year is twelve months, four of which are sacred. Three of them are in succession: Dhul-Qa`da, Dhul-Hijja and Al-Muharram, and (the fourth being) Rajab Mudar (named after the tribe of Mudar as they used to respect this month) which stands between Jumad (ath-Thani) and Sha`ban.”

It was also narrated that Abu Hurayrah Radiallahu anhu said that Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“The best fast after Ramadan is in the month of Allah, Muharram.”

2. How do we show reverence to the sacredness of this month?

Follow the Sunnah

The path leading to gaining proximity to Allah is based on our deeds. Our deeds must be in conformance to the Sunnah practice of the beloved of Allah, His final messenger Muhammad Sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Allah, Most High addresses His beloved in the Holy Qur’an that,

“Say (oh Muhammad to your people), if you love Allah then follow me and Allah will love you and forgive your sins.”

Allah, Most High further instructs him that, 

“Say, obey Allah and the Messenger, then if they turn away verily Allah does not love the non-believers.”

Do not follow your nafs

The sanctity of this month and deeds which give practical expression to its sanctity have been explicated to us in numerous unambiguous narrations of the Messenger of Allah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam. It is now upon us to express our love to The Almighty and His beloved Messenger by ensuring that our deeds are in strict conformity to the Sunnah. We should seek sufficient knowledge and counsel from the Ulama to ensure that our deeds are not polluted by our base desires and that we don’t end up wasting our time and efforts by falling into the trap of Shaytaan, succeeding in nothing but to promote a trend flavored with Islam but which is irreconcilable with the Sunnah.

3. The 10th of Muharram

Amongst the days of Muharram, the most sacred day is the day of Aashuraa’ which falls on the 10th of Muharram.

Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,

“Fasting the day of `Ashura’ (is of great merits), I hope that Allah will accept it as an expiation for (the sins committed in) the previous year.”

Also, fasting the 9th of Muharram is highly recommended by the Sunnah. Imam At-Tirmidhi reported that Ibn `Abbas (Radiallahu Anhu) used to say:

“We should fast on two days: the 9th and 10th of Muharram to distinguish ourselves from the Jewish community.”

Mu`awiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan reported that he heard Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) say:

“Concerning the day of `Ashura’, it is not obligatory upon you to fast on it as I do. Whoever wishes may fast and whoever does not wish to is not obliged to do so.”

According to another Hadith, it is more advisable that the fast of ‘Ashura’ should either be preceded or followed by another fast. It means that one should fast two days: the 9th and 10th of Muharram or the 10th and 11th.

4. Giving charity

As far as general charity is concerned, it has been reported from the Companion Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-As (Radiallahu Anhu) that Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said,

“Whoever fasts on the 10th of Muharram (Ashura), it is as though he has fasted the entire year. And whoever gives charity on this day, it is like the charity of an entire year.”

5. Spending on one’s family

As for spending and being generous on one’s family, Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“He who expands on his family in the matter of nafqah (house expenses) on the day of Aashuraa’, Allah will expand on him throughout the remaining part of the year.”

In the aforementioned Hadith the term ‘was-sa-ah’ derived from the root word tausee’, has been translated as ‘expand’. The words ‘lavish’ and ‘generous’ do not convey appropriately its meaning. In the context of this Hadith, the term means: spending more than usual on your dependants. In other words, a bit lavishly, with greater generosity but without waste. The authorities of the Shariah, (the Akaabir Senior Ulama) have restricted the lavish expenditure of this day to food. We are required to spend a bit more on food and provide delicious dishes for the family on this day.

6. The joy of a truly obedient believer

For a true believer, one who aspires to taste the sweetness of Imaan, to taste the sweetness of his faith and his love for Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam, the joy of the day of Aashuraa’ comes from enjoying it in a manner conforming to the Sunnah. The joy does not come from satisfying his base desires. The joy does not come from interpreting the Sunnah and to succumb it to the trend of exchanging of gifts, emulating the manner of how gifts are exchanged by the People of the Book (Yahood and Nasaaraa), upon whom, in the opening Surah of the Holy Quran, Allah The All Powerful has declared His anger upon. We recite it in every prayer beseeching the All Mighty to guide us to the straight path, and not the path of those upon whom His anger is.

7. Is ‘Shopping for Aashura’ part of the Sunnah?

The Deen of Islam has become a means of commercial interest. Do not labor under the misconception that to roam the shopping mall with the intention of procuring gifts to exchange with family members on the day of Aashuraa’ is something which finds its source in the Sunnah of our beloved Nabi Sallallahu alayhi wasallam. This is contrary to the essence of Islam and its teachings.

8. Extra opportunity for the wealthy

For the affluent amongst us it is exceptionally meritorious to spend in charity and benefit the underprivileged, deprived and downtrodden.

Let it not be that we blindly pursue in our mundane activities without pondering over the sanctity of this sacred month. Who will be more deprived and destitute than us if we do not discharge our deeds in the Sunnah manner and thereby divest ourselves of its significance and blessings and its myriad of treasures, virtues and wealth in this world and in the hereafter.

Masaa’il-e-Mobile — Laws Pertaining to the Use of The Cellular Phone

[By Mufti Muhammad Salmaan Mansurpuri]

Bismihi  Ta’ala

The  cell-phone,  an  inseparable  instrument  of  present  day  life,  has  now  reached  the  hands  of all  and  sundry.  Men,  women,  children,  the  rich,  the  poor  –  all  face  the  challenge  of  the  cellphone.  This  mobile  tsunami  has  not  spared  anyone.

The  cell-phone  companies  are  untiringly  competing  and  offering  new  schemes  and  packages  in  a  sinister  attempt  to  lead  customers  into  upgrading  their  phones  and  contracts.  Daily  the  market  is  flooded  with  a  range  of  phones  with  many  new  features  and  functions.

The  cell-phone  has  moved  on  from  being  a  necessity  to  becoming  a  compendium  of  vain  entertainment.  In  one’s  pocket  is  no  more  just  a phone.  Rather,  a  radio,  tape  recorder,  camera,  video,  T.V.  and  even  the  internet  is  included  therein.  As  small  as  it  is,  this  phone  now  has  the capacity  to  give  birth  to  a  host  of  evils  and  vices.

Tragically,  the  cell-phone  has  wrecked  the  lives  of  many  innocent  and  chaste  young  people  who  hail  from  respectable  homes.  Photography  and  filming  has  become  even  more  rife  and  common.  With  the  earplug  to  the  phone,  many  people perpetually  listen  to  music  (thus  sowing  in  them  the  seeds  of  hypocrisy).  The  filth  and  garbage  spewed  on  the  net  is  now  accessible  in  the  palm  of  one’s  hand.  As  a  result  priceless  hours  are  being  burnt  away  on  useless  entertainment  and  games.

Undoubtedly,  there  are  those  who  strictly  use  the  cell-phone  when  necessary.  Even  in  such cases  the  limitations  of  Shariah  are  often  overstepped  and  at  times  completely  ignored.  A  common  example  is  that  of  the  musical  ring  tone.  The  sad  part  is  the  self-justification  when  one  is  corrected  or  informed  of  the  act  being  impermissible.  

For  a  long  time  I  wished  that  someone  would  shed  some  Shar`i  light  on  the  cell-phone  itself  and  the  various  related  masaa’il.  I  am  greatly  indebted  to  Moulana,  Mufti  Irtidaa-ul-Haq  Hasan  Saheb,  an  Ustaad  at  Mazaahirul  Uloom  Saharanpur.  Mufti  Saheb  had  obtained  and  made  available  a  questionnaire  consisting  of  thirty  cellphone  related  istiftaas  (queries).  The questionnaire  was  prepared  by  a  student  of  Mazaahirul  Uloom,  Molvi  Muhammad  Salmaan Madraasi,  and  answered  by  the  Darul  Iftaa.  These  questions  and  answers  are  being presented  for  the  benefit  of  the  readers.

Mufti  Muhammad  Salmaan  Mansurpuri

Introduction 

The  cellular  phone
It  is  an  undoubted  fact  that  the  incorrect  use  of  the  cellular  phone  has  caused  and  continues  to  cause  great  harm  to  the  Ummah.  It  is  perhaps  for  this  reason  that  those  who  are  against  the  use  of the  cellular  phone  become  even  more  staunch  in  their  view  with  each  passing  day. 

With  regards  to  the  harms,  consider  for  instance  the  situation  of  a  student  of  Deen  (or  any  other  student).  He  needs  to  have  complete  devotion,  dedication  and  solitude.  Thus,  what  good  can  there  ever  be  for  a  student  to  possess  a  cellphone  whereas  having  many  associations  and being  in  contact  with  many  people  is  a  fatal  poison  for  his  ta`leem  and  tarbiyat  (nurturing). Apart  from  this,  the  cell-phone  will  be  an additional  financial  burden  on  him.  

Another  severe  harm  of  the  cell-phone  is  that  such  people  who  generally  do  not  go  to  public  places  to  listen  to  music,  view  haraam  films  or watch  other  futile  things,  etc.  out  of  shame  and embarrassment,  have  found  an  easy  and  direct  tool  to  engage  in  these  vices.

Likewise,  despite  numerous  announcements  in  the  masaajid,  the  sound  of  someone’s  cell-phone  invariably  destroys  the  sanctity  of  the  musjid  in  almost  every  salaah.

Yet  another  great  harm  of  the  camera  phone  is  that  people  are  able  to  very  easily  take  photos  of  animate  objects  and  other  impermissible  things.

Nowadays  with  the  new  cell-phones,  one  can  easily  connect  onto  the  internet.  Fitnah  and immorality  is  now  knocking  on  the  doors  of  our  homes,  the  places  of  Ilm  and  even  the  places  of  Ibaadah.  The  heart  of  any  Allah  conscious  Mu’min  will  shiver  just  at  the  thought  of  it.  

In  short,  among  the  inventions  of  the  west,  this  little  item  has  wreaked  such  havoc  which  other  bigger  inventions  have  not  done.  By  means  of the  phone,  weakness  is  very  swiftly  entering  our  Deen  and  Akhlaaq.  How  pleased  the  enemies  of  Islam  must  be  to  witness  this?

Despite  all  these  harms,  it  is  still  nevertheless  possible  for  one  to  use  the  cell-phone  in  such  a  way  that  he  is  protected  from  its  evils.  It  is  not  necessary  that  one  must  get  involved  in  all  or  even  some  of  its  evils.  Due  to  this,  the  Ulama  are  of  the  opinion  that  to  declare  a  general  ruling  of  impermissibility  for  the  use  of  the  cellular  phone  is  incorrect.  It  is  also  incorrect  to  say  that  the  people  of  virtue  and  taqwa  who  use  a  cell-phone are  void  of  piety.

For  example,  if  a  person  sets  his  cellular  phone  on  a  completely  normal  ring  (without  any  musical  tone),  switches  it  off  at  the  time  of salaah,  stays  away  from  playing  futile  games  on  it,  does  not  waste  his  valuable  time  and  money  watching  cricket  matches,  etc.,  then  none  can compel  such  a  person  not  to  use  it.  It  is  incorrect  to  say  that  if  a  person  has  a  cell-phone,  then  most  definitely  he  will  be  entrapped  with  all  its evils  and  harms.  

