Muhammad – The Miraculous Name

By Abu Hudhaifa Muhammad Karolia

Before I tell you who Ibn Abi Kabshah was, whether he was a sahaabi, a taabi’ie or an outstanding wali, let me take you to Abu Sufyaan (radhiyallahu anhu)’s encounter with the Roman emperor, Heraclius.

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had sent a letter to Heraclius inviting him to Islam. This letter was delivered to him in Baytul-Maqdis. Having read its contents, he enquired if there were any Arab visitors visiting Syria that time. Thus, Abu Sufyaan (who was not yet a Muslim) and a group of other Arab traders were summoned to Heraclius’ court. In the court, the rest of the group was instructed to stand behind Abu Sufyaan. They were then informed that Heraclius was going to ask Abu Sufyaan a few questions and if he lied, they should contradict him (by shaking their heads). Thus, Abu Sufyaan was forced to speak the truth. Employing an interpreter, Heraclius thereafter questioned Abu Sufyaan about Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). What is his family status among you? Before him, did anybody else among you claim to be a Nabi? Were any of his ancestors a king? Do the wealthy or the poor follow him? Are his followers increasing or decreasing? Do any of them renege from his religion… After Abu Sufyaan answered the tenth question, Heraclius explained that all Abu Sufyaan’s answers proved that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was definitely talking the truth. “If you are talking the truth, he will soon rule the ground under my feet, I knew that he was going to appear, but I did not know that he would be among you. If I knew that I could reach him, I would go and meet him; and if I was with him, I would wash his feet.” He thereafter read aloud the letter of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Abu Sufyaan narrates that by the time Heraclius finished reading the letter, there was a commotion in the court. The audience was shouting (in disapproval) and the Arabs were removed. “When we were removed, I said to my companions: The case of Ibn Abi Kabshah has gained so much of prominence that even the king of the Romans is afraid of him.”

Now you know who Ibn Abi Kabshah was. He was Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). At least, that is what Abu Sufyaan called him. But Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s father’s name was Abdullah, not Abu Kabshah! In fact, there was no Abu Kabshah in his ancestry. So why did Abu Sufyaan call him Ibn Abi Kabshah (the son of Abu Kabshah)?

The answer is mockery; he was ridiculing Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). One theory is that while the Arabs of that time were idolaters, Abu Kabshah was a star worshipper. He worshipped Sirius, the Dog Star. By referring to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi  wasallam) as Abu Kabshah’s son, Abu Sufyaan meant that with regards shunning idol worship, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is just like Abu Kabshah; kind-of his son.

A second explanation is that Abu Kabshah was one of Rasulullah  (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s maternal ancestors. One of the things that Arabs of those days would do to insult a person is that they would attribute him to one of his maternal ancestors. 

Another explanation is that there was more than one Abu Kabshah among Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s paternal and maternal ancestors. However, none of them was commonly known by this name. The reason why Abu Sufyaan called Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) Abu Kabshah’s son is that when pagan Arabs intended defaming someone, they would attribute him to one of his relatively unknown ancestors (or an uncommon name of one of them).

Whatever the case may be, the point that we wish to drive home is that the term Ibn Abi Kabshah was derogatory and slanderous. This also shows us that mockery of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is nothing new. It started a long time ago, in Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s own lifetime.  

Another Example
The Quraysh would call Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) Mudhdham (disgraceful). In this regard, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Are you not amazed how Allah deflects from me the slander and curse of the Quraysh? They slander and curse  a Mudhdham (disgraceful) whereas I am Muhammad   (praiseworthy).” [Saheeh-ul-Bukhaari, Hadith 3340]

The Miraculous Name
This takes us to the topic of this article, The Miraculous Name. Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s name is a miracle. By merely calling him Muhammad, you are praising him. Hence, even those who criticize him inadvertently praise him. This is probably why the Jews of Madinah never called him by his name. They always referred to him as Abul-Qaasim. Besides, the extent to which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is praised in the world and the extent to which he will be praised in the Hereafter leaves no doubt that his name is most befitting. Thus, As-Suhayli describes it as:

“A sign from among the (many) signs of his nubuwwah.” [Abul Qaasim As-Suhaily, Ar-Rawd Al-Unf (V.1 Pg.281)]

The Name Ahmad
One of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s other names is Ahmad. This is his name in the previous scriptures and this is what Sayyiduna Moosa and Sayyiduna ‘Eesa (alaihimas-salaam) called him.

Considering the laws of Arabic morphology, Ahmad could either mean:

1. The one who praises Allah more than anybody else or  

2. The one who is praised more than anybody else. 

One of the reasons behind the first meaning is that on the day of Qiyaamah, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) will be the first person to intercede to Allah. Thinking that commencement of the reckoning may ease their anxiety, the people will eventually request Rasulullah  (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) to intercede to Allah to commence the reckoning. Before doing so, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) will make sajdah to Allah. In this sajdah, he will praise Allah in such a manner regarding which he said, “Allah will inspire me to utter such praises of Himself which presently I also do not know”. [Saheeh-ul-Bukhaari,  Hadith  7072]

The reason behind the second meaning is obvious. How many thousands of people praised and continue to praise Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)! He was praised during his lifetime and thereafter. In his lifetime too, he was praised before nubuwwah and thereafter. After the intercession in the Hereafter, he will again be praised by countless  people. [Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani,  Fath-ul-Baari (V.6 Pg.641)]

Another Observation
The Qur’aan and sunnah encourage us to praise Allah upon termination of all activities. Thus, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would praise Allah after eating and drinking. Upon returning from a journey, he would say:

We have returned making tawbah, worshipping our Rabb and praising Him. [Saheeh-ul-Bukhaari, Hadith 2920]

After judgment will be passed among the creation on the Day of Qiyaamah, it will be said: All praise is to Allah, Sustainer of all the worlds. [Surah Az-Zumar,  Aayah 75]

This will also be the last call of the dwellers of jannah after their entry therein. [Surah Yoonus, Aayah 10]  

Now, did nubuwwah not terminate with Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)? Is he not the last Nabi and Rasool? Furthermore, his appearance is a sign of Qiyaamah and an indication that the end of the world is close. Does this not explain why his name is Ahmad and Muhammad? [Abul-Qaasim  As-Suhaily, Ar-Rawd  Al-Unf  (V.1 Pg.281-282)]

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was named Muhammad by his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib. Certainly, Abdul Muttalib never knew any of the above. He never knew that his grandson was going to be a Nabi, let alone being the greatest Nabi ever.

