Muhammad – The Miraculous Name

By Abu Hudhaifa Muhammad Karolia

Before I tell you who Ibn Abi Kabshah was, whether he was a sahaabi, a taabi’ie or an outstanding wali, let me take you to Abu Sufyaan (radhiyallahu anhu)’s encounter with the Roman emperor, Heraclius.

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had sent a letter to Heraclius inviting him to Islam. This letter was delivered to him in Baytul-Maqdis. Having read its contents, he enquired if there were any Arab visitors visiting Syria that time. Thus, Abu Sufyaan (who was not yet a Muslim) and a group of other Arab traders were summoned to Heraclius’ court. In the court, the rest of the group was instructed to stand behind Abu Sufyaan. They were then informed that Heraclius was going to ask Abu Sufyaan a few questions and if he lied, they should contradict him (by shaking their heads). Thus, Abu Sufyaan was forced to speak the truth. Employing an interpreter, Heraclius thereafter questioned Abu Sufyaan about Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). What is his family status among you? Before him, did anybody else among you claim to be a Nabi? Were any of his ancestors a king? Do the wealthy or the poor follow him? Are his followers increasing or decreasing? Do any of them renege from his religion… After Abu Sufyaan answered the tenth question, Heraclius explained that all Abu Sufyaan’s answers proved that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was definitely talking the truth. “If you are talking the truth, he will soon rule the ground under my feet, I knew that he was going to appear, but I did not know that he would be among you. If I knew that I could reach him, I would go and meet him; and if I was with him, I would wash his feet.” He thereafter read aloud the letter of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Abu Sufyaan narrates that by the time Heraclius finished reading the letter, there was a commotion in the court. The audience was shouting (in disapproval) and the Arabs were removed. “When we were removed, I said to my companions: The case of Ibn Abi Kabshah has gained so much of prominence that even the king of the Romans is afraid of him.”

Now you know who Ibn Abi Kabshah was. He was Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). At least, that is what Abu Sufyaan called him. But Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s father’s name was Abdullah, not Abu Kabshah! In fact, there was no Abu Kabshah in his ancestry. So why did Abu Sufyaan call him Ibn Abi Kabshah (the son of Abu Kabshah)?

The answer is mockery; he was ridiculing Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). One theory is that while the Arabs of that time were idolaters, Abu Kabshah was a star worshipper. He worshipped Sirius, the Dog Star. By referring to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi  wasallam) as Abu Kabshah’s son, Abu Sufyaan meant that with regards shunning idol worship, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is just like Abu Kabshah; kind-of his son.

A second explanation is that Abu Kabshah was one of Rasulullah  (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s maternal ancestors. One of the things that Arabs of those days would do to insult a person is that they would attribute him to one of his maternal ancestors. 

Another explanation is that there was more than one Abu Kabshah among Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s paternal and maternal ancestors. However, none of them was commonly known by this name. The reason why Abu Sufyaan called Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) Abu Kabshah’s son is that when pagan Arabs intended defaming someone, they would attribute him to one of his relatively unknown ancestors (or an uncommon name of one of them).

Whatever the case may be, the point that we wish to drive home is that the term Ibn Abi Kabshah was derogatory and slanderous. This also shows us that mockery of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is nothing new. It started a long time ago, in Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s own lifetime.  

Another Example
The Quraysh would call Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) Mudhdham (disgraceful). In this regard, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Are you not amazed how Allah deflects from me the slander and curse of the Quraysh? They slander and curse  a Mudhdham (disgraceful) whereas I am Muhammad   (praiseworthy).” [Saheeh-ul-Bukhaari, Hadith 3340]

The Miraculous Name
This takes us to the topic of this article, The Miraculous Name. Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s name is a miracle. By merely calling him Muhammad, you are praising him. Hence, even those who criticize him inadvertently praise him. This is probably why the Jews of Madinah never called him by his name. They always referred to him as Abul-Qaasim. Besides, the extent to which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is praised in the world and the extent to which he will be praised in the Hereafter leaves no doubt that his name is most befitting. Thus, As-Suhayli describes it as:

“A sign from among the (many) signs of his nubuwwah.” [Abul Qaasim As-Suhaily, Ar-Rawd Al-Unf (V.1 Pg.281)]

The Name Ahmad
One of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s other names is Ahmad. This is his name in the previous scriptures and this is what Sayyiduna Moosa and Sayyiduna ‘Eesa (alaihimas-salaam) called him.

Considering the laws of Arabic morphology, Ahmad could either mean:

1. The one who praises Allah more than anybody else or  

2. The one who is praised more than anybody else. 

One of the reasons behind the first meaning is that on the day of Qiyaamah, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) will be the first person to intercede to Allah. Thinking that commencement of the reckoning may ease their anxiety, the people will eventually request Rasulullah  (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) to intercede to Allah to commence the reckoning. Before doing so, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) will make sajdah to Allah. In this sajdah, he will praise Allah in such a manner regarding which he said, “Allah will inspire me to utter such praises of Himself which presently I also do not know”. [Saheeh-ul-Bukhaari,  Hadith  7072]

The reason behind the second meaning is obvious. How many thousands of people praised and continue to praise Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)! He was praised during his lifetime and thereafter. In his lifetime too, he was praised before nubuwwah and thereafter. After the intercession in the Hereafter, he will again be praised by countless  people. [Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani,  Fath-ul-Baari (V.6 Pg.641)]

Another Observation
The Qur’aan and sunnah encourage us to praise Allah upon termination of all activities. Thus, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would praise Allah after eating and drinking. Upon returning from a journey, he would say:

We have returned making tawbah, worshipping our Rabb and praising Him. [Saheeh-ul-Bukhaari, Hadith 2920]

After judgment will be passed among the creation on the Day of Qiyaamah, it will be said: All praise is to Allah, Sustainer of all the worlds. [Surah Az-Zumar,  Aayah 75]

This will also be the last call of the dwellers of jannah after their entry therein. [Surah Yoonus, Aayah 10]  

Now, did nubuwwah not terminate with Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)? Is he not the last Nabi and Rasool? Furthermore, his appearance is a sign of Qiyaamah and an indication that the end of the world is close. Does this not explain why his name is Ahmad and Muhammad? [Abul-Qaasim  As-Suhaily, Ar-Rawd  Al-Unf  (V.1 Pg.281-282)]

Question
Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was named Muhammad by his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib. Certainly, Abdul Muttalib never knew any of the above. He never knew that his grandson was going to be a Nabi, let alone being the greatest Nabi ever.

Answer
The name Muhammad was divinely inspired. Abdul-Muttalib dreamt that a silver chain emerged from his back. It had four ends. One in the sky, another on the earth and the third and fourth were in the east and the west. The chain then became a tree with noor (celestial light) emanating from all its leaves. It seemed as if the inhabitants of the east and the west were clinging to it. Upon enquiring about the interpretation of this dream, he was told that it signified the birth of a child in his progeny who would be followed by the inhabitants of the east and west and who would be praised by the dwellers of the sky and earth. In addition to this, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s mother also informed Abdul-Muttalib that she had heard a voice telling her, “You have conceived the leader of this ummah. When you give birth to him, name him Muhammad”. Thus, when Abdul-Muttalib was asked why he named his grandson Muhammad, he replied, “I hope that all the people of the earth will praise him”. [Abul-Qaasim  As-Suhaily, Ar-Rawd Al-Unf (V.1 Pg.280)]

A Unique Name
The reason for enquiring from Abdul-Muttalib why he kept the name Muhammad is that none of his ancestors had this name. In fact, it was almost non-existent among the Arabs in general. The reason for saying almost non-existent is that there were a few people before Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) by the name Muhammad. However, they were not just few. They were extremely few! According to As-Suhaily, they were only three. Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani is of the opinion that there were fifteen of them. [Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani, Fath-ul-Baari (V.6 Pg.643)] Are fifteen among an entire nation not negligible?

Nevertheless, the reason why they were named Muhammad was that their parents were informed of a Nabi who would soon appear in the Hijaaz and whose name would be Muhammad. Thus, each of their parents named him Muhammad with the hope that he would be this Nabi.

The ‘ulamaa explain that the rationale behind this unique name was avoidance of confusion with regards Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s identity. Hence, just as so few people before Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) enjoyed the name Muhammad, history is testimony that none of them claimed to be a Nabi. [Qadi ‘Iyaad, Ash-Shifaa  Bi-Ta’reef  Huqooq-il-Mustafa  (V.1 Pg230)] 

Consequently, when Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) announced his nubuwwah, there was little doubt among the scholars of the previous scriptures that he was talking the  truth.

How Many Names
Some ‘ulamaa claim that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had ninety-nine names. Ibn-ul-‘Arabi has quoted from one of the sufis that Allah and his Rasool (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) have one thousand names each. The truth, however, is that most of these names are actually attributes of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) instead of names. For example, the word labinah (which means brick).

Explaining that he is the last Nabi, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said that a man constructed a beautiful palace. When the building was completed, people visited it and marveled at its beauty. However, they all noticed that one brick was missing. Comparing nubuwwah to this palace, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “I am that brick”. The word that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used for brick is labinah. Thus, Ibn Dihya regards labinah as  one  of  Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s names. [Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani, Fath-ul-Baari (V.6 Pg.644)]

Nonetheless, nobody can deny that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had many names.

Another Question

What about the hadith:

“I have five names. I am Ahmad and I am Muhammad. I am Maahi by means of whom Allah eradicates disbelief. I am Haashir at whose feet the people will be gathered (on the Day of Qiyaamah) and I am ‘Aaqib (The Last Nabi).” [Saheeh-ul-Bukhaari, Hadith 3339]

Does this hadith not indicate that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had only five names?

Answer 

“I have five names” does not mean, “I have only five names”. When Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam said, “I have five names”, he did not mean that he does not have any other names. Instead, he meant that although he has many names, he has five very special names that stand out from the rest of his names. The specialities of these names are:

> They are more famous than the others

> They are mentioned in the previous scriptures

> They were known to the previous nations. [Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani, Fath-ul-Baari (V.6 Pg.645)]

Some Names of Allah
No, we are not discussing any names of Allah in this paragraph. The, point, however, is that Allah Ta’aala honoured many Ambiyaa by conferring on them one or more of His names. For example, he called Ishaaq ‘aleem, Isma’il and Ibrahim haleem, Nooh shakoor, Moosa kareem and qawi, Yoosuf hafeedh and ‘aleem, Ayoob saabir and ‘Eesa and Yahya birr. (May peace and salutation be on all the Ambiyaa.) Rasulullah  (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s speciality in this regard is that Allah blessed him with much more of His names than any other Nabi. Qadi ‘Iyaad (rahimahullah)  identified thirty such names. [Qadi ‘Iyaad, Ash-Shifaa Bi-Ta’reef  Huqooq-il-Mustafa (V.1 Pg236)] Ra-oof  (compassionate) and Raheem (merciful) are two  examples.

“Such a Rasool has come to you from among yourselves that your adversity distresses him, he is desirous of your welfare and he is compassionate and merciful unto the Believers.” [Surah At-Tawbah, Aayah 128]

Two Types of Names
Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s names are of two types:

1. Those that were specifically his – Their meanings were not found in any other Nabi. For example: Muhammad, Ahmad, ‘Aaqib, Haashir, Muqaffaa (The one who was sent after everybody else) and Nabi-ul-Malhamah (Nabi of the Battlefield)

2. Those that were not specifically his – Their meanings were found in other Ambiyaa. For example: Rasulullah, Nabiyullah, Abdullah, Shaahid (witness), Mubash-shir (Giver of Glad-Tidings), Nadheer (Warner), Nabi-ur-Rahmah (Nabi of Mercy) and Nabi-ut-Tawbah (Nabi of Repentance).

> The names of the first type are obviously specialities of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

> Although the names of the second type apply to other Ambiyaa, they do not apply to them as much as they apply to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). In fact, their presence in Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is perfect. Ibn-ul-Qayyim (rahimahullah) says in this regard:

“The name itself is not Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s speciality. His speciality is its perfect suitability (it befits him most perfectly).” [Ibn-ul-Qayyim,  Zaad-ul-Ma’aad  V.1 Pg.54]

In simple words, every Nabi is Basheer, Nadheer and Shaahid, but the greatest Basheer, Nadheer and Shaahid is Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Similarly, every Nabi is a Nabi of Mercy and Repentence, but the greatest Nabi of Mercy and Repentence is Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). 

Conclusion
We commenced this article with reference to Ibn Abi Kabshah and the idolaters’ mockery of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). This discourse on his blessed names proves that such mockery never reduced and will never reduce the lofty status of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Add this discussion to all of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s other specialities and his achievements and you will conclude that his critics are merely shining a torch at the sun.  

The important issue is our imaan. Such mockery and criticism will never harm Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). The question is, ‘Will such critics succeed and harm our imaan?’

Severity on Narrating Fabricated Reports on the Praise of the Prophet ﷺ

by Mawlana ‘Abd al-Hayy al-Lakhnawi 

Translated by Zameelur Rahman

Know that the fuqaha and the muhaddithun in their entirety have clarified in their books that it is prohibited to narrate, cite and transmit fabricated (mawdu’) [hadiths], and act upon its purport while believing it to be established, except with a warning that it is fabricated. Leniency (tasahul) in this [matter] is prohibited, whether [the fabricated hadith is] in regards to laws (ahkam), stories (qisas), inducing hope and fear (al-targhib wa l-tarhib) or anything else. Imitating (taqlid) [others] in mentioning and transmitting it is prohibited unless followed by an explanation of its fabrication, as opposed to a da’if  hadith, since if that is not in regards to laws, there is leniency therein, and it is acceptable with numerous conditions which I have elaborated in my footnotes to my treatise Tuhfat al-Talabah fi Mash al-Raqabah called Tuhfat al-Kamulah and in my treatise Al-Ajwibat al-Fadilah li l-As’ilat al-‘Asharat al-Kamilah.

They [the fuqaha and the muhaddithun] have also explained that to lie about the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is one of the greatest of the major sins, rather some of the Shafi’is exaggerated and ruled it to be kufr. That is because sahih hadiths have been narrated with various wordings indicating what we mentioned. The most well-known of them has the wording: “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” It has many routes such that it was said that it is from the mutawatir hadiths. I have expanded on this discussion in [a manner] not [requiring] further to it in Zafar al-Amani fi l-Mukhtasar al-Mansub ila l-Jurjani in the discussion on mutawatir, Allah enable us to complete it as He enabled us to start it, and if Allah gives expanse in my life and assists in my ability, I will complete it after finishing writing up this treatise, if Allah (Exalted is He) wills.

‘Ali al-Qari al-Makki said in Kitab al-Mawdu’at:

Moreover, the meaning of that which the two shaykhs [i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim] and Al-Hakim transmitted from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him), “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire,” is mutawatir and this form is almost mutawatir.

In [another] version from them and from al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and al-Daraqutni, [they narrated] from Anas (Allah be pleased with him) that he said, “That the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said ‘Whoever deliberately lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire’ prevents me from narrating many hadiths to you.”

They have also [narrated] from ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me, let him enter the Fire.”

The two shaykhs and al-Tirmidhi [narrated] from al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: I heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, “Lying upon me is not like lying upon another; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, al-Nasa’i, ibn Majah and al-Daraqutni [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah be pleased with them) [that] he said: I said to Zubayr [ibn ‘Awwam], “I do not hear you narrating from Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) as so-and-so and so-and-so narrate.” He said, “Certainly, I did not part from him since I accepted Islam, but I heard him say, ‘Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.’” Al-Daraqutni added, “By Allah he did not say ‘deliberately’ and you say ‘deliberately.’”

Al-Bukhari and al-Daraqutni [narrated] from Salamah ibn al-Akwa’ (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim in Al-Madkhal [narrated] from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Narrate from me and do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Tirmidhi who authenticated it and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Darimi and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Jabir (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Beware of excessive narration; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Darimi and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Abu Qatadah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: I heard him (upon him blessings and peace) say on this pulpit, “Beware of excessive narration; nothing should be said about me but reality and truth, and whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn Majah [narrated] from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said in marfu’ form, “Write not from me [anything] besides the Qur’an, and whoever wrote anything besides the Qur’an should erase it. Narrate from the Israelites and there is no harm. Narrate from me and do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Abu Ya’la, al-‘Uqayli and al-Tabrani in Al-Awsat [narrated] from Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, or rejects something I commanded, let him occupy a house in Hell.”

Ahmad and Abu Ya’la [narrated] from ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me, he is in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Bazzar, Abu Ya’la, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim inAl-Madkhal [narrated] from ‘Uthman (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that he would say, “That I am not the most retentive from the Companions of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) regarding him does not prevent me from narrating from him, but [because] I bear witness that I heard him say, ‘Whoever ascribes a lie to me, let him occupy a house in the Fire.’”

Abu Ya’la and Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd Allah in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Bazzar, Abu Ya’la, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim in Al-Madkhal  [narrated] from Sa’id ibn Zayd ibn ‘Amr ibn Nufayl (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that he (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Verily, lying upon me is not like lying upon another; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, Hannad in al-Zuhd, al-Bazzar, al-Tabrani and al-Hakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them) in marfu’ form, “Verily, a house in the Fire will be built for the one who lies upon me.”

Ahmad, al-Harith ibn Abi Usamah in his Musnad and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Bazzar, Abu Ya’la and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Khalid ibn ‘Arfatah in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately” and in [another] narration “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Harith ibn Abi Usamah, al-Bazzar, al-Tabrani and al-Hakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] from Yahya ibn Maymun al-Hadrami that Abu Musa al-Ghafiqi heard ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir al-Juhani (Allah be pleased with him) narrating hadiths from Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) on the pulpit, and Abu Musa (Allah be pleased with him) said, “Verily, this companion of yours has preserved [the hadiths] or is destroyed; indeed the last thing he (upon him blessings and peace) entrusted unto us was that he said, ‘Hold to the Book of Allah, and you will refer to a people who love to narrate from me, so whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire, and whoever preserves a thing, let him narrate it.’”

Ahmad, Abu Ya’la and al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Bazzar and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Zayd ibn Arqam in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad [narrated] from Qays ibn Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’  form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately let him take [his] resting place in the Fire” or “a house in Hell.”

Al-Bazzar and al-‘Uqayli in al-Du’afa’ [narrated] from ‘Imran ibn Husayn (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] in al-Awsat from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that a man wore a dress resembling the dress of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), then he came to a household in Madinah and said, “Verily, he (upon him blessings and peace) commanded me to survey whichever household I wish from the residents of Madinah.” They then prepared accommodation for him and sent a messenger to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and informed him. He said to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), “Go to him and if you find him, kill him, then burn him with fire, and if you find him and you have been spared this [task] [because he is already dead], and I do not believe but the two of you will be spared this [task], then burn him with Fire.” Thereupon, they came to him and found him having come out in the night to urinate, when a snake bit him and he died, so they burned him with fire. Then they returned to him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and informed him and he (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn ‘Adi in al-Kamil [narrated] from Buraydah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: A suburb of Banu Layth was [situated] two miles away from Madinah. A man had proposed to one of them in Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic times) and they did not marry him [to her], so he came to them [putting] on a dress, saying, “Indeed Allah’s Messenger garbed me this [dress] and commanded me to rule over your properties and your blood.” Then he set forth and fell on that woman he proposed to [i.e. fornicated with her]. Thereupon, the people sent a messenger to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and he said, “He lied, the enemy of Allah!” Then he sent a man and said, “If you find him alive, strike his neck, and if you find him dead, burn him.” Then he found him, a snake having bit him and he died, so he burned him with fire. That is [a consequence of] his (upon him blessings and peace) statement, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: I went with my father to an in-law of ours from the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) who accepted Islam, and I heard him say: I head Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say “Give us rest by it, i.e. prayer, O Bilal.” I said, “Did you hear that from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)?” He then became angry and began narrating to them that he (upon him blessings and peace) sent a man to an Arab suburb and when he came to them, he said, “He (upon him blessings and peace) commanded me to rule over your women however I wish.” Thereupon they said, “[We] hear and [we] obey the command of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace),” and they sent a man to him (upon him blessings and peace) and said, “Indeed so-and-so came to us and said that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) commanded me to rule over your women, so if it is from your command then [we] hear and [we] obey and if it is other than that, we wished to let you know.” Then he (upon him blessings and peace) became angry and sent a man from the Ansar, saying, “Go and kill him or burn him with fire.” He reached him and he had [already] died and was buried, so he ordered that [his body] be exhumed, then he burned him with fire. Then he [the in-law of ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah] said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire” and he said, “Do you think that I will lie upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) after this?”

Al-Tabrani in al-Awsat [narrated] from Zayd ibn Arqam and al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), elevating it [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani in al-Awsat [narrated] from Mu’adh ibn Jabal in marfu’  form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Amr ibn Murrah al-Juhani with this wording; Al-Tabrani in al-Saghir [narrated] from Nabit ibn Sharit like so; al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Ammar ibn Yasir like so; he [narrated] from ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah like so and [he narrated] from ‘Amr ibn Hurayth like so; he and al-Darimi [narrated] from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) like so; he [narrated] from ‘Utaybah ibn Ghazwan like so; he and Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from al-‘Urs ibn ‘Amirah like so; he and al-Darimi [narrated] from Ya’la ibn Murrah like so; he and al-Bazzar [narrated] from Abu Malik al-Ashja’i from his father whose name was Tariq ibn Aysham like so; and he, Abu Nu’aym and al-Isma’ili in his Mu’jam [narrated] from Salman ibn Khalid al-Khuza’i in marfu’ form with the wording, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him occupy a house in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Amr ibn Dinar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that the children of Suhayb said to Suhayb, “O our father! The children of the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) are narrating from their fathers,” and he said: I heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Al-Tabrani [narrated] from al-Sa’ib ibn Yazid with this wording and he [narrated] from Abu Umamah al-Bahili with the wording: “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire between the eyes of Hell.” He [narrated] from Abu Qursafah that he (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Narrate from me whatever you hear, and it is not permitted for a man to lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me” or he said “ascribes to me what I have not said, a house in Hell will be built for him, in which he will be thrown.” He [narrated] from Rafi’ ibn Khudayj in marfu’ form, “Do not lie upon me, for indeed lying upon me is not like lying upon another.” He [narrated] from Aws ibn Aws al-Thaqafi in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon his Prophet or his eyes [i.e. he invents a dream] or his parents [i.e. he falsely identifies his parents], he will never smell the fragrance of Paradise.” He [narrated] in al-Awsat from Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, “Do not lie upon me; indeed, the one who lies upon me is reckless.” He [narrated] in al-Awsat from Abu Khaldah [that] he said: I heard Maymun al-Kurdi while he was with Malik ibn Dinar (Allah be pleased with him), then Malik ibn Dinar said to him, “Why is it that the shaykh does not narrate from his father, for indeed your father saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and heard from him?” Thereupon, he said, “Our father would not narrate from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) out of fear that he would add or subtract from his speech, and he said: I heard him (upon him blessings and peace) say, ‘Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.’” He [narrated] from Sa’d ibn al-Midhas from him (upon him blessings and peace), “Whoever knows something must not conceal it, and whoever lies upon me let him occupy a house in Hell.”

Abu Muhammad al-Ramahurmuzi [narrated] in Kitab al-Muhaddith al-Fasil from Malik ibn ‘Atahiyyah that he (upon him blessings and peace) instructed us in the Farewell Hajj, saying, “Hold to the Qur’an, and you will refer to groups who narrate from me, so whoever preserves a thing, let him narrate it, and whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani and al-Ramahurmuzi [narrated] from Rafi’ ibn Khudayj (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) passed by us one day while we were talking and he said, “What are you discussing?” They said, “That which we heard from you, O Messenger of Allah.” He said, “Talk, but whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn Sa’d and al-Tabrani [narrated] from al-Muqanna’ al-Tamimi [that] he said: I brought the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) the sadaqah of our camels when he ordered to [receive] it and take it [to the treasury]. I said, “Two she-camels amongst them are a gift for you,” so he ordered to separate the gift from the sadaqah. I stayed [some] days, and the people plunged [into talk] that he (upon him blessings and peace) will delegate Khalid ibn al-Walid to the slaves of Mudar to give sadaqah to them. I said, “By Allah our people have no money,” so I came to him (upon him blessings and peace) and said to him, “Indeed the people are plunged in such and such [talk],” so the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) raised his hands until the whiteness of his armpits could be seen, saying, “O Allah I never permitted them to lie upon me.” Al-Muqanna’ said, “Thereafter, I did not narrate from him (upon him blessings and peace) a hadith, except a tradition articulated in the Book or applied in the Sunnah. [That was the case of he who] lies upon him in [his] lifetime, so how [would it be] after his death?”

Al-Daraqutni [narrated] from Rafi’ ibn Khudayj (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: We were with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and a man came to him saying, “O Messenger of Allah! The people are narrating from you in such and such [a manner],” and he said, “I do not say except that which descends from heaven. Woe unto you! Do not lie upon me, for indeed a lie upon me is not like lying upon another.”

Al-Bazzar [narrated] from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them) in marfu’ form, “From the greatest of falsehoods is he who attributes to his eyes what they did not see, and from the greatest of falsehoods is he who ascribes to me what I have not said.”

Al-‘Uqayli [narrated] in Kitab al-Du’afa’ from Abu Kabshah al-Anmari (Allah be pleased with him), with the wording, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Al-‘Uqayli [narrated] from Ghazwan (Allah be pleased with him) with this wording, and he and al-Tabrani in al-Afrad [narrated] from Abu Rafi’, “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in Hell.”

Ibn ‘Asakir [narrated] in his Tarikh from Wathilah ibn al-Asqa’ (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him): I heard Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, “Verily, from the greatest of major sins is that a man ascribes [to me] what I have not said.” Ibn ‘Adi and al-Hakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] through another route from Wathilah ibn al-Aqsa’ in marfu’ form, “Verily, from the greatest of falsehoods is he who ascribes to me what I have not said or attributes to his eyes in sleep what it had not seen.”

Al-Khatib in his Tarikh [narrated] from al-Nu’man ibn Bashir, and its wording is: “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Usamah ibn Zayd (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Jabir ibn ‘Abdillah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him), “The anger of Allah (Exalted is He) is severe on he who lies upon me deliberately.”

Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Bahaz ibn Hakim, from his father, from his grandfather in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, upon him is the curse of Allah, the Angels, and all humankind, and compulsory acts and voluntary acts will not be accepted from him.”

Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Hudhayfah (Allah be pleased with him), “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording, “Whoever narrates from me a lie, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Bazzar and Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Three [men] will not smell the fragrance of Paradise: a man claiming another as his father, a man who lies upon his Prophet, and a man who lies upon his eyes.”

Ahmad, Hannad and al-Hakim in his Mustadrak [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire” and in a wording “a house in Hell.”

Ibn Sa’id in his collection of the routes of this hadith [narrated] from Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Khatib [narrated] in al-Tarikh from Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from Suhayb (Allah be pleased with him) and its wording is: “Whoever lies upon me, he will be charged on the Day of Resurrection with weaving together two barleycorns, and that is what prevents me from narrating.”