There  are  nevertheless,  in  this  period  of  immense  fitnah,  thousands  of  Allah  fearing people  who  are  using  the  cell-phone  within  the  limits  of  shariah.  They  strictly  follow  the  principle that  “Necessity  must  be  restricted  to  the  extent  of  necessity.”  Thus,  they  are  an  example  to  others  and  are  worthy  of  congratulations.  

This  booklet  is  a  detailed  discussion  of  the  limits and  restrictions  within  which  one  can  use  the  cell-phone.  The  various  laws  pertaining  to  its  use  are  mentioned.  It  is  necessary  that  every  Muslim abides  by  these  laws  so  that  he  may  continue  fulfilling  the  purpose  of  his  creation  (which  is  to  recognize  Allah  Ta`ala  and  worship  Him).

Furthermore,  abiding  by  these  laws  will  deter  those  who  use  the  cell-phone  as  a  tool  for  the  destruction  of  Akhlaaq  (character)  and  a  means of  spreading  spiritual  diseases.    

This  booklet  is,  in  fact,  a  compilation  of  all  those questions  that  are  posed  regarding  the  use  of  the cellular  phone.  Reliable  Muftis  have  given  their  detailed  answers  to  these  questions.

With  the  taufeeq  of  Allah  Ta`ala,  as  well  as  the insistence  of  some  sincere  friends,  it  came  into  the  heart  of  the  author,  after  witnessing  the misuse  of  the  cell-phone,  that  these  masaail must  be  referred  to  the  Muftis  and  thereafter made  available  to  the  public.

In  conclusion  I  make  dua  to  Allah  Ta`ala  that  He  accept  this  humble  effort  and  make  it  beneficial  for  the  ummah.  May  Allah  Ta`ala  protect  all  the Muslims,  especially  our  youth  from  the  fitnahs  and  ploys  of  the  forces  of  baatil.  Aameen.

Questions related to the use of a Cell phone

(1) Switching off the cell-phone in salaah
Question: If one’s cell-phone rings during salaah what should he do? Should he break his salaah? Should he switch off the cell-phone whilst in salaah? Should he continue and allow the phone to ring?  

Answer: First of all, it is imperative to inculcate the habit of switching off the cell-phone before salaah. If one forgot to do so and the phone starts ringing, then with a slight movement (a`mal-e-qaleel) one should cut the call. For example, one cuts the call by placing his hand in his pocket. The salaah is still valid. There is no need to break the salaah. If one allows the phone to continue ringing, his salaah will be valid. However, he will be guilty (sinful) for disturbing others in salaah.   

(2) A`mal-e-Qaleel and A`mal-e-Katheer
Question: Please explain a`mal-e-qaleel and a`mal-e-katheer.

Answer: The Fuqahaa-e-Kiraam have differed in defining a`mal-e-qaleel and a`mal-e-katheer. The preferred opinion is that any action which gives the impression to the onlooker that one is not in salaah is a`mal-e-katheer. Hence, if one’s action is not so noticeable then it is a`mal-e-qaleel.  

(3) Cell-phone repeatedly ringing in salaah
Question: What should one do if his phone rings repeatedly in salaah? After cutting the call it rings again. Can one cut the call a second time?

Answer: One may repeatedly cut the call provided one’s action was a`mal-e-qaleel. If one’s action of repeatedly cutting off the call becomes clearly noticeable to the extent that an onlooker may feel that he is not in salaah then the salaah will be nullified. 

(4) How many times may the musalli cut the call?
Question: How many times may one cut the call in the same posture? How many times may one cut  the  call  for  the  entire  duration  of  Salaah? What  is  the  position  of  one’s  salaah  if  he  cuts  a  call  three  times  in  the  same  posture?

Answer:  Undoubtedly  one  is  allowed  to  cut  the  call  three  times  provided  it  was  with  minimal  action  (a`mal-e-qaleel).  The  salaah  is  valid  whether  it  was  all  done  while  in  the  same posture  or  in  more  than  one  posture.  

Note: (1)  The  three  movements  should  not  be  consecutive. 

(2)  The  three  movements  should  at  least  be  spaced  out  for  the  time  wherein  one  could  recite  Subhana  Rabbial  A`laa  more  than  three  times.  If  the  three  movements  all  took  place  in  a  time  span  equal  to  the  duration  of  reciting  three  tasbeehs  or  less,  then  according  to  one  view  this  is  a`mal-e-katheer  which invalidates  the  salaah.  Therefore,  precaution  is  necessary.

(5) Breaking one’s salaah to switch off the phone
Question: A person is unable to cut the call with a`mal-e-qaleel. If he allows it to ring, his salaah as well as the salaah of the musallees will be disturbed. In this case can he break his salaah and switch off his phone so that the salaah continues peacefully? 
    
Answer: If one cannot cut the call with a`mal-e-qaleel then despite the disturbance he cannot break his salaah. The breaking of salaah is exclusive to certain conditions. Disturbance in salaah is not a valid shar`i excuse to break one’s salaah. (Nevertheless, one will be guilty of having disturbed the salaah of the congregation. Therefore, one should ensure that one’s phone is switched off before commencing his salaah.)

(6) Having the Adhaan or the verses of the Qur’aan, Salaam, Naaths as a ring tone
Question: What is the ruling with regards to having the Adhaan or any verse of the Qur’aan as the ring tone on one’s cellular phone?
Answer: The purpose of the ring tone on a phone is to inform you that somebody wishes to speak to you. It is like a person knocking at your door. To use the Adhaan or a verse of the Qur’aan for the purpose of this information is inappropriate. It is disrespectful to use there sacred words in this manner. It is for this reason that the Fuqahaa have forbidden the use of the words of zikr for such purposes. Therefore, it is incorrect to download the Adhaan, naaths or verses of the Quraan as a ring tone.

Furthermore, sometimes one’s phone suddenly starts ringing whilst one is in the toilet. As a result, verses of the Qur’aan or the Adhaan are recited in the toilet. This is gross disrespect to these sacred words. Hence, one should completely refrain from having such ring tones. Merely set your phone on a normal ring tone.
                                 
(7) Having a musical ring tone
Question: Is it permissible to have a musical ring tone?

Answer: It is impermissible and a severe sin to have a musical ring tone on one’s cellular phone.

(8) Listening to music by means of the cellular phone
Question: Is it permissible to listen to music from a cell-phone? There are no pictures with the music.

Answer: Listening to music is Haraam, whether it is from a cell-phone or from any other instrument, whether with pictures or without pictures.

(9) Musical ring tones on the answering end
Question: Zaid calls Amr, but upon dialling Amr’s number he hears a musical ring or music (as is the case when one is put on hold). Is it permissible to continue with the call or must he terminate the call? Furthermore, what is Amr’s position in setting such a tone that those who call him are forced to listen to music?

Answer: To set such a tone on one’s phone that those who call one are forced to listen to music is totally impermissible. One is not only committing a sin, this is also propagation of a sin to others. Nevertheless, if one needs to call somebody and is forced to hear music on the other end, one will not be sinful (the sin will be on the other party).

(10) Watching a film on one’s cell-phone
Question: Is it permissible to watch a film on the cell-phone?

Answer: This is forbidden, whether on the cell-phone or any other media. Allah Ta`ala declares: “Do not come close to immorality, whatever of it is apparent or hidden”  [Surah An`aam].

(11) Watching cricket, soccer or other sports on a cell-phone
Question: Can one watch cricket on one’s phone?

Answer: Watching cricket on one’s phone is a futile act and a waste of precious time. Often acts of sin are also perpetrated when adverts with immoral pictures are viewed during the match. Generally, people cannot turn their eyes away when any un-Islamic aspect will be aired. Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) has reported that Rasulullah ﷺ said: “The beauty of one’s Islam is that he forsakes futile actions.” [Shu`abul Imaan, Fatawaa Raheemiyah, vol 10, pg 326]

(12) Playing games on the cell-phone
Question: Can one play games on the cell-phone? 

Answer: Playing games on the cell-phone is also a futile act and a waste of time. It is necessary to refrain from it. Rasulullah ﷺ is reported to have said: “It is the dictates of one’s Islam that he forsakes futile acts.”

(13) Listening to Deeni talks on one’s cell-phone
Question: Can one listen to Deeni talks or the recitation of naaths on one’s phone, with visuals on the screen or without it?

Answer: Listening to Deeni talks and permissible naaths is allowed, provided it is not accompanied by pictures. 

(14) To display the name of Allah  or Rasulullah ﷺ on the screen of the cell-phone
Question: Is it permissible to display the name of Allah  or Rasulullah b or any Qur’aanic aayat or a picture of the Ka`bah Shareef or the Green Dome of Madinah Munawwarah, or any other sacred place on one’s cell-phone? Can one go into the toilet with such a phone or keep it in his pants pocket?

Answer: In principle, displaying the names of Allah Ta`ala and His Rasul ﷺ or any Qur’aanic verse, etc., is permissible. However, if the names are displayed on the screen, it is not permissible to go into the toilet with it. Before going to the toilet one should switch off the phone so that these sacred names and verses are not disrespected. Likewise, if these sacred names or verses are visibly displayed on the screen, to put the phone in one’s pants pocket will amount to disrespect. 

(15) Downloading the Qur’aan or Hadith on the cell-phone
Question: Is it permissible to download the text of the Quraan, Hadith or any duas, etc., on one’s phone? Can one go into the toilet with such a phone, or any other unclean place?

Answer: There is no harm in downloading such texts onto one’s phone. Nevertheless, if the texts are being played on the phone or the text is visible, it will not be permissible to go into the toilet with it. If the phone is switched off, or the particular program is not being played and no texts are visible on the screen, it will be permissible to go into the toilet with it. [Shaami, vol 9, pg 519].

(16)  Taking  photographs  with  a  cellphone 
Question:  What  is  the  Shar`i  ruling  on  the following:

1.    Taking  photographs  of  animate  objects  by  means  of  a cell-phone.

2.    Having  such  photographs  stored  on  one’s  cell-phone.

3.    Performing  Salaah  with  a  cell-phone  in  one’s  pocket  wherein  one  has  pictures  of animate  objects  saved  on  his  phone.

Answer:  According  to  the   Ulama,  it  is  not  permissible  to  take  pictures  of  animate  objects  with  a  cell-phone.  However,  the  pictures  are  saved  on  the  phone  in  such  a  manner  that  until  that  particular  file  is  not  opened,  the  picture  is  not  visible,  then,  Salaah  performed  with  the phone  in  one’s  pocket  will  be  valid.  Furthermore,  generally  the  picture  on  the  screen  is  very  small  and  unclear.  If  it  is  displayed in this manner it will not invalidate the Salaah, especially when it remains covered in the pocket.  

(17) Purchasing a camera phone Question: Is it permissible to buy a camera phone, considering the fact that phones without cameras are also available and fulfil the purpose of a phone?  

Answer: Since the camera phone can also be used to take permissible pictures, such as pictures of inanimate objects, the purchase of such a phone will not be deemed impermissible.  [Imdad al-Fatawa 3/932]

(18) A traveller charging his phone in the Musjid
Question: If a traveller, such as one who is out on a journey to propagate Deen, or is a delegate of a Madrasah etc., spends the night at a Musjid, out of necessity, can he use the Musjid electricity to charge his phone?