The name Muhammad was divinely inspired. Abdul-Muttalib dreamt that a silver chain emerged from his back. It had four ends. One in the sky, another on the earth and the third and fourth were in the east and the west. The chain then became a tree with noor (celestial light) emanating from all its leaves. It seemed as if the inhabitants of the east and the west were clinging to it. Upon enquiring about the interpretation of this dream, he was told that it signified the birth of a child in his progeny who would be followed by the inhabitants of the east and west and who would be praised by the dwellers of the sky and earth. In addition to this, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s mother also informed Abdul-Muttalib that she had heard a voice telling her, “You have conceived the leader of this ummah. When you give birth to him, name him Muhammad”. Thus, when Abdul-Muttalib was asked why he named his grandson Muhammad, he replied, “I hope that all the people of the earth will praise him”. [Abul-Qaasim  As-Suhaily, Ar-Rawd Al-Unf (V.1 Pg.280)]

A Unique Name
The reason for enquiring from Abdul-Muttalib why he kept the name Muhammad is that none of his ancestors had this name. In fact, it was almost non-existent among the Arabs in general. The reason for saying almost non-existent is that there were a few people before Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) by the name Muhammad. However, they were not just few. They were extremely few! According to As-Suhaily, they were only three. Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani is of the opinion that there were fifteen of them. [Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani, Fath-ul-Baari (V.6 Pg.643)] Are fifteen among an entire nation not negligible?

Nevertheless, the reason why they were named Muhammad was that their parents were informed of a Nabi who would soon appear in the Hijaaz and whose name would be Muhammad. Thus, each of their parents named him Muhammad with the hope that he would be this Nabi.

The ‘ulamaa explain that the rationale behind this unique name was avoidance of confusion with regards Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s identity. Hence, just as so few people before Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) enjoyed the name Muhammad, history is testimony that none of them claimed to be a Nabi. [Qadi ‘Iyaad, Ash-Shifaa  Bi-Ta’reef  Huqooq-il-Mustafa  (V.1 Pg230)] 

Consequently, when Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) announced his nubuwwah, there was little doubt among the scholars of the previous scriptures that he was talking the  truth.

How Many Names
Some ‘ulamaa claim that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had ninety-nine names. Ibn-ul-‘Arabi has quoted from one of the sufis that Allah and his Rasool (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) have one thousand names each. The truth, however, is that most of these names are actually attributes of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) instead of names. For example, the word labinah (which means brick).

Explaining that he is the last Nabi, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said that a man constructed a beautiful palace. When the building was completed, people visited it and marveled at its beauty. However, they all noticed that one brick was missing. Comparing nubuwwah to this palace, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “I am that brick”. The word that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used for brick is labinah. Thus, Ibn Dihya regards labinah as  one  of  Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s names. [Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani, Fath-ul-Baari (V.6 Pg.644)]

Nonetheless, nobody can deny that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had many names.

Another Question

What about the hadith:

“I have five names. I am Ahmad and I am Muhammad. I am Maahi by means of whom Allah eradicates disbelief. I am Haashir at whose feet the people will be gathered (on the Day of Qiyaamah) and I am ‘Aaqib (The Last Nabi).” [Saheeh-ul-Bukhaari, Hadith 3339]

Does this hadith not indicate that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had only five names?


“I have five names” does not mean, “I have only five names”. When Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam said, “I have five names”, he did not mean that he does not have any other names. Instead, he meant that although he has many names, he has five very special names that stand out from the rest of his names. The specialities of these names are:

> They are more famous than the others

> They are mentioned in the previous scriptures

> They were known to the previous nations. [Ibn Hajar Al-‘Asqalaani, Fath-ul-Baari (V.6 Pg.645)]

Some Names of Allah
No, we are not discussing any names of Allah in this paragraph. The, point, however, is that Allah Ta’aala honoured many Ambiyaa by conferring on them one or more of His names. For example, he called Ishaaq ‘aleem, Isma’il and Ibrahim haleem, Nooh shakoor, Moosa kareem and qawi, Yoosuf hafeedh and ‘aleem, Ayoob saabir and ‘Eesa and Yahya birr. (May peace and salutation be on all the Ambiyaa.) Rasulullah  (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s speciality in this regard is that Allah blessed him with much more of His names than any other Nabi. Qadi ‘Iyaad (rahimahullah)  identified thirty such names. [Qadi ‘Iyaad, Ash-Shifaa Bi-Ta’reef  Huqooq-il-Mustafa (V.1 Pg236)] Ra-oof  (compassionate) and Raheem (merciful) are two  examples.

“Such a Rasool has come to you from among yourselves that your adversity distresses him, he is desirous of your welfare and he is compassionate and merciful unto the Believers.” [Surah At-Tawbah, Aayah 128]

Two Types of Names
Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s names are of two types:

1. Those that were specifically his – Their meanings were not found in any other Nabi. For example: Muhammad, Ahmad, ‘Aaqib, Haashir, Muqaffaa (The one who was sent after everybody else) and Nabi-ul-Malhamah (Nabi of the Battlefield)

2. Those that were not specifically his – Their meanings were found in other Ambiyaa. For example: Rasulullah, Nabiyullah, Abdullah, Shaahid (witness), Mubash-shir (Giver of Glad-Tidings), Nadheer (Warner), Nabi-ur-Rahmah (Nabi of Mercy) and Nabi-ut-Tawbah (Nabi of Repentance).

> The names of the first type are obviously specialities of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

> Although the names of the second type apply to other Ambiyaa, they do not apply to them as much as they apply to Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). In fact, their presence in Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is perfect. Ibn-ul-Qayyim (rahimahullah) says in this regard:

“The name itself is not Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s speciality. His speciality is its perfect suitability (it befits him most perfectly).” [Ibn-ul-Qayyim,  Zaad-ul-Ma’aad  V.1 Pg.54]

In simple words, every Nabi is Basheer, Nadheer and Shaahid, but the greatest Basheer, Nadheer and Shaahid is Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Similarly, every Nabi is a Nabi of Mercy and Repentence, but the greatest Nabi of Mercy and Repentence is Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). 