Al-Daraqutni [narrated it] inal-Afrad like so and al-Khatib in al-Tarikh [narrated] from Salman al-Farisi (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him); Ibn al-Jawzi and Hafiz Yusuf ibn Khalil in his collection of the paths of this hadith [narrated] from Abu Dharr like so, and Ibn Sa’id and others [narrated] from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd (Allah be pleased with him) like so.

Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him), “Whoever innovates a thing or shelters an innovator, upon him is the curse of Allah, the Angels, and all of humankind, and [also] upon whoever lies upon me deliberately.”

Ibn Qani’ in his Mu’jam [narrated] from Usamah ibn Zayd (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him), “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire” and that was [said] because he sent a man for a need and he lied upon him, whereupon he cursed him, and he was found dead, his insides split open, and the earth did not accept him.

Al-Daraqutni and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] through another route from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them) that he said one day to his companions, “Do you know what is the meaning of this hadith: ‘Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire’? A man was passionately in love with a woman, so he came to her people in the evening and said, ‘I am the emissary of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace). He sent me to you that I may be hosted in whichever house I wish.’ He waited while passing the night, and a man from amongst them came to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, ‘So-and-so came to us claiming that you commanded him to stay in whichever of our houses he wished.’ Thereupon, he said ‘He lied! Oh so-and-so, go with him and if Allah enables you, strike his neck and burn him with fire, and I do not believe but you will be spared this [task].’ Then, he [i.e. the man who lied] came out to perform wudu’ and a snake bit him and he died. When this [news] reached the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), he said, ‘He is in the Fire.’”

Ibn Qani’ in Mu’jam al-Sahabah  and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa  (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.” They [narrated] from Yazid ibn Asad like so; al-Hakim [narrated] from ‘Affan ibn Habib (Allah be pleased with him) like so; and al-Jawzaqani and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from a man from the Companions (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording, “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him occupy [his place] between the eyes of Hell.”

Ibn Sa’id and others [narrated] from ‘A’ishah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with her) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Daraqutni and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Umm Ayman (Allah be pleased with her) and its wording is, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from ‘Ali (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) and its wording is: “Whoever lies upon Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), he has indeed prepared his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them): Al-‘Abbas said, “O Messenger of Allah! If only we could make an elevated place for you from above which you speak to the people, so they can hear [you].” He said, “I will remain like this: their dust afflicting me, while they tread on my heels, until Allah relieves me from them, so whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from Shu’bah, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn Khalil [narrated] from Zayd ibn Thabit (Allah be pleased with him) like so; he [narrated] from Ka’b ibn Qutbah like so; he [narrated] from the father of Abu l-‘Ashra’ like so; he and Abu Nu’aym [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn Zaghb like so.

Abu Nu’aym [narrated] from Jabir ibn Habis (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Hafiz al-Suyuti said: “More than a hundred Companions narrated this hadith and a multitude of the people of excellence gathered its paths to them. Ibn al-Jawzi transmitted from Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab al-Isfara’ini that there is no hadith in the world that the ten promised paradise agreed upon besides the hadith, ‘Whoever lies upon me…’ Ibn al-Jawzi said: the narration of ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf (Allah be pleased with him) [one of the ten promised Paradise] has not occurred to me till now.” End

One of the subtleties that was mentioned in this regard is that which ‘Allamah Abu l-Qasim ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Ghurani, the author of many works, said: Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Mu’addib narrated to us: Abu l-Muzaffar Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Husam al-Samarqandi narrated to us: he said: I heard al-Khadir and Ilyas say: We heard Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Al-Dhahabi said: Abu ‘Amr ibn al-Salah dictated this hadith and said, “This occurred to us in a transcript from Al-Khadir and Ilyas.” Al-Dhahabi said, “I do not know who compiled this transcript.” [Here] ends the speech of Al-Qari in its entirety.

I say: it is established from these narrations that fabricating [something] about the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and attributing to him what he did not say is absolutely haram and a cause for being punished in the Fire, whether it is in regards to Halal and Haram or inducing hope and fear or anything else. Hence, the belief of some ignorant fabricators that lying upon him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) to induce hope and fear is permissible because it is a lie for him not against him, is unacceptable.

Furthermore, it is established from the aforementioned narrations that just as lying upon him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) verbally and practically by attributing to him a statement he did not say and an action he did not perform is from the greatest of the major sins, similarly attributing a virtue or a rank to his purified essence whose existence is not established in the holy prophetic essence by verses or reliable hadiths is also from the greatest of the major sins. The admonishing preachers should, therefore, pay attention, and the story-tellers and the exhorting and reproving sermonisers should beware, since they attribute many things to the holy person whose existence has not been established therein and they think that in this is a great reward due to establishing a virtue for the holy essence and elevating its stature, yet they are unaware that the prophetic virtues established in the sahih hadiths dispose of the need for those flimsy falsehoods. By my life, his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) virtues are outside the limit of encompassment and enumeration, and his merits, by which he excels all creation, are very many without end, so what is the need to extol him using falsehoods? Rather, this is a cause for great sin and deviation from the Straight Path.

We ought to mention here some of the stories which are commonly narrated by most of the preachers of our age in their sermonic gatherings while believing them to be established facts, in spite of them being manufactured and fabricated:

From them is what they mention that when the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was taken by night in the Night of Mi’raj (Ascension) to the high heavens and reached the Lofty Throne, he intended to take off his shoes, considering His (Exalted is He) statement to our master Musa when He spoke to him, “So remove your shoes; verily, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa” (Qur’an 20:12). He was then called from the Lofty Court: “O Muhammad! Do not remove your shoes as the Throne will take honour in your advent wearing shoes and will take it as pride and blessings before others.” So the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) ascended the Throne while the shoes were on his feet, and thus he was granted honour and loftiness.

This story was narrated by many composers of eulogistic poems while others incorporated [it] in their writings on the Sunnah. Most of the preachers in our age mention it in detail as well as in summary in their sermonic functions. Ahmad al-Muqri’ al-Maliki in his book Fath al-Muta’al fi Madhi Khayr al-Ni’al, and ‘Allamah Radi al-Din al-Qazwini and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Baqi al-Zurqani in Sharh al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, clarified that this story is fabricated in its entirety. May Allah uglify its fabricator! It is not established in a [single] narration from the [various] narrations of the Prophetic Mi’raj, despite the abundance of its paths, that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grand him peace) was in that [time] wearing shoes, and it is not established that he ascended the Throne, although he reached a place [where] “he drew nigh” to his Lord “and came down and was at a distance of two bow-lengths or nearer, and He revealed to His servant what He revealed.” (Qur’an 53:8-10). I have a detailed discussion on this point in my treatise Ghayat al-Maqal fima yata’allaqu bi l-Ni’al, so that should be studied.

From them is what the preachers mention that the Prophet was given knowledge of the first and the last (al-awwalin wa l-akhirin) in detail, and he was granted knowledge of all that has passed and all that is to come, universally (kulliyyan) and particularly (juz’iyyan), and that there is no difference between his knowledge and the knowledge of his Lord from the perspective of encompassment and inclusion, and the only difference is that the knowledge of Allah is everlasting and eternal in His very Essence without having been taught by another, as opposed to the knowledge of the Messenger, since he acquired it through being taught by his Lord. This is flowery speech and falsehood as clarified by Ibn Hajar al-Makki in al-Minah al-Makkiyyah Sharh al-Qasidat al-Hamziyyah and [by] other scholars of poetry. That which is established from the Qur’anic verses and the Prophetic hadiths is that encompassment, inclusion and knowledge of all ghayb is specific to the Honourable Truth [i.e. Allah], and this quality was not granted from the part of the Truth to any of creation. Yes, the sciences of our Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) are more excessive and abundant than the sciences of the rest of the Prophets and Messengers, and the teaching of his Lord to him of the unseen matters is more perfect relative to [His] teaching to others, so he is most perfect in knowledge and practice, and the chief of creation in rank and virtue.

From them is what the preachers mention that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) knew the whole Qur’an and recited it from the moment of his birth, and that the meaning of his statement “I am not a reader” in response to Jibril saying to him when revelation began, “Recite!” as was narrated in Sahih al-Bukhari and others, is: “I will not read by your command, as I know it and read it from before.” This is no doubt a fabrication, falsified by Qur’anic verses and Prophetic reports.

From them is what they mention that he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was not unlettered (ummi), rather he was able to write and recite by nature. This is a statement contravening the Qur’an and Sunnah and even the consensus (ijma’) of the ummah. It has no consideration, therefore, for the perspicacious.

From them is what they mention of the story of ‘Ukashah when commemorating the beauty of the Muhammadan character. This was transmitted by Abu Nu’aym in Hilyat al-Awliya’ from Ibn ‘Abbas [that] he said: When “When comes the Help of Allah, and Victory” (110:1) to the end of the surah, was revealed, Muhammad said, “O Jibril! My death has been announced.” Jibril said, “The Hereafter will be better for you than the present and verily your Lord will give unto you until you are content.” (93:4-5) Then Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) commanded Bilal to make a call for congregational prayer. The Muhajirun and Ansar then congregated in the mosque and he prayed with the people. He then ascended the pulpit and praised and glorified Allah, and he delivered a sermon that made the hearts fearful and the eyes tearful.

Then he said: “O people! What [kind] of prophet have I been to you?” They said, “Allah reward you greatly for the Prophet [you have been], for verily, you were to us like a compassionate father and a well-wishing kind brother. You transmitted the messages of Allah and you conveyed to us His revelation, and you called to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching. So, Allah reward you on our behalf the best that He rewards a prophet on behalf of his people.”

Then he said: “Assemblies of Muslims! I adjure you by Allah and by my right over you, whoever has a complaint against me, let him stand and take retaliation from me before the retaliation on the Day of Resurrection.” An old man called ‘Ukashah [who was] amongst the Muslims stood and walked passed the Muslims until he stood before the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, “My father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah! Had you not adjured us more than once, I would not be one to offer any [complaint] against you. I was with you in battle, and when Allah gave us an opening and gave victory to His Prophet and we turned back, my she-camel drew parallel to your she-camel, so I descended from the she-camel and came close to you to kiss your thigh, but then you lifted a cane and hit my flank. I do not know if that was intentional on your part or you wanted to hit the she-camel.”

Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “I seek refuge for you in the glory of Allah, that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) intentionally struck [you]. O Bilal! Go to the house of Fatimah and bring a long cane.” Bilal left the mosque with his hands on his head, saying aloud, “This is the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) offering retaliation upon himself!” Then he knocked on the door of Fatimah and said, “O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)! Give me a long cane.” Fatimah said, “O Bilal! What will my father do with the cane? This is not the season of Hajj or war.” He said, “How unaware you are of the plight of your father! Verily, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is entrusting the religion and departing the world and offering retaliation upon himself.” So Fatimah said, “And who is it that his soul has agreed to retaliating upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), O Bilal? Say to al-Hasan and al-Husayn to stand to this man and not let him take retaliation from the Messenger of Allah.”

Then, the Messenger of Allah gave the cane to ‘Ukashah. When Abu Bakr and ‘Umar saw that they said, “We are in front of you so take retaliation from us and do not take retaliation from Allah’s Messenger,” and the Messenger of Allah said to them, “Leave O Abu Bakr and you, O ‘Umar, for indeed Allah knows your place and your station.” ‘Ali stood and said, “O ‘Ukashah, in the life of this world, I was before Allah’s Messenger [i.e. in his service], and my soul does not agree with you hitting the Messenger of Allah; so this is my back and my belly, take retaliation from me and strike me a hundred strikes, and do not take retaliation from Allah’s Messenger.” Allah’s Messenger said, “O ‘Ali! Sit, for indeed Allah knows your station and your intention.” Then al-Hasan and al-Husayn stood and said, “O Ukashah do you not know that we are the grandchildren of the Messenger of Allah so retaliation upon us is like retaliation upon the Messenger of Allah?” He said to them, “Sit down O coolness of my eyes, Allah has not forgotten this station for you.”

Then, the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “O Ukashah! Strike if you are going to strike.” He said, “O Messenger of Allah! You struck me while I was uncovered.” Thereupon, he exposed his belly and the Muslims screamed out, crying, and said, “Do you believe ‘Ukasha is hitting the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)?” When ‘Ukashah saw the whiteness of his belly, he said, “My father and mother be sacrificed for you! My soul does not agree to retaliate upon you.” The Prophet said to him, “Either you strike or you pardon.” He said “I pardon you, hoping that Allah will pardon me on the Day of Resurrection.” The Prophet said, “Whoever wishes to see my companion in the Garden, let him look at this [man].” The Muslims stood and began kissing between the eyes of ‘Ukashah and they said, “Blessed are you! Blessed are you! You have reached the Highest Ranks and the companionship of Allah’s Messenger.”

The hadith is mentioned in its entirety in Kitab al-Mawdu’at by Ibn al-Jawzi. Ibn al-Jawzi said, “This is mawdu’ and its inventor was ‘Abd al-Mun’im,” meaning, ‘Abd al-Mun’im ibn Idris ibn Sinan, the narrator from his father from Wahb from Ibn ‘Abbas and from him Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn al-Bara and from him Sulayman ibn Ahmad al-Tabrani and from him Abu Nu’aym. Al-Suyuti agreed with him in al-La’ali al-Masnu’ah fi l-Ahadith al-Mawdu’ah and Ibn ‘Arraq inTanzih al-Shari’ah ‘an al-Ahadith al-Mawdu’ah and others.

Al-Dhahabi said in Mizan al-I’tidal fi Naqd al-Rijal:

‘Abd al-Mun’im ibn Idris al-Yamani, the famous story-teller, is not relied upon. More than one have abandoned his [narrations] and Ahmad ibn Hanbal clarified [this], saying, “He would lie upon Wahb ibn Munabbih”; Al-Bukhari said, “[He is] wasted in hadith (dhahib al-hadith)”; Al-‘Uqayli said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Anmati narrated to us: ‘Abd al-Mun’im ibn Idris narrated to us from his father from Wahb from Ibn ‘Abbas from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), “A fly does not fly between two [people] except by fate” and he [narrated] from his father from Wahb from Jabir and Ibn ‘Abbas a long account regarding the death of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and that he gave a cane to ‘Ukashah to retaliate upon him. Ibn Hibban said, “He would fabricate hadiths upon his father and on others and he died in 228 H in Baghdad.” End

[It is] also [mentioned] therein [i.e. Mizan al-I’tidal]:

Idris ibn Sinan al-San’ani, the grandson of Wahb ibn Munabbih, was weakened by Ibn ‘Adi, and al-Daraqutni said [about him], “[He is] abandoned” and his son ‘Abd al-Mun’im ibn Idris [narrated] from him. He was mentioned by Ibn Hibban in his Tarikh. End

[It is mentioned] in Lisan al-Mizan by Hafiz ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani in the biography of ‘Abd al-Mun’im:

Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted from Isma’il ibn ‘Abd al-Karim: Idris died while ‘Abd al-Mun’im was an infant, and the same was said by Ahmad when asked about him: “he did not hear a thing from his father.” ‘Abd al-Khaliq ibn Mansur said [narrating] from Ibn Ma’in that he is a wicked liar (kadhdhab khabith) and according to Abu Zur’ah “[he is] weak in hadith” and al-Fallas said, “[He is] abandoned; he took the books of his father and narrated them and did not hear a thing from his father”. Abu Ahmad al-Hakim said, “[He is] wasted in hadith” and Ibn al-Madini said, “He is not trustworthy; he took books and narrated them” and al-Nasa’i said, “He is not trustworthy” and al-Saji said, “He would buy biographical works (kutub al-sirah) and narrate them; he did not hear them from his father, not even a part of it.” End

From them is what they mention at the commemoration of the Prophetic birth that the light of Muhammad (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was created from the light of Allah in the sense that His Holy Essence became a substance for his illuminated soul, and that He (Exalted is He) took a handful of His light and created from it his light. This is sophistic talk since the essence of our Lord (Glorified and Blessed is He) is transcendent beyond being a substance of [any] besides Him. Taking a handful of His light does not mean that a part of him was cut off and made into the light of His Prophet because the concomitant of that is divisibility (tajazzi) and other things that follow from that in His essence (Exalted is Him), Transcendent is Allah beyond that. That which brought them into this dark quandary is the outward [meaning] of the narration of ‘Abd al-Razzaq in his Musannaf from Jabir [that] he said: I said “O Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)! My father and mother be sacrificed for you! Tell me of the first thing Allah created before all things.” He said, “O Jabir! Verily, Allah created the light of your Prophet from His light before all things, and He made that light turn by [His] Power wherever Allah wished, and at that time there was no Tablet and no Pen, no Garden and no Fire, no Angel and no Heaven, no earth and no sun and no moon, no jinni and no man.” The hadith is mentioned in its entirety in al-Mawahib al-Ludaniyyah and other [works].

They erred in understanding the Prophetic meaning and they do not know that the ascription (idafah) in his statement “from His light” is like the ascription in His (Exalted is He) statement in the story of the creation of Adam, “I breathed into him of My spirit” (15:29) and like His statement in the story of our master ‘Isa “a spirit from Him” (4:171) and like their statement, “The house of Allah” for the Ka’bah and mosques, and their statement, “The spirit of Allah” for ‘Isa, etc. Al-Zurqani said in Sharh al-Mawahib in the commentary of his statement, “from His light”:

[This is] an ascription of ennoblement (idafat al-tashrif) and to notify that he is a wonderful creation and that he has a rank which has a certain relationship with the esteemed lordship according to the meaning of His (Exalted is He) statement “and He breathed into him from His spirit.” This is a rhetorical (bayaniyyah) [sentence], meaning: “from the light of His essence”, not in the sense that it is a substance for the creation of his light, rather in the sense of the [Divine] Will pertained to it without the mediation of anything when bringing it into existence. End.

He also said some pages before this:

As for what is mentioned that Allah took a handful of the light of His Face and cast a look at it so it perspired and dropped, so Allah created out of every drop a prophet, and that the handful was the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and he was like a brilliant star, and that the entire world was created out of it and he was existent before his parents were created and he memorised the Qur’an before Jibril came to him and things like these, Hafiz Abu l-‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Taymiyah said in his Fatawaand Hafiz ibn Kathir quoted it in his Tarikh and agreed with him that all these things are fabricated lies about his speech by agreement of the people of knowledge. End

Note:

The primacy and the definite priority of the creation of the Muhammadan light are established in the narration of ‘Abd al-Razzaq. The hadith, “The first of what Allah created is my light” is famous amongst the story-tellers, although it is a hadith not established in this form, even though other [narrations] were narrated that agree with it in meaning. Al-Suyuti said in his commentary onJami’ al-Tirmidhi called Qut al-Mughtadhi when commenting on the hadith, “Verily the first that Allah created is the Pen”:

Zayn al-‘Arab said in Sharh al-Masabih: “This hadith is contradicted by that which was narrated that ‘the first that Allah created was the Intellect’, and ‘the first that Allah created was my light’, and ‘the first that Allah created was the Spirit’, and ‘the first that Allah created was the Throne.’ Its response is that the primacy of things is relative, so it is understood that each of what was mentioned was first in its [own] genus. Hence, the pen was created before all bodies, his (upon him blessings and peace) light was created before all lights, and the hadith of the Intellect is understood as the first that Allah created of subtle bodies is the Intellect, and from the dense [bodies] is the Throne, so there is no contradiction between any of them.” [Here] ends the statement of Zayn al-‘Arab. I say: the hadith of Intellect is fabricated and the other three were not narrated with this wording so the interpretation is dispensable.

I say: similar to “the first that Allah created is my light” in not being established textually but having been transmitted in meaning, is that which is famous on the tongues of the story-tellers and the general and the elite of the hadith, “Were it not for you, I would not have created the celestial bodies”. ‘Ali al-Qari said inTadhkirat al-Mawdu’at:

[Regarding] the hadith, “Were it not for you, I would not have created the celestial bodies,” al-‘Asqalani said, “[It is]mawdu‘”, as [mentioned] in al-Khulasah. However, its meaning is correct, since al-Daylami narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas in marfu’ form: Jibril came to me and said: Allah said, “O Muhammad! Were it not for you, I would not have created the Garden and were it not for you I would not have created the Fire.” End

Al-Qastallani mentioned in al-Mawahib al-Laduniya and al-Zurqani in its commentary that al-Hakim transmitted in hisMustadrak from ‘Umar in marfu’form that Adam saw the name “Muhammad” written on the throne and Allah said to Adam, “Were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created you.” Abu l-Shaykh in Tabaqat al-Asfahaniyyin and al-Hakim narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas: Allah revealed to ‘Isa, “Believe in Muhammad and command your people to believe in him for were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Adam or the Garden or the Fire and indeed I created the Throne on water and it shook, so I wrote on it: ‘No deity but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’” ‘Amr ibn Aws is in its sanad and he is unknown. Al-Dhahabi said: According to al-Daylami from Ibn ‘Abbas who elevated it [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], “Jibril came to me and said: Indeed Allah says ‘Were it not for you, I would not create the Garden and were it not for you, I would not create the Fire.’”

Similar [is the narration] that has become famous on the tongues of story-tellers of the hadith, “I was a Prophet while Adam was between water and clay” and in a narration, “I was a Prophet and there was no Adam, no water and no clay,” because al-Sakhawi inal-Maqasid al-Hasanah, while explaining many of the hadiths which are common on the tongues, and al-Suyuti in al-Durar al-Muntashirah fi l-Akhbar al-Mushtahirah and others clarified that it is mawdu’ with this wording. Yes, it is established from al-Hakim in his Mustadrakand authenticated by Abu Nu’aym in Hilyat al-Awliya’  and al-Bukhari in his Tarikh and Ahmad in his Musnad from Maysarah al-Dabbi: I said, “O Messenger of Allah! When were you a Prophet?” He said, “While Adam was between spirit and body.” According to al-Bayhaqi and Ahmad, [they narrated] from the hadith of al-‘Irbad ibn Sariyah inmarfu’ form, “Verily I was the Seal of the Prophets by Allah while Adam was still in clay” and according to al-Tirmidhi, [he narrated] from Abu Hurayrah that they [i.e. the Companions] said, “O Messenger of Allah! When was prophethood incumbent upon you?” He said, “While Adam was between spirit and body.”

From them is what the preachers mention while commemorating the Muhammadan beauty that one night a needle dropped from the hand of ‘A’ishah and she lost it, and she searched for it and could not find it, so the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) laughed and the radiance of his teeth appeared, illuminating the chamber, and ‘A’ishah saw the needle with that light. Although this is mentioned in Ma’arij al-Nubuwwah and other biographical works that combine both wet and dry [i.e. sound and unsound reports] so none relies on everything that is in them besides a sleepy or drowsy person, it is, nonetheless, not established by narration or meaning.

From them is what they mention when commemorating the Muhammadan hearing that he hears the blessings of one who sends blessings on him without any mediation, though he is far. This is false and not established by any narration. Rather, its opposite is established. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “One who sends blessings on me near my grave I hear it, and one who sends blessings on me from a distance, Allah appointed an Angel who conveys it me. It will suffice him for his world and hereafter [and] I will intercede for him on the Day of Judgment.” Al-Bayhaqi inShu’ab al-Iman, Abu l-Shaykh inKitab al-Thawab and Al-‘Uqayli inKitab al-Du’afa’ transmitted it, and it has corroborative reports (shawahid) which were elaborated by Al-Suyuti in Al-La’ali al-Masnu’ah and Ibn ‘Arraq in Tanzih al-Shar’iah.

From them is what they mention that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) attends personally the gatherings commemorating his birth upon the mention of his birth, and they built on this [the practice of] standing (qiyam) when mentioning the birth in respect and honour. This is also a falsehood from the falsehoods, which is not established by any proof. The mere supposition and possibility [of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) attending] is outside the limit of this explanation.

Such stories as we mentioned are many. The preachers of the Muhammadan excellence and the Ahmadi birth (Allah bless him and grant him peace) evoke them, despite their fabrication and [despite] not being established, with the belief on their part that in mentioning the eminence of the Muhammadan stature is a great reward and an immense virtue, ignorant of the great sin due on one who lies upon the Prophet (upon him prayer and peace) in regards to a statement, an action or a beautiful or perfect description, as clear reports and authentic narrations prove.

In sum, it is necessary for every Muslim to be careful in these matters, and not mention anything except after revising it and verifying it from the reliable books of the reliable scholars, and not dare mention all that his nature concocts or is mentioned by all those who have passed before him if they are from those who gather the bad and the good (al-ghathth wa l-samin), and do not differentiate between north and south, because it is a great sin and immense treachery.

Al-Athar al-Marfu’ah fi l-Akhbar al-Mawdu’ah, pp.16-35 (FromMajmu’ah Rasa’il al-Lakhnawi, volume 5, Edited by: Na’im Ashraf Nur Ahmad, Published by:Intisharat Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad Jami)

Source: Deoband.org

The Difference between Bid`ah-e-Hasanah & Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah

[By Maulana Sarfaraz Khan Safdar (rahimahullah)]

It is imperative that we differentiate and explain Bid`ah-e-Hasanah and Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah so as to clarify the issue with those who are unaware of the difference and so that they are not left in trepidation regarding the two.

There are two types of Bid`ah – lexicographic Bid`ah and Shar`i Bid`ah. Lexicographic Bid`ah is the term given to all things which are newly invented, which came into being after the demise of Nabi ﷺ. This includes Ibaadat and Aadat (habitual things). These are divided into five categories: Waajib, Mandoob, Haraam, Makrooh and Mubaah.

Shar`i Bid`ah includes all those innovations which came into being after the three best eras and upon which there is no consent from Nabi ﷺ by way of word, action, clearly or by indication. This is that Bid`ah which is classified under Bid`ah-e-Dhalaalah, Bid`ah-e-Qabeehah and Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah. The Ulama have dilated upon this.

“Bid`ah is of two types: one is a lexicographic Bid`ah and the other is a Shar`i Bid`ah. Lexicographically, Bid`ah is every new invention which includes Ibaadaat and Aadaat. This Bid`ah is further divided into five categories. The second type is that Bid`ah which increases (or decreases) in any revealed Deeni matter after the passing of the three best  era. This increase is devoid of consent from Nabi ﷺ. There  is no consent from Nabi ﷺ on these actions, neither by way of word, action, explicit or by indication. This is the meaning of Bid`ah-e-Dhalaalat” [Tarweejul  Jinaan/Junna page 161]

For a more detailed explanation on Bid`ah-e-Hasanah and Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah refer to Irshaadus Saari, vol.3, page 344, Umdatul Qaari, page 356, vol.5, Nawawi Sharah Muslim, page 285, vol.1 and  Mudkhal, page 257, vol.2.

Haafidh Ibn Hajar (rahmatullahi alaihi) writes:

“The crux of the matter is this that if Bid`ah has an acceptable proof in the Shariah, then it would be classified as a Bid`ah-e-Hasanah. If the Bid`ah has an unacceptable proof then it would be classified as Bid`ah-e-Qabeehah. Otherwise it would be Mubaah. Bid`ah is divided into five categories.” [Fathul Baari, page 219, vol.4]

A similar explanation is given in Allamah Aini’s Umdatul Qaari. Refer to page 356, vol.5.