Answer: If one has used the Musjid electricity for this purpose, then it is better for him to deposit some amount into the Musjid fund. This is necessary since one has used the electricity of the Musjid for one’s specific personal benefit, apart from the facilities of the Musjid which has been provided. Therefore, the Musjid must be compensated for this. [al-Shaami 9/760]

(19) Charging one’s phone at the airport
Question: If one has the intention to travel but has merely gone to the airport or station to pick up a passenger, can one use the electricity of the airport or station to charge one’s phone?

Answer: This is permissible since the facilities of the airport or station are for passengers as well as others who come to these places to pick up passengers, or for any other work. [Durr al-Mukhtar 1/31]        

(20) People charging their phones in their local musjid
Question: What is the ruling for charging one’s phone in the local musjid?

Answer: It is incorrect for one to charge one’s phone in the local musjid. If someone did do so, then it is incumbent on him to deposit some money into the Musjid fund. [Fatawa al-Hindiyyah 1/110]

(21) A Mu`takif charging his phone in the Musjid
Question: Can a mu`takif (one sitting in I`tikaaf) charge his phone using the plug and electricity of the Musjid?

Answer: Out of necessity he may do so. As a precaution he should estimate how much electricity he used and donate the money to the Musjid. [Fatawa al-Hindiyyah 2/930]

(22) Taping someone on the cell-phone without his consent
Question: Can one tape someone’s conversation on his cell-phone without his/her permission?

Answer: Generally, it is prohibited to tape someone without consent or approval. Rasulullah b said: “Whatever was spoken in a meeting is trust.”  Hence, taping someone without his consent will result in the breaking of trust, since there is great possibility of others listening to the conversation. [al-Tirmidhi 2/17]

(23) Issuing a divorce through the cell-phone
Question: A person divorced his wife by means of sending an sms to her. Is the talaaq valid?

Answer: If the husband acknowledges that he divorced her by sending the sms the talaaq will be valid.  [al-Shaami 3/306]

(24) A mu`takif dealing on the cell-phone
Question: Whilst in I`tikaaf someone conducted a business deal over the cell-phone. Is this permissible? Is the business transaction correct?

Answer: The business dealings made by the mu`takif are valid. However, it is preferable to abstain from such worldly activities whilst in I`tkaaf. It is detestable to be constantly occupied in material whilst in I`tikaaf. [Al-Bahr al-Raa’iq 2/303]

(25) Avoiding the creditor and the ‘auto switch off’ program
Question: A cell-phone can be programmed such that it avoids certain incoming calls. Whenever such a person phones whose number is barred, the cell-phone gives the false impression that the line is busy or the phone is off. Can a debtor use such a dubious program to avoid his creditor?

Answer: According to Shariah avoiding and delaying payment is oppression. Whatever ways a person adopts to avoid his creditor is impermissible. Hence, to set the phone in such a manner that one avoids the creditor is impermissible. If necessary, one should ask one’s creditor for more time. [Musnad Ahmad 2/17]

(26) Using a cell-phone more than necessary
Question: A company provides two of its employees with the free use of a cell-phone. There is no restriction regarding the usage of their phones. As employees of the firm, should they use the phone only when necessary or are they allowed (in Shariah) to unnecessarily call each other?

Answer: There is no prohibition regarding the unnecessary calls since the company has allowed unrestricted usage of the phones. However, it is incorrect to engage in idle talk whether on the phone or not. Hadhrat Mugheerah bin Shu`bah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah ﷺ has prohibited idle talk, unnecessary questions and the wastage of wealth. [Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No. 3736]

(27) Annoying someone with the phone
Question: Zaid wishes to annoy Amr. Hence, he dials Amr’s number and after one or two rings he cuts the call. Please comment regarding such an action in the light of Shariah.

Answer: To deliberately annoy someone by phoning him and then cutting the call is sinful and impermissible. Hadhrat Abu Hurairah narrates that Rasulullah ﷺ said: “A Muslim is he who other Muslims are safe from the harm of his tongue and his hand.” [Sahih Bukhari 1/6] 

(28) Giving someone a missed call
Question: Zaid does not want to spend money on making a call. Therefore, he gives Amr a missed call so that Amr may phone him back. Is this permissible?

Answer: The details regarding giving someone a missed call are as follows:

1) If the person is aware that you are going to give him a missed call and he does not mind then it is permissible.

2) Though the person was not expecting the missed call, the caller knows that he would not mind or be inconvenienced with the missed call. In this case his missed call is permissible.

3) If it is a stranger and one does not know if he would mind phoning back or not, then to make him call you would be incorrect.

4) Similarly, it would be incorrect to miss call someone whom you know will be inconvenienced by phoning you back. [Ruh al-Ma’ani 1/323]

(29) Relationships over the cell-phone
Question: A cell-phone company sends a phone number to its customers. The customers are incited to phone this number whereby they may get to speak with others. In this manner the company induces its clients to introduce themselves to one another. Often this results in conversations between males and females. Please comment.

Answer: It is Haraam to befriend strange women whether on the phone or otherwise. This is the key to immorality and vice, apart from the priceless time wasted in this useless pursuit.

(30)  Buying  and  selling  cell-phones  and downloading
Question:  Nowadays  the  cell-phone  trade  is  on  the  increase.  Apart  from  buying  and  selling  phones,  repairing  and  downloading  material  on  phones  has  also  become  very  common.  First  of  all  there  are  the  cell-phones  with  cameras  and  screensavers.  How  is  it  to  sell  or  repair  such  phones?  Then  there  are  companies  who  sell  various  musical  ring  tones  and  screen  savers.  Whilst  some  of  the  screensavers  consist  of beautiful  scenes,  there  are  others  which  are completely  immoral.  As  per  request  these pictures  and  musical  ring  tones  are  sent  to  the clients.  Is  it  permissible  to  sell  such  items  or  to facilitate  the  trade  of  cell-phones  in  one’s  shop or  to  hire  out  premises  for  such  a  shop  or  service?

Answer:  The mere buying, selling and repairing of cell-phones is permissible. Likewise, downloading programs which are beneficial and within the framework of Shariah is also permissible. However, Shariah does not allow the downloading of music and immoral pictures under any circumstance. The income received by selling or hiring immoral activity is Haraam. [Al-Hidayah 3/303]

(31) Answering the phone in the toilet
Question: What should I do if I am in the toilet and the phone rings?

Answer: If necessary one may merely make the caller aware that he is occupied at the moment.

(32)  Communicating  on  Mixit
Question:  Is  it  permissible  for  one  to communicate  with  friends  on  the  mxit,  facebook and  other  chat  sites?

Answer:  Mixit,  facebook  and  all  chat  sites  are  notorious  for  illicit  chatting  and  impermissible  communication.  Any  person  using  these  sites becomes  automatically  associated  with  the  illicit happenings  and  is  therefore  looked  upon  with  contempt.  We  have  been  commanded  to  refrain  from  areas  of  doubt  and  suspicion.  Therefore  using  such  sites  must  be  totally  refrained  from.

(33)  Using  anonymous  names
Question:  Whilst  chatting  with  others  on  the mixit,  is  it  permissible  for  me  to  use  an anonymous  name  so  that  others  do  not  know exactly  who  they  are  chatting  with?

Answer:  No.  It  is  not  permissible  to  do  so.

Why Does Allah Ta’ala Refer to Himself as We/He??

We already know Allah our lord is One. As in Surah al-Ikhlas 112:1-4. But why does Allah the Lord use the word “We” to refer to Himself in many verse or ayat in the Qur’an? For example He says in Surah al-Anbiya’ 21:107 “And We did not send you (O Muhammad) except as a mercy to the world.” The word “we” is plural, more than one. Why does Allah use “We” instead of “I” to refer to Himself?

Answer:
It is a feature of literary style in Arabic that a person may refer to themself by the pronoun nahnu (we) for respect or glorification. They may also use the word ana (I), indicating one person, or the third person huwa (he). All three styles are used in the Qur’an, where Allah addresses the Arabs in their own tongue.

Allah, the Glorified and Exalted, sometimes refers to Himself in the singular, by name or by use of a pronoun, and sometimes by use of the plural, as in the phrase (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.” [al-Fat’h 48:1], and other similar phrases.

But Allah never refers to Himself by use of the dual, because the plural refers to the respect that He deserves, and may refer to His names and attributes, whereas the dual refers to a specific number (and nothing else), and He is far above that.” (See Al-‘Aqeedah al-Tadmuriyyah by Ibn Taymiyyah, p. 75.)

These words, inna (“Verily We”) and nahnu (“We”), and other forms of the plural, may be used by one person speaking on behalf of a group, or they may be used by one person for purposes of respect or glorification, as is done by some monarchs when they issue statements or decrees in which they say “We have decided…” etc. [This is known in English as “The Royal “We””]

In such cases, only one person is speaking but the plural is used for respect. The One Who is more deserving of respect than any other is Allah, the Glorified and Exalted, so when He says in the Qur’an – inna (“Verily We”) and nahnu (“We”), it is for respect and glorification, not to indicate plurality of numbers.

If an ‘aayah (verse) of this type is causing confusion, it is essential to refer to the clear, unambiguous ‘aayat (verses) for clarification, and if a Christian, for example, insists on taking ‘aayat such as (interpretation of the meaning)
“Verily, We: it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e., the Qur’an)…” [al-Hijr 15:9] as proof of divine plurality, we may refute this claim by quoting such clear and unambiguous ‘aayat as (interpretation of the meanings): “And your God is One God, there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.”   [al-Baqarah 2:163] and “Say: He is Allah, the One.” [al-Ikhlas 112:1] and other ‘aayat which can only be interpreted in one way. Thus confusion will be dispelled for the one who is seeking the truth.

Every time Allah uses the plural to refer to Himself, it is based on the respect and honor that He deserves, and on the great number of His names and attributes, and on the great number of His troops and angels.” [See Al-‘Aqeedah al-Tadmuriyyah by Ibn Taymiyyah, p. 109].

Alternate Answer:

This is a good question and one that Bible readers have also asked about. The term “We” in the Bible and in the Qur’an is the royal “We” – as an example when the king says, “We decree the following declaration, etc.” or, “We are not amused.” It does not indicate plural; rather it displays the highest position in the language. English, Persian, Hebrew, Arabic and many languages provide for the usage of “We” for the royal figure. It is helpful to note the same dignity is given to the person being spoken to in English. We say to someone, “You ARE my friend.” Yet the person is only one person standing there. Why did we say “ARE” instead of “IS”? The noun “you” is singular and should therefore be associated with a singular verb for the state of being, yet we say, “are.” The same is true for the speaker when referring to himself or herself. We say, “I am” and this is also in the royal plural, instead of saying, “I is.”

When Allah uses the term “HE” in Quran it is similar to the above answer. The word “He” is used when referring to Allah out of respect, dignity and high status. It would be totally inappropriate to use the word “it” and would not convey the proper understanding of Allah being who Allah is; Alive, Compassionate, Forgiving, Patient, Loving, etc. It is not correct to associate the word “He” with gender, as this would be comparing Allah to the creation, something totally against the teaching of Qur’an.