We commenced this article with reference to Ibn Abi Kabshah and the idolaters’ mockery of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). This discourse on his blessed names proves that such mockery never reduced and will never reduce the lofty status of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Add this discussion to all of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)’s other specialities and his achievements and you will conclude that his critics are merely shining a torch at the sun.  

The important issue is our imaan. Such mockery and criticism will never harm Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). The question is, ‘Will such critics succeed and harm our imaan?’

Severity on Narrating Fabricated Reports on the Praise of the Prophet ﷺ

by Mawlana ‘Abd al-Hayy al-Lakhnawi 

Translated by Zameelur Rahman

Know that the fuqaha and the muhaddithun in their entirety have clarified in their books that it is prohibited to narrate, cite and transmit fabricated (mawdu’) [hadiths], and act upon its purport while believing it to be established, except with a warning that it is fabricated. Leniency (tasahul) in this [matter] is prohibited, whether [the fabricated hadith is] in regards to laws (ahkam), stories (qisas), inducing hope and fear (al-targhib wa l-tarhib) or anything else. Imitating (taqlid) [others] in mentioning and transmitting it is prohibited unless followed by an explanation of its fabrication, as opposed to a da’if  hadith, since if that is not in regards to laws, there is leniency therein, and it is acceptable with numerous conditions which I have elaborated in my footnotes to my treatise Tuhfat al-Talabah fi Mash al-Raqabah called Tuhfat al-Kamulah and in my treatise Al-Ajwibat al-Fadilah li l-As’ilat al-‘Asharat al-Kamilah.

They [the fuqaha and the muhaddithun] have also explained that to lie about the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is one of the greatest of the major sins, rather some of the Shafi’is exaggerated and ruled it to be kufr. That is because sahih hadiths have been narrated with various wordings indicating what we mentioned. The most well-known of them has the wording: “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” It has many routes such that it was said that it is from the mutawatir hadiths. I have expanded on this discussion in [a manner] not [requiring] further to it in Zafar al-Amani fi l-Mukhtasar al-Mansub ila l-Jurjani in the discussion on mutawatir, Allah enable us to complete it as He enabled us to start it, and if Allah gives expanse in my life and assists in my ability, I will complete it after finishing writing up this treatise, if Allah (Exalted is He) wills.

‘Ali al-Qari al-Makki said in Kitab al-Mawdu’at:

Moreover, the meaning of that which the two shaykhs [i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim] and Al-Hakim transmitted from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him), “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire,” is mutawatir and this form is almost mutawatir.

In [another] version from them and from al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and al-Daraqutni, [they narrated] from Anas (Allah be pleased with him) that he said, “That the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said ‘Whoever deliberately lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire’ prevents me from narrating many hadiths to you.”

They have also [narrated] from ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me, let him enter the Fire.”

The two shaykhs and al-Tirmidhi [narrated] from al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: I heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, “Lying upon me is not like lying upon another; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, al-Nasa’i, ibn Majah and al-Daraqutni [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah be pleased with them) [that] he said: I said to Zubayr [ibn ‘Awwam], “I do not hear you narrating from Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) as so-and-so and so-and-so narrate.” He said, “Certainly, I did not part from him since I accepted Islam, but I heard him say, ‘Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.’” Al-Daraqutni added, “By Allah he did not say ‘deliberately’ and you say ‘deliberately.’”

Al-Bukhari and al-Daraqutni [narrated] from Salamah ibn al-Akwa’ (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim in Al-Madkhal [narrated] from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Narrate from me and do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Tirmidhi who authenticated it and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Darimi and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Jabir (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: He (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Beware of excessive narration; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Darimi and Ibn Majah [narrated] from Abu Qatadah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: I heard him (upon him blessings and peace) say on this pulpit, “Beware of excessive narration; nothing should be said about me but reality and truth, and whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn Majah [narrated] from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said in marfu’ form, “Write not from me [anything] besides the Qur’an, and whoever wrote anything besides the Qur’an should erase it. Narrate from the Israelites and there is no harm. Narrate from me and do not lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Abu Ya’la, al-‘Uqayli and al-Tabrani in Al-Awsat [narrated] from Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, or rejects something I commanded, let him occupy a house in Hell.”

Ahmad and Abu Ya’la [narrated] from ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me, he is in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Bazzar, Abu Ya’la, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim inAl-Madkhal [narrated] from ‘Uthman (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that he would say, “That I am not the most retentive from the Companions of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) regarding him does not prevent me from narrating from him, but [because] I bear witness that I heard him say, ‘Whoever ascribes a lie to me, let him occupy a house in the Fire.’”

Abu Ya’la and Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd Allah in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Bazzar, Abu Ya’la, al-Daraqutni and al-Hakim in Al-Madkhal  [narrated] from Sa’id ibn Zayd ibn ‘Amr ibn Nufayl (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that he (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Verily, lying upon me is not like lying upon another; whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, Hannad in al-Zuhd, al-Bazzar, al-Tabrani and al-Hakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them) in marfu’ form, “Verily, a house in the Fire will be built for the one who lies upon me.”

Ahmad, al-Harith ibn Abi Usamah in his Musnad and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Bazzar, Abu Ya’la and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Khalid ibn ‘Arfatah in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately” and in [another] narration “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Harith ibn Abi Usamah, al-Bazzar, al-Tabrani and al-Hakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] from Yahya ibn Maymun al-Hadrami that Abu Musa al-Ghafiqi heard ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir al-Juhani (Allah be pleased with him) narrating hadiths from Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) on the pulpit, and Abu Musa (Allah be pleased with him) said, “Verily, this companion of yours has preserved [the hadiths] or is destroyed; indeed the last thing he (upon him blessings and peace) entrusted unto us was that he said, ‘Hold to the Book of Allah, and you will refer to a people who love to narrate from me, so whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire, and whoever preserves a thing, let him narrate it.’”

Ahmad, Abu Ya’la and al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad, al-Bazzar and al-Tabrani [narrated] from Zayd ibn Arqam in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ahmad [narrated] from Qays ibn Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah al-Ansari (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’  form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately let him take [his] resting place in the Fire” or “a house in Hell.”