Now this much remains to be explained, that what is acceptable in the Shariah and what is unacceptable in the Shariah. Hadhrat Imaam Shaafi (rahmatullahi alaihi) states:

“Bid`ah is of two types. That Bid`ah which contradicts the Kitaab (Qur`aan Majeed), Sunnah, Ijma or Athar of a Sahaabi. This is Bid`ah-e-Dhalaalah. That Bid`ah which does not contradict anything of these, this is a Hasan Bid`ah, in accordance to the words of Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu):‘This is a good Bid`ah’” [Minhaajus Sunnah, page 128, vol.2]

That action which Nabi ﷺ left out notwithstanding the conditions and ability being in existence during his era and that the Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiyallahu anhum) and Taabieen also left out is undoubtedly a Bid`ah and deviation. This is so because it is in contradiction to the Kitaab, Sunnat, Ijma of the best of eras and Qiyaas. If there exists a little proof for it, then sometimes it may be a good action, whereupon reward is due and sometimes it is merely a permissible action which warrants neither reward nor sin.

The summary of the discussion of Qiyaas in Majaalis-e-Abrar and the above-mentioned texts, results in the definition of Bid`ah-e-Hasanah and Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah is as follows:

Bid`ah-e-Hasanah is that action whose prevention was removed after the demise of Nabi ﷺ. Or its conditions and ability  of execution came into existence after Nabi ﷺ. Some proof for its execution can be found in Kitaabullaah, Sunnat, Ijma or Qiyaas. This is known as Bid`ah-e-Hasanah or in other words it is also regarded as lexicographic Bid`ah, which is not rejected or accursed. The texts of Allaamah Ibn Rajab etc. has already been quoted which adds more light on the subject.

As for that action, which could have been executed during the era of Nabi ﷺ but he did not carry it out and the Sahaabah-e-Kiraam, Taabieen and Tabe Taabieen, notwithstanding their extreme love and affection for Nabi ﷺ also did not carry out this action, then such actions are called Bid`ah-e-Qabeeha, Bid`ah-e-Sayyia and Bid`ah-e-Shar`iah.   Besides this, the Ijtihaad of a non-Mujtahid, especially in our times, is definitely not classified as Bid`ah-e-Hasanah. In this regard the Fuqahaa-e-Kiraam (rahmatullahi alaihim) have stated:

“It is stated in Nisaabul Fiqh that Bid`ah-e-Hasanah are those actions which the Aimmah-e-Mujtahiddeen have classified as Bid`ah-e-Hasanah. If any person in our era classifies anything as Bid`ah-e-Hasanah then this is contrary to the Haqq, because it is stated in Musaffa that all Bid`ah in our era are deviation.” [Fatawaa Jaamiur Riwaayat and Junna, page 60]

From this text we clearly see that Bid`ah-e-Hasanah is only that which the Aimmah-e-Mujtahiddeen have classified as such. Ijtihaad and Qiyaas are only permissible in those issues and Masaa`il regarding which no Qur`aanic or Ahaadith texts exist, and the conditions and possibility of their execution did not exist during the time of Nabi ﷺ and the best of eras, in fact, it (conditions and possibilities of execution) came into existence only after these eras. If any person in this present age classifies any new action as a Bid`ah-e-Hasanah, then his claim would be totally rejected and discounted.

This is that Bid`ah regarding which Mujaddid Alfe Thaani (rahmatullahi alaihi) stated:

“How can those things which are rejected ever be regarded as Hasan and good?”

Who Split The Moon??

image

[A.U. ASIF, Darbhanga]

It was the historic date of May 4, 1967 when the U.S.A. launched the ‘Orbiter-4’ from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The mission was to photograph 95% of the lunar surface. On May 11, 1967 a wide angle picture was taken of the hidden side of the moon from an altitude of about 3000 kms. This photograph, bearing the number 67-1805, shows a straight-line crack on the moon’s surface which is estimated to be about 240 kms. long and up to eight kms. wide in places.

A careful study of the picture shows that this straight-line crack has the following features.

* The cracks by natural causes are never found in a straight line. They are always irregular or in waves. But this crack is in a perfectly straight line which shows that it must have come about owing to something unnatural.

¤ It has marked raised rims.

¤ It is near the south pole of the moon on the side hidden from view to the Earth.

¤ The centre of the straight-line crack is located at about 65 degrees south and 105 degrees east.

¤ This crack on the lunar surface cuts through several large older craters and is itself cut and partly obliterated by a small younger crater about its center.

Prediction

Later on, this straight-line crack was also photographed by the astronauts, Armstrong and Aldrin, from 63 miles above the moon. This crack too is visible in the numerous photographs brought by the Apollo mission.

Now, passing through a paragraph on page 169 in the Gospel of Barnabas, we get Jesus Christ predicting: “Verily, I say to you that the moon shall minister sleep to him in his boyhood, and when he shall be grown up he shall take her in his hands. Let the world beware of casting him out because he shall slay the idolaters…”

Again, we find Arius, the bearer of the original teachings of Jesus Christ, calculating and informing Salman Farsi that Jesus of Nazareth had foretold that the comforter, the promised Prophet, would disclose himself to the world by a miracle that would be done by him in 617 A.D. The miracle would be seen simultaneously over large areas of the then known earth, he predicted. We get also the following verse in the chapter ‘The Moon’ in the Holy Quran:

The hour drew nigh and the moon was split into two parts (each part of the moon moving away from the other)’ [Qur’an 54:1].

History

After going through the Biblical teachings and the Qur’anic verse, let us now see what the history tells:

It was the full-moon night of the 14th of the lunar month of Rajab, in the eighth year after Prophethood and five years before Hijrah i.e., corresponding to 617 A.D. On this Friday night (the period after sunset on Thursday) a group of Pagans along with a group of Jews came to Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) and challenged him that if he was the Prophet of the God, he should prove it by splitting the moon into two. The Pagan challengers comprised Abu Jah-bin-Hashan, Aas Ibnil Vail, Aswad bin Mutallib and several Jewish elders. Prophet Mohammad went on top of surrounding height known as Abu Kubais and at a ‘sign of his finger, the moon was split into two’. one piece going in one direction and the other in another direction. The time was approximately three hours after sunset at Mecca.

Witnesses

The Muslim witnesses on the spot at the time were: Ali Ibne Abu Taleb, Zubair bin ­Mutam Naufil, Anas Bin Malik, Abdullah-Bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Omar Farooq, Huzaifa Ibnil Yaman (radhiyallahu anhum).

All the disbelievers (the Jews) and the believers ran to their homes and informed their relatives about the happening. Thus this miracle was seen by the whole of Mecca.

Abdullah bin Masood (radhiyallahu anhu) was at this moment at Minah about 6 to 8 miles away. He also saw it there. People of all the neighbouring towns and villages, despatched by Abu Jahl bin Hashim, confirmed seeing the moon split into two on that eventful night. It was also seen in Syria and Palestine. The caravans arriving at Mecca from these countries confirmed that all the local people of the numerous towns in these countries had also seen it with great amazement

[Pages 418.423, Vol. II – Tafrihul Askia Fil Ahwal-ul­ Ambia].

In India

Raja Bhoj, King of Dhar – a town near the Chambal river in Malwa plateau on the western side of central India, was enjoying a quiet mid­night in his palace garden, where he saw the moon split into two halves, which moved away from each other. Frightened at this sight, he raised an alarm thinking the destruction of the world was at hand. This disturbing sight was witnessed by hundreds of thousands of people of central India.

Searched

The pandits searched through various Sanskrit books and pointed out from `Bhavishya Purana’ (Chaper XVII: C-3) that it had been foretold that a great personage would be born in Arabia, whose name would be Mohammad and who would influence the world with his teachings. The splitting of the moon would be one of his miracles. That those who would not follow the teachings of this great Prophet would eventually be losers in earth and in the next life. Then Raja Bhoj immediately sent his Prime Minister to Arabia. He met Prophet Mohammad at Mecca and became Muslim. The Prophet gave the name of ‘Abdullah’ for Raja Bhoj. When his Prime Minister returned, Raja Bhoj gladly became Muslim adopting the name Abdullah. The shrine of this King Abdullah alias Bhoj is still in existence just outside the town of Dhar. [Page 10, Asrar–e–Tasovuff, published in Lahore, May, 1925 edition].

There was a merchant traveller Sahu, son of Joginder, who lived at Tarbandan. He too saw the splitting of the moon on this eventful night. There was a big uproar in the Delhi area where thousands of people witnessed this miracle. They also found out from the Sanskrit records that this miracle had been performed by the tenth or final Avtar this world would have. Those who would not follow him would be doomed eventually in this life and the next. Sabu later on embraced Islam.

Thus the straight-line crack, photographed by orbitter-4, and the Apollo mission, is nothing but the sign of the demonstration of the splitting of the moon in 617 A.D. by Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him).

[Radiance, Delhi, India]

What’s in a Beard??

[COMPILED BY: MAULANA AASIM RASHID (CANADA)]

[A brief article on the importance of keeping a beard with answers to some common misconceptions in the light of Qur’aan and Hadith]

The position that Islam has, or will have, in the world has a great deal to do with how the Muslims look at it, and to what extent they practice on its teachings. There was a time when Islam was running through every vein in a Muslim’s body, and his actions were a living portrait of the glory and beauty of Islam, so the flag of Islam fluttering proudly in the sky, lifted by the winds of success. The non-Muslims could not dare to question Islamic concepts, because living examples of Islamic perfection were in front of them. When the spirit of Islam started drifting away from the hearts of the Muslims, their bodies were no longer inclined to take all measures, undergo all hardships to practice their flawless religion. The new place for Islam was not a strong firm heart, but a dark, dusty corner in the human mind. It would no longer be nurtured and cared for, upheld and protected by the warmth of love and devotion, but would now be probed and dissected by the cold, merciless and unfeeling instruments of intellect, theory and logic. It was no longer a deep feeling, a faith or way of life, but had become a set of rules, a doctrine or constitution like the ones made by man, to be amended and abridged at will.

Where did we go wrong? The answer is simple. We left the pattern of life of our dear Prophet ﷺ who spent his days and nights, his sweat and blood, trying to teach us, and turned to what others had to offer. If we want our respect, dignity and position of honor back, we must revert to that same pattern. This is why the subject of the noble practices of Rasulullah’s ﷺ Sunnah, holds so much weight. This article has been compiled as a reminder of one of the very important Sunnahs – the beard. We hope that the readers will not only read it carefully, but will make a concerned effort to convey the information to others.

SOME COMMON EXCUSES
Allah Ta’ala prefers people who sin and admit their mistakes, over those who do good deeds and behave in a conceited manner. Its unfortunate that today we disobey Allah and instead of admitting it, find some sort of excuse to justify our misdeeds, even if it means criticizing the Shariah or inventing our own guidelines for what is important in Islam and what isn’t. Below are some common excuses and reasons people use to explain why they don’t keep a beard. If you examine these with an objective, Islamic mind you will see how weak and baseless they really are.  The purpose of this article is not to condemn anyone or label anyone under a certain category but, when we say ‘Islamic awareness’ it means Islamic awareness in its entirety, not just what seems appealing. And that is what we are trying to do, so that  each Muslim can at least know what is expected from him. The ability to practice comes from Allah.

1. One argument that is commonly heard is that the Qur’an is silent on the issue of the beard. To answer this we ask, “Where in the Qur’an does it say that we are only supposed to act  on what is in the Qur’an, and reject the teachings of Rasulullah ﷺ?”

The Qur’an very clearly states:

‘Obey Allah and the Prophet ﷺ’ (Quraan)

There are many commandments that are necessary for us to fulfill, but are  not mentioned in the Qur’an. Take for example the number of Raka’ts in each Salaat.  They have been explained to us by Rasulullah ﷺ  yet there is no objection on the authenticity and importance of the matter. To  acceptance Rasulullah’s ﷺ  instructions and reject others on the basis that they are not found in the Qur’an amounts to mocking his flawless teachings. 

2. Some people forsake keeping a beard, claiming that the reformation of the heart and purification of the soul is their first priority. They argue that it doesn’t matter if one doesn’t keep a beard, so long as the heart is clean. 

This type of reason is a symptom of one’s misunderstanding (or ignorance) of the basic Islamic fundamentals and concepts. The heart that is actually pure will lead it’s beholder to complete obedience of Allah and his Prophet ﷺ. It defies logic to think that one can have a heart free of all corruptive elements and at the same time sin persistently, not wanting to adopt the noble appearance of the Holy Prophet ﷺ. Everyone will agree that a ‘pure’ heart will definitely contain the love of Allah. Allah says that if you love me, you must follow the Prophet ﷺ. If you do so, your love for Allah will prove true, and only then will Allah love you in return. 

“Say, (O Muhammad, to mankind): If ye love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you…” (Quraan)

Therefore, it should be correct to say that love for Allah and the disobedience of his Prophet ﷺ are two opposite things, and can never be in a person’s heart at the same time.  
 
3. There is another claim that shaving is only a minor sin.

First of all, since intentionally omitting an obligatory commandment is a major sin, and growing a beard is obligatory (as you will see ahead), it is wrong to say that shaving is a minor sin. It should be known that repetitively and persistently committing minor sins is itself a major sin. That means that for each minute that this act continues, the sin will keep accumulating and will become more weightier than major acts of disobedience, as these latter sins do not progressively increase after the act is over.

4. Some say that Rasulullah ﷺ kept a beard merely because it was an Arabic custom in those days. Since shaving is now regarded as the norm and the fashionable thing to do, if the Prophet ﷺ was present with us, he would do the same. (May Allah forgive the Muslims who utter such foolish words, and may he give them the opportunity to repent before they die.)

The Arabs, amongst other things, used to bury their daughters alive, answer the call of nature in public , perform Tawaaf naked around Ka’bah and braid their beards,  indulge in gambling and drinking wine. The Prophet ﷺ shunned these acts and strictly prohibited his followers from them. However, amongst his teachings is that keeping a beard is an act of Islam, a sign of Muslims, and he ordered the believers  to grow their beards in opposition to the non-believers who were accustomed to cutting their beards.

“Oppose the pagans! Grow your beards long and trim your mustaches.”  

5. There is yet another group of people who, despite knowing the unlawfulness of shaving their beard, claim that if they were to keep beards would lose esteem in the eyes of the people and no longer be looked at in the same way.

Before we respond, we should explain to these idealists what the true meaning of respect, dignity and honor is. We will mention that if someone only likes a person when they make their appearance in a certain way and despises them otherwise that’s not really liking the person. It’s just getting them to look a certain way that appeals to them, the same goes for respect. Respect is not gained on the material attributes an individual possesses, but is due to the abstract qualities within.

Secondly, Allah Ta’ala has clearly stated that the non-Muslims will never be satisfied with us until we get caught up in trying to please them that we lose our own senses, moral values, and eventually become one of them. If that is what we yearn, then we are opening ourselves up to the wrath and displeasure of Allah. 

Thirdly, if we are looking to earn respect in the eyes of non-Muslims, or expecting to get respect because of them, we are in great deception. How is it possible to get respect from something or someone that Allah has made devoid of?

How true are the words from Hazrat Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu):

‘We were the most degraded people, but Allah gave respect through Islam. If we were to seek respect through a medium other than that which Allah has bestowed us with respect, he would surely hurl us into the pits of disgrace.’  

These were just a few general answers to the questions usually raised regarding this issue.

THE BEARD – AN OBLIGATION
To justify the permissibility of shaving  the beard by saying that it is ‘merely’ a Sunnah and shrug it off with  unimportance is not correct. It should  be clear that when we say “the beard is a Sunnah”, it revolves around the fact that it was one of the many noble  practices of Rasulullah ﷺ. The Prophet ﷺ didn’t just keep a beard, he also  ordered the Muslims to grow them, and showed his anger and displeasure to  those who shaved in his time. All the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum), Tabi’een and the righteous Khulafa  meticulously observed this practice. All these elements serve to prove that it is obligatory (Waajib) for a Muslim to  keep a beard. This fact alone is enough for someone to accept that the  growing of a beard is a commandment  and must be fulfilled. However, for  the benefit of our fellow Muslims and  as a reference, we will list some facts. 

“From among the natural practices of Islam is the trimming of the mustache and fully growing the beard. The fire-worshippers grow their mustaches long and cut their beards. Do the opposite: trim mustaches and let your beards grow long.”

For those individuals who think there may be the proverbial difference of opinion among the scholars’ on this matter, the following facts are noted.

In the Shafi’ee book, Al-Lubab, Imam Ibn Ar-Rifaah says that Imaam Shafi’ee in his book, Kitaab-ul-Umm, has clearly stated that shaving the beard is Haraam.  The Maliki School of thought, as expressed in Kitabul Ibaadah and Al-Lihya-fil Islam, says that to shave the beard is Haraam and to trim it in such a way that it changes ones natural and facial features is also haram. Sheikh-ul Islam Ibn Taimiyyah has also given the verdict of shaving the beard being Haraam, and has further listed all the Ahadith in which we have been commanded to oppose the actions of non-Muslims. He then comments that Shari’ah orders us to oppose them and if we adopt their appearances it will create the kind of love and friendship for them which is prohibited and which we should be trying to avoid.

Allama Qurtubi states that shaving the beard, pulling the hair out and shortening it are all not permissible.

Imam Ibn Hazam Zahiri has quoted a consensus of the Ulama that to cut the mustache and lengthen the beard is Fardh.

The author of Manhal, in his commentary of Abu Dawood says:  
“Therefore, to shave the beard is haraam according to the Muslim jurists Abu Hanifa, Maalik, Shafi’ee, Ahmed and others”.

The author of Durr Mukhtar states:

“None of the scholars have declared it (shaving the beard) as permissible. This is sufficient in proving a consensus of all the scholars of Deen, from the time of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) to the present day, on the obligation of keeping a beard. Now that we know it is Waajib What’s in a  Beard?, we should study the details of the length of the beard as determined by the  Shari’ah.

HOW LONG?
Some individuals accept the concept of the beard, but form their own conclusions regarding the length, based on their own research. This is not an appropriate way to look at Shari’ah. Just as it is necessary to consult Ulama in matters pertaining to worship, marital affairs and beliefs, it is also imperative to refer to them for guidance in matters of Sunnah practices. Otherwise we will not be able to practice the Deen as a whole. We will end up taking what seems appropriate to us and discarding whatever we dislike. This will result in a direct breach of Allah’s orders.

“O believers! Enter into Islam completely”.  

There is a common misconception that the requirement for an Islamic beard is that it must be visible from forty feet. If the beard fits this description it is in perfect order and there is no set length for the beard in the Shari’ah. This view is no more than a combination of speculation and presumption based on opinion and has nothing to do with Islamic principles or any reliable source of information. The Shari’ah has determined that the beard is one fist. How one fist? First of all, let us look at the words. The Prophet ﷺ used to tell the Ummah to grow their beards.  Imam Nawawi  states  the  Prophet ﷺ used four  terms, at various occasions for this purpose.

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All of them mean “to fully elongate, lengthen”. The  last word Irkhawa means to  unreservedly expand the length of  something.

Once a disciple of Khabab (radhiyallahu anhu) asked him how the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhu) knew that Rasulullah ﷺ used to be reciting Quran in Zuhr and Asr prayers. He replied “By observing the movement of the blessed beard (not chin) of Rasulullah ﷺ we could tell that he was reciting.” In a Hadith of Tirmizi it is related, “Rasulullah ﷺ had a very thick beard.” Ibn Jawzi has reported from Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) that Rasulullah ﷺ had a fully grown beard.

Whenever the Prophet ﷺ ordered us to do something, his own actions defined the method of that act. This is the case in all matters of Deen, and the beard is no exception. For more details we look at how the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) emulated his actions, because they had seen him and had directly learned from him. Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) has relied on the actions of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) as a yardstick to gauge and define the sayings and practices of Rasulullah ﷺ. Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), for example, was known for his care in strictly following the Sunnah. Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) states:

“When Ibn Umar performed Hajj or Umrah, he used to hold his beard with his clasped fist, and cut the hair exceeding it.” 

The same is narrated about Hazrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) and Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu). This narration is also quoted in Imam Mohammed’s Kitabul Athaar. No doubt remains that the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) used to grow their beards quite long during the year, and trim them back to one fist’s length after hajj or Umrah. The beard of the Prophet ﷺ himself was so thick that it covered his upper chest in length and width.

Based on the evidence and facts from Hadith we can determine the real definition of the beard in the Shari’ah. The scholars of Deen have unanimously come to the same conclusions mentioned previously.

Allama ibn Hummam in his famous book Fathul Qadeer states:

“To trim the beard when it is less than one fist in length, like some westerners do, is the way of the hermaphrodites, and none of the scholars have declared it  permissible.”

The decision most accepted by the Shafi’ee scholars is to leave the beard as it is when it exceeds one fist’s length. This is the ruling of the Hanafis as well. With the addition that if it is longer than one fist, it is desirable that it be cut back to the fist length. The  Maaliki scholars also say that if the beard grows exceptionally long, it should be trimmed down to one fist. Although a great deal can be written on this subject, it is the writer’s humble opinion that the information provided is sufficient for anyone desiring some general knowledge on the topic and willing to practice upon it.

Even though cutting the beard is a practice of non-Muslims, you may be surprised to know that there are some distinguished individuals amongst them who disagree with the concept. Below are the excerpts of a thesis written by an American, Dr. Charles Homer.

“A correspondent has asked me to invent some sort of electronically operated needle, to reduce the time wasted daily on shaving. I do not understand why people dread and tremble at the thought of having a beard. People grow hair on their heads, so why do they regard it as incorrect, defective and unacceptable to have hair on their face? When the hair fails to grow on the head, then baldness is regarded as a defect, and a cause of shame. Every effort is made to hide it. Yet, it is surprising that a man will daily remove hair from his face, depriving himself from that which is a most evident sign of manhood, without a bit of shame.
“the beard and mustache give the human being’s face strength of manhood, a stead fast character, individual integrity and exclusive identity. His survival and safety too are tied to this brave appearance. These are the only hair that differentiate the males from the females. The hair in all  the other parts of the body are common between the male and female. Women, deep in their consciences, are more appreciative of men with beards and mustaches. Profoundly, they prefer a male with a beard to the ones without this manly facial feature.

“Outwardly it would appear that they dislike the beard and mustache. The only reason for this is that they have bound themselves to follow unrealistic friends and the latest fashion in dress and, unfortunately, these days the beard and mustache are out of fashion. A little bit of hair before the nostrils and the mouth acts as a filter against harmful dust and germs entering the nose and the mouth. A lengthy and thick beard protect the throat from colds.

“A person with a beard has never forsaken his wife. A person with a beard always upholds the honor of the beard that is demanded from him. It gives him that prestige and position that is befitting only for males.

“How unreal it is, that a full grown adult desires that his face appears like that of a child. God had created the beard and the mustache for the male adult to adorn his face with them. Whoever laughs and mocks at those with beards is in act laughing and mocking Jesus, because Jesus had a beard.” 

Dr Homer’s statement speaks for itself and needs no explanation, but his concluding words are a real eye-opener for us Muslims. After nineteen centuries have passed he still honours his Prophet Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam) so much that he classifies that person who laughs at the beard as having directly insulted Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam), because it was his noble practice to keep a beard. For the Muslims who claim to have true love for Rasulullah ﷺ but fall short of following in his footsteps, it is time to face up to the reality and to accept their responsibilities. We ask Allah to forgive us all our shortcomings in obeying Him and His Prophet ﷺ and to ask Him to grant us the ability to truly repent for our mistakes and live a life that pleases Him. 

Ref: The Beard of A Muslim and its importance, Shaikh Zakaria (rahimahullah)  

The Beard: A Hallmark of Imaan, Mufti Ashiq Ilahi (rahimahullah)

The ‘Hanafi Stance’ Regarding The Black Magic Spell Cast on the Prophet ﷺ

By Bassam Zawadi

It is claimed by some that the so-called Hanafi stance on the story of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is that its a concoction and an insult to the  Prophet’s stature.  

The vast majority of Muslim scholars  have accepted this story to be true  however and have argued that it does nothing to impugn the Prophets  character, or his status as the  Messenger of Allah.

Muslim scholars have offered two lines of proposed assessments of the story. 1) What happened to the Prophet (peace be upon him) was a form of illness and this is not impossible for Prophets, nor does it impugn their character and prophethood. This doesn’t affect the  reliability of his deliverance of the message, which is what Allah’s promise  for protection ultimately ensured to secure, and 2) The magic only affected the Prophets (peace be upon him) limbs and organs, but it did not affect his heart, beliefs  and intellectual capacity to convey the revelation being sent to him (i.e. it only had  a significant affect on him on the outside, but not in the inside).  

Secondly, its not true to characterize  the rejection of this incident as a Hanafi stance just because a few Hanafi  scholars may have rejected the story.  An example being Abi Bakr al-Jassas who may have likely done so due to his  Mutazilite inclinations. Regardless of  what motivated his rejection of the  story, al-Jassas doesn’t speak on behalf of the entire Hanafi school!. Rather, we find that the Hanafis have either accepted this story  as either true or narrated it without objecting to it.  Below we present at least five examples of these Hanafi scholars.  

1)  Abi Ja’far at-Tahawi (d. 321 A.H.) narrates two ahaadeeth mentioning the incident of the Prophet having a  spell casted upon him and after that  proceeds on to argue that black magic  has remained a real part of our world  up until the time of the Prophet, and  consequently remains so up until ours as well…. [Sharh Mushkil al-Athaar, (al-Risaala, 1st edition, 1994; edited Shuab al-Arna’ut, Volume 15, pp.179-181]

These two ahadeeth indicate that  black magic remained existing until the time the Prophet (peace be upon him) was influenced by black magic. If it (i.e. black magic) remained until that time, then its existence even after that is possible as well.

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2)  Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 333 A.H.) in his commentary of the Qur’an makes  mention of the incident without any  display of criticism or rejection of it. In fact, he mentions it as a valid opinion  when it comes to explaining the  historical context of the revelation of Surah 113 and even goes further to demonstrate that the story serves as a proof for the prophethood of  Muhammad (peace be upon him) because the story demonstrated that he was able to overcome this trial…

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But according to us fi maa QEELA  [regarding what had been said], i.e. that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was influenced by magic, there are two means of demonstrating his Messengership and Prophethood:

One of them is that, that the Prophet knew via revelation about the black  magic spell casted on him. For this was done secretly, and no one could have known about it except via revelation.

Secondly: The recitation of the Quran  quashes the effect of magic, just as the  staff of Musa (peace be upon him)  destroyed the effect of Pharaohs  tricks. [Taweelat Ahlussuah, (al-Risaala, 1st edition, 2004; edited  by Fatima Yusuf), Volume 5, p. 543]  

Some have tried to suggest that when al-Maturidi says fi  maa  Qeela, that he is using Qeela as a seeghat tamridh in order to signify that the opinion regarding the veracity of this story is weak. However, its very critical  that  one pays close attention to not only the methodology of al-Maturidi, but also the context itself. The word Qeela which literally translates to it was said, could actually be used to mean just that (i.e. relaying what has been said about a certain matter).