Explanation of the Hadith: “Every Child is Born on Al-Fitrah…”

[From the Dars of Bukhari Sharif by Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq]

Narrated Abu Hurairah رضى الله عنه : Allâh’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said, Every child is born on Al-Fitrah but his parents convert him to Judaism, Christianity or a Fire-worshipper, as an animal delivers a perfect baby animal. Do you find it mutilated? Then Abu Huraira رضى الله عنه recited the holy Verses: Allâh’s Fitrah (i.e. Allâh’s Islâmic Monotheism) with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Khalqillah (i.e. the Religion of Allâh Islâmic Monotheism). That is the Straight Religion but most of men know not. [Bukhari 2:441]

After narrating this hadeeth Abu Hurairah (رضى الله عنه) would recite the following verse of the Holy Qur’an (from Surah Rum):

فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Wherefore set thou thy face towards the true religion uprightly. And follow thou the constitution of Allah according to which He hath constituted mankind. No altering let there be in Allah’s creation. That is the right religion, but most men know not.

The Shaykh mentioned that this is a very famous hadeeth but he fears that many people partially misunderstand it.

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said that there is no child except that it is born upon fitrah. However, contrary to popular belief, the Shaykh says that not every child is born a Muslim. Each child is born upon nature i.e. fitrah and then his parents make him a Jew, Christian or a Zoroastrian or of any other religious persuasion.

The Shaykh said that based on the ahadith there is great theological discussion regarding the status of children who die out of Islam. If every child was born a Muslim then there would never be this discussion.

The Shaykh asked that if every child was born Muslim, then why should Islam be presented to any child except after puberty?

What is the meaning of fitrah in this case if it doesn’t mean Islam? The Shaykh explained that it means ‘natural state’ which is one of purity and cleanliness unaffected by external factors. If one was left in this natural, uncorrupted and pristine state then they would surely be guided to the beauty and truth of Islam. The natural state is such that it brings a person close to Islam and that person is more receptive and inclined towards religion. There is a primordial instinct and recollection of Allah and the truth of Islam. However, the Shaykh explained that it is not Islam itself.

There is a hadith of Saheeh Muslim that can help one understand this issue more. Once the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was on a journey and they heard a shepherd calling out and they heard him calling out ‘Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar’. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said ‘He is upon Fitrah’. The man then said the shahadah (testimony of faith). The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said ‘Now he has saved himself from the fire’.  

The first statement did not make him a Muslim it was the natural instinct which stirred within him and he said ‘Allah is the Greatest’. The latter statement made him a Muslim.

In the realm of the spirits, long before our birth, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) asked us all the question ‘Am I not your Lord?’ We have all already testified to Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) that He is our Lord and Master. Hence, it is our instinct. This is part of our fitrah.

When a child is born, external factors do come into play e.g. a different religion or even a lack of religion around the child has an impact. The child remains in a natural state until they make a decision and conscience choice with regard to religion.

We should remember that the discussion here is not related to the ultimate destiny of the child i.e. in the Aakhirah. Currently, the discussion is related to the dunya and applying the laws of Islam for the child e.g. burial, funeral prayer etc.

Some ulema have adopted the opinion that Fitrah means Al-Islam, however this is not the view of the vast majority of the scholars since it would render all other related discussions meaningless.

The verse that Abu Hurairah (رضى الله عنه) would recite (see above) contains the words ‘No altering let there be in Allah’s creation’  – what this means is that we should not contribute towards the corruption of a child’s natural state that would affect the child in recognising Allah.

The Last Days of ‘Umar Ibn Khattab (Radhiyallahu Anhu)’s Life and His Assassination

Compiled from Various Sources

The  Caliph  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  a  fine  example  of  a  just,  believing  caliph,  a  pious,  pure,  strong  and  honest  mujahid,  a  strong  fortress  for the  ummah  and  its  ‘aqeedah. He  spent  his  entire  caliphate serving  his  religion  and  his  ‘aqeedah  and  his  ummah,  which  he  had  been  appointed  to  lead.  He  was  the  supreme  commander  of  the  army,  and the  faqeeh  and  mujtahid  to  whom  everyone  referred.  He  was  a  just  judge  and  a  compassionate  father  who  was  merciful  to  his  flock, young  and  old,  weak  and  strong,  poor  and  rich.  He  was  a  sincere  believer  in  Allah  and  His  Messenger,  a  brilliant  politician  and  a  wise  and  decisive  administrator.  Under  his  leadership  the  structure  of  the  ummah  was  strengthened,  and  during  his  reign  the  pillars  of  the  Islamic  conquests  were  established  and  the  greatest  victories  were  achieved  over  the  Persians  at  al-Qadisiyah,  al-Mada’in,  Jaloola’  and  Nahawand.  Syria  and  Egypt  were  conquered  and  freed  from  the  domination  of  Byzantium.  Islam  entered  most  of  the  lands  surrounding  the  Arabian  Peninsula.  His  caliphate  was  a  strong  barrier  against   tribulation  and  civil  war.  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) himself  was  like  a  closed door,  and  those  who  sought  to  stir  up  tribulation  could  find  no  way  to  reach  the  Muslims  during  his  lifetime. [Al-Khulafa’ ar-Rashideen by al-Khalidi, p.77]

Discussion  between  ‘Umar  and Hudhayfah  (radhiyallahu anhum) concerning  Tribulations
Hudhayfah  ibn  al-Yaman  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  said:  “We  were  with  Ibn  al- Khattab  (radhiyallahu anhu)  and  he  said,  ‘Who  among  you  remembers  what  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said  about  fitnah  (tribulation)?  I  said,  ‘I  remember  it  as  he  said  it.’  He  said,  ‘Tell  us,  what  a  great  man  your  father  was!’  I  said,  ‘I  heard  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  say,  “The  tribulation  of  a  man  is  with  regard  to  his  family,  his  wealth,  his  own  self,  his  son  and  his  neighbour,  and  it  may  be  expiated  by  means  of  fasting,  praying  and  giving  charity,  and  by  enjoining  what  is  good  and  forbidding  what  is  evil.’),  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said,  ‘That  is  not  what  I  mean.  What  I  mean  is  the  tribulations  which  will  come like  the  waves  of  the  sea.’  I  said,  ‘What  does  that  have  to  do  with  you,  O  Ameer  al- Mu’mineen?  Between  you  and  them  is  a  closed  door.’  He  (‘Umar)  asked,  ‘Will  that  door  be  broken  or  opened?’  I  said,  ‘It  will  be  broken.’  He  said,  ‘Then  it  will  never  be  closed  until  the  Hour  begins.'”  Abu Wa’il,  the  one  who  narrated  it  from  Hudhayfah (radhiyallahu anhu) ,  said:  “Did  ‘Umar  know  who  was  meant  by  the  door?”  Hudhayfah  said,  “Yes.  He  knew  it  for  certain.”  Then  Abu  Wa’il  said,  “Let  us  ask  Hudhayfah  who  is  meant  by  the  door.”  We  said  to  Masrooq,  “Go  and  ask  Hudhayfah  who  is  the  door.”  Masrooq  asked  Hudhayfah,  “Who  is  the  door?” Hudhayfah  (radhiyallahu anhu) said,  “It  is  ‘Umar.”

Hudhayfah  (radhiyallahu anhu) informed  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  that  he  was  the  strong  door  which  was  preventing  tribulation  or  civil  war  from  engulfing  the  Muslims,  but  this  door  would  be  broken,  which  meant  that  after  that  it  would  never  be  closed  again  until  the  Hour  began.  This  is  what  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) understood,  namely  that  tribulations  would  continue  to  be  widespread  and  common  among  the  Muslims  and  they  would  never  be  able  to  eliminate  them  or  put  a  stop  to  them.  Hudhayfah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  not  stating  that  of  his  own  accord  or  expecting  it  to  happen,  for  he  had  no  knowledge  of  the  unseen,  rather  he  heard  it  from the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu  alayhi  wasallam)  and  understood  it  and  memorized  it  as  he  had  heard  it.  Hence  he  commented  on  what  he  told  ‘Umar  by  saying:  “I  have  told  you  a  hadith  and  I  am  not  mistaken  i.e.,  it  is  a  saheeh  and  true  hadith,  not  a  mistake  or  a  fabrication – because  I  heard  it  from  the Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).” 

Moreover,  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  aware  of  the  facts that  Hudhayfah  (radhiyallahu anhi) told  him,  for  he  knew  that  his  caliphate  was  a  strong  door  that  was  preventing  tribulation  from  engulfing  the  Muslims,  and  that  tribulation  would  never  overwhelm  the  Muslims  during  his  caliphate  and  his  lifetime. 

‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  had  learned  from  the  Messenger of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  that  he  would  be  killed,  and  that  he  would  meet  Allah  as  a  martyr.  Anas ibn  Malik (radhiyallahu anhu)  said:  ‘The  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  climbed  Mount  Uhud,  accompanied  by  Abu  Bakr,  ‘Umar  and  ‘Uthman,  and  the  mountain  shook  with  them.  The  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) –  stuck  it  with  his  foot  and  said,  ‘Stand  firm,  O  Uhud,  for there  is  no  one  on  you  but  a  Prophet,  a  Siddeeq  and  two  martyrs.” [Bukhari,  Kitab  Fada’il  Ashab  an-Nabi,  hadith  no. 3675]

The  Du’a  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  During  his  last  Hajj,  23  A.H.
It  was  narrated  from  Sa’eed  ibn  al-Musayyib  that  when  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) departed  from  Mina,  he  stopped  in  al-Abtah,  made  a  pile  of  sand,  threw  his  cloak  over  it  and  lay  down  on  it,  then  he  raised  his  hands towards  heaven  and  said:  “O Allah,  I  have  grown  old  and  weak,  and  the  people  under  my  care  have  been  scattered.  Take  me  (in  death)  before  I  commit  any  act  of  neglect  or  heedlessness.”  Then  he  went  to Madinah.  [Tareekh  al-Madeenah,  3/872.  Its  isnad  is  Saheeh  up  to  Sa’eed  ibn  al-Musayyib]

‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) ‘s  Prayer  for  Martyrdom
It  was  narrated  from  Zayd  ibn  Aslam  that  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  said:  “O  Allah,  bless  me  with  martyrdom  for  Your  sake,  and  cause  me  to  die  in  the  land  of  Your  Prophet.”  According  to  another  report:  “O  Allah,  let  me  be  killed  for  Your  sake  and  die in  the  land  of  Your  Prophet.”  It was  asked:  “How  could  that  happen?”  He  said,  “Allah  may  cause  it  to  happen.” [At-Tabaqat  by  Ibn  Sa’d,  3/331;  its  isnad  is  Hasan]. 

Shaykh  Yusuf  ibn  al-Hasan  ibn  ‘Abdul-Hadi  (rahimahullah) commented  on  ‘Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu)  prayer  for  martyrdom  by  saying:  “Wishing  for  martyrdom  is  mustahabb,  and  it  is  different  from  wishing  for death.  If  it  is  asked,  what  is  the  difference  between  them?  The  answer  is  that  wishing  for  death  is  seeking  to  hasten  death  before  its  time  has come,  but  the  longer  a  man  lives  the  more  good  he  does.  Wishing  for  martyrdom  is  asking  for  death  at  its  proper  time,  as  a  martyr;  it  is  not asking  for  death  to  be  brought  forward  from  its  appointed  time,  rather  it  is  seeking  a  virtuous  death.” [Mahd  as-Sawab  fee  Fada’il Ameer  al-Mu’mineen  ‘Umar  ibn  al-Khattab,  3/791].