Al-Bazzar and al-‘Uqayli in al-Du’afa’ [narrated] from ‘Imran ibn Husayn (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] in al-Awsat from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that a man wore a dress resembling the dress of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), then he came to a household in Madinah and said, “Verily, he (upon him blessings and peace) commanded me to survey whichever household I wish from the residents of Madinah.” They then prepared accommodation for him and sent a messenger to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and informed him. He said to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), “Go to him and if you find him, kill him, then burn him with fire, and if you find him and you have been spared this [task] [because he is already dead], and I do not believe but the two of you will be spared this [task], then burn him with Fire.” Thereupon, they came to him and found him having come out in the night to urinate, when a snake bit him and he died, so they burned him with fire. Then they returned to him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and informed him and he (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn ‘Adi in al-Kamil [narrated] from Buraydah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: A suburb of Banu Layth was [situated] two miles away from Madinah. A man had proposed to one of them in Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic times) and they did not marry him [to her], so he came to them [putting] on a dress, saying, “Indeed Allah’s Messenger garbed me this [dress] and commanded me to rule over your properties and your blood.” Then he set forth and fell on that woman he proposed to [i.e. fornicated with her]. Thereupon, the people sent a messenger to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and he said, “He lied, the enemy of Allah!” Then he sent a man and said, “If you find him alive, strike his neck, and if you find him dead, burn him.” Then he found him, a snake having bit him and he died, so he burned him with fire. That is [a consequence of] his (upon him blessings and peace) statement, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (Allah be pleased with him) [that] he said: I went with my father to an in-law of ours from the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) who accepted Islam, and I heard him say: I head Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say “Give us rest by it, i.e. prayer, O Bilal.” I said, “Did you hear that from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)?” He then became angry and began narrating to them that he (upon him blessings and peace) sent a man to an Arab suburb and when he came to them, he said, “He (upon him blessings and peace) commanded me to rule over your women however I wish.” Thereupon they said, “[We] hear and [we] obey the command of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace),” and they sent a man to him (upon him blessings and peace) and said, “Indeed so-and-so came to us and said that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) commanded me to rule over your women, so if it is from your command then [we] hear and [we] obey and if it is other than that, we wished to let you know.” Then he (upon him blessings and peace) became angry and sent a man from the Ansar, saying, “Go and kill him or burn him with fire.” He reached him and he had [already] died and was buried, so he ordered that [his body] be exhumed, then he burned him with fire. Then he [the in-law of ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah] said: Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire” and he said, “Do you think that I will lie upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) after this?”

Al-Tabrani in al-Awsat [narrated] from Zayd ibn Arqam and al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), elevating it [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani in al-Awsat [narrated] from Mu’adh ibn Jabal in marfu’  form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Amr ibn Murrah al-Juhani with this wording; Al-Tabrani in al-Saghir [narrated] from Nabit ibn Sharit like so; al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Ammar ibn Yasir like so; he [narrated] from ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah like so and [he narrated] from ‘Amr ibn Hurayth like so; he and al-Darimi [narrated] from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) like so; he [narrated] from ‘Utaybah ibn Ghazwan like so; he and Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from al-‘Urs ibn ‘Amirah like so; he and al-Darimi [narrated] from Ya’la ibn Murrah like so; he and al-Bazzar [narrated] from Abu Malik al-Ashja’i from his father whose name was Tariq ibn Aysham like so; and he, Abu Nu’aym and al-Isma’ili in his Mu’jam [narrated] from Salman ibn Khalid al-Khuza’i in marfu’ form with the wording, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him occupy a house in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] from ‘Amr ibn Dinar (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) that the children of Suhayb said to Suhayb, “O our father! The children of the Companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) are narrating from their fathers,” and he said: I heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Al-Tabrani [narrated] from al-Sa’ib ibn Yazid with this wording and he [narrated] from Abu Umamah al-Bahili with the wording: “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire between the eyes of Hell.” He [narrated] from Abu Qursafah that he (upon him blessings and peace) said, “Narrate from me whatever you hear, and it is not permitted for a man to lie upon me, for whoever lies upon me” or he said “ascribes to me what I have not said, a house in Hell will be built for him, in which he will be thrown.” He [narrated] from Rafi’ ibn Khudayj in marfu’ form, “Do not lie upon me, for indeed lying upon me is not like lying upon another.” He [narrated] from Aws ibn Aws al-Thaqafi in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon his Prophet or his eyes [i.e. he invents a dream] or his parents [i.e. he falsely identifies his parents], he will never smell the fragrance of Paradise.” He [narrated] in al-Awsat from Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, “Do not lie upon me; indeed, the one who lies upon me is reckless.” He [narrated] in al-Awsat from Abu Khaldah [that] he said: I heard Maymun al-Kurdi while he was with Malik ibn Dinar (Allah be pleased with him), then Malik ibn Dinar said to him, “Why is it that the shaykh does not narrate from his father, for indeed your father saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and heard from him?” Thereupon, he said, “Our father would not narrate from him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) out of fear that he would add or subtract from his speech, and he said: I heard him (upon him blessings and peace) say, ‘Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.’” He [narrated] from Sa’d ibn al-Midhas from him (upon him blessings and peace), “Whoever knows something must not conceal it, and whoever lies upon me let him occupy a house in Hell.”

Abu Muhammad al-Ramahurmuzi [narrated] in Kitab al-Muhaddith al-Fasil from Malik ibn ‘Atahiyyah that he (upon him blessings and peace) instructed us in the Farewell Hajj, saying, “Hold to the Qur’an, and you will refer to groups who narrate from me, so whoever preserves a thing, let him narrate it, and whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani and al-Ramahurmuzi [narrated] from Rafi’ ibn Khudayj (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) passed by us one day while we were talking and he said, “What are you discussing?” They said, “That which we heard from you, O Messenger of Allah.” He said, “Talk, but whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn Sa’d and al-Tabrani [narrated] from al-Muqanna’ al-Tamimi [that] he said: I brought the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) the sadaqah of our camels when he ordered to [receive] it and take it [to the treasury]. I said, “Two she-camels amongst them are a gift for you,” so he ordered to separate the gift from the sadaqah. I stayed [some] days, and the people plunged [into talk] that he (upon him blessings and peace) will delegate Khalid ibn al-Walid to the slaves of Mudar to give sadaqah to them. I said, “By Allah our people have no money,” so I came to him (upon him blessings and peace) and said to him, “Indeed the people are plunged in such and such [talk],” so the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) raised his hands until the whiteness of his armpits could be seen, saying, “O Allah I never permitted them to lie upon me.” Al-Muqanna’ said, “Thereafter, I did not narrate from him (upon him blessings and peace) a hadith, except a tradition articulated in the Book or applied in the Sunnah. [That was the case of he who] lies upon him in [his] lifetime, so how [would it be] after his death?”