Dr. Majdi Baslum in his introduction to the commentary of al-Maturidi (Taweelat Ahlussunnah) says that al-Maturidi commonly uses Qeela to either eliminate the isnad or to simply present a list of opinions about a matter before he proceeds on to  critically assess each one of them. In other words, al-Maturidi would often use Qeela in the basic linguistic sense of it. And when we look back at his  comments on the incident of the  black magic spell cast on the Prophet  (peace be upon him), we precisely  see that  this is how he is using it. Its difficult to read the Qeela here as a  seeghat tamridh without imposing it upon the text and even if we assume for the sake of argument that this is indeed the case, what is crystal clear is that al-Maturidi had no theological objections to the story itself. On the contrary, he  saw it as a potential positive argument for the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him).  

3) Abi al-Layth as-Samarqandi  (d. 373 A.H.) in his Quranic  commentary explains the historical context of Surah 113:5 to be referring to the story of the Prophet being affected by Labid the magician…

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Allah All-Mighty said: And from the  evil of an envier when he envies 
[113:6], meaning from all envy. He intends by this Labid ibn Asma the Jew [Bahr al-Uloom, (Dar al-Kutub al-Iliah, Beirut, 1st edition,  1993), Volume 3, p. 526-527]

4)  Abi al-Barakaat an-Nasafi (d.710  A.H.) similarly in his commentary on the Qur’an also accepts the validity of the story. [see: Madaarik at-Tanzeel wa-Haqaaiq at-Taweel, (Dar al-Kalim  at-Tayyib, Beirut; edited by Yusuf Ali Bidaywi, 1st edition, 1998), Volume 3, pp. 700-701]

5)  Badrul-Deen al-‘Aini (d. 855 A.H.) in his commentary on Saheeh al-Bukhari refers to those who reject the  story as “heretics” (mulhideen) and  refutes the theological objection to the story by demonstrating that it had no  implications on  Muhammad (peace be upon him) in terms of his role as the Messenger of Allah…[see: Umdat  al-Qaari,  (Dar al-Kutub al-Iliah, Beirut; edited by Abdullah Mahmoud Abdullah  Umar, 1st edition, 2001),Volume 15, p.135]

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It was narrated that Aaishah (May Allaah be pleased with her) said: A spell was put on the  Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) until he imagined that he had done a thing when he had not done it. – Of course none of this entails that there was a compromise on the ability to convey revelation.

Some heretics objected to the hadeeth of Aisha. They said: How can the magic  affect the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), whilst magic is kufr and an action of the devils? How can its harm reach the Prophet (peace be upon him)  while he was under the protection of Allah and Allah supporting him with  the angels, and the revelation was protected  from the devils? And I answer: That  this objection is invalid, for Allah said to His Messenger: Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the daybreak. [113:1], until He says: in knots [113:4], and Blowers: are those magicians who  tie knots. None of this entails that the  effect of this was permanent or that it affected him internally or his capacity  as a Messenger. Rather, the effect of the magic is similar to what a sick  person gets affected by when he  gets a fever or pleurisy, such as weakness in speech or minor delusion. Then this disappeared and Allah quashed the plots of the magician. There is a consensus regarding the Prophets infallible ability to convey revelation. [Umdat  al-Qaari, (Dar al-Kutub al-Iliah, Beirut; edited by Abdullah  Mahmoud Abdullah Umar, 1st  edition, 2001),Volume 15, p. 135]

In a nutshell, we observe that its absolutely false to say that the Hanafi  stance is to reject the story of the black magic spell casted on the Prophet (peace be upon him). Its shoddy scholarship to take isolated opinions of individual scholars and use that to paint a stance on an entire school of thought. 

Alleged Statement of Imam Abu Hanifa About Prophet ﷺ Following his Opinions

By Waqar Akbar Cheema

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم الحمد لله وحده و الصلاة و السلام على من لا نبي بعده و على آله و أصحابه أجمعين

Sometimes back I found a fellow referring to an alleged statement of Imam Abu Hanifa. Although he did not derive any conclusions from it, it really alarmed me because there is a potential of gross misuse of the statement as recorded in the work usually cited.

In this time of tribulation (fitna) there are people –liberals and the secular– who never cease to twist the meanings of the Qur’an according to whims and wishes and to restrict the scope of countless hadith narrations to seventh century Arabia. To these people statements of scholars and mutahid imams mean nothing but at the same time if somehow they can use a statement attributed to any of great early scholars they forget everything else and take any such statement as ultimate evidence as if it is a revelation from Allah. This attitude speaks a lot of their objectives and objectivity. And what if the statement they use is not authentic to begin with?

The alleged narration:

The alleged statement goes as;

قال أَبُو حنيفة: لو أدركني رسول الله صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وأدركته لأخذ بكثير من قولي

Below is the reproduction of the translation given in the article by Muhammad Altaf Hussain Ahangar titled “Iqbal and Hadith.”

Khatib Baghadadi in his history, with reference to Yusuf Ibn Isbat, writes:

Abu Hanifa used to say that if the Prophet (s.a.w) would have found me and I could have found him (i.e. both would have lived at the same time), then He [the Prophet (s.a.w)] would have adopted many of his (Abu Hanifa’s) thoughts. Religion is not anything else except the good and fine opinion.

Let’s find out and analyze the truth of these words;

What works actually record this narration?

The narration is as such related by Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 453 A.H.)[1] and before him Ibn Hibban (d. 354 A.H.)[2] and has been reproduced by some later writers as well.

Authenticity of the Narration:

Now we discuss the most important issue i.e. the authenticity of this report.

1- The rules of narration (riwayah) check:

Wherever the report is given with a chain of narrator, we find that it comes through Yusuf bin Asbat (not “Isbat”). And this narrator itself is not truly reliable.

Ibn Abi Hatim said, “He is not to be sought evidence with.”[3]

And Imam Bukhari said, “He had buried his books, and did not narrate the narrations the way they were written.”[4] i.e. he mixed the things up

So these facts about the person attributing the words to Imam Abu Hanifah make the case of the narration quite weak. The following details will further add to the clarity on the evident dubious nature of the narration.

2- The rational rule (dirayah) check:

Imam al-Hafiz Muhibuddin Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Mahmud aka Ibn al-Najjar al-Baghdadi (d. 643 A.H.) actually showed that what the narration says is not tenable rationally. He first reproduces the narration and then writes;

“It is narrated from Abu Hanifa (rahimahullah) and all his fellows rule accordingly as to what is narrated from al-Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) that when the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) gave the sermon, he in a lengthy report said, ‘Verily Makkah is one the sanctuaries of Allah (where nothing can be harmed)” Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “Except idhkhir  (a kind of grass), O Messenger of Allah”, so the Prophet (saaw) said, “”Except idhkhir ” Abu Hanifa said regarding it, ‘The Prophet (saaw) himself intended to make this exception (already), Abbas (just) uttered it before him.” Thus Abu Hanifa did not interpret it in a way making the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) follow the opinion of Abbas, so how could he (speak of to) make him follow his own opinion?”[5]

Simply put, there is a narration in which apparently the prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said something after his uncle and a great companion Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) had spoken of it, yet Abu Hanifa said the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has already decided to say it. It’s only that Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) in that moment uttered it before him i.e. the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) did not follow the opinion of Abbas (radhiyallahu angu). The argument is, when he did take the pain to interpret the narration against the apparent meanings just to avoid the notion of Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) following someone else opinion albeit of a great companion, how could then he say that Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) would ever need to follow his own opinion?

On the reality of the alleged narration:

An Egyptian scholar Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari (d. 1371 A.H.) has discussed the narration in detail in his dedicated work on the narrations about Imam Abu Hanifa in “Tarikh Baghdad” of al-Khatib.

Following detail gives a fair proof on the origins of the narration.

Imam Mofiq bin Ahmad al-Makki (d. 568 A.H.) narrated the following words Imam Abu Hanifa on authority of Yusuf bin Khalid;

لو أدركني البتي لترك كثير من قوله

“If al-Batti would have found me, he would have left many of his opinions (in favor of mine).”[6]

Abu al-Mo’id Muhammad bin Muhammad al-Khwarazmi (d. 665 A.H.) narrates it with the following words;

لو أن البتي رآني لأخذ بكثير من أقوالي

“If al-Batti would have found me he would have adopted many of my sayings.”[7]

al-Batti here refers to a Kufan scholar who later settled in Basra, Usman bin Muslim al-Batti (d. 143 A.H.)

Shaykh al-Kawthari, following al-Mo’id al-Khwarazmi, argues that it is actually a scribal error or confusion of the narrator that made the narration as it is now recorded in Tarikh al-Baghdad etc.. In the narration al-Batti ( البتي) first became al-Nabi (النبي). This is easy to understand as the skeleton of both the words is same and the difference is only of the dots (nuqaat). Then seemingly undergoing the narration-by-meaning phenomenon the word النبي was replaced by  رسول الله and thereafter understandably the words صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ added to it.

This is no far-fetched an assertion, in fact we have a categorical example like it, in totally a different context, recorded in Tarikh Baghdad [8] itself where it is stated that a narrator confused the words رأيت البتي (I saw al-Batti) and put them as رأيت النبي (I saw the Prophet).

In fact this seems to be too general a mistake and confusion. Another example of the same is quoted by Al-Qifti (d. 646 A.H.)[9]

These examples show it was quite common for people to mix the two in both writing and reading.

So the reasonable conclusion is that the actual narration is misconstrued, apparently by, Yusuf bin Asbat who often did such things due to inadvertence and ignorance.[10] Here please recall Imam Bukhari’s statement about him quoted above.

The phrase, “Religion is nothing but fine opinion:

Coming to the last phrase, “Religion is not anything else except the good and fine opinion”, Shaykh al-Kawthari is of the opinion that this too involves confusion due a scribal error. He argues that the Arabic wording هل الدين إلا الرأي الحسن was originally هل أرى إلا الرأي الحسن i.e. what would he opine except according to the good opinion.He supports this by the fact that al-Batti too like Abu Hanifa was known for making extensive ijtihad and as as such known to be among Ahl al-Ra’i.[11]

Having looked into various old manuscripts myself I find the explanation quite plausible but it is a bit lacking in external independent support. However, even if accepted as such the phrase still does not signify more than the fact that when a matter is not resolved directly through Qur’an, Sunnah or the verdicts of the companions and it comes down to the opinions of the scholars then among those opinions the religious verdict is on nothing but the best of those opinions.

The principle of Imam Abu Hanifa:

Here I must quote the principle of Imam Abu Hanifa about the order of precedence among the the sources of Shariah.

ما جاء عن الله تعالى فعلى الرأس والعينين وما جاء عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فسمعا وطاعة وما جاء عن الصحابة رضي الله عنهم تخيرنا من أقوالهم ولم نخرج عنهم وما جاء عن التابعين فهم رجال ونحن رجال

“What comes to us (directly) from the Allah the Almighty (i.e. in the Qur’an) is held the most supreme by us, and what reaches us from the Messenger of Allah -peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – we (simply) listen and obey, and what reaches from the Companions -Allah be pleased with them- we chose the best from their opinions and do not leave them all (i.e. we stick to one of their opinions) and what comes to us from the opinions of the Followers (tabi’un), so they are men like us.”[12]

This shows the truth of the above explanation for he clearly stated that he could not think of leaving the opinions of the Companions even let alone leaving a hadith or thinking that Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) would ever -God forbid- follow his opinion. But yes he, being himself a Follower (tabi’i) could contend with another of the same category and expect him to follow his opinion once he convinced him of its fineness.

And Indeed Allah knows the best!

 
References:

[1] Tarikh al-Baghdad wa Ziyuluhu, Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyah, Beirut 1417 A.H, vol.13 p.386

[2] Al-Majruhin, Dar al-Wa’i, Halb, 1396 A.H. vol.3 p.65

[3] Mezan al-A’itdal, Dar al-Ma’rifah, Beirut 1963 vol.4 p.462 No. 9856

[4] ibid.

[5] Kitab al-Radd ‘alaa Abu Bakr al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, included in Tarikh al-Baghdad wa Ziyuluhu, vol.22 p.54

[6] Manaqib al-Imam al-‘Azam Abi Hanifa, Da’ira al-Ma’arif al-Nizamia, Hyderabad Deccan 1321 A.H. vol.2 p.102

[7] Jami’ al-Masanid, Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut n.d. vol.1 p.63

[8] Tarikh al-Baghdad wa Ziyuluhu, vol.2 p.78

[9] Inbah al-Ruwat ‘ala Anbah al-Nuhat, Maktaba al-‘Ansariya, Beirut 1424 A.H. vol.2 p.344

[10] Ta’nib al-Khatib ‘ala Ma Saqahu fi Tarjimati Abi Hanifah Min al-Akazib, Dar al-Basha’ir al-Islamiyyah, Beirut, 1990 p.175

[11] ibid.

[12] Ibn Hazm, Al-Ahkam fi Usool al-Ahkam, Dar al-Afaq al-Jadida, Beirut n.d. vol.4 p.188

Source

TABLIGH JAMAAT ON THE ROAD OF DEVIATION

by Dhaka Tribune

Tabligh Jamaat torn apart by internal dispute

Last updated at 12:11 AM November 16, 2017 (This article was first published on Bangla Tribune)

The dispute among Tabligh leaders over establishing dominance reached a new height, after two factions of the organisation engaged in a violent clash on Kakrail Mosque premises on Tuesday

Tabligh Jamaat, an Islamic non-political organization based in Bangladesh, is being ripped apart by a long standing internal dispute among its top leaders.

The dispute over establishing dominance reached a new height after two factions of the organization engaged in a violent clash on the premises of Kakrail Mosque in Dhaka on Tuesday.

According to sources from the Tabligh, scuffles between the two factions are becoming a regular occurrence.

Seven people are leading the Bangladesh chapter of Tabligh Jamaat as Faisal (Ameer). Syed Wasif Islam is one of the ameers and also a Majlis-e-Shura member of the organization.

A senior Tabligh leader named Professor Mushfiq Ahmed and his followers began a long-standing dispute with Syed Wasif after they accused him of misusing power. However, following Mushfiq’s death in 2015, his followers became isolated inside the organization.

Sources said the Nizamuddin Markaz of Delhi is considered the international headquarters of Tabligh Jamaat, and that Maulana Saad Kandhalvi is one of the leading influential leaders there.

Maulana Saad Kandhalvi, however, is also a religious leader known for making controversial statements which have caused uproar in India on several occasions.

He received harsh criticism for speaking against taking money for religious teachings and claiming that prayers cannot be offered if the devotee carries a mobile phone with a camera.

According to sources, among the faisals of Bangladesh Tabligh Jamaat, Maulana Muhammad Jubayer, Maulana Rabiul Haque and Maulana Omar Faruq have protested against the upcoming visit of Maulana Saad Kandhalvi to the country.

Qawmi Alems of Hefazat-e-Islam have also demanded cancellation of Maulana Saad’s visit.

Following the heated exchange between the top leaders, Madrasa students locked in a clash and carried out acts of vandalism which later lead to the violence in Tabligh Jamaat’s Kakrail Markaz on Tuesday.

Later, police arrived at the scene and brought the situation under control.

The Shura Council members of the Tabligh held a meeting on the same day and agreed upon some terms to help resolve the ongoing dispute.

When approached, the son of Syed Wasif Islam, Maulana Osama Islam, admitted to the incident. He said future disputes will be resolved in a civil manner through council meetings.

The leaders agreed that in future meetings, every decision must be approved by receiving two-thirds of the vote from the members. Disputes will also be resolved in council meetings.

It was also decided in the meeting that no one will be allowed to carry weapons at any Tabligh programme.

On the issue of inviting a guest from abroad, the leaders agreed that they will follow a decision made in a previous meeting attended by the home minister.

The agreement was signed by Maulana Muhammad Jubayer, Syed Wasif Islam, Maulana Rabiul Haque, Khan Muhammad Shahabuddin Nasim, Maulana Omar Faruq, Mohammad Mosharraf and Mohammad Hossain.

The Rights Of The Neighbours in Islam

The  important  yet  neglected  topic  has  been  dealt  with  in  a  combined  manner.  Firstly,  from  classical  sources,  the  Quraan  and  Sunnat  and  secondly,  by  narrations  of  wonderful,  encouraging  stories  of  the yester  years  pious  and  current  examples  are  presented.

The  book  explains  the  definition  of  ‘neighbour’  and  the  rights  and  importance  of  proper  interaction  with  neighbours.  What  to  do,  when to  do  it  and  why  to  do  it  has  been  detailed.  This  is  a  book  to  be  read  and  implemented  in  our  lives.

In the name of Allaah Most Merciful, Most Beneficent

By: Mufti Muhammed Israar   

Translation edited by: Mufti A H Elias  (May Allaah protect him)

Preface

Praise  be  to  Allaah;  we  praise  Him  and  seek  His  help  and forgiveness.  We  seek  refuge  with  him  from  the  evils  of  our  own  souls  and  deeds.  Whomever  Allaah  guides,  no-one  can  lead  astray  and  whomever  He  leaves  astray,  no-one  can  guide.  I  bear  witness that  there  is  no  illah  but  Allaah  Alone,  Who  has  no  partner  and  I  bear  witness  that  Muhammad  is  His  Bondsman  and  Rasul.

Encouraged  by  elders  in  our  locality  we  translated  the  work  of  Mufti  Muhammad  Israar.  Subsequently,  we  found  a  booklet  by  Sheikh  Ali  Hasan  Ali  Abdul  Hameed  entitled  ‘Neighbour’s  Rights’.  The underlying  is  extracted  from  the  latter  as  additional  information  to  the  former  to make the  work  more comprehensive  in  nature.

1)  Al-Qurtubi  (may  Allaah  have  mercy  on  him) said:  “On  this  basis,  concern  for  neighbours  is  a  religious  duty  regardless  of  whether  they  are  Muslim  or  Kafir  and  this  is  the sound (Sahih)  opinion.”

Ihsan  (doing  good)  could  mean  consoling  him,  treating  him kindly,  refraining  from  disturbing  him  and  defending  him.”

2)  Ibn  Hajar  said:  “Ibn  Wahb  reported  from  Yunus  from  Ibn  Shihab:  Forty  houses  to  the  right,  to  the  left,  to  the  rear  and  to  the  front.” [Fath  al-Bari,  vol.  10,  pg  447.  This  Hadith  comes  under  the  heading  Haqq  al-Jiwar  fi  Qurb  Al-Abwab  (The  Rights  of Neighbours whose  doors  are  close)].

Al-Halimi  said:

“As  for  the  travelling  companion,  he  is  a  neighbour,  because  he  shares  one’s  physical  space  and  travelling  companions  have  much  to  offer  to  each  other  as  is  the  case  with  neighbours  in  the  same  market  or  village.  This  is  why  Allaah  has  commanded  us  to  take  care  of  him  (the  travelling companion)  and  Allaah  knows  best.”  [Shu’ab  al-Iman,  vol.  3, pg. 358]

3)  Ibn  Abdul  Barr  said:
“There  are  three  characteristics  which,  if  they  are  found  in  a man,  there  is  no  doubt  that  he  is  a  sane  and  a  good  man:  if  he  is  praised  by  his  neighbour,  by  his  relatives  and  by  his  friends.”

“Three  things  make  life  unbearable:  a  bad  neighbour,  a disobedient  child  and  a  badly-behaved  and  unreasonable wife.” [Ibn Muflih, op. Cit. Vol. 2, pg. 15-16]

Al-Hasan ibn Isa an-Naisburi narrated:

“I  asked  Abdullaah  ibn  al-Mubarak:  ‘A  man  came  to  me  and  complained  about  something  my  servant  did  and  my  servant  denies  it.  I  would  hate  to  punish  him  if  he  is  innocent  but  I would  hate  to  let  him  off  as  my  neighbour  will  be  upset  with  me. What should  I  do?’  Abdullaah  ibn  al-Mubarak  said: ‘May  be  your  servant  needs  to  be  disciplined  for  something  he  did,  so  bear  that  in  mind.  When  your  neighbour  complains  about  him,  discipline  him  for  what  you  are  sure  he  has  done  so  that  you  will  satisfy  your  neighbour  and  discipline  your  servant for  what  he  did.”  [Al-Khara’iti,  Al-Muntaqa  min  Makarim Al-Akhlaq (no.101), quoted by as-Salafi.]’

4)  Considering  the  welfare  of  the  neighbour  it  is  said:

“My  fire  and  my  neighbour’s  fire  is  one;  the  cooking  pot  is given  to  him  first.  It  does  not  matter  to  me  that  his  doorway has  no  cover.”  [Ibn  Qutaybah,  Ayun  Al-Akbar  vol.  2,  pg 193.]

5)  Being  co-operative  to neighbours

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu  anhu)  reported  that  Rasulullaah ﷺ said: 

“None  of  you  should  prevent  his  neighbour  from  leaning  wood  against  his  walls.”  [Bukhari,  Hadith  no.  2463  and Muslim hadith no. 1609.]

6)  No  deed  which  harms  a  neighbour  can  be  regarded  as insignificant 

Abdah  ibn  Ali  Lubabah,  may  Allaah  have  mercy  on  him,  related  that  the Messenger  of  Allaah ﷺ said:

“No  deed  which  harms  a  neighbour  can  be  regarded  as insignificant.” [Ibn  Abi  Shaybah,  vol.  8,  pg  547  with  a  Sahih Mursal Isnad.]

7)  Treating  neighbours  well

Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  reported  that  Rasulullaah ﷺ  said:  
“Be  Allaah-fearing:  you  will  be  the  best  in  worship  amongst the  people.  Be  content  with  your  lot;  you  will  be  the  most grateful  of  people.  Like  for  your  people  what  you  would  like  for  yourself;  you  will  be  a  Believer  (Mu’min).  Treat  your neighbour  well;  you  will  be  a  Muslim.” [Ibn  Majah,  Hadith no. 4217.]

8)  The Fitnah of neighbours

Hadhrat  Huzaifa  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrated  that  the  Nabi ﷺ said: 

“…  a  man’s  committing  sins  (fitnah)  with  regard  to  his  wife,  his  wealth,  his  children  and  his  neighbour  may  be  atoned  for  by  prayer,  fasting,  giving  charity  and  enjoining  the  good  and  forbidding  the  evil  …”   [Bukhari,  Hadith  no.  525  and  Muslim  hadith no. 144]

9)  Giving  charity  (Sadaqah)  to neighbours

Hadhrat  Abu  Sa’eed  al-Khudri  (radhiyallahu anhu)  reported  that  the  Rasul  of Allaah ﷺ said:

“Charity  may  not  be  given  to  a  rich  person  but  it  should  be given  to  those  fighting  in  the  way  of  Allaah,  to  the  wayfarer or  to  a  poor  neighbour  who  may  later  give  a  gift  or  invite  you to his home.” [Abu Dawood, Hadith nos. 1635, 1636]

10) Co-operating  with neighbours

Hadhrat Aisha (radhiyallahu anha) narrated:

“By  Allaah  we  used  to  watch  the  new  moon,  three  new moons  in  the  space  of  two  months  and  no  fire  (for  cooking)  was  lit  in  the  house  of  the  Rasul  of  Allaah ﷺ.  (The  narrator)  said:  ‘O  Aunt!  What  did  you  live  on?’  She  said,  ‘The  two  black  ones;  dates  and  water.  But  the  Rasul  of  Allaah ﷺ  had  Ansari  neighbours  who  kept  livestock  and  they  used  to  send some  of  its  milk  to  the  Rasul  of  Allaah  ﷺ  and  he  used  to  give it  to  us  to  drink.”  [Bukhari,  Hadith  no.  2567.  Muslim,  Hadith no. 2972.]

11) The  neighbour  before  the  house It is narrated by Tabarani: “…  look  for  the  neighbour  before  you  look  at  the  house…” [Al-Mujam Al-Kabir, Hadith no. 4379.]

12) How  one  should  treat  one’s  neighbour  if  he  is  not  a  practicing  Sunni  Muslim

a.  If  your  neighbour  is  committing  a  major  sin  in  secret  then advise him  in secret against his actions.  

b.  If  he  is  committing  a  major  sin  in  public  then  advice  him too  –  but  desist  from  his  company.  Greet  him,  send  him gifts and talk politely  to him when needed to.  

c.  If  he  boasts  about  his  wrong-doings  and  arrogantly disregards  Haqq  then  avoid  him  altogether  and  try  to  move to another  neighbourhood.

d.    If  your  neighbour  is  an  immoral  person,  careless  in  his attitude  towards  women  and  has  no  feelings  of  jealousy with  regard  to  his  own  womenfolk’s  honour,  or  his womenfolk  are  immoral  as  well,  then  cut  off  all  possible  ties with  him  and,  fearing  the weakness of  your own  soul,   do  not  enter  his  house  and  safe-guard  your  family  from  him.  If  you  can  persuade  such  people to  move  away  from   your  neighbourhood  then  do  so.  If  you  cannot,  then  move  yourself.

13) How to treat your non-Muslim neighbours

a.  If  your  neighbour  is  a  Shi’a  or  engages  in  major  Bid’ah (innovations  to  Deen)  then  keep  away  from  him completely  or  move  away  to  another  area.

b.  If  your  neighbour  (at  work,  home,  or  the  market-place)  is a  Jew  or  a  Christian  then  treat  him  well  and  do  not  disturb him.  

c.  It  is  permitted  to  visit  him  when  he  is  ill  and  to  offer condolences  when  he  dies  but  not  to  attend  his  funeral  rites.

d.  Visiting  them  and  congratulating  them  on  the  occasions of  their  festivals  is  not  permitted  –  doing  so  implies  acceptance  of  their religion  which  we  know  is distorted.

e.  If  your  non-Muslim  neighbour  greets  you  with  ‘salaam’  then  simply  reply,  ‘wa-alaykum’.  It  is  permissible  to exchange  brief  pleasantries  with  them  but  do  not  prolong such  exchanges.  Remember:  we  should  not  disturb  them  but  we  cannot  befriend  them  as  we  befriend  our  fellow  Muslims.
Epilogue

Neighbourhood  has  been  described  as  those  who  are  forty  houses  in  four  directions.  Giving  a  neighbourhood  of  hundred  and  twenty  houses.  These  days  it  will  mean  all  kinds,  types  and  residents  having  various  religious  affiliations.  This  is  due  to  the  cosmopolitan  nature of  settlements.  The  concept  of  having  a  Masjid,  Madressah  and Islaamic  Institute  for  every  120  houses  should  become  a  norm.

By  having  simple  and  functional  structures  the  inhabitants  of  the  area  will  be  able  to  walk  to  the  Masjid.  Through  this  there  will  be  greater  unity.  Social  and  economical  affairs  will  be  easily  maintained, controlled  and  supervised.  Where  there  is  a  purely  Muslim  population  a  Masjid  for  every  forty  families  should  be  implemented. 

This  concept  today  is  practised  in  a  place  called  Hara  in  Ethiopia  where  the  Imaam  is  responsible  for  the  spiritual  and  social  needs  of  forty  Muslim  homes  neighbouring  his  Masjid.

These  days  the  tendency  is  to  build  huge  Masaajids  wherein  only  few  worshippers  frequent.  This  sad  state  of  affairs  does  not  bring  the pleasure  of  Allaah.  The  solution  to  reap  the  pleasure  of  Allaah  is  small  Masjids  for  forty  families.

May Allaah Jalla Majdahi grant us all the ability to fulfil the rights of neighbours. 