The  Dream  of  ‘Awf  ibn  Malik  al-Ashja’i 
‘Awf  ibn  Malik  al-Ashja’i  said: 
“During  the  caliphate  of  Abu Bakr  (radhiyallahu anhu),  I  saw  a  rope  hanging  down  from  heaven,  and  the  people  were  stretching  up  to  reach  it.  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  three  cubits  taller  than  the  others,  and  I  asked,  ‘Why  is  that?’  He  said,  ‘Because  he  is  one  of  the  vicegerents  of  Allah  on  earth,  and  he  does  not  fear  the  blame  of  any  blamer,  and  he  will  be  killed  as  a  martyr.’  The  next  morning,  I  went  to  Abu  Bakr  and  told  him  about  that,  and  he  said,  ‘O  slave,  go  to  Abu  Hafs  and  call  him  to  me.’  When  he  came,  he  said,  ‘O  ‘Awf,  tell  him  what  you  saw.’  When  I  told  him  that  he  was  one  of  the  vicegerents  of  Allah,  ‘Umar  said,  ‘Does  a  sleeper  see  all  of  this?’  He  said,  ‘Tell  him about  it.’  When  ‘Umar  was  appointed  caliph,  he  came  to  al-Jibiyah  and  whilst  he  was  delivering  a  speech,  he  called  me  and  told  me  to  sit  down.  When  he  had  finished  his  speech,  he  said,  ‘Tell  me about  your  dream.’  I  asked,  ‘Didn’t  you  forbid  me  to  speak  of  it?’  He said,  ‘I  didn’t  mean  it,  O  man.’  According  to  another  report,  he  said,  ‘Were  you  not  telling  lies?’  He  said,  ‘No,  but  I  felt  shy  before  Abu  Bakr.

When  I told  him  he  said,  ‘As  for  becoming  caliph,  that  has  happened,  as  you  can  see.  With  regard  to  not  fearing  the blame  of  any  blamer,  I  do  not  fear  anyone  but  Allah,  and  I  hope  that  that  is  true.  But  as  for  being  killed  as  a  martyr,  how  can  that  happen  when  I am  in  the  Arabian  Peninsula?'” [Mahd as-Sawab, 3/869]

The  dream  of  Abu  Moosa  al-Ash’ari concerning  the  death  of  ‘Umar
Abu  Moosa  al-Ash’ari  (radhiyallahu anhu)  said:  “I  saw  myself  as  if  I  had  taken  many  horses,  then  they  started  to  disappear,  one  after  another,  until  only  one  was  left.  I  took  it  and  went  to  Jabal   Zalaq,  where  I  saw  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  with  Abu  Bakr  beside  him,  and  he  was gesturing  to  ‘Umar  to  come.”  I  (the  narrator)  said,  “Why  don’t  you  write  news  of  that  to  ‘Umar?”  He  said,  “I  do  not  want  to  tell  him  the  news  of  his  own  death.”  [At-Tabaqat  by  Ibn  Sa’d,  3/332,  its  isnad  is  Saheeh]

The  Last  Jumu’ah  Khutbah  given  by  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) in  Madinah
‘Abdur-Rahman  ibn  ‘Awf  (radhiyallahu anhu)  narrated  some  of  what  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  said  in  his  khutbah  on  Friday  21  Dhu  al-Hijjah  23  A.H.,  which  was  his  last  khutbah.  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  himself  told  the  Muslims  of  a  dream  that  he  had  seen  and  interpreted  it  for  them.  He  said  in  that  last  khutbah:  “I  have  seen  a  dream,  and  I  think  it  signals  my  death.  I  saw  myself  being  pecked  by  a  rooster  twice,  and  the  people  were  telling  me  to  appoint  a  caliph  after  me.  Allah  will  not  cause  His  religion  or  His  caliphate  to  be  lost,  nor  that  with  which  He  sent  His  Prophet.  If  I  die,  then  the  caliphate  is  to  be  decided  by  a  council  of  these  six  men  with  whom  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  was  pleased  when  he  died.”  [Al-Mawsooah  al-Hadeethiyah  Musnad  al-Imam  Ahmad,  no.  89,  its  isnad  is saheeh].

‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)’s  meeting  with Hudhayfah (radhiyallahu anhu) before  he  was  stabbed
Four  days  before  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) was  martyred  – i.e.  on  Sunday  23rd Dhu  al-Hijjah –  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  met  with  the  two  Sahabis,  Hudhayfah  ibn al- Yaman  and  Sahl  ibn  Hunayf (May  Allah  be  pleased  with  them  both).  He  had  appointed  Hudhayfah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  to  estimate  the  kharij  on  the  land  which  was  irrigated  by  the  water  of  the  Tigris,  and  he  had  appointed  Sahl  ibn  Hunayf  (radhiyallahu anhu) to  estimate  the  kharij  of  the  land  which  was  irrigated  by  the  water  of  the  Euphrates.  He  said  to  them:  “What  did  you  do?  I  am  afraid  that  you  may  have  imposed  more  that  the  land can  bear.”  They  said,  “We  imposed  a  reasonable  amount.”  ‘Umar  said,  “If  Allah  keeps  me  safe,  I  will  leave  the  widows  of  the  people  of  Iraq  needing  no  man  after  me.”  But  he  was  stabbed  four  days  after  this  discussion  with  these  two  Sahabis.’  [Bukhari,  hadith  no.  3700]

‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) preventing  the  prisoners  from  settling  in  Madinah
‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) did  not  give  the  prisoners  from  the  conquered  regions  permission  to  enter  Madinah,  the  capital  of  the  caliphate.  He  forbade  the  Magians  of  Iraq  and  Persia,  and  the  Christians  of  Syria  and  Egypt,  to  settle  in  Madinah,  unless  they  became  Muslim  and  entered  the  faith.  This  attitude  is  indicative  of  his  wisdom  and foresight,  because  these  defeated  people  who  hated  Islam  and  had  plenty  of  motives  to  conspire  and  plot  against  Islam  and  the  Muslims.  Hence  he  forbade  them  to  settle  in  Madinah,  so  as  to  ward  off  evil  from  the  Muslims.  But  some  of  the  Sahabah  (May  Allah  be  pleased  with  them)  had  slaves  from  among  these  Christian  and  Magian  prisoners,  and  some  of  them  urged  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  to  give  permission  to  some  of  these  slaves  to  settle  in  Madeenah,  so  that  they  could  make  use  of  them  in  their  work.  So  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  reluctantly gave  permission  to  some  of them  to  settle  in  Madinah,  and  what  he  expected  and  had  warned  against  came  to  pass.  [AI-Khulafa’  ar-Rashidoon  by  al-Khalidi, p.  83]

The  Murder  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)   
The  murder  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) 
‘Amr  ibn  Maymoon  said:  “I  was  standing  with  no  one  between me  and  him  but  ‘Abdullah  ibn  ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) on  the  day  when  he  was  struck.  When  he  passed  between  the  rows,  he  would  say,  “Make  (your  rows)  straight,”  and  when  they  were  straight,  he  would  go  forward  and  say  takbeer,  and  he  would  recite  Surah  Yusuf  or  an-Nahl,  or  a  similar  Sirah  in  the  first  rak’ah,  until  all  the  people  had  gathered.  No  sooner  had  he  said  the  takbeer,  but  I  heard  him  say,  “The  dog  has  killed  – or  devoured  me!”  when  he  was  stabbed.  The  foreigner  (non-Arab  infidel)  tried  to  flee,  wielding  a  two-edged  knife,  and  he  did  not  pass  by  anyone,  right  or  left,  but  he  stabbed  him.  He  stabbed thirteen  people,  of  whom  seven  died.  When  one  of  the  Muslim  men  saw  that,  he  threw  a  cloak  over  him  and  when  the  foreigner  realized that  he  had  been  caught,  he  killed  himself.  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  took  the  hand  of  ‘Abdur-Rahman  ibn  ‘Awf  (radhiyallahu anhu)  and  made  him  go  forward  to  lead  the  people  in  prayer.  Those  who  were  immediately  behind  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  saw  what  had  happened;  those  who  were  in  other  parts  of  the  mosque  did  not  realize,  but  they  missed  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)’s  voice,  and  they  were  saying,  “Subhan-Allah.”  ‘Abdur-Rahman  (radhiyallahu anhu)  led  them  in  a  brief  prayer,  and  when  they  finished,   ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  said, “O  Ibn  ‘Abbas,  see who  killed  me.”  He  went  around  for  a  while,  then  he  came  and  said,  “It  was  the  slave  of  al-Mugheerah.”  He  asked,  “The  craftsman (referring to Abu  Lu’lu’ah  Fayruz)?”  He  said,  ‘Yes.”  He  said,  “May  Allah  curse  him,  I  told  his  master  to  treat  him  well.  Praise  be  to  Allah  Who  has  not  caused  my  death  to  be  at  the  hands  of  a  man  who  claimed  to  be  a  Muslim.  You  and  your  father – meaning  al-‘Abbas  and  his  son,  ‘Abdullah  wanted  to  bring  more  infidel  foreigners  to  Madeenah!”  Al-‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  the  one  who  had  the  most  slaves,  and  ‘Abdullah  said,  “If  you  wish  (we  will  kill  them).”  ‘Umar said,  ‘No,  that  is  wrong,  after  they  have  learned  your  language  and  started  to  pray  facing  your  qiblah,  and  performed  Hajj  as  you  do.”

‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  carried  to  his  house,  and  we  set  off  with  him,  and  it  was  as  if  no  calamity  had  ever  struck  the  people  before.  Some  nabeedh  was  brought  to  him  and  he  drank  it,  but  it  came  out  from  his  stomach.  Then  some  milk  was  brought  to  him  and  he  drank  it,  but  it  came  out  through  his  wound.  They  realized  that  he  was  dying,  so we  entered  his  house  and  the  people  came  and  started  praising  him.  He  said:  “O  ‘Abdullah  ibn  ‘Umar,  see  what  debts  I  owe.”  They  worked  it  out,  and  the  total  came  to  eighty-six  thousand  or  thereabouts,  He  said,  “If  the  family  of  ‘Umar  can  afford  it,  pay  it  off  from  what  you collect  from  them.  Otherwise  ask  Banu  ‘Adiyy  ibn  Ka’b,  and  if  their  wealth  is  not  enough  then  ask  Quraysh,  but  do  not  go  to  anyone  else  after  them.  Pay  off  this  money  on  my  behalf.  And  go  to  ‘Aishah,  the Mother  of  the  Believers,  and  say,  “‘Umar  sends  you  greetings  of  peace.  Do  not  say Ameer  al-Mu ‘mineen,  for  today  I  am  no  longer  the  leader  of  the  believers.  Say,  ‘Umar  ibn  al-Khattab  is  asking  for  permission  to  stay  with  his  two  companions.”  ‘Abdullah  ibn  ‘Umar  said  salaam  and  asked  permission,  then  he  went  to  her  and  found  her  sitting weeping.  He  said,  “Umar  ibn  al-Khattab  sends  you  salaams  and is  asking  for  permission  to  be  buried  with  his  two  companions.”  She  said,  “I  had  wanted  it  for  myself,  but  today  I  will  give  it  up  for  him.”  When  he  came  back,  it  was  said,  “Abdullah  ibn  ‘Umar  has  come.”  ‘Umar  said,  “Lift  me  up.”  So  a  man  helped  him  to  sit  up  and  he  asked,  “What  news  do  you  have?”  He  said,  “That  which  you  want  to  hear,  O  Ameer  al-Mu’mineen.  She  has  given  permission.”  He  said, “Praise  be  to  Allah,  nothing  was  worrying  me  more  than  that.  When  I  pass  away,  carry  me  there  and  say:  “‘Umar  ibn  al-Khattab  is  asking  permission to  enter.  When  permission  is  given  to  me,  carry  me  in,  but  if  she  says  no,  then  take  me  to  the  graveyard  of  the  Muslims.”  When  he  died,  we  took  him  out  and  set  off  walking.  ‘Abdullah  ibn  ‘Umar  said  salaam  and  said,  “Umar  ibn  al-Khattab  is  seeking  permission  to  enter.”  ‘Aishah  (radhiyallahu anha)  said,  “Bring  him  in.”  So  he  was  brought  in  and  placed  there  with  his  two  companions.  [Bukhari, Kitab  Fada’il  as-Sahabah, hadith  no.  3700]