Al-Daraqutni [narrated] from Rafi’ ibn Khudayj (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) [that] he said: We were with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and a man came to him saying, “O Messenger of Allah! The people are narrating from you in such and such [a manner],” and he said, “I do not say except that which descends from heaven. Woe unto you! Do not lie upon me, for indeed a lie upon me is not like lying upon another.”

Al-Bazzar [narrated] from Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them) in marfu’ form, “From the greatest of falsehoods is he who attributes to his eyes what they did not see, and from the greatest of falsehoods is he who ascribes to me what I have not said.”

Al-‘Uqayli [narrated] in Kitab al-Du’afa’ from Abu Kabshah al-Anmari (Allah be pleased with him), with the wording, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Al-‘Uqayli [narrated] from Ghazwan (Allah be pleased with him) with this wording, and he and al-Tabrani in al-Afrad [narrated] from Abu Rafi’, “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in Hell.”

Ibn ‘Asakir [narrated] in his Tarikh from Wathilah ibn al-Asqa’ (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him): I heard Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, “Verily, from the greatest of major sins is that a man ascribes [to me] what I have not said.” Ibn ‘Adi and al-Hakim in al-Madkhal [narrated] through another route from Wathilah ibn al-Aqsa’ in marfu’ form, “Verily, from the greatest of falsehoods is he who ascribes to me what I have not said or attributes to his eyes in sleep what it had not seen.”

Al-Khatib in his Tarikh [narrated] from al-Nu’man ibn Bashir, and its wording is: “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Tabrani [narrated] from Usamah ibn Zayd (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Jabir ibn ‘Abdillah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him), “The anger of Allah (Exalted is He) is severe on he who lies upon me deliberately.”

Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Bahaz ibn Hakim, from his father, from his grandfather in marfu’ form, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, upon him is the curse of Allah, the Angels, and all humankind, and compulsory acts and voluntary acts will not be accepted from him.”

Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from Hudhayfah (Allah be pleased with him), “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Hakim [narrated] in al-Madkhal from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording, “Whoever narrates from me a lie, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Bazzar and Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) in marfu’ form, “Three [men] will not smell the fragrance of Paradise: a man claiming another as his father, a man who lies upon his Prophet, and a man who lies upon his eyes.”

Ahmad, Hannad and al-Hakim in his Mustadrak [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire” and in a wording “a house in Hell.”

Ibn Sa’id in his collection of the routes of this hadith [narrated] from Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Khatib [narrated] in al-Tarikh from Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from Suhayb (Allah be pleased with him) and its wording is: “Whoever lies upon me, he will be charged on the Day of Resurrection with weaving together two barleycorns, and that is what prevents me from narrating.”

Al-Daraqutni [narrated it] inal-Afrad like so and al-Khatib in al-Tarikh [narrated] from Salman al-Farisi (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him); Ibn al-Jawzi and Hafiz Yusuf ibn Khalil in his collection of the paths of this hadith [narrated] from Abu Dharr like so, and Ibn Sa’id and others [narrated] from Hudhayfah ibn Usayd (Allah be pleased with him) like so.

Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him), “Whoever innovates a thing or shelters an innovator, upon him is the curse of Allah, the Angels, and all of humankind, and [also] upon whoever lies upon me deliberately.”

Ibn Qani’ in his Mu’jam [narrated] from Usamah ibn Zayd (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him), “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire” and that was [said] because he sent a man for a need and he lied upon him, whereupon he cursed him, and he was found dead, his insides split open, and the earth did not accept him.

Al-Daraqutni and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them), “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] through another route from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them) that he said one day to his companions, “Do you know what is the meaning of this hadith: ‘Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire’? A man was passionately in love with a woman, so he came to her people in the evening and said, ‘I am the emissary of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace). He sent me to you that I may be hosted in whichever house I wish.’ He waited while passing the night, and a man from amongst them came to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, ‘So-and-so came to us claiming that you commanded him to stay in whichever of our houses he wished.’ Thereupon, he said ‘He lied! Oh so-and-so, go with him and if Allah enables you, strike his neck and burn him with fire, and I do not believe but you will be spared this [task].’ Then, he [i.e. the man who lied] came out to perform wudu’ and a snake bit him and he died. When this [news] reached the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), he said, ‘He is in the Fire.’”

Ibn Qani’ in Mu’jam al-Sahabah  and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa  (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.” They [narrated] from Yazid ibn Asad like so; al-Hakim [narrated] from ‘Affan ibn Habib (Allah be pleased with him) like so; and al-Jawzaqani and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from a man from the Companions (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording, “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him occupy [his place] between the eyes of Hell.”

Ibn Sa’id and others [narrated] from ‘A’ishah (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with her) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Al-Daraqutni and Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Umm Ayman (Allah be pleased with her) and its wording is, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from ‘Ali (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with him) and its wording is: “Whoever lies upon Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), he has indeed prepared his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn al-Jawzi [narrated] from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah Exalted is He be pleased with them): Al-‘Abbas said, “O Messenger of Allah! If only we could make an elevated place for you from above which you speak to the people, so they can hear [you].” He said, “I will remain like this: their dust afflicting me, while they tread on my heels, until Allah relieves me from them, so whoever lies upon me, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn ‘Adi [narrated] from Shu’bah, “Whoever lies upon me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Ibn Khalil [narrated] from Zayd ibn Thabit (Allah be pleased with him) like so; he [narrated] from Ka’b ibn Qutbah like so; he [narrated] from the father of Abu l-‘Ashra’ like so; he and Abu Nu’aym [narrated] from ‘Abdullah ibn Zaghb like so.