A H Elias (Mufti)
(May Allaah be with)
Shabaan 1430/August 2009

In the name of Allaah Most  Merciful, Most Beneficent     

Foreword

By: Mufti NizaamuDeen Shaamzi (R.A) (Senior ustaad of Hadith at Jamiah Uloom-e-Islaamia Karachi)
Islaam  has  stressed  the  fulfillment  of  the  rights  of  all  those  who deserve  certain  rights,  though  the  emphasis  laid  as  regards  the  rights of  the  neighbour  is  perhaps  unmatched.  Time  and  again  Jibraeel  (alayhissalaam)  would  advice  Nabi  ﷺ  as  regards  the  rights  of  the  neighbour  during  his visits  to  Nabi  ﷺ  until  such  time  that  Nabi  ﷺ  thought  that  soon  the  neighbour  will  be  entitled  to  inherit.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  Nabi ﷺ  has  equated  the  consideration  and  fulfillment  of  the  neighbour’s rights  as  a  ladder  towards  reaching  perfection  in  Imaan

Islaam  has  made  no  segregation  in  as  far  as  religion,  school  of  thought,  or  cultural  back  ground  is  concerned  in  stipulating  or stressing  the  rights  of  the  neighbour.  Rather,  it  has  left  it  general.  No  matter  what  religion  one  may  be  a  follower of,  simply  because  he  is  a human,  all  the  rights  that  a  neighbour  deserves  becomes  binding  on  a  Muslim  to  fulfill. 

But  alas,  Muslims  have  become  negligent  and  unconcerned  as  far  the  rights  of  one  another  are  concerned;  especially  the  fulfillment  of  rights  of  the  neighbour  is  forgotten  from  the  very  root.  As  a  result, day  by  day  social  life  is  become  worse.  At  such  a  time,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  Ulama  to  put  a  stop  to  the  inevitable  destruction  which  the  Ummat  is  leading  itself  to.

Muslims should take maximum benefit from such booklets and make all efforts to implement it in their lives so that they are honored in both worlds.   

We pray that Almighty Allaah rewards the author and grants his effort acceptance in his divine court, Aameen.              

Nizaamudeen Shaamzi
Jamiah Uloom-e-Islaamia Allama Binnori Town Karachi.  
29 Safar 1424 A.H

In the name of Allaah most Merciful, most Beneficent.

Besides  ones  parents  and  family,  man  has  a  constant  link  with  those  whom  he  lives  amongst  or  is  neighbour  to.  This  link  has  a  great  influence  on  his  happiness,  grief,  peace,  comfort  and  character  building or  destruction.

Nabi  ﷺ  in  his  teachings  and  guidance  has  granted  great  honor  and  reverence  to  this  link  of  a  neighbour  and  has  stressed  upon  the  fulfillment  of  their  rights,  so  much  so  that  he  has  made  it  a  pre-condition  for  the  perfection  of  Imaan  and  entrance  into  paradise,  and  a  yardstick  to  measure  the  love  of  Allaah  and  His  Rasul ﷺ. 

Read  the  following  verses  of  the  Quraan  and  Ahaadith  of  Nabi ﷺ regarding this subject matter:

“And  worship  none  besides  Allaah,  and  do  not  ascribe  any  partner  to  him.  And  be  kind  to  your  parents,  relatives,  the  orphans,  the  destitute,  the  neighbours  closest  to  you,  and  the  neighbours  far  from  you …” [Surah Nisaa v.32]      

In  the  above  verse,  after  having  mentioned  the  fact  that  one  should  obey,  worship  and  believe  in  Allaah  alone,  Allaah  has  (in  order  of  merit)  firstly  mentioned  the  (importance  of  fulfilling  the)  rights  of  the  parents,  then  emphasized  being  kind  to  all  relatives,  then  the  orphans  and  destitute,  then  the  neighbour  living  close  by,  then  the neighbour  living  at  a  distance,  i.e.  he  has  ordered  us  to  show kindness  to  them. 

Two  types  of  neighbours  have  been  mentioned  in  this  verse,  one  who  lives  close  by,  and  one  who  lives  at  a  distance.  The  Sahaba  (radhiyallahu  anhum)  have  differed  in  their  explanations  of  these  two  types.  Most  commentators  say  that  the  neighbour  living  close  by  refers  to  that  neighbour  whose  home  is  adjoining  yours,  and  the  neighbour  living  at  a  distance  refers  to  that  neighbour  whose  home  is  separated  at  a  slight  distance  from yours.

Hadhrat  Abdullaah  Ibn  Abbaas  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  says  that  the  neighbour  living  close  by  refers  to  that  neighbour,  who  in  addition  to  being  a neighbour  is  also  a  relative.  In  this  way,  such  a  neighbour  enjoys  two  rights.  (In  his  opinion)  the  neighbour  living  at  a  distance  refers  to  a  neighbour  who  is  not  a  relative.  Therefore,  his  status  is lesser  than  the  first  type. 

Some  commentators  have  said  that  the  neighbour  living  close  by refers  to  that  neighbour  who  is  a  Muslim,  and  the  neighbour living at a distance refers to that neighbour who is a non-Muslim. 

The  words  of  the  Quraan  in  any  event  encompass  all  these  meanings. In  reality,  the  argument  of  difference  in  status  in  as  far  as  being  a relative  or  not,  being  a  Muslim  or  not,  is  logical  and  legitimate.  Nevertheless,  it  is  unanimously  agreed  upon,  that  irrespective  of whether  the  neighbour  lives  in  close  proximity  or  not,  whether  he  is family  or  not,  whether  he  is  a  Muslim  or  not,  under  all circumstances  he  has  rights.  It  is  therefore  incumbent  to  assist  and see  to  the  wellbeing  of  the  neighbour  according  to  an  individual’s capacity.  [Mariful-Quraan  vol.3  pg.411-412  Tafseer  Ibn  Kathir  vol.1 pg.494]

After  having  explained  this  verse,  let  us  now  read  the  Ahaadith  of  Rasulullaah ﷺ  regarding  the  rights of the  neighbour.  The  repeated  advice  and  emphasis  of  Jibraeel  (alayhis salaam)  regarding  the rights  of  the  neighbour:  It  has  been  reported  from  Hadhrat  Ayesha  (radhiyallahu  anha)  and  Hadhrat  Ibn  Umar  (radhiyallahu  anha)  that  Nabi ﷺ  said,  “Jibraeel  (alayhis salaam)  repeatedly  (on  the  order  of  Allaah)  advised  and  emphasized  upon  me  the  rights  of  the  neighbour,  so  much  so  that  I  began  to  think  that  he  would  soon  include  him  (the neighbour)  as  an  inheritor.”   [Bukhari  vol.2  pg.889,  Muslim  vol.2 pg.329, Mariful Hadith vol.2 pg.90]

Commentary:  We  learn  the  importance  of  being  good,  showing  kindness,  sharing  the  grief  and  happiness  and  not  being  of  any  source  of  difficulty  or  worry  to  the  neighbour  from  the  above  mentioned  Hadith.  Therefore, we  find  that  because  of  Jibraeel  (alayhis salaam)  repeatedly,  on  the  instruction  of  Allaah,  advising  Nabi ﷺ  in  this  regard,  Nabi ﷺ  was  convinced  that  he would  soon  bring  revelation  to  the  effect  that  neighbours  should inherit from one another. [Mazaahir-e-Haq vol.4 pg.541]

It  is  clear  that  the  objective  is  not  to  mention  any  particular  incident,  but  rather  this  is  an  effective  manner  in  showing  the  importance  of  the  rights  of the  neighbour. 

Honouring the neighbour: 

Hadhrat  Abu  Shuraih  Adawi  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates,  “I  have  heard  with  my  ears  (from  Nabi ﷺ)  and  seen  Nabi  ﷺ  with  my  eyes  saying:  ‘“That  person  who  believes  in  Allaah  and  the  Day  of  Judgment  should  honor  his neighbour.  That  person  who  believes  in  Allaah  and  the  Day  of Judgment  should  honor  his guest.  That  person  who  believes  in  Allaah  and  the  Day  of  Judgment  should  either  speak  of  good  or  remain  silent.”’ [Bukhari  vol.2  pg.889,  Muslim  vol.1  pg.50,  Majmauz Zawaaid  vol.8 pg.170]

That  person,  who  sleeps  on  a  full  stomach  while  his  neighbour  goes  hungry,  can  never  be  a  (true)  believer:

Hadhrat  Anas  Ibn  Maalik  (radhiyallahu anhu]

anhu)  reports  that  Nabi  ﷺ said,  “He  who  sleeps on  a  full  stomach  while  his  neighbour  goes  hungry  and  he  is  aware  of it,  has  not  brought  believe  (Imaan)  in  me.”    [Musnad-e-Bazzaar, Mu’jame Kabir, Majmauz Zawaaid vol.8 pg.170]

The perimeters of a neighbour: Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  reports  that  Nabi  ﷺ  said,  “The  rights  of  the  neighbour  (exists)  to  forty  homes  in  all  four  directions,  to  the  right,  to  the  left,  to  the  front  and  to  the  back.”  (In  other  words,  forty  homes  in  every  direction  are  regarded  as  neighbours,  and  therefore  have rights  over  a  person.)  [Musnad-e-Abu  Ya’laa,  Majmauz  Zawaaid vol.8 pg.171]

Some of the stipulated rights of a neighbour:

Hadhrat  Muaawiyah  Bin  Haidah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  says  that  he  asked  Nabi  ﷺ,  “What  are  the  rights  of  a  neighbour?”  Nabi  ﷺ  said, “You  should  visit  him when  he  is  ill,  attend  his  funeral  (and  assist  in  his  burial)  when  he  passes  away,  grant  him  a  loan  (according  to  your  capacity)  when  he  seeks  one  (for  his  necessities),  conceal  his  faults,  congratulate  him  on  good  that  reaches  him,  console  him  when  he  is  afflicted  by  a calamity,  do  not  build  your  wall  higher  than  his  preventing  (his home)  from  ventilation,  do  not  let  the  fragrance  of  your  food  reach  his  home  so  as  to  cause  difficulty  to  him  (and  his  wife  and  children),  accept  that  you  (intend)  sending  some  of  the  food  to  him.”  [Tabrani, Majmauz  Zawaaid  vol.8  pg.168]           

Increasing the gravy content of a meal:

Hadhrat  Jaabir  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi  ﷺ  said,  “When  anyone  of  you cooks  a  curry,  he  should  increase  the  gravy  content  and  send  some  of  (the food)  to  the  neighbour.” [Majmauz Zawaaid vol.8 pg.168]

Commentary:  The  meaning  of  this  is  at  the  time  of  eating,  one  should  take  his  neighbours  into  consideration.  Should  one  not  be  able  to  send  some curry,  he  should  at  least  send  some  of  the  gravy  so  that  his  neighbour  can  fill  his  stomach.

Three  categories  of  neighbours:  (A  non-Muslim  neighbour  also  has  rights)

Hadhrat  Jaabir  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi  ﷺ  said, “There  are  three  types  of neighbours.  One  who  enjoys  a  single  right,  one  who  enjoys  a  double  right,  and  one  who  enjoys  a  threefold  right.  The  one  who  enjoys  a  single  right  is  that  neighbour  who  is  a  non-Muslim  who  has  no  blood relation;  he  enjoys  the  rights  of  being  a  neighbour.  The  one  who  has  a  double  right  is  that  neighbour  who  is  Muslim;  he  enjoys  the  right  of  being  a  Muslim  and  being  a  neighbour.  The  one  who  enjoys  a threefold  right  is  that  neighbour  who  is  a  Muslim  and  a  blood relative;  he  has  the  right  of  a  Muslim,  a  relative  and  a  neighbour. [Musnad-e-Bazzaar,  Majmauz  Zawaaid  vol.8  pg.167  Mariful  Hadith vol.6 pg.99  Kanzul Ummaal  vol.9 pg.15] 

That  person,  whose  neighbour  is  not  saved  from  his evil,  can never be a believer and a dweller of Paradise:

Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi ﷺ said,  “He  is  not  a believer,  by  Allaah  he  is  not  a  believer,  by  Allaah  he  is  not  a believer!”  The  companions  asked,  “Who,  O  Rasul  of  Allaah  ﷺ?” (Meaning,  who  is  that  wretched  person  regarding  whom  Nabi  ﷺ  on  oath  has  said,  is  not  a  believer?)  He  said, “That  person  who  is  not saved  from  the  evil  of  his  neighbour!” [Bukhari and Muslim)
Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi  ﷺ  said,  “He  whose neighbour  is  not  safe  from  his  evil  will  not  enter  Paradise.”    [Muslim vol.1 pg.50]

Description  of  a  woman  of  paradise  and  a  woman  of  hell:

Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates,  “A  man  came  to  Nabi  ﷺ  and mentioned  a  woman  who  performs  much  optional  Salaah,  fasts  excessively,  but  at  the  same  time  she  is  abusive  to  her  neighbour  by  (means  of  her  tongue).  Nabi ﷺ  said,  ‘“She  is  a  dweller  of  hell.”’  He  then  mentioned  another  woman  who  does  not  observe  excess  fast  nor  does  she  perform  optional  Salaah,  but  she  is  not  harsh  to  her  neighbour,  nor  does  she  cause  any  difficulty  to  her.  Nabi ﷺ  said, ‘“Such  a  woman  is  a  dweller  of  paradise.’”    [Musnad-e-Ahmed, Musnad-e-Bazzaar, Majmauz Zawaaid vol.8 pg.171-172]

Commentary: To  cause  harm  to  anyone  in  general  is  forbidden,  though  one  should  ensure  not  to  cause  any  harm  to  his  neighbour  as  the  consequences are  great.  Nabi ﷺ  in  this  Hadith  informs  us  of  a  woman,  who  performs  optional  forms  of  worship,  but  due  to  her  causing  harm  to  her  neighbour  by  means  of  the  tongue,  all  her  good  deeds  were  destroyed  and  she  is  destined  to  hell.  On  the  contrary,  we  are  informed  by  Nabi  ﷺ  that  a  woman  who  did  not  perform  much  optional  form  of  worship,  but  never  caused  any  harm  to  anyone,  will  go  to  paradise.

A  warning  for  the  person  who  peeps  into  his neighbour’s home:
Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi ﷺ  said,  “That  person  who  peeps  into  his  neighbour’s  house,  and  sees  his  (neighbour’s)  private  part  or  sees  the  hair  or  any  part  of  the  body  of  his  (neighbour’s)  wife  (makes  it)  necessary  for  Allaah  to  enter  him  into  hell.”    [Tabrani, Majmauz  Zawaaid  vol.8  pg.173]

A warning for the one who commits adultery with the wife of the neighbour or steals from his (the neighbour’s) home:

Hadhrat  Miqdaad  Ibn  Aswad  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  reports  that  Nabi ﷺ  once  asked  his companions, “What  do  you  say  about  adultery?” They  replied,  “It  is  forbidden,  Allaah  and  His  Rasul ﷺ  have  made  it  forbidden,  therefore  it  is  forbidden  till  the  Day  of  Judgment.”  Nabi ﷺ  then  said,  “The  sin  of  committing  adultery  with  10   women  is  less  than  committing  adultery  with  the  wife  of  ones  neighbour!” Nabi ﷺ  then  asked,  “What  do  you  have  to  say  about  theft?”    they  replied,  “It  has  been  made forbidden  by  Allaah  and  his  Rasul ﷺ,  therefore  it  is  forbidden.”  Nabi ﷺ  then  said,  “The  sin  of  stealing  from  10  homes  is  less  than  stealing from  the  home  of  ones  neighbour!” [Majmauz Zawaaid vol.8 pg.171]

Commentary: Nabi ﷺ has  mentioned  the  severity  of  the  sin  of  committing  adultery  with  the  wife  of  ones  neighbour  by  saying,  that  it  is  such  a  great  sin,  had  a  person  committed  adultery  with  any  other  ten  women,  it  would  not  have  been  as  great  a  sin.  In  other  words,  committing  adultery  with  the  wife  of  the  neighbour  is  worse  than  committing  adultery with  ten  other  women.  (It  is  clear,  that  just  as  committing  adultery  with  the  neighbour’s  wife  is  a  great  sin,  the  sin  of  committing  adultery  with  neighbour’s  sister, daughter, daughter-in-law  or  mother  is  just  as  great.)  In  a  similar  manner  the  sin  that  a  person  will  receive  for  stealing  from  10 homes  is  not  as  severe  as  the  sin  of  stealing  from  the neighbour’s  home.  Just  as  these  sins  are  greater,  the  punishment  in  the  hereafter  will  be  more  severe,  and  this  is  besides  the  punishment  that  a  person  will  get  in  this  world.  The  punishment  that  Allaah  has stipulated  for  adultery  in  this  world  is  that  a  person  will  either  be  lashed  or  stoned  to  death,  and  the  hand  of  the  thief  will  be  cut  off.  This  is  the  punishment  of  the  world  and  the  punishment  in  the hereafter  will  be  10  times  more,  as  the  sin  of  doing  wrong  to  the neighbour  is  tenfold  greater. [Al-Adabul Mufrad  pg.124]                 

Not assisting a poor neighbour is a means of deprivation of paradise:

Hadhrat  Anas  Ibn Maalik (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that a  man  came  to  Rasulullaah ﷺ and  said,  “O  the  Rasul  of  Allaah  ﷺ,  please  provide  me  with  clothing.” Nabi ﷺ  turned  away  from  him.  He  (the  man)  repeated  his  request saying,  “O  the  messenger  of  Allaah  ﷺ,  please  provide  me  with clothing.”  Nabi ﷺ  then  said,  “Don’t  you  have  a  neighbour  (who  is  better  off)  and  can  spare  two  pieces  of  cloth?”    The  man  said,  “Sure,  I have  more  than  one  such  neighbour.”  Nabi  ﷺ  then  said,  “Allaah  will never  unite  you  and  him  in  paradise!”  (Meaning,  that  Allaah  will  not  grant  paradise  to  such  a  person  who  has  a  neighbour  who  needs  clothes,  and  he  does  not  provide  him  with  the  same,  although  he  has  the  means  to  do  so.  The  same  applies  to  any  other  need  that  the  neighbour  may  have,  and  he  does  not  assist  him  in  his  need.) [Tabrani, Majmauz  Zawaaid  vol.8 pg.171]

Giving due consideration to the education and nurturing of the neighbour is also his right:

Alqamah  Ibn  Abdurrahman  Ibn  Abzaa  narrates  from  his  father Abdurrahman,  who  narrates  from  (Alqama’s)  grandfather;  he  says  that  Nabi ﷺ  said, “What  is  wrong  with  those  people  (who  have  the  knowledge  and  understanding  of  Deen?)  They  do  not  make  an  effort  to  create  an  awareness  or  teach  their  neighbours  (who  are uneducated)  as  far  as  Deen,  nor  do  they  advice  them,  nor  do  they  command  them  with  good  or  prevent  them  from  evil.  And  what  is wrong  with  those  people  (who  are  uneducated?)  They  do  not  bother  learning  and  understanding  Deen  from  their  neighbours,  nor  do  they seek  advice  from  them!  I  swear  by  Allaah,  it  is  incumbent  upon  those  (who  have  knowledge  of  Deen)  to  make  an  effort  to create  awareness   and  educate  their  neighbours  as  far  as  Deen  is  concerned.  (It  is  also their  duty)  to  rectify  them  by  advising  them  and  (it  is  also  their  duty)  to  impress  upon  them  the  importance  of  doing  good  and  forbid  them  from  evil.  Similarly,  it  is  incumbent  upon  those  who  are  uneducated,  that  they  go  to  their  neighbours  seeking  the  understanding  and  knowledge  of  Deen.  (They  should  also)  seek  advice  from  them,  or  else I  will  punish  (both  groups)  in  this  very  world. [Ibn Raahwayh]

We  understand  from  this  Hadith  that  Nabi ﷺ  has  made  the  learned  ones  of  every  place  responsible  for  the  Deeni  education  of  those  who are  not  learned,  and  that  they  should  continuously  convey  (the message  of  Deen)  and  advice  them.  Similarly  it  is  the  responsibility  of  the  uneducated  to  seek  knowledge  from  those  who  are  learned  and  also maintain  a  link  with  them  for  the  benefit  of  their  (the  uneducated  ones)  reformation.

Had  we  been  practicing  on  the  guidance  of  Nabi  ﷺ  given  here,  there  would  not  have  been  a  single  category  of  the  Ummat  who  is  unaware  of  the  Deen  of  Allaah  and  none  would  have  been  detached  from  Allaah  and  his  Rasul ﷺ   in  the  manner  which  we  find  majority  of  the  Ummat  today. 

Undoubtedly  the  greatest  reformation  and  achievement  would  be  to  once  again  bring  alive  and  establish  this  informal  way  of  learning  and  teaching  which  we  are  informed  of  in  this  Hadith.  He  who  is  given  the  ability  to  do  this  is  most  fortunate.  [Kanzul  Ummaal  vol.9 pg.58  Mariful  Hadith  vol.6 pg.103]         

Rights of the neighbour:

Mujaahid  narrates  that  a  goat  was  slaughtered  at  the  home  of Abdullaah  Ibn  Amr  (radhiyallahu  anhu).  When  Hadhrat  Abdullaah  Ibn  Amr  (radhiyallah anhu)  returned,  he  asked,  “Did  you  people  send  some  of  the  meat  to  our Jewish  neighbour?  Did  you  people  send  some  of  the  meat  to  our  Jewish  neighbour?”  (He repeated  the  question  twice.)  He  then  said,  “I  have  heard  Nabi  ﷺ  say,  ‘“Jibraeel   continuously  advised  me, emphasizing  the  importance  of  (being  kind)  to  the  neighbour,  until  I  was  convinced  that  he  would  bring  revelation  to  the  effect  that  the  neighbour  will  share  in  the  inheritance.’” [Tirmidhi vol.2 p.16]

Commentary: The  objective  of  this  narration  is  to  emphasize  the  importance  of  protecting  the  rights  of  the  neighbour.  The  word  neighbour  is  all encompassing  of,  Muslim,  non-Muslim,  pious,  sinner,  friend,  enemy,  one  living  in  a  village,  and  one  living  in  the  city,  relative,  non-relative.  It  is  imperative  that  we  fulfill  the  rights  of  all  neighbours according  to  their  status  and  rank. 

Should  a  neighbour  cause  difficulty  to  us  we  should  patiently  bare  it,  and  in  no  way  cause  difficulty  to  the  neighbour.  In  fact  we  should assist  our  neighbour  as  far  as  possible  at  the  time  of  difficulty  and  hardship.  We  should  not  throw  any  dirt  in  front  of  the  home  of  the neighbour.  We  should  show  affection  to  the  children  of  our neighbours.  If  we  are  unable  to  show  any  kindness,  the  least  we  should  do  is  not  cause  any   difficulty  to  them.         

Gifting a Jewish neighbour with meat:

Hadhrat  Moulana  Mufti  Muhammed  Taqi  Uthmani d.b narrates  the  incident  of  Abdullaah Ibn Amr  (radhiyallahu anhu)  thus;  Hadhrat  Mujaahid   was  one  of  the  special  students  of  Abdullaah  Ibn Amar  (radhiyallahu  anhu).  He  says,  “I  was  once  sitting  with  him  (Abdullaah  Ibn  Amr).  His  slave  was  skinning  a  goat  nearby.  Hadhrat  Abdullaah  Ibn  Amr  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  addressed  this  slave  saying,  ‘“O  young  boy,  when  you  are  done  skinning  the  goat,  first  send  some  of  the  meat  to  our  Jewish  neighbour.’”  Someone  sitting  close  by  was  astonished,  and  exclaimed, ‘“May  Allaah  reform  you!  Do  you  send  meat  to  a  Jew?’”   He  was  astounded  by  the  fact  that  he  gifts  meat  to  a  Jew  who  is  the  enemy  of  Allaah.  This  action  needs  reformation.  Hadhrat  Abdullaah (radhiyallahu  anhu)  responded  to  him  saying,  ‘“Nabi  ﷺ  used  to  repeatedly  advice  us regarding  being  kind  to  the  neighbour,  that  we  began  to  fear  that  soon  he  would   include  them  amongst  our  inheritors.”’  [Ibn  Abi Shaibah]

Being kind to the neighbour:

By  virtue  of  this  Hadith  Abdullaah  Ibn  Amr  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  has  informed  us  that  the  teachings  of  Nabi ﷺ  regarding  being  kind  to  the  neighbour  has  no  link  to  belief  or  non-belief,  therefore  irrespective  of  the  fact  that  the  neighbour  may  be  a  non-believer,  he  has  to  be  treated  kindly  by  virtue  of  being  a  neighbour.  Hate  his  act  of  disbelief,  hate  his  sinful ways,  but  show  kindness  to  him  as  this  in  actual  fact  is  an  invitation  for  him.  When  kindness  is  shown  to  him,  and  he  is  treated  with  good character,  it  is  quite  likely  that  Allaah  will  put  Imaan  into  his  heart.      

One  of  the  reasons  for  the  spread  of  Islaam  in  the  first  era  in  reality  is  the  good  character  which  was  displayed  by  the  Muslims.  Therefore,  if  the  neighbour  is  a  non-believer,  hate  his  act  of  disbelief  and  evil  ways,  and  never  get  too  close  to  him,  but  as  far  as  his  rights  as  a  neighbour  is  concerned,  it  is  incumbent  upon  us  to  fulfill  them.  So  long  as  he  is  a  neighbour  we  should  fulfill  his  rights  as  a  neighbour. [Islaahi Khutbaat  vol.12  pg.60/61]          

An amazing incident:

Moulana  Wali  Razi  Sahib  writes  under  one  of  his  awe  inspiring subjects:  I  write  with  reference  of  my  heart,  that  today  I  very  vividly  remember  a  king  with  no  crown,  whom  I  had  seen  with  my  very  own   eyes,  and  heard  with  my  very  own  ears.  This  was  none  other  than  the Ustaad  of  my  honorable  father,  (Mufti  Muhammed  Shafi  Sahib) Moulana  Asghar  Hussein  Shah  (Rahimahullah)  who  was  known  as  “Hadhrat Mia  Sahib”  and  was  a  person  of  great  piety  and  super  natural  fetes.  There  used  to  be  a  Masjid  at  a  slight  distance  from  Hadhrat  Mia Sahib’s  house,  where  he  used  to  perform  his  Salaah.  My  father  says  that  there  was  a  large  house  with  doors  which  were  decorated  on  route  to  this  Masjid.  Every  evening  when  Hadhrat  Mia  sahib  would  pass  by  this  particular  house,  he  would  remove  his  shoes.  My  father  found  this  strange,  and  wondered  what  the  reason  was  for  this.  Initially  he  could  not  muster  the  courage  to  ask,  but  after  some  time  he  one  day  saw  the  opportunity  and  questioned  Hadhrat  as  to  who lived  in  that  home,  and  why  did  he  remove  his  shoes  whenever  he  passed  by  it?  At  first  Hadhrat  Mia  said,  “Of  what  use  is  it  to  ask?”  Shortly  after  he  said,  “A  woman  who  is  a  prostitute  by  trade  lives  in this home.  She  has  now  lost  her  vigor.  In  her  younger  days there  used  to  be  a  crowd  here  everyday  and  there  was  much  movement  around  here.  Now  this  poor  lady  beautifies  herself  daily  and  awaits  the  arrival  of  someone.  Therefore,  I  figured  that  in  the  evenings  when people  walk  pass,  she  probably  hears  their  footsteps  and  becomes  hopeful  that  it  is  a  client,  when  these  footsteps  fade,  all  her  hopes  are shattered.  I  therefore  thought,  why  should  we  be  the  cause  of  her  developing  forbidden  hopes  and  then  be  the  cause  of  shattering  those  very  hopes?  After  all  she  is  also  our  neighbour!  It  is  incorrect  that  difficulty  reaches  her  from  our  part. 