There  are  other  reports  which  describe  in  detail  the  events  that  are  not  mentioned  in  the  report  of  ‘Amr  ibn  Maymoon.  Ibn  ‘Abbas  (radhiyallahu anhu)  said:  “‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  stabbed  before  dawn,  by  Abu  Lu’lu’ah,  the  slave  of  al-Mugheerah  ibn  Shu’bah (radhiyallahu anhu),  who  was  a  Magian.”‘  [Saheeh  at-Tawtheeq  fee  Seerah  wa  Hayat  al-Farooq, p.  369]

Abu  Rafi’  (radhiyallahu anhu)  said:  “Abu  Lu’lu’ah  was  a  slave  of  al-Mugheerah  ibn  Shu’bah,  and  he  used  to  make  grindstones.  Al-Mugheerah  used  to  deduct  four  dirhams  from  him  every  day.  Abu  Lu’lu’ah  met  ‘Umar  and  said,  ‘O  Ameer  al-Mu ‘mineen,  al-Mugheerah  is  taking  too  much  from  me;  ask  him  to  reduce  it.’  ‘Umar  said,  ‘Fear  Allah  and  be  good  to  your  master.’  ‘Umar  intended  to  speak  to  al-Mugheerah  and  ask  him  to  reduce  it,  but  the  slave  got  angry  and  said,  ‘His  justice  extends  to  all  of  them  except  me.’  So  he  planned  to  kill  him.  He  made  a  two-headed  dagger, sharpened  it  and  put  poison  on  it,  then  he  showed  it  to al-Hormuzan,  and  asked,  ‘What  do  you  think  of  this?’  He  said,  ‘I  do  not  think  you  will  strike  anyone  with  it  but  you  will  kill  him.’  Then  Abu  Lu’lu’ah  waited  for  an  opportunity  to  strike  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu  anhu).  He  came  to  him  at  the  time  of  Fajr  prayer  and  stood  behind  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu  anhu).  As  was  his  habit,  when  the  iqamah  for  prayer  was  given  ‘Umar  spoke  to  the  people  and  told  them  to  straighten  their  rows,  then  when  he  said  the  takbeer,  Abu  Lu’lu’ah  stabbed  him  in  the  shoulder  and  then  in  his  side,  and  ‘Umar  fell  down.”  ‘Amr  ibn  Maymoon  (may  Allah  have  mercy  on  him)  said:  “When  he  was  stabbed,  I  heard  him  say,

And  the  Command  of  Allah  is  a  decree  determined.  [Qur’an  33:38]

The Final Moments of ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)
Ibn  ‘Abbas  (radhiyallahu anhu) described  the  final  moments  in  the  life  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  when  he  said:  “I  entered  to  see  ‘Umar  when  he  had  been  stabbed,  and  said,  ‘Receive  the  glad  tidings  of  Paradise,  O  Ameer  al- Mu  ‘mineen,  for  you  became  Muslim  when  the  people  disbelieved,  and  you  strove  in  jihad  with  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  when  the  people  let  him  down.  The  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  died  when  he  was  pleased  with  you,  no  one  disputed  your  appointment  as  caliph,  and  you  have  been  killed  as  a  martyr.’  ‘Umar  said,  ‘Say  it  again.’  So  I  repeated  it  to  him,  and  he  said,  ‘By  Allah,  besides  Whom  there  is  no  other  god,  if  I  had  all  the  gold  and  silver  in  the  world,  I  would  pay  it  to  avoid  the  terror  of  what  comes  after  death.'” [Saheeh  at-Tawtheeq  fee  Seerah  wa  Hayat  al-Farooq,  p.  383]

According  to  a  report  narrated  by  Bukhari,  “As  for  what  you  have  said  about  having  been  a  Companion  of  the  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  and  his  having  been  pleased  with  me,  that  is  a  blessing  that  Allah  has  bestowed  upon  me.  As  for  what  you  see  of  my  worry,  that  is  because  I  am  worried about  you  and  your  companions.  By  Allah,  if  I  had  an  earthful  of  gold,  I  would  use  it  to  ransom  myself  from  the  punishment  of  Allah  before  I  saw  it”. [Bukhari,  Kitab  Fada’il  as-Sahabah,  hadith  no. 3692]

‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  profoundly  afraid  of  the  punishment of  Allah  even though  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  had  testified  that  he  was  bound  for  Paradise;  despite  that  be  made  great  efforts  to  establish  the  rule  of  Allah  and  justice,  was  a  great  ascetic,  engaged  in  jihad  and  did  other  righteous  deeds.  This  offers  an  important  lesson  to  the  Muslims  in  general,  that they  should  remember  the  stern  punishment  of  Allah  and  the  terrors of  the  Day  of  Judgement. [At-Tareekh  al-Islami,  19/33]

‘Uthman  (radhiyallahu anhu)  tells  of  the  last  moments  in  the  life  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu),  as  he  says:  “I  was  the  last  of  you  to  see  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu).  I  entered  to  see  him  and  his  head  was   resting  in  the  lap  of  his  son  ‘Abdullah  ibn  ‘Umar.  He  said  to him:  “Lay  my  cheek  upon  the  ground.”  He  said,  “Is  there  any difference  between  my  thigh  and  the  ground?”  He  said,  “Lay  my  cheek  on  the  ground,  may  you  be  bereft  of  your  mother,”  the  second  or  third  time.  Then  he  crossed  his  legs  and  I  heard  him  say,  “Woe  to  me  and  woe  to  my  mother  if  Allah  does  not  forgive  me,”  then  his soul  departed?  [Saheeh  at-Tawtheeq  fee  Seerah  wa  Hayat  al-Farooq,  p.  383]

This  is  an  example  of  ‘Umar’s  characteristic  fear  of  Allah,  for his  last  words  were  words  of  woe  against  himself  if  Allah  did  not  forgive  him,  even  though  he  was  one  of  the  ten  who  had  been  given  the  glad  tidings  of  Paradise.  But  the  one  who  knows  more  of  Allah fears  Allah  more.  His  insistence  that  his  son  lay  his  cheek  on  the  ground  was  a  kind  of  humbling  himself  in  order  to  glorify  Allah,  because  that  would  be  more  likely  to  bring  a  response  to  his  dua’.  This  shows  us  how  much  his  heart  was  focused  on  Allah. [At-Tareekh  al-Islami, 19/44, 45]

The  Date  of  his  death  and  his  age  at  death
Adh-Dhahabi  said:  “He  was  martyred  on  a  Wednesday,  the twenty-sixth  or  twenty-seventh  of  Dhu  al-Hijjah  23  A.H.,  and  he  was  sixty-three  years  old  according  to  the  correct  view.” [At-Tahdheeb,  no. 177]

His  caliphate  lasted  a  little  more  than  ten  and  a  half  years.  [Siyar  as-Salaf  by  Abu  al-Qasim  al-Isfahani, 1/160]

In  Tarikh  Abi  Zar’ah  it  is  narrated  that  Jareer al-Bajali  said:  “I  was  with  Mu’awiyah  and he  said,  ‘The  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  died  when  he  was  sixty-three  years  old,  and  Abu  Bakr  (radhiyallahu anhu)  died  when  he  was  sixty-three  years old,  and  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  killed  when  he  was  sixty-three  years  old” [Muslim,  Fada’il  as-Sahabah,  hadith  no.  2352]

Ghusl,  funeral  prayer  and  burial
It  was  narrated  from  ‘Abdullah  ibn  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) that  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was  washed  and  shrouded  and  the  funeral  prayer  was  offered  for  him,  although  he  was  a  martyr. [At-Tabaqat,  3/366,  its  isnad  is  saheeh]

The  scholars  differed  concerning  one  who  is  killed  unjustly – is  he  like  a  martyr  so  he  should  not  be  washed,  or  not?  There  are  two  views:

1.  That  he  should  be  washed.  This  report  is  evidence  for  those  who  are  of  this  opinion. [Al-Insaf by al-Mardawi, 2/503]

2.  That  he  should  not  be  washed  and  the  funeral  prayer  should  not  be  offered  for  him.  Their  answer  concerning  the  story  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  is  that  ‘Umar  (may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him)  lived  for  a  while  longer  after  he  was  struck.  If  a  martyr  lives  after  he  has  been  struck,  even  a  martyr  who  is  struck  in  battle,  and  eats  or  drinks  or  lives  for  a  long  time  or  some time  afterwards,  then  he  is  to  be  washed  and  the  funeral  prayer  offered  for  him.  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  lived  for  a  while  afterwards,  drinking  water  and  whatever  the  doctor  gave  him.  Hence  he  was  washed  and  the  funeral  prayer was  offered  for  him.  [Mahd as-Sawab, 3/845]

Who  offered  the  funeral  prayer  for  him?
Adh-Dhahabi  said  that  Suhayb  ibn  Sinan ar-Rumi (radhiyallahu anhu)  offered  the  prayer  for him. [Mahd as-Sawab, 3/845]

Ibn  Sa’d  said: “‘Ali  ibn  al-Husayn  asked  Sa’eed  ibn  al- Musayyib,  ‘Who  offered  the  funeral  prayer  for  ‘Umar?’  He  said,  ‘Suhayb.’  He  said  ‘How  many  takbeers  did  he  say?’  He  said,  ‘Four.’  He  asked,  ‘Where  was  the  prayer  offered?’  He  said,  ‘Between  the grave  and  the  minbar.”‘ [At-Tabaqat,  3/366,  its  isnad  includes  Khalid  ibn  Ilyas,  who  is  matrook]

Ibn  al-Musayyib  said:  “The  Muslims  looked  and  saw  that  Suhayb  was  leading  them  in  the  obligatory  prayers,  on  the  instruction  of  ‘Umar,  so  they  made  him  lead  the  funeral  prayer  for  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) . [At-Tabaqat,  3/367]

‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  did  not  appoint  any  of  the  six candidates  for  the  caliphate  to  lead  the  prayer,  lest  that  be  seen  as  an  endorsement  of  that  man  by  ‘Umar.  Suhayb  was  also  held  in  high  esteem  by  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  and  the  Sahabah,  and  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  had  said  concerning  him:  “What  a  good  man  Suhayb  is;  even  if  he  did  not  fear  Allah,  he  still  would  not  disobey  Him.” [AI-Fatawa, 15/140]

The  burial  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)
Adh-Dhahabi  said:  “He  was  buried  in  the  room  where  the Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  was  buried.”  [Mahd  as Sawab, 3/846]

Ibn  al-Jawzi  narrated  that  Jabir  said:  “Sa’eed  ibn  Zayd,  Suhayb  and  ‘Abdullah  ibn  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhum)  went  down  into  the  grave  of  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu). 