Abu Nu’aym [narrated] from Jabir ibn Habis (Allah be pleased with him) with the wording: “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.”

Hafiz al-Suyuti said: “More than a hundred Companions narrated this hadith and a multitude of the people of excellence gathered its paths to them. Ibn al-Jawzi transmitted from Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab al-Isfara’ini that there is no hadith in the world that the ten promised paradise agreed upon besides the hadith, ‘Whoever lies upon me…’ Ibn al-Jawzi said: the narration of ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf (Allah be pleased with him) [one of the ten promised Paradise] has not occurred to me till now.” End

One of the subtleties that was mentioned in this regard is that which ‘Allamah Abu l-Qasim ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Ghurani, the author of many works, said: Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Mu’addib narrated to us: Abu l-Muzaffar Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Husam al-Samarqandi narrated to us: he said: I heard al-Khadir and Ilyas say: We heard Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say, “Whoever ascribes to me what I have not said, let him take his seat in the Fire.” Al-Dhahabi said: Abu ‘Amr ibn al-Salah dictated this hadith and said, “This occurred to us in a transcript from Al-Khadir and Ilyas.” Al-Dhahabi said, “I do not know who compiled this transcript.” [Here] ends the speech of Al-Qari in its entirety.

I say: it is established from these narrations that fabricating [something] about the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and attributing to him what he did not say is absolutely haram and a cause for being punished in the Fire, whether it is in regards to Halal and Haram or inducing hope and fear or anything else. Hence, the belief of some ignorant fabricators that lying upon him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) to induce hope and fear is permissible because it is a lie for him not against him, is unacceptable.

Furthermore, it is established from the aforementioned narrations that just as lying upon him (Allah bless him and grant him peace) verbally and practically by attributing to him a statement he did not say and an action he did not perform is from the greatest of the major sins, similarly attributing a virtue or a rank to his purified essence whose existence is not established in the holy prophetic essence by verses or reliable hadiths is also from the greatest of the major sins. The admonishing preachers should, therefore, pay attention, and the story-tellers and the exhorting and reproving sermonisers should beware, since they attribute many things to the holy person whose existence has not been established therein and they think that in this is a great reward due to establishing a virtue for the holy essence and elevating its stature, yet they are unaware that the prophetic virtues established in the sahih hadiths dispose of the need for those flimsy falsehoods. By my life, his (Allah bless him and grant him peace) virtues are outside the limit of encompassment and enumeration, and his merits, by which he excels all creation, are very many without end, so what is the need to extol him using falsehoods? Rather, this is a cause for great sin and deviation from the Straight Path.

We ought to mention here some of the stories which are commonly narrated by most of the preachers of our age in their sermonic gatherings while believing them to be established facts, in spite of them being manufactured and fabricated:

From them is what they mention that when the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was taken by night in the Night of Mi’raj (Ascension) to the high heavens and reached the Lofty Throne, he intended to take off his shoes, considering His (Exalted is He) statement to our master Musa when He spoke to him, “So remove your shoes; verily, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa” (Qur’an 20:12). He was then called from the Lofty Court: “O Muhammad! Do not remove your shoes as the Throne will take honour in your advent wearing shoes and will take it as pride and blessings before others.” So the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) ascended the Throne while the shoes were on his feet, and thus he was granted honour and loftiness.

This story was narrated by many composers of eulogistic poems while others incorporated [it] in their writings on the Sunnah. Most of the preachers in our age mention it in detail as well as in summary in their sermonic functions. Ahmad al-Muqri’ al-Maliki in his book Fath al-Muta’al fi Madhi Khayr al-Ni’al, and ‘Allamah Radi al-Din al-Qazwini and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Baqi al-Zurqani in Sharh al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, clarified that this story is fabricated in its entirety. May Allah uglify its fabricator! It is not established in a [single] narration from the [various] narrations of the Prophetic Mi’raj, despite the abundance of its paths, that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grand him peace) was in that [time] wearing shoes, and it is not established that he ascended the Throne, although he reached a place [where] “he drew nigh” to his Lord “and came down and was at a distance of two bow-lengths or nearer, and He revealed to His servant what He revealed.” (Qur’an 53:8-10). I have a detailed discussion on this point in my treatise Ghayat al-Maqal fima yata’allaqu bi l-Ni’al, so that should be studied.

From them is what the preachers mention that the Prophet was given knowledge of the first and the last (al-awwalin wa l-akhirin) in detail, and he was granted knowledge of all that has passed and all that is to come, universally (kulliyyan) and particularly (juz’iyyan), and that there is no difference between his knowledge and the knowledge of his Lord from the perspective of encompassment and inclusion, and the only difference is that the knowledge of Allah is everlasting and eternal in His very Essence without having been taught by another, as opposed to the knowledge of the Messenger, since he acquired it through being taught by his Lord. This is flowery speech and falsehood as clarified by Ibn Hajar al-Makki in al-Minah al-Makkiyyah Sharh al-Qasidat al-Hamziyyah and [by] other scholars of poetry. That which is established from the Qur’anic verses and the Prophetic hadiths is that encompassment, inclusion and knowledge of all ghayb is specific to the Honourable Truth [i.e. Allah], and this quality was not granted from the part of the Truth to any of creation. Yes, the sciences of our Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) are more excessive and abundant than the sciences of the rest of the Prophets and Messengers, and the teaching of his Lord to him of the unseen matters is more perfect relative to [His] teaching to others, so he is most perfect in knowledge and practice, and the chief of creation in rank and virtue.

From them is what the preachers mention that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) knew the whole Qur’an and recited it from the moment of his birth, and that the meaning of his statement “I am not a reader” in response to Jibril saying to him when revelation began, “Recite!” as was narrated in Sahih al-Bukhari and others, is: “I will not read by your command, as I know it and read it from before.” This is no doubt a fabrication, falsified by Qur’anic verses and Prophetic reports.

From them is what they mention that he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was not unlettered (ummi), rather he was able to write and recite by nature. This is a statement contravening the Qur’an and Sunnah and even the consensus (ijma’) of the ummah. It has no consideration, therefore, for the perspicacious.