“Let  us  ponder  for  a  while.  How  far  don’t  the  friends  of  Allaah  see?  Everyone  has  read  the  rights  of  the  neighbour,  but  it  is  only  the  lot  of  those  endowed  with  hearts  to  take  into  consideration  the  rights  of  the  neighbour  so  delicately.  Allaah  does  not  bless  this  understanding  and  far sightedness  without  the  heart  being  cleansed  and  tuned.”

The  lives  of  these  friends  of  Allaah  have  been  truly  portrayed  in  the  following words;

I  lived  all  my  life  taking  every  precaution  to ensure,

This nest should never become a  target on a branch.

Just for the sake of a birds nest:

After  Hadhrat  Amr  Ibn  Aas  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  and  his  companions  conquered  the outlying  cities  of  Egypt,  they  surrounded  and  laid  siege  on  an  army  fort.  Since  this  siege  lasted  six  months,  they  had  a  tent  erected.  Hadhrat  Moulana  Mufti  Muhammed  Taqi  Uthmani  Sahib  writes  in  his  book  of  travels, “Jahaan deedaa” regarding this tent;

While  laying  siege  on  this  fort,  Hadhrat  Amr  Ibn  Aas  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  had  a  huge tent  erected.  When  he  intended  advancing,  he  decided  to  remove  the  tent  and  take  it  with.  When  they  began  removing  the  tent,  they  noticed  that  a  pigeon  had  laid  eggs  at  the  top  end  of  the  tent,  and  she  was  sitting  on  these  eggs.  By  uprooting  the  tent  the  eggs  would  have been  destroyed,  therefore,  Hadhrat  Amar  Ibn  Aas  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  said,  “This  pigeon  has  taken  refuge  in  our  tent.  Do  not  uproot  the  tent  until  such  time  that  the  eggs  hatch  and  the  little  nestlings  are  able  to  fly!  The  tent  was  therefore  left  erect.  Hadhrat  Amr  Ibn  Aas  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  appointed  a  few  people  to  remain  behind  and  he  himself  continued towards  Alexander.” [Jahaan deedaa pg.141]

These  people  never  caused  pain  to  the  heart  of  birds  and  insignificant  animals,  where  would  they  ever  hurt  the  heart  of  a  human,  a  Muslim,  or  their  neighbour?  These  were  those  who  really  had  the  interest  and well-being  of  people  at  heart.  It  is  sad  to  note  that  these  days  that  this  type  of  care  and  concern  is  slowly  taking  leave  of  our  lives.     

Seeking refuge in Allaah from an evil neighbour:

Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  reports  that  amongst  the  supplications  of Nabi  ﷺ  used  to  be  the  following, “O  Allaah,  I  seek  refuge  in  you  from  an  evil  neighbour  in  my  place  of  residence,  as  the  neighbour  of the  jungle  keeps  changing.”   [Al-Adabul Mufrad by Bukhari]

Place  of  residence  refers  to  the  place  where  one  has  settled.  Refuge  from  an  evil  neighbour  in  such  a  place  has  been  sought,  as  one  has  to  live  with  him  throughout  his  life,  and  there  will  be  no  escape  from his  evil.  One  would  have  to  bare  the  difficulties  for  life,  which  is  really  a  great  affliction.  Should  one  encounter  an  evil  person  whilst  traveling,  this  is  not  as  bad,  as  this  is  a  temporary  encounter.  Once  the journey  is  over,  the  evil  is  over.
Allama  Ibn-Uljazri  (rahimahullah)  in  Hisn-e-Haseen  quotes  the  dua  on  the  authority  of  Sunan  Nisaai,  Ibn  Hibbaan  and  Haakim  in  the  following  words;

“O  Allaah!  I  seek  refuge  in  you  from  an  evil  neighbour  at  my  place of  residence,  as  a  companion  on  a  journey  will  soon  separate.”  [Hisne-Haseen  pg.455]

It  is  clear  that  life  becomes  gloomy  if  one  has  an  evil  neighbour.  An  evil  neighbour  has  an  effect  on  the  comfort  and  peace  of  his  neighbour.  We  are  therefore  taught  this  Duaa  in  the  Hadith.  We  seek refuge  in  Allaah  from  an  evil  neighbour,  aameen.

Seeking refuge in Allaah  from  an  evil  day, evil  night, evil hour, evil friend and an evil neighbour:

Tabrani  narrates  on  the  authority  of  Uqbah  Ibn  Aamir  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  that  Nabi  ﷺ  used  to  make  the  following  dua, “O  Allaah  I  seek  refuge  in  you  from  an  evil  day,  evil  night,  evil  hour,  evil  friend,  and  an  evil  neighbour  in my  place  of  permanent  residence.”   [Majmauz  Zawaaid  vol.10 pg.147]

The complaint of a neighbour:

Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  a  person  came  to  Nabi  ﷺ  and  said,  “O  Rasulullaah  ﷺ ,  I  have  a  neighbour  who  causes  difficulty  to  me.”  Nabi  ﷺ  said,  “Go  back  home  and  remove  your  belongings  from  your  home  and  place  it  on  the  roadside.”  He  did  as  he  was  told.  People  began  to  gather  at  that  place  and  asked,  “What  has  happened  here?”  This  person  related  to  them  what  had  transpired.  Upon  hearing  this,  they  said,  “May  the  curse  of  Allaah  be  on  him.  May  Allaah  disgrace  him.”  When  the  neighbour  found  out,  he  said, “Return  to  your  home,  I  swear  I  will  not  cause  any  difficulty  to  you.”   

Hadhrat  Abu  Juhaifa  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  a  man  complained  to  Nabi ﷺ  regarding  his  neighbour.  Nabi  ﷺ  instructed  him  to  remove  his  belongings  and  place  it  on  the  roadside  so  that  whenever  anyone  passes  by,  they  would  curse  him,  (the  neighbour).  Therefore,  whenever  anyone  passed  by,  they  cursed  him.  The  neighbour  then  came  to  Nabi  ﷺ who  told  him  that  this  was  merely  the  curses  of humans;  surely  Allaah’s  curse  is  much  more  severe.  He  then  told  the  one  who  was  harmed  that  this  has  sufficed  for  him  to  take  heed,  or  he  told  him   something  similar  in  meaning.  [Al-Adabul Mufrad  pg.134]

We  have  been  shown  a  scheme  in  these  two  Ahaadith  of  how  to  escape  the  harms  of  a  neighbour,  and  that  is  to  remove  our  belongings  and  place  them  on  the  roadside.  By  doing  this,  people  passing  by  would  notice  and  thereafter  begin  to  curse  the  one  causing  harm,  which  will  in  turn  make  him  realize  that  the  harm  is  not  limited  to  the  neighbour,  but  the  effects  turn  back  on  him  and  he  will  fall  in  the  esteem  of  people. 

The incident of Muhammed Ibn Abdullaah Ibn Salaam and his neighbour who caused him difficulty:

Muhammed  Ibn  Abdullaah  Ibn  Salaam  narrates  that  he  came  to  Nabi ﷺ  and  complained  that  his  neighbour  was  causing  him  difficulty. Nabi  ﷺ  enjoined  him  to  be  patient.  He  says  that  after  sometime  he once  again  reported  to  Nabi ﷺ   and  complained  that  the  neighbour caused  him  difficulty.  Once  again  Nabi  ﷺ  enjoined  him  to  be  patient. He  says  that  for  the  time  he  complained  and  said  that  now  the  neighbour  has  straitened  him  Nabi  ﷺ  instructed  him  to  remove  his belongings  on  to  the  roadside,  and  whenever  anyone  would  pass  by  he  should  let  them  know  that  his  neighbour  is  causing  him  difficulty.  In  this  way  the  passersby  would  then  curse  him.  Nabi  ﷺ  then  said,  “He  who  believes  in  Allaah  and  the  Day  of  Judgment  should  be   kind  towards  his  neighbour. He  who  believes  in  Allaah  and  the   Day  of  Judgment  should  be  kind  towards  his  guest.  He  who believes  in  Allaah  and  the  Day  of  Judgment  should  speak  good  or  remain  silent.  [Kanzul Ummaal  vol.9 pg.183-184]

The repercussions of compelling a neighbour to leave his home:

Hadhrat  Thouban  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  who  was  one  of  the  special  attendants  of  Nabi  ﷺ used  to  say,  those  two  persons  who  break  off  ties  from  one  another exceeding  three  days,  thereafter  one  of  them  passes  away,  (sometimes  both  pass  away  in    this  condition  of  not  having  ties  with  one  another,)  both  are  doomed  to  destruction.  He  would  also  say,  that  person  who  oppresses  his  neighbour  or  exceeds  the  limit  with  his  neighbour,  so  much  so  that  the  neighbour  is  compelled  to  move,  shall  also  be  doomed  to  destruction.  In  other  words  he  will  be  punished  in  the  hereafter. [Al-Adabul Mufrad pg.137]

Besides  mention  of  the  eminent  doom  for  one  who  cuts  off  ties, punishment  for  the  person  who  causes  difficulty  to  his  neighbour  to such  an  extent  that  the  neighbour  is  forced  to  leave  his  home  has  also  been  mentioned in  this  Hadith. 

It  should  clearly  be  borne  in  mind,  that  just  as  one  can  cause  harm  by  means  of  the  hand,  certain  actions  and  movements  of  a  person  can also  cause  much  harm.  For  instance,  a  person  lives  in  a  double  storey  building,  or  a  building  which  has  many  levels  where  many  people  live  on different  levels.  Now  a  person on  the  upper  level  moves  about  making  noise  that  disturbs  those  living  on  the  lower  level,  or  a  person  while  ascending  or  descending  the  stairs,  makes  unnecessary  noises  which  disturbs  the  sleep  of  every  home  he  passes,  or  a  person  plays  the  radio  or  television  so  loud,  that  he  disturbs  the  worship  and  peace of  the  neighbours,  so  much  so  that  these  neighbours  are  compelled  to  leave  their  homes,  all  those  who  cause  such  harm  will  certainly  be  punished  in  the  hereafter.  It  should  also  be  remembered  that  since  this  has  to  do  with  the  rights  of  the  bondsman  of  Allaah,  Allaah  will not  pardon  the  perpetrator  until  his  servants  pardon  him.      

Who really is a destitute?

We  should  always  keep  in  mind  the  Hadith,  the  meaning  and understanding  of  which  is,  once  Nabi  ﷺ  asked  his  companions  as  to  who  was  a  destitute?  The  companions  replied  that  a  destitute  is  he who  has  no  wealth.  Upon  which  Nabi ﷺ   thereafter  said  that  such  a person  in  reality  is  not  a  destitute,  but  a  destitute  is  he  who  will  appear  before  Allaah  with  mountains  of  good  deeds  to  his  name.  He  would  have  performed  Salaah,  fasted,  done  a  lot  of  Zikr,  learned  and propagated  Deen,  served  Deen  to  a  great  extent,  performed  many  Hajj  and  Umrah,  in  short,  his  scale  of  good  deeds  will  have  many  good  deeds  in  it,  but  at  the  time  of  his  appearance  before  Allaah,  all those  who  had  rights  upon  him,  and  he  had  not  fulfilled  their  rights,  will  arise,  some  of  whom  he  may  have  sworn  at,  some  whom  he  may  have  back  chatted  about,  some  of  whom  he  may  beaten,  some  of  whom  he  may  have  hurt  the  feelings  of,  some  of  whom  he  may caused  some  form  of  difficulty,  some  of  whom  he  may  have  usurped  the  wealth  of,  some  whose  integrity  he  may  have  attacked,  in  this  way  all  those  who  had  any  rights  (which  were  not  fulfilled)  will  beseech  Allaah!  We  have  such  and  such  right  over  him.  We  have  this right  upon  him.  So  on  and  so  forth.  Remember  in  the  hereafter  the  currencies  of  this  world  will  have  no  value.  There  the  currency  will  be  that  of  a  person’s  deeds.  The  rights  which  were  not  fulfilled  will now  be  repaid  by  virtue  of  deeds.  That  is  why  Allaah  will  then  distribute  his  good  deeds  between  those  who  had  outstanding  rights  over  him.  There  will  come  upon  him  such  a  time  when  this  mountain  of  good  deeds  will  become  exhausted,  but  there  will  still  remain  those  whose  rights  have  not  yet  been  repaid.  The  next  step  would  be  that  the  evil  of  those  who  had  rights  upon  him  will  be  laden  on  him  as  a  result  of  which  he  will  be  flung  into  Jahannam.  At  the  time  of his  arrival  he  was  convinced  of  entrance  into  Jannat,  but  here  he  sees  himself  going  towards  Jahannam.  Nabi  ﷺ  then  said  that  this  person  in  reality  is  a  destitute. 

Therefore  the  rights  of  the  servants  of  Allaah  are  something  which  we  should  be  fearful  with  regards  to.  These  are  unpardonable  by  means  of  repentance  and  seeking  forgiveness  from  Allaah  alone, rather  the  one  whom  these  rights  are  owed  to  will  have  to  pardon  a person.        

Forty homes (in every direction) are termed as neighbours:

One  should  also  bear  in  mind  that  not  only  the  houses  to  the  left  and  right  are  classified  as  neighbours,  but  forty  houses  to  the  right,  forty  to  the  left,  forty  behind  and  forty  in  front  are  all  classified  as  neighbours!

Therefore,  we  find  that  Imam  Bukhari  (Rahimahullah)  in  his  writing,  Al-Adabul  Mufrad has  quoted  the  saying  of  Hadhrat  Hasan  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  when asked  as  to  who  falls  within  the  classification  of  a  neighbour?  He said,  “Forty  houses  to  the  front,  forty  to  the  back,  forty  to  the  right  and  forty  to  the  left.”

Nevertheless,  as  far  as  showing  kindness  and  gifting  the  neighbour  is  concerned,  one  should  take  into  consideration  the  closest  neighbours  first.  One  should  not  begin  with  the  distant  neighbours  in  giving  gifts  etc.  rather;  the  method  which  should  be  adopted  is  that  those  closest  should  be  given  first  preference  over  those  at  a  distance.  Though harm  and  difficulty  should  not  reach  anybody  from  our  part  as  the  consequences  of  this  is very  severe.  

The one whose door is closest should be given preference as far as gifts are concerned:

Hadhrat  Ayesha  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  once  asked  Rasulullaah ﷺ,  “I  have  two  neighbours,  who  should  I  send  gifts  to  (first)?”  Nabi  ﷺ  said, “To  the one whose door is closest to yours.” [Bukhari vol.2 pg.890]

Commentary:  Just  as  that  relative  who  is  most  closely  related  to  us  is  given  preference  over  the  other  relatives  in  as  far  as  importance  of  showing  kindness  and  maintaining  family  ties  are  concerned,  that  neighbour  whose  door  is  closest  to  us  will  be  given  preference  over  the  other neighbours  in  as  far  as  gifts  and  that  are  concerned.  We  should  send more  gifts  and  be  more  kind  to  the  closest  neighbour. 

It  is  sad  to  note  that  these  days,  showing  kindness  to  family,  living  harmoniously  with  them,  assisting  them  financially,  joining  ties  with  them,  no  longer  exists,  leave  alone  behaving  this  way  towards neighbours!  This  in  reality  is  a  big  crevice  in  our  Imaan.  A  believer is he who endeavors to even keep his enemy happy! 

Sheikh  S’adi  (Rahimahullah)  says  in  one  of  his  couplets;  (the  translation  of  which  is)  “We  have  heard  the  incidents  of  the  friends  of  Allaah.  They  would  not  tolerate  hurting  the  heart  of  their  enemies!  How  have  you  now  reached  this  level  that  you  fight  and  differ  with  your  friends?” 

The  condition  of  the  Sahaba  (radhiyallahu  anhum)  was  such  that  even  if  one  of  them himself  was  in  dire  need,  the  need  of  his  companion  was  given  preference  over  his  personal  need. 

Hadhrat  Abdullaah  Ibn  Umar  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  a  Sahabi  was  gifted  with  a  sheep  head.  He  thought  that  a  certain  companion  of  mind  is  in  greater  need  of  it  than  me,  he  is  also  a  tribesman,  his  family  is  also  in  need  of  it,  and  therefore  I  should  send  it  to  him.  He  in  turn  felt  the same  about  a  third  person  and  made  it  over  to  him.  In  short,  the  sheep  head  went  to  seven  homes  and  finally  came  back  to  the  first  Sahabi  (radhiyallahu  anhu).

A strange incident regarding giving preference and showing kindness to others:

Giving  preference  to  others  over  oneself  and  sharing  in  the  grief  and  pain  of  others  reserves  a  remarkable  spot  in  the  teaching  and  the  Muslim  way  of  life.  For  the  existence  of  an  Islaamic  way  of  life  this quality  plays  an  essential  role.  In  the  annals  of  Islaamic  history,  many  strange  incidents  in  this  regard  have  been  recorded.  One  such  incident   has  been  recorded  by  Khateeb  Baghdaadi  (Rahimahullah)  in  his  book, “The  history  of  Baghdad.”  Under  the  discussion  of  Imam  Waaqidi (Rahimahullah)  he  writes;

Waaqidi  narrates  that  once  I  encountered  serious  financial difficulties.  I  reached  the  state  of  extreme  poverty.  I  was  told  by  family  members  that  the  occasion  of  Eid  was  soon  arriving.  The  elders  of  the  home  would  be  able  to  spend  an  Eid  of  poverty,  but  what  about  the  children?  Hearing  this,  I  went  to  one  of  my  friend  who  was  a  businessman.  Upon  seeing  me,  he  immediately  realized  my  need,  and  placed  1200  dirhams  into  a  bag  and  handed  it  to  me.  I returned  home,  and  had  barely  sat  down,  when  a  Hashemite  friend  of  mine  who  was  also  stricken  with  poverty,  came  to  me  for  a  loan.  I  consulted  my  wife  and  told  her  as  to  what  had  happened.  She  asked me  how  much  I  had  intended  giving  him.  I  said  that  I  intended  dividing  it  in  half  so  that  the  work  of  both  can  be  done.  She  chided me  saying,  that  when  you  went  to  an  ordinary  person,  he  gave  you 1200  dirhams,  now  you  want  to  give  someone  half  of  it  only!  You  should  give  him  the  entire  bag!  I  therefore  made  over  the  bag  without  even  opening  it.  This  friend  of  mine  went  home  with  the  bag.  By  and  by  my  businessman  friend  came  to  his  door  seeking  a  loan  from  him due  to  poverty!  My  Hashemite  friend  made  over  the  very  same  bag.  Looking  at  it  he  recognized  it  to  be  his  very  own  bag!  He  left  it  with  my  Hashemite  friend  and  came  to  me  to  investigate  the  matter.  I narrated  the  entire  incident  to  him.  In  reality  this  was  the  only  wealth  in  his  possession  and  he  had  made  it  over  to  me,  therefore  he  went  to  our  Hashemite  friend  seeking  a  loan.  When  the  Hashemite  wanted  to  hand  the  bag  over  to  him,  the  secret  was  revealed.  When  this  strange  incident  reached  the  ears  of  the  ruler  Yahya  Bin  Khalid,  he  came  with  10,000  dirhams  saying,  “2000  dirhams  are  for you,  2000  for  your  businessman  friend,  2000  for  the  Hashemite friend  and  4000  for  your  wife  as  she  was  the  most  kind,  therefore  she  is  most  deserving!” [Taareekh-e- Baghdad vol.3 pg.2] 

Allaah  says,  “They  prefer  others  over  themselves,  even  though poverty  became  their  lot!”

These  were  those  who  were  living  examples  of  Islaamic  character. Non-Muslims  would  spur  themselves  onto  accepting  Islaam  by  seeing  such  display  of  character.  Today  we  could  possibly  never  find  such  examples  even after  searching!  

No Muslim woman should look  down at the gift sent by her neighbour:

Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi  ﷺ  told  the  women,  “None  of  you  women  should  consider  insignificant  the  gift  of  a  neighbour, even  if  it  be  a  hoof  of  a  goat!” [Bukhari vol.2 pg.889]

Commentary:  The  objective  here  is  that  the  habit  of  exchanging  gifts  should  be  perpetual,  whatever  little  is  available  should  be  presented.  It  should not  be  that  the  giver  thinks  that  this  little  thing  is  too  insignificant  to  give  and  the  taker  should  not  feel  that,  what  am  I  to  do  with  such  a little  think?  The  example  of  a  hoof  has  been  given  for  us  to understand  that  there  is  no  need  to  feel  uncomfortable  if  the  item  is  (outwardly)  insignificant.  The  giver  and  taker  should  look  at  the heart  with  which  it  is  given  and  taken.  Do  not  look  at  the  size  of  the gift;  look  at  the  love  with  which  it  is  given.  Exchanging  of  gifts  is  a noble quality.

It  is  narrated  in  the  Hadith  that  the  exchanging  of  gifts  will  remove  malice  from  the  hearts. 

The  intention  of  giving  and  taking  should  be  to  please  Allaah.  The  intention  should  never  be  that  the  deed  will  be  reciprocated.  In  other  words,  an  attitude  of  I  give,  you  give,  should  not  be  adopted.  Neither should there  be  a  desire  even of  a  return of the  favor.  Rewards should  be  hoped  for  from  Allaah  alone.  Such  type  of  gifting  will  soon  create  love  and  remove  malice.  If  the  intention  is  “I  give,  you  give”  and  thereafter  this  does  not  happen,  jealousy  and  malice  will  certainly  develop. 

When will we acquire the love of Allaah and his Rasul ﷺ? 

Hadhrat  Abdur-Rahman  bin  Abi  Quraad  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi  ﷺ  once performed  ablution  (wudhu).  The  Sahaba  (radhiyallahu  anhum)  began  to  pass  the  used  water  of  Nabi  ﷺ  over  their  bodies.  Nabi  ﷺ asked  them  as  to  why  were they  doing  this.  They  said  that  it  was  due  to  their  love  for  Allaah  and his  Rasul  ﷺ.  Nabi  ﷺ  then  said  to  them  that,  that  person  who  desires  to love  Allaah  and  His  Rasul  ﷺ  or  desires  that  Allaah  and  His  Rasul  ﷺ  love  him,  should  speak  the  truth  whenever  he  speaks,   return  a  trust  when  he  is  entrusted  with  it,  and  show  kindness  to  the  one  who  is  his neighbour. [Mishkat pg.424]

Commentary:  The  implication  of  this  Hadith  is  that,  to  claim  the  love  of  Allaah  and His  Rasul ﷺ  is  not  proven  through  such  actions  which  appeal  and appease  the  nafs,  but  the  proof  of  love  for  Allaah  and  His  Rasul  ﷺ  is  in  fulfilling  the  commands  of  Allaah  and  His  Rasul  ﷺ  and  abstaining from  those  things  which  they  have  prohibited  us  from.  Especially those  laws  have  to  be  practiced  upon  which  deal  with  the  rights  of  others  and  social  dealings  with  others,  and  more  especially  those  rights  and  social  dealings  which  are  commonly  encountered.  Like speaking  the  truth,  returning  a  trust  and  being  kind  towards  the  neighbours.  These  are  such  qualities  by  virtue  of  which  the  love  of  Allaah  and  His  Rasul ﷺ could  be  earned. 

Therefore,  anyone  who  claims  the  love  of  Allaah  and  His  Rasul  ﷺ,  his  speech,  actions  and  deeds  should  be  a  proof  of  his  claim  by  him  adhering  to  them  just  as  he  adheres  to  the  Faraaidh  and  Waajibaat.  He  should  always  do  those  things  which  please  Allaah  and  not  even  go  close  to  those  things  which  he  has  prohibited  us  from.  

It  is  this  very  lesson  which  the  famous  doyen  Raabiya  Basriya  (  beautifully  explained  in  the  following  couplets;

You  disobey  Allaah and  at  the  same  time  claim to  love  Him,  
I  swear by  my  life  this  is  something  we  cannot fathom. Were  your  love  for  Him, a  true  one,  you  would have  obeyed  Him,  
For  a  lover  is  always  obedient  to  his  Beloved.

The virtue of a good neighbour and good friend:

Hadhrat  Abdullaah  Ibn  Amr  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  reports  that  Nabi  ﷺ said, “(In  the  eyes of  Allaah)  the  best  friend  is  he  who  is  kind  to  his  friend,  and  (in  the  eyes  of  Allaah)  the  best  of  neighbours  is  he  who  is  kind  towards  his neighbours.”   [Mishkat pg.424]

Commentary:  The  meaning  of  this  is,  that  person  who  is  good  to  his  friends  and neighbours  all  the  time,  is  not  only  considered  as  good  amongst  his  friends  and  neighbours,  but  Allaah  also rewards  him  abundantly.  

Regard the tongues of the creation as the kettle drums of the creator:

Hadhrat  Ibn  Masood  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  says  that  a  man  came  to  Nabi  ﷺ  and  asked,  “O  Rasul  of  Allaah ﷺ,  how  would  I  know  if  I  have  done  good  or  I  have  done  evil?”  (In  other  words,  such  actions  which  are  not  clearly indicated  as  good  or  bad  by  Shariah,  how  would  I  know  that  by  doing  them  I  am  counted  amongst  the  righteous  or  evil  doers?)  Nabi ﷺ  replied  saying,  “When  you  find  (after  having  done  something,)  you hear  your  neighbour  saying  that  you  have  done  good,  then  know  that  you  have  done   good,  and  if  you  hear  your  neighbour  say  that  you have  done  evil,  then  know  that  you  have  done  evil.” (In  other words,  testimony  to  your  good  or  evil,  are  the  words  of  your neighbour.)

Commentary:  The  meaning  of,  “when  you  hear  your  neighbour,”  implies  all  your neighbours,  since  two  or  three  could  agree  on  something  as  wrong,  but  for  all  or  many  to  agree  on  something  as  wrong  is  not  really  possible.  Though,  it  should  be  remembered  that,  Sheikh  Abdul  Haqq Dehlawi  (Rahimahullag)  had  clearly  stated  that  the  Hadith  refers  to  such  a  situation  where  the  neighbours  are  on  the  truth  and  are  of  just  character  and  they  themselves  are  able  to  differentiate  between  good  and  bad.  Similarly  they  should  not  be  too  affectionate  or  close  to their  neighbour,  nor  should  they  be  of  those  who  have  hatred  or  enmity  for  their  neighbour. 

This  Hadith  is  supportive  of  Hadhrat  Ali’s  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  saying,  “The  tongues  of  the  creation  are  the pens  of  the  creator!”  This  has  also  been  translated  into  an  Urdu  saying  which  means,  “The  tongues  of  the  creation  are the kettle  drums  of  the  creator!” 