It  was  narrated  that  Hisham  ibn  ‘Urwah  said:  ”When  the  graves  of  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu  alayhi  wasallam),  Abu  Bakr  and  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu  anhum)  collapsed  during  the  time  of  al-Waleed  ibn  ‘Abdul-Malik,  they  started  to  rebuild  it,  then  a  foot  appeared  and  they  got  scared,  thinking  that  it  was  the  foot  of  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  They  could  not  find  anyone  to  confirm  that,  until  ‘Urwah  said  to  them,  ‘No,  by  Allah,  it  is  not  the  foot  of  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  rather  it  is  the  foot  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu).’  [Bukhari,  Kita’b  al-I’tisam, hadith  nos.  2671 and 6897]

We  have  mentioned  above  that  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  sent  word  to  ‘Aishah  (radhiyallahu anha)  saying:  “Give  me  permission  to  be  buried  with  my  two  companions.”  She  said, “Yes  by  Allah.”  Hisham  ibn  ‘Urwah  ibn  az-Zubayr  said:  “If  any  man  from  among  the  Sahabah  sent  word  to  her  concerning  that,  she  would  say,  “I  will  not  give  it  up  for  anybody”. [Mahd  as-Sawab,  3/848] 

There  is  no  dispute  among  the  scholars;  all  are  agreed  that  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  Abu Bakr  and  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhum)  are  buried  in  this  place  in  the  Prophet’s  Mosque.  [Ibid]

What  ‘Ali  ibn  Abi  Talib said  concerning ‘Umar  (may  Allah  be  pleased  with  them)
Ibn  ‘Abbas  said:  “‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  placed  on  his  bed  and  the  people  surrounded  him,  praying  for  him  before  he  was  lifted  up,  and  I  was  among  them.  Suddenly  I  felt  a  man  taking  hold  of  my  shoulder  and  it was  ‘Ali  ibn  Abi  Talib.  He  prayed  for mercy  for  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu),  then  he  said,  ‘There  is  no  one  that  I  would  love  to  meet  Allah  with  deeds  like  his  more  than  you.  By  Allah,  I  always  thought  that  you  would  join  your  two  companions,  for  I  remember  that  I  often  heard  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  say,  “Abu  Bakr,  ‘Umar  and  I  went;  Abu  Bakr,  ‘Umar  and  I  entered; Abu  Bakr,  ‘Umar  and  I  came  out.'” [Bukhari,  Kitab  al-Manaqib, hadith  no. 368]

The  Effect  of  his  Killing  on  the  Muslims
This  event  had  a  great  impact on  the  Muslims,  for  his  death  did  not  come  after  a  lengthy  illness.  The  impact  was  made  greater by  the  fact  that  it  happened  in  the  mosque  when  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  leading  the  people  in  Fajr  prayer.  If  we  understand  the  state  that  the  Muslims  were  in  after  this  happened,  we  will  realize  what  an  effect  it  had  on  them.  ‘Amr  ibn  Maymoon  said:  “It  was  as  if  no  calamity  had  ever  befallen  the   people  before  that  day.  Ibn  ‘Abbas  (radhiyallahu anhu)  went  to  find  out  what had  happened  after  the  killing  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) ,  and  he  did  not  pass  by  any  group  of  people  but  they  were  weeping  as  if  they  had  lost  the  dearest of  their  children.”

‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  a  beacon  of  guidance,  a  criterion  between  truth  and  falsehood,  so  it  was  natural  that  the  people  should  be  affected  by  his  loss.  The  people  were  clearly  affected  deeply.  It  was  narrated  that  al-Ahnaf  ibn  Qays  said:  “When  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) was  stabbed,  he  ordered  Suhayb  to  lead  the  people  in  prayer,  and  to  feed  them  for  three  days  until  they  agreed  upon  a  man  (to  succeed  him  as  caliph).  When  the  food  was  served,  the  people  refrained  from  eating.  Al-‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) said, O  people,  the  Messenger  of  Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  died  and  we  ate  and  drank  after  he  was  gone,  and  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) died,  and  we  ate.  The  people  cannot do  without  eating  and  drinking.’  Then  he  stretched  forth  his  hand  (to  take  food)  and  the  people  ate.”  [Mahd  as-Sawab,  3/855]

When  mention  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  made  to  ‘Abdullah  ibn  Mas’ood  (may  Allah  be  pleased  with  them  both),  he  wept  until  the  pebbles  grew  wet  with  his  tears,  then  he  said:  “‘Umar  was  a  fortress  of  Islam,  the  people  would  enter  Islam  and  not  leave.  When  he  died,  the fortress  was  breached,  and  now  people  are  going  out  of   Islam.”  [At-Tabaqat  al-Kubra,  3/284]

Before  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) was  killed,  Abu  ‘Ubaydah  ibn  al-Jarrah (radhiyallahu anhu) used  to say:  “If  ‘Umar  dies,  Islam  will  be  weakened.  I  would  not  like  to  have  all  that  the  sun  rises  and  sets  over  in  return  for  surviving  after  ‘Umar  is  gone.”  It  was  asked  to  him,  “Why?”  He  said,  “You  will  see  what  I  am  speaking  about  if  you  survive.  If  anyone  comes  after  ‘Umar  and  tries  to  rule  in  the  same  style  as  ‘Umar,  the  people  will  not  obey  him  or  support  him,  and  if  he  is  weak,  they  will  kill  him.”  [At-Tabaqat  al-Kubra, 3/284]

Lessons  learned  from  the  killing  of  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)
  
Highlighting  the  hatred  that  is  hidden in  the  kafirs’  hearts  against  the  believers
This  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  the  Magian  Abu  Lu’lu’ah killed  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu).  That  is  the  nature  of  the  kuffar  in  all  times  and  in  all  places.  Their  hearts  bear  nothing  but  hatred,  envy  and  resentment  towards  the  Muslims,  and  they  wish  nothing  but  evil  and  doom  for  the  believers.  They  would  like nothing  more  than  for  the  Muslims  to  apostatize  from  their  religion  and  disbelieve  after  having  become  Muslims.  Anyone  who  looks  closely  at  the  story  of  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)’s  slaying  and  what  this  hate-filled  Magian  Abu  Lu’lu’ah  did,  will  learn  two  important  things  from  it  which  reveal  the  hatred  that  this  kafir  held  in  his  heart  towards  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  and  the  Muslims.  These  are:

1.  It  is  proven  in  at-Tabaqat  al-Kubra  by  Ibn  Sa’d,  with  a  saheeh  isnad  going  back  to  az-Zuhri,  that  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  said  to  the  Magian  one day,  “Have  I  not  been  told  that  you  said,  ‘If  I  wanted  to  I  could  make  a  grindstone  that  is  driven  by  the  wind’?”  The  Magian  turned  to  him  frowning  and  said,  “I  shall  make  for  you  a  grindstone  that  the  people will  talk  about.”  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  turned  to  those  who  were  with  him  and  said, “This  slave  is  threatening  me.” [At-Tabaqat,  3/345,  its  isnad  is  saheeh]

2.  The  second  thing  which  points  to  the  hatred  that  filled  the  heart  of  this  Magian  is  that  when  he  stabbed  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu),  he  also  stabbed  thirteen  Sahabah,  seven  of  whom  died  as  martyrs.  According  to  the  report  of  Imam  al-Bukhari:  “The  infidel  foreigner  flew  with  a  two-edged  knife  and  he  did  not  pass  by  anyone  on  his  right  or  his  left  but  he  stabbed  him,  until  he  stabbed  thirteen  men,  of  whom  seven died.” [Bukhari,  Kitab  al-Manaqib  as-Sahabah,  hadith  no.  3700].

Even  if  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  had  wronged  him  what   had  the  other  Sahabah  done  who  were  attacked  by  him?  Allah  forbid  that  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  should  have  wronged  him.  It  is  narrated  in  the  report  of  Bukhari  that  when  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu) was  stabbed,  he  said:  “O  Ibn  ‘Abbas,  see  who  has  killed  me.”  He  went  to  find  out,  then  he  came  back  and  said.  “(It  was) the  slave  of  al-Mugheerah.”  He  asked,  “The  craftsman?”  He  said, “Yes.”  He  said,  “May  Allah  curse  him;  I  told  his  master  to  treat  him  well.  Praise  be  to  Allah  Who  has  not  caused  my  death  to  be  at  the  hands  of  a  man  who  claims  to  be  a  Muslim.”  [Bukhari,  Kitab  al-Manaqib  as-Sahabah,  hadith  no.  3700]

Those  enemies  of  Islam  who  love  this  Magian  Abu  Lu’lu’ah have  built  a  memorial  shrine  to  him  in  Iran  which  is  similar  to  the  idea  of  the  “Unknown  Soldier”.  As-Sayyid  Husayn  al-Musawi,  one  of  the  scholars  of  an-Najaf,  says:  “In  the  Iranian  city  of  Kashan,  in  an  area  called  Baghi Feen,  there  is  a  shrine  like  that  of  the  ‘Unknown  Soldier’  in  which  there  is  a  fabricated  grave  for  Abu  Lu’lu’ah  Fayrooz  al-Farisi  al-Majoosi,  the  murderer  of  the  second  caliph  ‘Umar  ibn  al-Khaeb.  They  call  it  the  ‘resting  place  of  Baba  Shuja’ ad-Deen’.  Baba  Shuja’  ad-Deen  is  the  name  that  they  bestowed  upon Abu  Lu’lu’ah  for  his  having  killed  ‘Umar  ibn  al-Khattab.  On  the  walls  of  this  shrine  it  is  written  in  Farsi,  ‘Marg  bar  Abu  Bakr,  marg  bar  ‘Umar,  marg  bar  ‘Uthman,’ which  means  ‘Death  to  Abu  Bakr, death  to  ‘Umar,  death  to  ‘Uthman’.  The  shrine  is  visited  by  the  Iranian  Shi’ah,  and  money  and  donations  are  given  to  it.  I  have  seen  this  shrine  myself.  The  Iranian  Ministry  of  Guidance  has  started  to  expand  and  renovate  it,  and  they  have  printed  pictures  of  the  shrine  on  cards  to  be  used  for  sending  greetings  and  messages.” [Lillahi  thumma  li’l-Tareekh,  Kashf  al-Asrar  wa  Tabri’at  al-A’immah  al- Athar,  p. 94]

Was ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) assassinated merely for a verdict passed on Abu Lu’lu’s Complaint??
Hadhrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) himself, as well as a few of the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) believed that the assassination of Hadhrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was not merely a result of a verdict that has been passed by Hadhrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) regarding the slave, Abu Lulu’ah Al-Majusi, but was rather the result of a well planned Persian plot to assassinate their most hated conqueror (i.e. Hadhrat Umar radhiyallahu anhu) with Harmuzan, a Persian leader, who had only “accepted” Islam after being caught, being at the center of the plot.

Under the guidance of the Commander of the Faithful ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), the Muslim armies defeated Rome and blitzed across Persia, dealing both empires a crushing blow. The Persians, with their haughty attitude of superiority, were sourly humiliated. The Muslims took the Persians as POWs (Prisoners of War).

Harmuzan
The defeated Persian governor and former military commander, Harmuzan, was brought before Caliph ‘Umar. Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said to the defeated Persian:

“Harmuzan, we Arabs are the desert-dwellers you considered too lowly for even fighting with. We used to get licked by small columns of your troops. Now you see your King’s throne and crown lying at our feet while he is running about places to save his life. How did that happen?”