A  poet  has  very  beautifully  said, 

Regard  that  as  evil, which the aalim regards as evil,
Regard the  tongues  of  the   creation  as  the  kettle  drums  of  the  creator! [Mazaahir-e-Haqq  vol.4  pg.544]

Who is a complete and perfect Muslim?

Hadhrat  Ibn  Masood  (radhiyallahu anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi  ﷺ  said,  “Allaah  has distributed  between  you  character,  just  as  he  has  distributed  between  you  your  sustenance.  The  fact  of  the  matter  is  that  the  material possessions  of  this  world  he  has  given  to  those  whom  he  loves,  (like  Suleiman  (alayhis salaam  and  Uthmaan  (radhiyallahu anhu)  etc.)  as  well  as  those  whom  he  detests  (like  Pharaoh  and  Qaroon  etc.)  Though,  the  Deen  of  Allaah  and  good  character  is  only  given  to  his  friends.  (In  short,  material  wealth,  worldly  position  and  status,  is  given  to  friends  and  foes,  but  the rightful  recipients  of  the  bounty  of  good  character  are  only  the  friends  of  Allaah.)  Therefore,  Allaah  loves  the  one  whom  he  has  given  Deen  to.  I  swear  by  that  being  who  holds  my  life  in  his  hands,  no  person  can  be  a  true  Muslim  unless  his  heart  and  his  tongue surrenders  (to  Allaah)  and  no  person  can  be  a  complete  or  perfect  believer  unless  his  neighbour  is  safe  from  any  type  of  harm  on  his  part.”   [Mishkat pg.425]

Commentary: Islaam  of  the  heart  means  that  the  heart  should  be  pure  of  all  baseless believes  and  views.  Islaam  of  the  tongue  means  that  the  tongue  should  be  free  of  all  futile  talk. 

A  clearer  explanation  is  that  the  meaning  of  the  Islaam  of  the  tongue  and  heart  is  the  attestation  and  affirmation  (of  the  tongue  and  heart)  which  is  the  foundation  of  Imaan  and  by  virtue  of  this  and  indication is  made  that  when  the  inner  body  and  outer  body  are  one,  this  is  proof  of  perfect  Imaan  and  Islaam.  Since  the  tongue  and  heart  are  the  very  basis  of  Deen,  these  have  been  specifically  mentioned. [Mazaahir-e-Haqq  vol.4  pg.558]

A pious neighbour is a blessing:

Hadhrat  Naf’i bin Abdil-Harith  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi  ﷺ  said, “Amongst the  blessings  that  a  man  could  have  are,  a  pious  neighbour,  a  decent  means  of  conveyance  and  a  house  that  is  spacious  enough.” [Majmauz-Zawaaid vol.8 pg.166]

Commentary:  Just  as  a  person’s  life  can  become  a  misery  due  to  an  evil  neighbour,  a  person’s  life  can  become  a  peaceful  and  blissful  one  by  virtue  of  a  pious  neighbour.  Really,  it  is  an  honor  to  have  a  pious  neighbour.  A  person  should  thank  Allaah  for  such  a  bounty.  It  has  been  mentioned  in  a  narration  that  100  homes  are  saved  from  calamities  because  of  a  single  pious  person  in  the  neighbourhood.  It  has  also  been  mentioned  that  one  should  seek  a  neighbour  before  a  house,  and  a  companion  before  embarking  on  a  journey.  This  means  that  a  person  should  take  a  house  where  the  neighbours  are  pious,  and  travel  with  the  pious.  [Majmauz-Zawaaid  vol.8 pg.167] 
     
Many a neighbour will complain in the court of Allaah on the Day of Judgment:

Hadhrat  Ibn  Umar  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  says,  “There  was  a  time  in  our  lives  when  we  considered  our  Muslim  brother  more  worthy  of  a  Dinaar  and  Dirham,  now  such  a  time  passes  over  us  that  a  Dirham  and  Dinaar  has  become  more  beloved  to  us  than  our  Muslim  brother!  I  have  heard  Nabi ﷺ   say, ‘“On  the  Day  of  Judgment  a  person  will  take  his  neighbour  to  task  by  complaining  to  Allaah  saying,  my  neighbour  shunned  me  by shutting  his  door  from  me  and  not  showing  kindness  to  me.’”   [Al-adabul-Mufrad pg.127]

Commentary: This  shows  that  there  was  once  a  time  when  Muslims  had  the  eagerness  to  spend  their  wealth  on  their  fellow  Muslim  brothers.  Be  it  a  relative,  non-relative  or  neighbour,  the  enthusiasm  to  spend  on  all  was  given  prominence.  These  very  fellow  Muslims  were  more  beloved  than  wealth.  Now  a  time  has  come  were  the  wealth  has become  more  beloved  than  the  Muslim  brethren.  Neither  do  we spend  on  our  relatives,  non-relatives  or  neighbours.  So  much  so  that we  do  not  assist  the  neighbour  even  during  the  hour  of  need.  The  doors  are  shut  of  when  we  see  the  neighbour.  We  do  not  fulfill  their  needs.  On  the  Day  of  Judgment  many  neighbours  will  grab  their  fellow  neighbours  and  present  themselves  in  the  court  of  Allaah  complaining  that  he  had  shut  his  door  of  from  them  not  giving  them access  to  him  and  not  taking  their  needs  into  due  consideration.

Therefore  it  is  imperative  that  we  consider  our  neighbours.  It  should  not  be  that  we  are  caught  out  in  the  court  of  Allaah  on  account  of  them. 
        
When a person kills his neighbour:
Imam  Bukhari  (Rahimahullah)  has  recorded  in  his  book  Al-Adabul  Mufrad  on  the  authority  of  Hadhrat  Abu  Hurairah  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  that  Nabi ﷺ   said, “Qiyaamah  will  not  take  place  until  such  time  when  a  man  will  kill  his  neighbour, brother  and  father.”   

Commentary:  We  are  informed  in  this  Hadith  of  an  era  where  people  in  this  world  will  kill  their  neighbours.  A  neighbour  is  a  neighbour,  but  a  man  will not  even  spare  his  brother  or  father!  He  will  spill  their  blood  also!  In our  day  and  age  we  are  already  witnessing  such  occurrences.  We  only  have  to  wait  and  see  what  lies  ahead  in  the  future.  [Al-Adabul Mufrad  pg.131]

The first dispute on the Day of Judgment:

Hadhrat  Uqbah  Bin  Aamir  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  narrates  that  Nabi ﷺ  said,  “The  first disputants  on  the  Day  of  Judgment  (to  be  heard)  will  be  two  neighbours.” [Mishkat pg.425]

Commentary:  The  meaning of this  is  after  those  who  are  destined  to  Jahannam  have  been  done  with,  the  first  case  of  negligence  as  far  as  rights  are  concerned  to  be  presented,  will  be  the  case  of  those  neighbours  who were  found  wanting  in  this  regard.  Where  they  had  caused  harm  to  one  another  and  not  fulfilled  the  due  rights  on  the  next etc.  

A strange incident of a pious man:
Imam  Ghazaali  (Rahimahullah)  has  written  in  his  famous  “Ihyaa-ul-Uloom”  of  a  man  who  complained  that  rats  had  infested  his  home.  Someone suggested  he  keep  a  cat.  He  said  that  he  feared  if  he  kept  a  cat  the  rats  will  be  afraid  of  the  cat  and  go  into  the  neighbours’  home!  Why  should  he  be  happy  with  that  the  neighbour  is  not  happy  with  and prepare  for  himself?  [Ihyaa-ul-Uloom  pg.307]             

The trouble makers are all but spectators:

Hadhrat  Qasim  narrates  that  Abu  Bakr  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  once  passed  by  his  son Abdurrahman  who  was  involved  in  a  dispute  with  his  neighbour.  He  told  his  son  that  he  should  not  fight  with  his  neighbour  as  the  neighbour  will  stay  on  while  the  ones  (who  caused  the  problem)  will  leave. [Kanzul-Ummaal vol.9 pg.183]

Commentary:  The  conditions  which  prevail  on  a  neighbour  and  their  character  differ.  Sometimes  the  children  go  in  and  out  of  the  neighbours’ home.  The  children  get  involved  in  fights  at  times.  Sometimes  the  goat  or  fowl  of  a  neighbour  may  come  into  the  yard  and  thereby  cause  discomfort.  Many  men  and  women  are  hot-headed  and  have  sharp  tongues  which  for  no  reason  they  sometimes  use  and  cause  disputes.  Then  you  have  the  mischief  makers  and  jealous  people  who  whisper  all  sorts  of  stories  into  a  person’  ears.  Therefore  we  should  be  careful  of  such  people.  We  should  think  that  we  have  to  live  in  the  same  precincts  as  our  neighbour,  why  should  we  destroy  our  relationship  over  trivial  matters?  Why  should  we  do  harm  to  our  neighbour  and  in  the  process  destroy  our  worldly  life  and  life  in  the hereafter?  These  trouble  makers  are  all  but  spectators  and  people  who  are  board.  They  will just  watch  and  move  on.

Very  severe  warnings  have  been  sounded  in  the  Ahaadith  for  the  one  who  causes  difficulty  to  the  neighbour. 

On  one  occasion  Nabi  ﷺ said,  “The  one  who  causes  difficulty  to  his  neighbour  has  caused  difficulty  to  me,  and  the  one  who  causes difficulty  to  me,  causes  difficulty  to  Allaah.  The  one  who  fights  with  his  neighbour  has  fought  with  me,  and  the  one  who  fights  with  me  has fought  with  Allaah.”   [Kanzul-Ummaal  vol.9 pg.57]      

The  virtues  for  the  one  who  patiently  bares  the  difficulty  caused  by  a  neighbour:

Mutrif  Ibn  Abdullaah  says  that  people  narrated  a  Hadith  to  me  from  Abu  Dhar  (radhiyallahu  anhu).  I  had  this  desire  to  meet  him;  (so  that  I  could  hear  it  directly  from  him.)  by  and  by  I  met  him.  I  said,  “O  Abu  Zhar  (radhiyallahu  anhu),  people  have  narrated  a  Hadith  to  me  from  you.  I  desired  to  meet  you;  (so  that  I  could  hear  it  directly  from  you.)”  He  said,  “May  Allaah  bless  your  father,  you  have  now  met  me.  Tell  me  (which  Hadith  is  it?)”  I  said,  “I  have  been  informed  of  the  Hadith  wherein  Nabi  ﷺ  says that  Allaah  loves  three  people  and  abhors  three  people.”  Abu  Dhar  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  said,  “I  cannot  even  conceive  the  thought  of  attributing  a  lie  to  Nabi ﷺ.”  I  then  asked,  “Who  are  these  three  people  whom  Allaah  loves?”  He  said,  “One  is  that  person  who  fights  bravely  with  steadfastness  in  the  path  of  Allaah  hoping  for  its  reward  and  is  finally  martyred.  You  will  find  mention  of  this  person  in  the  Noble  Quraan  itself.”  He  then  read  the  verse  wherein  Allaah  says,  “Allaah  loves  those  who  stand  together  like  a  fortified  fortress  and  fight  in  the  path  of  Allaah.”  I  then asked,  “Who  is  the  second person?”  He  said,  “The  second  is  that  person  who  has  an  evil  neighbour  who  continuously  causes  him  difficulty,  but  he  patiently  perseveres  until  such  time  that  Allaah  gives  another  life  (by  reforming  his  neighbour)  or  until  he  passes away.” He  then  went  on  to  mention  other  Ahaadith  also.  [Majmauz-Zawaaid vol.8 pg.174]

Commentary:

We  learn  from  this  Hadith  that  the  one,  who  patiently  bares  the  difficulties  caused  by  his  neighbour  by  not  retaliating  or  swearing  at  him  in  any  way,  will  become  beloved  in  the  eyes  of  Allaah.  Not  only  will  Allaah  love  him,  but  on  the  Day  of  Judgment  Allaah  will  reward  the  patient  ones  without  any  record. 

Now  those  who  cause  difficulty  should  think  well  as  to  who  they  are really  harming.  They  are  actually  harming  themselves  and  destroying  their  Aakhirat (hereafter.)

You and your neighbour:

Hadhrat  Suhail  Tasturi  (Rahimahullah)  was  a  great  luminary  in  the  Islaamic  world.  It  has  been  many  years  since  his  demise,  yet  every  spec  of radiance  from  his  life  can  still  be  seen.  A  fire  worshipper  lived  right  beside  the  wall  of  Hadhrat.  Hadhrat  made  every  attempt  to  show  kindness  to  this  fire  worshipper,  but  in  return  all  he  got  was  deep rooted  hatred.  To  express  this  hatred  the  fire  worshipper  would  every  night  remove  his  filth  and  sanitation,  and  throw  it  over  into  Hadhrat  Suhails’ house. 

Now  obviously  being  a  human  being  Hadhrat  naturally  felt  discomfort,  but  he  exercised  patience.  He  would retaliate  with  silence  and   patience,  and  clean  the  filth  with  his  very  own  hands.  This carried  on  for  some  time.  The  fire  worshipper  kept  throwing  his  filth,  and  Hadhrat  kept  cleaning  it  up.  During  this  time,  Hadhrat  would very  discretely  try  to  draw  the  fire  worshippers’  attention  to  this,  but  he  did  not  desist  from  his  action.  Hadhrat  bore  this  and  replied  with  nothing  but  patience  and  silence.  The  family  of  Hadhrat  was  much  more  perturbed  by  this  and  would  sometimes  want  to  take  revenge,  but  Hadhrat  would  encourage  them  to  be  patient.  He  would  ensure  to  remove  the  filth  the  very  same  night  so  that  his  family  does  not  see  it and  become  irritated.

Fate  would  have  it  that  Hadhrat  fell  ill  and  had  no  hope  of  recovery.  Hadhrat  sent  for  his  neighbour  and  secretly  spoke  to  him.  He  addressed  him  thus,  “Brother,  the  filth  which  you  had  been  depositing  over  into  my  home  every  night  was  duly  cleaned  up  by  me  while  I  was  in  good  health.  Now  I  am  in  the  condition  which  you  are  seeing  me  in.  In  the  name  of  the  Almighty,  please  desist  from  this  as  after  me  my  family  may  not  tolerate  such  behavior  on  your  part.  I fear  that  they  may  cause  grievous  harm  to  you.”

The  fire  worshipper  was  so  taken  aback  by  the  approach  of  Hadhrat  that  he  became  ashamed  of  himself  and  hung  his  head  in  shame  saying,  “Please  forgive  me for  the sake  of  Almighty.  I  have  definitely caused  much  harm  to  you,  but  you  have  displayed  patience  which  can  only  be  the  example  of  the  power  of  Islaam.  Forgive  me  and  make  me  recite  the  kalimah.”  [Sh’oor-e-Hayaat  Moulana Muhammed Yusuf  Islaahi]

An incident of a person who threw his rubbish into the neighbours’ property:

Hadhrat  Moulana  Rashid  Ahmed  Sahib  narrates  an  incident  dealing  with  his  neighbour:

The  person  living  on  the  upper  floor  to  the  rear  of  the  Daarul-Ifta  used  to  dispose  of  his  rubbish  into  the  Daarul-Ifta  on  a  daily  basis.  He  was  told  on  many  occasions  to  desist  from  doing  so,  but  to  no  avail.  Some  person  once  suggested  that  they  would  get  a  truck  load  of  bricks  and  rain  it  on  him;  perhaps  his  brain  will  come  right!  I  told  them  that  this  was  not  appropriate.  I  then  sent  a  message  to  the neighbour  saying  that  I  wished  to  meet  him,  but  I  am  unaware  at  what  time  he  would  be  at  home,  and  when  does  he  have  free  time.  Hearing  this  message  of  mine,  he  presented  himself  before  me.  I  told  him  that  I  wished  to  send  him  some  gift,  but  thought  that  I  should  get to  know  him  first.  He  in  turn  said  that  it  was  rather  his  duty  to  send  me  gifts  and  he  was  deprived  of  not  having  done  so  yet.  I  assured  him,  pointing  to  the  heap  of  rubbish,  that  gifts  have  been  coming  in  full  measure  from  his  side  and  it  is  for  the  very  same  reason  I deemed  it  necessary  to  return  the  compliments!  After  all,  the  return  for  kindness  can  only  be  kindness!  When  so  many  gifts  keep  coming  from  you,  it  is  only  fair  that  I  give  you  something  also.  He  was ashamed  and  from  that  day  on, the  rubbish  stopped.

A short list of the rights of the neighbour:

Imam  Ghazaali  (Rahimahullah)  has  mentioned  the  rights  of  the  neighbour  in brief in his Ihyaa-ul-Uloom which we have reproduced here:

1.  We  should  be  first  to greet our  neighbour.

2.  We  should  not  lengthen  our conversations  with  him.

3.  We  should  not  ask  too  much  about  his  personal  affairs.

4.  We  should visit him when he  is sick.

5.  Console  him  at  the  time  of  a  calamity  and  never  leave  his side.

6.  Congratulate  him  on  any  good  that  befalls  him  and  express our happiness for  him  also.

7.  Over look his mistakes.

8.  Do not peep into his  house  from any  vantage  point.

9.  Do  not  inconvenience  him  by  putting  rafters  over  the  wall  or positioning  the  gutters  in  a  way  that  the  water  flows  into  his property  or  by  dumping  the  sand  from  the  courtyard  into  his yard.  

10.  Do not block the  entrance/pathway  to his home.

11.  Do not be  too inquisitive  as to what he takes into his home.

12.  Do not expose  any  fault  of his that we  become  aware  of.

13.  Should any  calamity  befall  him, be  the first to assist him.

14.  Never be  negligent of  guarding  his home in his  absence.

15.  Do not listen to any  evil  spoken about him.  

16.  Lower  your  gaze  in  the  presence  of  his  wife.  (Do  not  look  at her.)

17.  Do not stare  at his female servant (Domestic  worker.)  

18.  Speak to his children in a  compassionate  manner.

19.  Educate  him  regarding  those  things  beneficial  of  this  world and matters regarding  Deen  which he  is unaware  of.

20.  Besides  these  rights,  all  those  rights  due  to  Muslims  in general  should  be  taken  into  consideration.  (In  such  a situation  the  neighbour  will  have  two  types  of  rights,  one  of  a neighbour  and one  of a  Muslim.)  [Ihyaa-ul-Uloom]

The neighbour:

The  following  discourse  has  been  extracted  from  Mufti  Muhammed Taqi Uthmani’s d.b discussion titled, “Zikr wa Fikr.”

Abu  Hamza  Sukkari  (Rahmatullah Alayh)  was  a  narrator  of  Ahaadith.  Sukkar  in  the  Arabic  language  means  sugar.  Those  who  have  written  regarding  him  say  that  he  was  called  Sukkari  because  his  talks,  tone  and  manner  of  speech  were  sweet  and  heart  captivating.  When  he  would  speak  people  would  go  into  a  state  of  ecstasy.  He  resided  in  one  of  the  suburbs  of  Baghdad.  After  some  time  he  intended  selling  his  house  and  moving  to  some  other  place.  In  fact  the  deal  was  almost  through  with  the  buyer  when  the  people  residing  in  his  area  found  out  about  his  intention  to  move.  The  residence  of  his  area  formed  a  delegation  which  came  to  him  pleading  with  him  not  to  leave  the  suburb.  When Abu  Hamza  Sukkari  (Rahimahullah)  had  explained  himself  as  to  why  he  intended  moving,  the  people  unanimously  made  an  offer  to  him  that they  would  give  him  a  gift  (in  the  form  of  money)  to  the  value  of  his  house  on  condition  that  he  does  not  move.  When  he  saw  the  sincerity  of  the  people  of his  area,  he  protracted  his decision  of  moving. 

Abu  Hamza’s  acceptance  may  have  been  partially  his  magical personality,  but  the  actual  reason  for  his  acceptance  was  his  practical  display  of  the  fulfillment  of  the  rights  of  the  neighbour  according  to  the  Islaamic  teachings.  The  Quran  is  emphatic  as  regards  the  rights  of  the  neighbour,  and  the  Ahaadith  are  full  of  explanations  regarding  their  rights.  So  much  so,  that  on  one  occasion  Nabi  ﷺ  said  that Jibraeel  (alayhis salaam)  stressed  the  importance  of  the  fulfillment  of  the  rights  of  the  neighbour  to  such  an  extent  that  I  thought  soon  (revelation  will  be  sent  to  the  effect  that)  the  neighbour  should  receive  a  share  in  the  inheritance. 

The  society  which  was  established  in  the  light  of  the  teachings  of  the  Quran  and  Sunnat  was  one  where  the  neighbour  was  regarded  as  a close  relative.  People  living  in  the  same  neighbourhood  not  only  shared  in  the  happiness  and  difficulty  of  the  neighbour,  but  took  pleasure  in  giving  preference  to  the  neighbour  above  themselves.

In  1963  when  I  travelled  to  Saudi  Arabia,  a  person  residing  there  narrated  a  personal  experience  of  his.  He  says,  I  went  into  the  bazaar to  purchase  material.  Upon  entering  a  certain  shop,  the  shopkeeper  took  pleasure  in  showing  me  many  different  types  of  material  displaying  the  best  of  character.  In  the  end  I  had  liked  a  certain  material.  The  shopkeeper  told  me  the  price  and  I  asked  him  to  cut  an  ex  amount  of  yards  for  me.  He  stood  for  a  while  contemplating  then  asked  me,  “Do  you  fancy  this  material?”  I  said,  “Yes.”  He  asked, “The  price  in  your  opinion  is  also  correct?  I  said,  “Yes.”  He  then  said,  “Well  in  that  case,  go  to  my  neighbours  shop  and  you  will  find  the  same  material  at  the  same  price.  You  may  buy  it  from  him.”  I  was  astonished  and  asked  him  as  to  why  I  should  buy  it  from  his neighbour  as  I  had  concluded  the  deal  with  him.  He  told  me  that  I  do  not  have  to  get  involved  in  that  as  the  material  which  I  like  is  available  at  the  same  price  by  his  neighbour,  so  I  should  just  go  and  buy  it  from  there.  I  said  that  I  would  first  like  to  know  the  reason. “Perhaps  the  shop  is  yours?”  I  asked.  He  said,  “No,  it  is  not  mine.”  Now  I  became  stubborn  and  insisted  on  an  explanation  or  else  I  would  not  buy  it  from  there.  In  the  end  he  very  reluctantly  said,  “You  are  unnecessarily  delaying  the  matter.  The  reality  of  the  matter  is  that  since  this  morning  many  customers  have  come  into  my  shop  and  made  purchases.  In  my  estimation  I  have  made  sufficient  transactions  to  see  to  my  days  needs.  On  the  other  hand  I  see  that  my  neighbour  is  sitting  there  since  morning  without  having  sold  anything.  I  desired that  he  should  also  do  some  business.  By  you  going  there  it  would  be  of  good  to  him.  What  problem  do  you  have  with  that?”

This  is  an  incident  of  what  was  left  of  the  radiance  from  the  true  Islaamic  society  of  the  past.  Where  happiness  and  success  were  not  just  the  acquisition  of  wealth,  but  it  was  the  contentment  and  peace  of  the  heart  which  was  acquired  through  sharing  in  the  loss  and  happiness  of  a  Muslim  brother  or  sister  or  seeing  a  smile  in  their  face!  

When  the  Quran  mentions  that,  “The  Ansaar  of  Madina  would  give  preference  to  others  even  though  poverty  be  their  lot”  this  in  reality  is  meant  to  serve  as  an  example  for  the  Muslims  to  emulate.  This  is  an  encouragement  for  the  Muslims.  The  act  of  giving  preference  to others  is  meritorious,  irrespective  of  who  has  been  given  preference,  but  the  neighbour  is  the  most  worthy  of  being  given  preference therefore  the  Quran  and  Sunnah  emphatically  encourage  it. 

The  modern  urban  way  of  life  has  not  only  stripped  us  of  values,  but  has  also  portrayed  the  neighbour  in  a  very  negative  light.  First  of  all  those  living  in  mansions  are  slowly  but  surely  forgetting  the  meaning  of  a  neighbour.  Many  a  times,  people  are  living  beside  one  another  for  a  long  time,  yet  they  do  not  know  each  other.  Where  some  importance  of  a  neighbour  is  realized,  it  is  generally  such  a neighbour  who  is  of  equal  or  similar  financial  and  worldly  status.  Therefore  a  person  living  in  a  mansion  will  consider  another  who  is  living  in  a  mansion  to  be  his  neighbour.  Should  there  be  anyone  living  in  a  small  dwelling  or  house  nearby  then  he  is  generally  not  considered  a  neighbour  and  is  not  given  the  due  rights  of  a  neighbour.  Very  seldom  do  we  see  a  person  living  in  a  mansion showing  concern  for  his  neighbour  who  lives  in  a  little  house,  visiting  him  when  he  is  sick,  or  just  paying  him  a  general  visit,  whereas  such  a  neighbour  is  more  deserving  of  being  given  preference  and  shown  love. 

The  senior  most  mufti  of  Darul-Uloom  Deoband,  Moulana  Mufti Azizur-Rahman  was  a  man  of  great  knowledge  and  high  status  as  far  as  Deen  was  concerned.  He  was  even  outstanding  in  status  within family  circles.  Yet,  every  day  before  going  to  the  Darul-Uloom  to  fulfill  his  necessary  obligations,  he  would  visit  the  widows  and  those  women  who  had  no  support  living  in  insignificant  little  homes  asking them  if  they  required  anything  from  the  market  place.  In  many instances  he  would  write  the  lists  of  these  women  and  personally  purchase  these  items  from  the  market  place  and  personally  deliver  it  to  them.  Sometimes  a  woman  would  tell  him,  “Mufti  Sahib  you  have brought  the  wrong  item.  I  had  asked  for  such  and  such  item,  not  this.”  Or,  “You  have  brought  the  incorrect  amount  of  items.”  Mufti  Sahib  would,  with  a  smiling  face  say,  “Please  forgive  me  dear  lady,  and  I  will  exchange  it  for  you.”  In  this  way,  no  one  knows  how  many  a  broken  hearts  dua  did  he  gather  and  by  bringing  alive  their  hearts  through  his  service, he  fulfilled  his  daily  tasks.

Today  almost  everyone  in  spite  of  being  engulfed  in  all  forms  of  worldly  comfort  experiences  a  strange  kind  of  restlessness  and  has  hearts  which  are  lonely.

Like Nazar Amrohi says it;

There  is  no  confusion, though  confused  I  remain,
Wonder  stricken,  fear  in  every  breath,  fear  in  every  heart  beat  I remain.

One  of  the  leading  factors  for  this  state  of  restlessness  and  loneliness  is  that  we  have  understood  the  acquisition  of  wealth  to  be  the  primary  objective  of  life.  In  chasing  after  this  wealth  we  have  not thought  of  preparing  for  the  future.  We  have  in  the  process  deprived ourselves  of  a  spiritual  contentment  which  could  have  been  acquired by  serving  a  brother  or  sister  of  ours  or  sacrificing  something  for them.  This  contentment  is  a  cash  reward  for  the  one  who  brings  his  life  in  conformity  to  the  commands  of  creator  and  owner  by  crushing  his  impermissible  desires  in  the  face  of  his  commandments. Sometimes  this  contentment  of  the  heart  is  acquired  living  in  simple  homes  and  eating  simple  food,  whereas  if  the  conditions  for  this  are  not  fulfilled,  this  cannot  be  acquired  in  mansions  or  in  flashy  cars!  In  such  a  situation  a  huge  mansion  or  flashy  car  will  never  cure  the  silent restlessness  within!     