Harmuzan replied:

“Sir, then it used to be a war between the Persians and the Arabs. Now you have your God with you.”

In another narration, Harmuzan declared that before it was merely the Arab forces against the Persian forces, and the Persian forces were stronger. But now, it was the Arab forces and Allah, and it was impossible to defeat both at the same time. It was thus that Harmuzan and his Persian confederates realized that the power of the Republic of Madeenah lay in its religious beliefs. To destroy the religious beliefs of the Muslims would be to destroy the Muslims.

Harmuzan was to be executed for war crimes by Caliph ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), but he saved his life through an ingenious trick. He asked for water to drink, and requested Caliph Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) for a reprieve for his life until he could finish his drink of water. ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) granted him this request, and upon this, Harmuzan spilled the water on the ground. Because he was unable to drink the water, therefore technically his royal reprieve would never lapse. Caliph ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) upheld his word, and thereby pardoned Harmuzan.

Assassination Plot
Harmuzan “converted” to Islam and moved to Madinah, whereupon he planned the Persian revenge on the Arab Muslims. Harmuzan blamed the Commander of the Faithful ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) for the downfall of the Persian Empire, and it was thus that Harmuzan hatched the plan to assassinate the Caliph.

In Madinah, Harmuzan became close companions with a staunch Christian named Jafeena Al-Khalil. Jafeena was a political pawn of the Roman ruler and had served as an official in Damascus, Palestine and Heerah; the defeat of Rome by the Muslims left its mark on Jafeena who, like Harmuzan, swore revenge.

The third partner was a Jew by the name of Saba’ bin Shamoon (whose son would be Abdullah Ibn Saba, the notorious founder of the Shia movement). Saba despised the Muslims who had expelled the Jews on charges of conspiracy. All three of these individuals– Harmuzan (the Zoroastrian), Jafeena (the Christian), and Saba (the Jew) – belonged to peoples who had grievances against the rise of Muslim dominance.

They hired Fayruz Abu Lulu’ah, a Persian, who had recently been captured by the Muslims as a POW; he was a slave under Hadhrat Mugheera bin Shu’ba (radhiyallahu anhu). Abu Lulu’ah stabbed Caliph ‘Umar bin Khattab to death.

A day before ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) had been assassinated, Abdur Rahman-–Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu)’s son-–had seen Abu Lulu standing with Harmuzan and Jafeena. The three men were whispering to one another. As Abdur Rehman passed by, the three got startled and a double edged dagger fell to the ground. Abdur Rahman would later confirm that this was the same dagger that killed ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) . The murder of ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was thus instigated by a coalition of a Roman Christian, a Jew, and a Persian Zoroastrian. It should be noted that the Prophet had prophesied that the Christians, Jews, and pagans would always be united against the Muslims.

Today, the modern day Shia venerate Abu Lulu’ah, and they call him “Baba Shuja-e-din” which can be translated as “Honored Defender of Religion.” These Shia have a shrine erected for this murderer, located in the Iranian city of Kashan called the Abu Lulu Mausoleum wherein he is buried. The Shia travel from far distances to pray inside this shrine, and many of the Shia fast on the day that Umar was killed, and even pass out sweets. Feroz Abu Lulu is one of the venerated founding figures of Shia ideology; the same people who conspired to kill ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) were the ones who planted the seeds of the Shia movement.

The Lunar Calendar is the Islamic choice

[From  Tafsir  Maariful  Quran  [1392  AH/1972]  by  Mufti  Muhammad  Shafi  (Rahmatullah Alayh)  –  (Vol.1/pp. 480-482)]

They  ask  you  about  the  new  moons.  Say:  They  are  indicative  of  time  for  people,  and  of  the  Hajj;  [Qur’an 2:189]

This  verse  tells  us  no  more  than  that  the  moon  will  help  identify  the  count  of  months  and  days  on  which  rest transactions  and  acts  of  worship,  such  as,  the  Hajj.  The  same  subject  has  been  dealt  with  in  Surah  Yunus  in  the following manner:

And  determined  it  (the  moon)  by  stations,  that  you  might  know  the  number  of  the  years  and  the  reckoning  [of  time].   [Qur’an 10:5]

This  tells  us  that  the  benefit  of  having  the  moon  pass  through  different  stages  and  conditions  is  that  people  may find  out  through  it  the  count  of  years,  months  and  days.  But,  in  a  verse  of  Surah  Bani  Isra’il,  this  count  has  been connected  to  the  sun  as  well  in  the  following  words: 

Then  We  erased  the  sign  of  the  night  and  brought  out  the  sign  of  the  day  to  see,  so  that  you  seek  the blessing  from  your  Lord  and  get  to  know  the  number  of  years  and  the  reckoning  [of  time].   [Qur’an 17:12]

Although  this  third  verse  proves  that  years  and  months  can  be  counted  with  the  help  of  a  solar  calendar  also,  yet the  words  used  by  the  Holy  Qur’an  with  regard  to  the  moon  very  clearly  indicate  that  the  lunar  calendar  is  a  fixed choice  in  the  Shari’ah  of  Islam,  specially  in  prescribed  acts  of  worship  which  relate  to  a  particular  month  and  its  dates;  for  instance,  the  months  of  Ramadan  and  Hajj,  as  well  as  injunctions  related  to  the  days  of  Hajj,  Muharram  and  Laylatul-Qadr  are  all  tied  to  the  sighting  of  the  new  moon,  all  this  because  in  this  verse,  by  saying  (They  are  indicative  of  time  for  the  people  and  of  the  Hajj),  it  has  been  established  that  the  lunar  calendar  is  the  one  to  be  trusted  upon  in  the  sight  of  Allah,  although,  the  count  of  months  can  come  out of  a  solar  calendar  as  well.  

The  Shari’ah  of  Islam  has  opted  for  the  lunar  calendar  because  it  is  based  on  something  which  every  sighted person  can  see  on  the  horizon  and  be  informed  accordingly;  the  knowledge  of  it  is  equally  easy  for  the  scholars, the  ignorant,  the  villagers,  the  islanders  and  the  dwellers  of  the  mountains.  This  stands  in  contrast  with  the  solar  calendar  which  depends  on  meteorological  equipment  and  mathematical  computations  which  cannot  become  the common  personal  experience  of  everybody  so  easily.  Then  comes  the  matter  of  religious  observances,  the  lbadat,  where  the  lunar  calendar  has  been  fixed  as  an  obligation.  This  has  also  been  favoured  in  social  and  business  transactions  because  it  serves  as  a  basis  for  the  acts  of  Islamic  worship,  and  a  symbol  of  Islamic  identity, notwithstanding  the  position  of  the  solar  calendar  which  has  not  been  prohibited  juristically,  the  only  condition being  that  the  use  of  the  solar  calendar  should  not  become  so  widespread  that  people  forget  all  about  the  lunar calendar.  If  this  happens,  it  would  necessarily  affect  the  obligatory  lbadat  like  Fasting  and  Hajj  adversely,  a  sampling  of  which  is  visible  in  our  time,  in  offices  and  businesses,  government  and  private,  where  the  solar  calendar  is  being  used  with  such  frequency  that  many  people  do  not  seem  to  even  remember  all  Islamic  months  by  name.  Apart  from  the  juristic  position  of  the  lunar  system,  this  situation  is  a  deplorable  demonstration  of  our  lack  of  will  to  approach  and  uphold  such  a  matter  of  national  and  religious  identity  with  a  sense  of  self-respect.  It is  not  difficult  to  use  the  solar  calendar  only  in  office  situations  where  one  has  to  deal  with  non-Muslims  as  well, but  for  the  rest  of  office  correspondence,  private  dealings  and  daily  requirements  the  lunar  calendar  may  be  used with  advantage,  that  is,  if  this  is  done,  the  user  will  earn  the  thawab  of  performing  a  fard  ‘ala  al-kifayah  (an obligation  which,  if  performed  by  some,  suffices  for  others),  and  of  course,  national  identity  will  be  preserved.  

Surely,  the  number  of  months  according  to  Allah  is  twelve  (as  written)  in  the  Book  of  Allah  on  the  Day  He  created  the  heavens  and  the  Earth;   [Qur’an 9:36]

Injunctions  and  Rulings  
The  verses  cited  above  prove  that  the  order  of  months  and  the  names  by  which  they  are  known  in  Islam  should  not  be  taken  as  terms  coined  by  human  beings.  In  fact,  the  day  the  Lord  of  all  the  worlds  created  the  heavens  and  the  Earth,  He  had  also  settled  this  order  and  these  names  and,  along  with  it,  particular  injunctions  to  be  carried  out  during  particular  months.  From  here,  we  also  come  to  know  that,  in  all  Islamic  legal  injunctions,  only  lunar  months  are  credible  in  the  sight  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  In  other  words,  all  injunctions  of  the  Shari`ah  of  Islam  –  such  as,  fasting,  Hajj,  Zakah  and  many  others  –  relate  to  the  lunar  calendar.  But,  when  it  comes  to  finding  out  the  day,  date  and  year,  the  way  the  Holy  Qur’an  has  declared  the  Moon  as  its  indicator,  it  has,  very  similarly,  identified  the  Sun  too  as  the  other  sign:  (so that you may know the number of years and the count [of time]  –  Qur’an 10:5).

Therefore,  keeping  track  of  days  and  years  through  a  lunar  or  solar  calendar  is  equally  permissible.  But,  Allah Ta’ala  has  favored  the  lunar  calendar  for  His  injunctions  and  has  made  it  the  pivot  round  which  the  laws  of  the  Shari`ah  of  Islam  revolve.  Therefore,  the  preservation  of  the  lunar  calendar  is  Fard  al-Kifayah  (a  religious  obligation  which,  if  fulfilled  by  some,  will  absolve  others).  If  the  entire  community  of  Muslims  were  to  abandon  the  lunar  calendar  and  forget  all  about  it,  then,  everyone  will  be  a  sinner.  However,  if  it  remains  viably  preserved,  the  use  of  another  calendar  is  also  permissible  –  but,  there  is  no  doubt  that  it  is  against  the  way  of  Allah  and  the  way  of  the  worthy  forbears  of  Islam  –  therefore,  it is  not  good  to  opt  for  it  unnecessarily. 

DU’A TO BE RECITED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE NEW ISLAMIC YEAR OR MONTH

HADRAT ‘ABDULLAH BIN HISHAM RADHIYALLAHU ANHU REPORTS THAT THE SAHAABAH RADIALLAHU ANHUM OF SAYYIDUNA RASULULLAH SALLALLAHU ALAYHI WASALLAM USED TO RECITE THE FOLLOWING DU’A ON THE APPROACH OF A NEW YEAR OR MONTH:

image

TRANSLITERATION OF  THE DU’A
ALLAHUMMA ADKHILHU ALAYNA BIL AMNI WAL IMAANI, WAS SALAMATI WAL ISLAAMI, WA RIDWAANIM MINAR RAHMAANI, WA JIWARIM MINASH SHAYTAAN

TRANSLATION OF THE DU’A
O ALLAH! LET THIS (YEAR OR MONTH) PASS OVER US WITH PEACE, IMAAN, SAFETY, ISLAM, DIVINE PLEASURE AND REFUGE FROM SHAYTAAN