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  urban  life  has  many  commitments,  but  if  we  really  look  into  it,  we  will  realize  that  these  commitments  are  only  for  purposes  of  increasing  our  wealth.  Therefore,  if  we  really have  concern  to  acquire  the  true  contentment  of  the  heart,  we  will  have  to  take  a  few  hours  from  this  committed  life  to  sneak  into  the  lives  of  those  living  around  us  so  that  we  can  look  for  ways  to remove  their  difficulties.  By  taking  out  a  few  moments  from  this  24 hour  committed  life,  Insha-Allaah  we  will  accomplish  such  fetes  which  we  would  never  have  accomplished  by  running  around  day  and  night  with  abundant  wealth. [Zikr-wa-Fikr  pg.255-259]

A pious neighbour is a great blessing:

It  has  been  mentioned  in  a  Hadith  that  three  things  have  special  importance  from  amongst  the  good  fortune  which  a  Muslim  could possess;

1. A  spacious  enough  home.
2. A pious  neighbour.
3. A decent  mode  of  transport. 

Hadhrat Moulana Mufti Taqi Uthmani says:

The  second  thing  which  is  an  honor  and  blessing  in  the  lot  of  a  Muslim  is  a  pious  neighbour.  Should  a  person  have  a  pious  neighbour,  he  should  know  that  he  has  a  great  blessing.  Today  people have  forgotten  this  to  be  a  bounty.  In  today’s  time  of  mansions,  there  is  no  perception  of  a  neighbour  left.  Years  would  go  by  without  one knowing  who  lives  to  the  right  of  him  and  to  who  does  the  house  on  the  left  belong!  Whereas,  Nabi  ﷺ  has  said  that  the  rights  of  the neighbour  are  so  many,  that  Jibraeel  (alayhissalaam)  kept  on  emphasizing  this  until  I  thought  that  the  neighbour  would  share  in  the  inheritance.  This  is  the  importance  of  a  neighbour.

Where  we  look  at  other  factors  when  looking  for  a  house,  we  should also  take  due  consideration  as  to  who  are  the  people  living  in  that area.  If  the  neighbour  is  a  noble  and  upright  person,  consider  this  a great  bounty.  The  neighbour  is  someone  who  we  have  to  come  into contact  with  day  and  night.  His  company  is  unavoidable.  Good company  will  make  one  into  a  good  person,  while  evil  company will  make  one  an  evil  person.  That  is  why  we  are  told  that  a  pious neighbour  is  a  great  bounty.  [Reformative  discourses  vol.12  pg.41 Urdu.]

Following  is  an  incident regarding  Hadhrat  Ayesha  (radhiyallahu  anha):

The neighbour’s goat eating a piece of bread:

Hadhrat  Ayesha  (radhiyallahu  anha)  narrates  an  incident  of  hers  as  follows,  “Once  Nabi  ﷺ came  to  my  home.  As  it  was  the  habit  of  Nabi ﷺ   to  have  turns  in  going  to  the  various  consorts,  on  one  day  he  would  go  to  one  and  on  the  next  day  he  would  go  to  the  next.  On  this  particular  day  it  was my turn.”  Normally  it  is  the  desire  of  every  wife  to  serve  her  husband  and  cook  good  food  for  him.  The  love  which  Ayesha  (radhiyallahu  anha)  bore  for  Nabi  ﷺ  is  unmatched  the  world  over.  She  therefore  had  the  desire  to  present  good  food  to  Nabi  ﷺ  knowing  that  it  was  his  turn  to  come  to  her  home.  But,  how  was  she  supposed  to  cook  a  good  meal  when  whatever  they  had  was  spent  in  the  path  of  Allaah.  Hadhrat  Ayesha  (radhiyallahu anha)  goes  on  to  say,  “There  was  some  barley  in  the  house  which  I  put  into  the  grinding  mill  and  ground  into  flour  thereafter  making  a  roti thinking  that  when  Nabi   ﷺ arrives  I  will  present  it  before  him.  As  it was  the  winter  season  and  Nabi  ﷺ  was  feeling  cold,  he  expressed  this  to  me.  I  made  arrangements  for  a  warm  bed  on  which  Nabi ﷺ  immediately  fell  asleep.” 

She  says,  “I  was  waiting  for  him  to  awake  so  that  I  could  present  the  roti  which  I  had  prepared,  to  him.  While  in  this  state  of  waiting,  the neighbour’s  goat  came  into  the  house  and  took  the  roti  which  I  had  prepared  with  love  and  eagerness.  I  watched  the  goat  take  it  away,  but  since  Nabi  ﷺ was  asleep,  I  did  not  want  to  stop  the  goat  thereby disturbing  the  sleep  of  Nabi  ﷺ.  The  goat  took  the  roti  and  walked  out  of  the  house  which  caused  me  great  grief.  After  a  while  Nabi  ﷺ  awoke,  and  I  immediately  ran  towards  the  door  in  the  hope  of  finding  the  goat.”

Not causing difficulty to the neighbour due to a roti:

“Seeing  me  in  this  state  of  excitement,  Nabi  ﷺ  enquired  as  to  what  was  wrong.  I  narrated  the  entire  incident  how  I  had  prepared  the  roti with  great  love  and  here  the  goat  came  by  and  took  it  causing  me grief.  Nabi  ﷺ  asked  for  whatever  was  left  of  the  roti  and  told  me  not  cause  difficulty  to  my  neighbour  due  to  the  goat  and  I  should  also  not  say  anything  harsh  to  the  neighbour  regarding  her  goat taking  the  roti  and  causing  me  harm.”

Now  look,  even  on  such  an  occasion  Nabi  ﷺ  encouraged  her  not  to  say  anything  harsh  to  the  neighbour  as  it  was  no  fault  of  the  neighbour’s.  Even  if  the  neighbour  was  at  fault,  what’s  the  harm  if  one  roti  went?  One  has  to  live  beside  the  neighbour  for  good,  if anything  harsh  is  said  an  eternal  relationship  will  be  spoilt,  and  this  relationship  is  more  precious  than a  single  roti.     

How would we ever understand  the value of that roti?

If  we  have  to  ponder  for  a  while,  we  would  realize  that  we  will  never  understand the  value of  the  roti  which  Ayesha  (radhiyallahu  anha)  had  baked.

The  reason  for  this  is  that  Allaah  has  provided  sustenance  in  abundance  for  us  these  days.  We  have  no  value  whatsoever  of  roti.  The  loss  of  one  roti  makes  no  difference  to  us.  The  condition  prevalent  at  that  time  was  that  a  meager  amount  of  barley  was  available  to  make  just  one  roti,  and  the  very  same  roti  was  taken  by the  goat.  In  spite  of  all  this  Rasulullaah  ﷺ  took  care  in  telling  her  not to  cause  any   difficulty  to  the  neighbour  due  to  the  action of  the  goat.  

The following type of neighbour will not enter paradise:

In  a  Hadith  Nabi  ﷺ  has  said,  “That  person  will  not  enter  paradise,  whose  neighbour  was  unsafe  from  his  evil/harm.”   [Kanzul-Ummaal Hadith  #26908]
In  other  words  one  of  the  prerequisites  of  entering  paradise  is  that  no  harm  should  reach  the  neighbour  from  oneself.

In  another  Hadith  Nabi  ﷺ  is  reported  to  have  said,  “Keep  the  area  in front of your homes clean.” [Tirmizi]     

There  should  never  be  heaps  of  rubbish  surrounding  ones’  house  which  may  cause  harm  to  the  neighbours  and  passersby.  Some  people  sweep  the  dirt  from  their  own  homes  and  deposit  it  in  front  of the  neighbours’  home.  This  constitutes  causing  harm  to  the  neighbour,  the  result  of  which  is  non-entry  into  paradise.  If  each  person  takes  care  in  ensuring  the  cleanliness  of  his  surroundings,  there  would  remain  no  need  for   municipal  workers  in  any  town.  

An incident regarding an English revert:

Cleanliness  is  part  of  Deen  as  Nabi ﷺ  has  informed  us  so.  These  days’  people  think  that  cleanliness  has  nothing  to  do  with  Deen, and  it  is  linked  to  worldly  matters  only. 

My  respected  father,  Mufti  Muhammed  Shafi  Sahib  (Rahmatullah Alayh)  narrated  an  incident  of  an  Englishman  who  used  to  reside  near  the  Jami Masjid  in  Delhi.  He  reverted  to  Islaam  and  used  to  go  to  the  Masjid  for  his  daily  Salaah.  Whenever  he  needed  to  take  an  ablution,  he  would  do  so  at  the  ablution  facility  provided  in  the  Masjid.  As  time  went  by,  he  noticed  that  this  facility  was  becoming  dirty.  In  some places  green  moss  had  collected,  at  other  places  in  the  drain  mucus  had  collected.  Somewhere  something  else  had  stagnated.  He  decided  that  if  no  one  was  prepared  to  clean  it,  he  would  clean  it  by  himself.  He  took  a  broom/brush  and  began  to  clean  the  drains.  Someone  seeing  him  cleaning  the  drains  began  to  say,  “This  Englishman  has  become  a  Muslim,  but  his  English  habits  are  still  deep  rooted  in  his  brain!”  In  other  words  cleanliness  is  the  way  of  the  English,  and  it  has  no  link with the  teachings of  Deen,  Allaah  forbid.   Nabi  ﷺ  has  taught  us  to  even  keep  the  surroundings  of  our  homes clean  as  this  forms  part  of  the  rights  of  the  neighbour.  [Reformative discourses  vol.12 pg.54-59 Urdu]     

A companion of a few days:

At  every  step  of  life  man  has  to  interact  and  have  relationships  with  others.  Some of  these  relationships  are  life  long,  like  family  relations,  while  others  are  not  lifelong,  but  long  term,  like  neighbours.  There  is  yet  another  type  of  relationship  which  lasts  just  a  few  hours  or  so,  like  a companion  on  a  journey  in  a  plane,  train  or  bus  etc. 

The  Quraan  has  looked  into  these  three  types  of  relationships  with  a  microscopic  eye,  and  has  also  emphasized  the  importance  of  fulfilling  the  rights  of  all  these  relationships.  People  understand  the importance  of  fulfilling  the  rights  of  the  first  two  types  of relationships  to  a  certain  extent.  Reasons  being  that  non  adherence  will  result  in  disgrace  as  these  are  long  term  relationship  and  the  resultant  disgrace  will  also  therefore  be  long  term.  As  for  the  third type,  which  is  the  very  temporary  companionship  of  a  person,  very  few  people  take  into  consideration  their  rights.  The  reason  for  this  is that  these  relationships  are  generally  with  strangers  and  once separated,  sometimes  one  never  meets  up  with  (that  stranger)  for  the  rest  of  his  life  again.  There  is  generally  no  fear  of  any  long  term  embarrassment  in  the  event  of  some  wrong  done.  People  think  that, “If  he  gets  the  wrong  impression  about  me,  who  cares?  I  do  not  have to  ever  meet  with  him.  His  impression  of  me  does  not  really  affect my  life.”  Therefore  nowadays  in  buses,  trains,  planes  and  all  public modes  of  transport,  the  pushing,  shoving,  and  individualistic  attitude of  people  pushing  others  with  their  elbows  to  get  ahead  is  a  branch  and  result  of  this  very  mentality. 

Where  the  Quraan  has  emphasized  the  rights  of  the  neighbour  and  relatives,  it  has  specifically  mentioned  a  temporary  companion  by using  the  words  “Sahib-bil-jamb”  (Surah  Nisaa  verse. 36)  which could  be  literally  translated  as,  “companion  by  your  side.”  This implies  that  person  who  is  temporarily  in  ones  companionship,  e.g. on  a  journey  or  in  some  public  mode  of  transport  like  a  bus,  the person  sitting  nearest  is  your  “Sahib-bil-jamb.”  The  person  seated next  to  us  at  some  function  or  gathering  is  also  our  “Sahib-bil-jamb.”  The  Quraan  has  specifically  made  mention  of  such  people  and emphasized  the  importance  of  showing  kindness  towards  such people,  as  this  is  where  the  test  of  a  person’s  character  and  nobility  becomes  apparent.  Many  intellectuals  and  people  who  in  their  daily  environments  appear  to  be  very  cultured  and  well  mannered  are  found  to  be  wanting  in  culture  when  one  travels  with  them.  All  their apparent  manners  and  culture  and  suddenly  left  by  the  wayside,  and  they  begin  treating  their  companions  travelling  with  them  in  an inferior  and  self  centered manner. 

It  is  for  this  very  reason  that  Hadhrat  Umar  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  said  that  one  should only  bare  testimony  (of  the  character)  of  another  person  if  one  has  had  a  monetary  transaction  with  that  person,  and  he  found  him  straight  in  his  dealings  or  one  has  travelled  with  him  and  found  him  to  have  good  manners  and  good  character  whilst  travelling. 
The  fact  of  the  matter  is;  what  character  is  there,  when  it  is  displayed  for  fear  of  being  embarrassed?  That  is  just  showing  off.  When  this  fear  of  embarrassment  passes  by,  the  reality  of  the  evil  character  of  a  person  becomes  apparent.  Good  character  is  an  inner  quality  which  is  separated  from  fame  and  embarrassment.  It  becomes  manifest  when  good  is  done  solely  because  it  is  good,  and  it  is  such character  which  earns the  pleasure  of Allaah.  When a  person acquires this  quality,  his  dealings  in  every  sphere  are  in  accordance  with  this quality.  Even  though  there  is  no  one  who  can  see  him.  All  his  actions will  be  done  in  the  shadow  of  this  pure  nature  of  his,  keeping  this reality  in  mind  that  probably  no  one  can  see  me,  but  the  One  who  makes  the  decision of Jannat  and  Jahannam  is  definitely  watching. 

Let  us  take  a  few  examples  of  how  the  teachings  of  Islaam  have  looked  at  the  “Sahib-bil-jamb”  with  a  microscopic  eye:

1.  On  the  day  of  Friday,  when  people  gather  for  Jumuah,  the person  coming  in  late  is  ordered  by  Shariah  to  sit  wherever  he finds  place  to  the  rear  of  the  gathering,  and  not  jump  over  the shoulders  of  others.  Nabi  ﷺ  had  displayed  anger  to  such behavior. 

2.  We  have  been  encouraged  to  take  a  bath,  wear  clean  clothes and  apply  itr  (perfume)  before  proceeding  to  the  Masjid  for Jumuah,  so  that  in  a  large  gathering  every  person  becomes  a  source  of  comfort  to  the  next  and  not  discomfort. 

3.  The  jurists  have  gone  to  the  extent  of  saying  that  a  person who  has  a  sickness  due  to  which  a  foul  smell  emanates  from  him  causing  discomfort  to  others,  should  perform  his  Salaah  at  home  and  not  join  the  congregation.  Insha-Allaah  he  will  receive  the  reward  of  congregational  Salaah

4.  When  a  few  people  are  eating  together,  we  are  taught  to  consider  the  others  eating  as  well.  It  has  been  mentioned  in the  Hadith  that  Nabi  ﷺ  said,  “When  others  are  taking  one  date at  a  time,  you  should  not  take  two  dates  at  a  time.” This  points  to  the  principle  of  not  worrying  of  oneself  alone, but  consider  the  others  as  well,  as  this  (thinking  of  oneself only)  is  not  the  trait  of  a  believer.  We  should  remember  that there  are  others  eating  too.  We  do  not  have  to  now  measure our  share  of  food,  but  we  should  have  some  form  of  balance.

(These  days in buffet  style  meals, the  manner in  which we  see  some  people  dishing  out  more  than  necessary  is  a  direct  result of open violation of these principles.)

I  have  just  given  a  few  examples  highlighting  the  importance  which  Shariah  gives  to  the  “Sahib-bil-jamb.”  Each  person  can  look  into  his  society  and  evaluate  some  petty  issues.     

Where  many  people  have  gathered  for  some  type  of  work  and  one  person  can  be  seen  to  at  a  time,  common  sense  demands  that  a  line  is formed  so  that  each  person  can  have  their  work  done  in  an  orderly  manner.  In  this  way  everyone  will  benefit  and  everyone’s  work  will be  done  with  ease.  To  jump  the  line  and  push  ahead  in  such  a situation  without  any  valid  reason,  is  not  just  an  immoral  and  uncultured  act,  but  it  is  gravely  usurping  the  right  of  the  others  and  a  sin. 

It  is  sad  to  note  that  the  non-Muslims  take  this  into  consideration  (yet  we  Muslims  lack  in  this  regard.)  Wherever  more  than  one  person  get together  where  only  one  can  be  seen  at  a  time,  they  would immediately  stand  in  line  formation.  Whereas  we,  who  have  the  guidance  of  “Sahib-bil-jamb”  found  in  the  Quraan  and  the  Sunnat,  consider  it  some  kind  of  skill  to  jump  the  line  and  show  our  bravery! One  wonders  if  the  thought  even  crosses  the  mind  that  I  am committing  a  sin  by  such  an  action. 

In  a  bus  or  train,  we  are  entitled  to  that  amount  of  the  seat  which  has  been  stipulated  by  the  operators.  We  find  two  serious  injustices  on  our  part  in  these  situations.

The  first  injustice  is  that  without  any  booking  those  who  climb  on  board  first,  occupy  a  few  seating  places  leaving  the  other  passengers  forced  to  stand.  Now  is  this  not  a  grave  injustice  that  you  stretch yourself  over  a  few  seats  with  or  without  a  valid  ticket,  while  the others  who  have  valid  tickets  are  left  standing?  I  have  heard regarding  many  of  our  senior  scholars  that  they  would  not  occupy more  than  the  designated  seating  space,  even  though  the  coach  was empty.  They  would  say  that  we  have  paid  for  one  seat  only;  therefore we  are  entitled  to  one  seat  and  not  more.  This  is  definitely  their  high level  of  precaution  and  piety.  Normally  operators  of  such  modes  of transport  give  permission  to  use  more  than  one  seat  if  there  aren’t other  passengers;  therefore  we  will  not  say  it  is  impermissible  to  use more  than  one  seat.  Certainly  where  other  passengers  are  now  forced to stand, there can be no permissibility to occupy more than one seat.   

The  second  injustice  on  our  part  is  that  where  the  seating  has  been designated  to  seat  four  persons,  a  fifth  person  decides  to  come  and squeeze  himself  in.  Those  who  were  already  seated  are  now  forced  to sit  uncomfortably.  The  result  of  this  is  that  those  who  were  rightfully seated  will  now  have  to  scrunch  and  travel  in  discomfort.  Obviously if  those  seated  give  preference  to  the  new  comer  and  allow  him  to  sit, this  is  out  of  the  goodness  of  their  heart  which  they  will  be  rewarded for, but a new comer has no right to force them to give him place. 

Due  to  us  having  restricted  Deen  to  Salaah  and  fasting, we  do  not even  realize  that  we  are  indulging  in  sin  when  we  carry  out  such acts.  Whereas,  any  act  which  causes  unnecessary  discomfort  to  the  next,  or  by  which  the  right  of  the  next  is  usurped,  is  forbidden.  It  is  such  a  forbidden  act  which  is  not  pardonable  by  virtue  of  repentance  alone,  but  the  one  whose  right  was  usurped will also have to forgive the transgressor. 

Outwardly  it  seems  like  trivial  issues,  but  in  reality  it  is  these  very trivial  issues  which  spoil  the  temperament  and  nature  of  individuals  and  nations.  When  the  temperament  and  nature  of  a  nation  is  spoilt all  those  things  take  place  which  we  lament  today  to  no  avail  or benefit.  Everyone  suffers  the  loss.  No  person  lives  in  peace. Everyone lives in misery. 

On  the  contrary,  if  each  one  of  us  look  into  our  daily  lives  and  see how  we  can  give  comfort  to  those  we  interact  with  on  a  day  to  day  basis,  sacrificing  a  little  on  our  part,  we  will  find  that  the  sacrifice  will  be  temporary,  but  the  impression  left  on  the  heart  of  the  next will  be  long  lasting.  Above  all,  Allaah  will  be  please  and  we  will  receive  the  cash  return  of  our  sacrifice  on  that  day  when  no  worldly  currency  would  be  of  any  use.  In  this  way  the  temperament  and nature  of  our  society  will  slowly  but  surely  change  to  one  where  each person  is  a  source  of  comfort  for  the  next.  [Zikr-wa-Fikr  pgs.260-265]

The Korangi Daarul Uloom – Now An Abode Of Deviation

Today,  about  the  worst  deviated  Daarul  Uloom  in  the  Indo-Pak  sub-continent  is  Korangi  Daarul  Uloom  in  Karachi  under  the  auspices  of  Mufti  Taqi  Usmani.  This  Mufti  Sahib  has  effectively  denatured  the  once  wonderful  Daarul Uloom  established  by  his  august,  noble  father,  Hadhrat  Mufti  Muhammad  Shafi  (Rahmatullah  alayh). 

Mufti  Taqi  has  stripped  the Daarul  Uloom  of  its  Islamic  façade  and  extinguished  its  Imaani  ethos.  He  has  systematically  displaced  the  Sunnah  and  substituted  it  with  the  artifacts  and  practices of  the  western  kuffaar.  Among the  vile  perpetrations  effected  at the  Korangi  Daarul  Uloom  is  the  total  displacement  of  the  Sunnah  style  of  eating.  Tables  and  Chairs  have  been  introduced  for  all  the  students  to  westernize  their  style  of eating.

The  Daarul  Hadith  Darsgah (where  Hadith  is  taught)  has  been  furbished  western  kuffaar  style.  The  simple  style  of  the    Akaabireen  –  the  style  of  centuries  –  has  been  replaced  with  benches  in  auditorium  style.  Now,  students  sit  high  above  the  Ustaadh  who  is  on  a  lower  level.  The  students  sit  disgracefully  on  levels  higher  than  Bukhaari  Shareef,  etc.  Awed  by  this  western  style  which  Mufti  Taqi  picked  up  in  the  kufr  gutters  of  U.S.A.  and  U.K.,  during  his  dalliance  with  the  capitalist  riba  bankers,  he    deemed  it  appropriate  to  snuff  out  and  kill  the  holy  spirit  of  humility,  simplicity  and  respect  of  the  Daarul  Uloom  by eliminating  the  style  of  the  Auliya  and  substituting  it  with  the  style  of  the  western  kuffaar  who  perpetually  wallow  in  the  state  of  spiritual  impurity  (kufr)  and  physical impurity (janaabat).

Aggravating  the  deviation, Mufti  Taqi  with  his  Daarul  Uloom  students  fully  participate  in  the  haraam,  evil,  shaitaani  independence  day  celebrations  organized  by  the  kuffaar  Pakistani  government.  Mufti  Taqi’s  Independence  Day  Speech  confirms  that  he  has  become  an  effective  bootlicker  of  the  evil  Pakistani  government.  His  bootlicking  speech  is  full  of  praise  for  the  fussaaqfujjaar,  in  fact  kuffaar,   government,  and  riddled  with  inaccuracies.

The  effect  of  his  deviation  is   such  imbecility  which  constrained  him  to  order  his  students  to  act  like  real  clowns.  On  independence  day  the  Talaba  marched  saluting  stupidly  like  the  Pakistani fussaaq  soldiers.  Whilst  saluting   does  not  seem  so  stupid  for  the  fussaaq  and  kuffaar  soldiers dressed  in  western  kuffaar  military  garb,  the  students  appear  just  like  stupid  clowns  marching  and saluting  whilst  dressed  with  kurtahs,  turbans  and  topis.

Then  Mufti  Taqi  making  a mockery  of  himself    participated  in  the  stupid,  haraam  kuffaar-style  flag-hoisting  ceremony.  Oh!  How stupid  he  looks  and  how  stupid-looking  he  has  made  the  Talaba  of  his  Daarul  Uloom!  Wala houla….  He  takes  pride  at  the  haraam  confetti  raining  down  on  him  –  confetti  which  is  thrown  on  kuffaar  brides.  He  has  indeed  made  a  coon  and  a  clown  of  himself  by  participating  in  all  the  haraam  khurafaat  of  the  independence  day  celebrations.  This  is  a  purely  western  kuffaar  function  which  the  kuffaar  Pakistani government  has  adopted.  But what  constrains  a  senior  Mufti  to   degenerate  to  this  appalling  ebb  of  bootlicking,  and  to  destroy  thousands  of  Students  of  the  Deen  by  halaalizing  the  acts,  functions  and  artifacts  of  the  western  kuffaar?

The  spirit  of  Ilm  has  been  effectively  extinguished  at  Mufti Taqi’s  Madrasah.  The  students romp  like  the  hooligan  students  of  western  colleges.  They  deem  it  an  honour  to  behave  like  kuffaar  university  students.  By  their  conduct  they  demonstrate  that  they  are  not  pursuing  the  Knowledge  of  the  Deen.  There  is  no  fragrance  of  Ilm  remaining  at  the  Korangi  Daarul  Uloom.  It  has  become  an institution  of  dhalaal.  Mufti  Taqi  is  now  the  chief  mudhil.  About   the  mudhilleen  (scholars,  molvis and  sheikhs)  who  mislead  the masses,  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu alayhi  wasallam)  said:

“Verily,  I  fear  for  my  Ummah the  aimmah  mudhilleen.”  

Mufti  Taqi  has  ushered  in  the first  phase  for  the  ultimate  total  ruin  of  the  Madrasah.  This  Daarul Uloom,  if  it  continues  to  follow  the  satanic  path  chalked  out  by  Mufti  Taqi,  will  become  a  deviated  institution  similar  to  Al-Azhar  of  Egypt  and  similar  other  destroyed  Madaaris  in  the  Middle  East. 

Even  his  Bukhaari  jalsahs  are  conducted  western  style.  Tables, chairs,  coloured  lighting,  flowers,  merrymaking  and  stupidity  –  all  anathema  to  Islam  –  have  been  introduced.  He  has  slipped  terribly  from  Siraatul  Mustaqeem,  and  the  cause  is  association  with  the kuffaar  bankers  and  the  fussaaq  rulers.  About  such  association,  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu alayhi  wasallam)  said: 

“Seek  refuge  with  Allah  from   Jubbul  Huzun  (the  Pit  of  Grief).”  The  Sahaabah  asked:  ‘O Rasulullah!  What  is  Jubbul Huzun?’  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu alayhi  wasallam)  said:  “It  is  a valley  in  Jahannam.  Daily  Jahannam  seeks  Allah’s  protection   against  it    (against  its  heat)  400  times.”  The  Sahaabah  asked:  ‘Who  will  enter  it?’  Rasulullah (Sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  said:  “It  has  been  prepared  for   the  qurraa’  who  display  their  a’maal.  Verily,  the  most  abhorrent  of  the  qurraa’  by  Allah  are   those  who  visit  the  rulers.”