From them is what they mention of the story of ‘Ukashah when commemorating the beauty of the Muhammadan character. This was transmitted by Abu Nu’aym in Hilyat al-Awliya’ from Ibn ‘Abbas [that] he said: When “When comes the Help of Allah, and Victory” (110:1) to the end of the surah, was revealed, Muhammad said, “O Jibril! My death has been announced.” Jibril said, “The Hereafter will be better for you than the present and verily your Lord will give unto you until you are content.” (93:4-5) Then Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) commanded Bilal to make a call for congregational prayer. The Muhajirun and Ansar then congregated in the mosque and he prayed with the people. He then ascended the pulpit and praised and glorified Allah, and he delivered a sermon that made the hearts fearful and the eyes tearful.

Then he said: “O people! What [kind] of prophet have I been to you?” They said, “Allah reward you greatly for the Prophet [you have been], for verily, you were to us like a compassionate father and a well-wishing kind brother. You transmitted the messages of Allah and you conveyed to us His revelation, and you called to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching. So, Allah reward you on our behalf the best that He rewards a prophet on behalf of his people.”

Then he said: “Assemblies of Muslims! I adjure you by Allah and by my right over you, whoever has a complaint against me, let him stand and take retaliation from me before the retaliation on the Day of Resurrection.” An old man called ‘Ukashah [who was] amongst the Muslims stood and walked passed the Muslims until he stood before the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, “My father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah! Had you not adjured us more than once, I would not be one to offer any [complaint] against you. I was with you in battle, and when Allah gave us an opening and gave victory to His Prophet and we turned back, my she-camel drew parallel to your she-camel, so I descended from the she-camel and came close to you to kiss your thigh, but then you lifted a cane and hit my flank. I do not know if that was intentional on your part or you wanted to hit the she-camel.”

Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “I seek refuge for you in the glory of Allah, that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) intentionally struck [you]. O Bilal! Go to the house of Fatimah and bring a long cane.” Bilal left the mosque with his hands on his head, saying aloud, “This is the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) offering retaliation upon himself!” Then he knocked on the door of Fatimah and said, “O daughter of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)! Give me a long cane.” Fatimah said, “O Bilal! What will my father do with the cane? This is not the season of Hajj or war.” He said, “How unaware you are of the plight of your father! Verily, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) is entrusting the religion and departing the world and offering retaliation upon himself.” So Fatimah said, “And who is it that his soul has agreed to retaliating upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), O Bilal? Say to al-Hasan and al-Husayn to stand to this man and not let him take retaliation from the Messenger of Allah.”

Then, the Messenger of Allah gave the cane to ‘Ukashah. When Abu Bakr and ‘Umar saw that they said, “We are in front of you so take retaliation from us and do not take retaliation from Allah’s Messenger,” and the Messenger of Allah said to them, “Leave O Abu Bakr and you, O ‘Umar, for indeed Allah knows your place and your station.” ‘Ali stood and said, “O ‘Ukashah, in the life of this world, I was before Allah’s Messenger [i.e. in his service], and my soul does not agree with you hitting the Messenger of Allah; so this is my back and my belly, take retaliation from me and strike me a hundred strikes, and do not take retaliation from Allah’s Messenger.” Allah’s Messenger said, “O ‘Ali! Sit, for indeed Allah knows your station and your intention.” Then al-Hasan and al-Husayn stood and said, “O Ukashah do you not know that we are the grandchildren of the Messenger of Allah so retaliation upon us is like retaliation upon the Messenger of Allah?” He said to them, “Sit down O coolness of my eyes, Allah has not forgotten this station for you.”

Then, the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “O Ukashah! Strike if you are going to strike.” He said, “O Messenger of Allah! You struck me while I was uncovered.” Thereupon, he exposed his belly and the Muslims screamed out, crying, and said, “Do you believe ‘Ukasha is hitting the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)?” When ‘Ukashah saw the whiteness of his belly, he said, “My father and mother be sacrificed for you! My soul does not agree to retaliate upon you.” The Prophet said to him, “Either you strike or you pardon.” He said “I pardon you, hoping that Allah will pardon me on the Day of Resurrection.” The Prophet said, “Whoever wishes to see my companion in the Garden, let him look at this [man].” The Muslims stood and began kissing between the eyes of ‘Ukashah and they said, “Blessed are you! Blessed are you! You have reached the Highest Ranks and the companionship of Allah’s Messenger.”

The hadith is mentioned in its entirety in Kitab al-Mawdu’at by Ibn al-Jawzi. Ibn al-Jawzi said, “This is mawdu’ and its inventor was ‘Abd al-Mun’im,” meaning, ‘Abd al-Mun’im ibn Idris ibn Sinan, the narrator from his father from Wahb from Ibn ‘Abbas and from him Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn al-Bara and from him Sulayman ibn Ahmad al-Tabrani and from him Abu Nu’aym. Al-Suyuti agreed with him in al-La’ali al-Masnu’ah fi l-Ahadith al-Mawdu’ah and Ibn ‘Arraq inTanzih al-Shari’ah ‘an al-Ahadith al-Mawdu’ah and others.

Al-Dhahabi said in Mizan al-I’tidal fi Naqd al-Rijal:

‘Abd al-Mun’im ibn Idris al-Yamani, the famous story-teller, is not relied upon. More than one have abandoned his [narrations] and Ahmad ibn Hanbal clarified [this], saying, “He would lie upon Wahb ibn Munabbih”; Al-Bukhari said, “[He is] wasted in hadith (dhahib al-hadith)”; Al-‘Uqayli said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Anmati narrated to us: ‘Abd al-Mun’im ibn Idris narrated to us from his father from Wahb from Ibn ‘Abbas from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), “A fly does not fly between two [people] except by fate” and he [narrated] from his father from Wahb from Jabir and Ibn ‘Abbas a long account regarding the death of Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and that he gave a cane to ‘Ukashah to retaliate upon him. Ibn Hibban said, “He would fabricate hadiths upon his father and on others and he died in 228 H in Baghdad.” End

[It is] also [mentioned] therein [i.e. Mizan al-I’tidal]:

Idris ibn Sinan al-San’ani, the grandson of Wahb ibn Munabbih, was weakened by Ibn ‘Adi, and al-Daraqutni said [about him], “[He is] abandoned” and his son ‘Abd al-Mun’im ibn Idris [narrated] from him. He was mentioned by Ibn Hibban in his Tarikh. End

[It is mentioned] in Lisan al-Mizan by Hafiz ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani in the biography of ‘Abd al-Mun’im:

Ibn Abi Hatim transmitted from Isma’il ibn ‘Abd al-Karim: Idris died while ‘Abd al-Mun’im was an infant, and the same was said by Ahmad when asked about him: “he did not hear a thing from his father.” ‘Abd al-Khaliq ibn Mansur said [narrating] from Ibn Ma’in that he is a wicked liar (kadhdhab khabith) and according to Abu Zur’ah “[he is] weak in hadith” and al-Fallas said, “[He is] abandoned; he took the books of his father and narrated them and did not hear a thing from his father”. Abu Ahmad al-Hakim said, “[He is] wasted in hadith” and Ibn al-Madini said, “He is not trustworthy; he took books and narrated them” and al-Nasa’i said, “He is not trustworthy” and al-Saji said, “He would buy biographical works (kutub al-sirah) and narrate them; he did not hear them from his father, not even a part of it.” End

From them is what they mention at the commemoration of the Prophetic birth that the light of Muhammad (Allah bless him and grant him peace) was created from the light of Allah in the sense that His Holy Essence became a substance for his illuminated soul, and that He (Exalted is He) took a handful of His light and created from it his light. This is sophistic talk since the essence of our Lord (Glorified and Blessed is He) is transcendent beyond being a substance of [any] besides Him. Taking a handful of His light does not mean that a part of him was cut off and made into the light of His Prophet because the concomitant of that is divisibility (tajazzi) and other things that follow from that in His essence (Exalted is Him), Transcendent is Allah beyond that. That which brought them into this dark quandary is the outward [meaning] of the narration of ‘Abd al-Razzaq in his Musannaf from Jabir [that] he said: I said “O Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace)! My father and mother be sacrificed for you! Tell me of the first thing Allah created before all things.” He said, “O Jabir! Verily, Allah created the light of your Prophet from His light before all things, and He made that light turn by [His] Power wherever Allah wished, and at that time there was no Tablet and no Pen, no Garden and no Fire, no Angel and no Heaven, no earth and no sun and no moon, no jinni and no man.” The hadith is mentioned in its entirety in al-Mawahib al-Ludaniyyah and other [works].

They erred in understanding the Prophetic meaning and they do not know that the ascription (idafah) in his statement “from His light” is like the ascription in His (Exalted is He) statement in the story of the creation of Adam, “I breathed into him of My spirit” (15:29) and like His statement in the story of our master ‘Isa “a spirit from Him” (4:171) and like their statement, “The house of Allah” for the Ka’bah and mosques, and their statement, “The spirit of Allah” for ‘Isa, etc. Al-Zurqani said in Sharh al-Mawahib in the commentary of his statement, “from His light”:

[This is] an ascription of ennoblement (idafat al-tashrif) and to notify that he is a wonderful creation and that he has a rank which has a certain relationship with the esteemed lordship according to the meaning of His (Exalted is He) statement “and He breathed into him from His spirit.” This is a rhetorical (bayaniyyah) [sentence], meaning: “from the light of His essence”, not in the sense that it is a substance for the creation of his light, rather in the sense of the [Divine] Will pertained to it without the mediation of anything when bringing it into existence. End.

He also said some pages before this:

As for what is mentioned that Allah took a handful of the light of His Face and cast a look at it so it perspired and dropped, so Allah created out of every drop a prophet, and that the handful was the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and he was like a brilliant star, and that the entire world was created out of it and he was existent before his parents were created and he memorised the Qur’an before Jibril came to him and things like these, Hafiz Abu l-‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Taymiyah said in his Fatawaand Hafiz ibn Kathir quoted it in his Tarikh and agreed with him that all these things are fabricated lies about his speech by agreement of the people of knowledge. End


The primacy and the definite priority of the creation of the Muhammadan light are established in the narration of ‘Abd al-Razzaq. The hadith, “The first of what Allah created is my light” is famous amongst the story-tellers, although it is a hadith not established in this form, even though other [narrations] were narrated that agree with it in meaning. Al-Suyuti said in his commentary onJami’ al-Tirmidhi called Qut al-Mughtadhi when commenting on the hadith, “Verily the first that Allah created is the Pen”:

Zayn al-‘Arab said in Sharh al-Masabih: “This hadith is contradicted by that which was narrated that ‘the first that Allah created was the Intellect’, and ‘the first that Allah created was my light’, and ‘the first that Allah created was the Spirit’, and ‘the first that Allah created was the Throne.’ Its response is that the primacy of things is relative, so it is understood that each of what was mentioned was first in its [own] genus. Hence, the pen was created before all bodies, his (upon him blessings and peace) light was created before all lights, and the hadith of the Intellect is understood as the first that Allah created of subtle bodies is the Intellect, and from the dense [bodies] is the Throne, so there is no contradiction between any of them.” [Here] ends the statement of Zayn al-‘Arab. I say: the hadith of Intellect is fabricated and the other three were not narrated with this wording so the interpretation is dispensable.

I say: similar to “the first that Allah created is my light” in not being established textually but having been transmitted in meaning, is that which is famous on the tongues of the story-tellers and the general and the elite of the hadith, “Were it not for you, I would not have created the celestial bodies”. ‘Ali al-Qari said inTadhkirat al-Mawdu’at:

[Regarding] the hadith, “Were it not for you, I would not have created the celestial bodies,” al-‘Asqalani said, “[It is]mawdu‘”, as [mentioned] in al-Khulasah. However, its meaning is correct, since al-Daylami narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas in marfu’ form: Jibril came to me and said: Allah said, “O Muhammad! Were it not for you, I would not have created the Garden and were it not for you I would not have created the Fire.” End

Al-Qastallani mentioned in al-Mawahib al-Laduniya and al-Zurqani in its commentary that al-Hakim transmitted in hisMustadrak from ‘Umar in marfu’form that Adam saw the name “Muhammad” written on the throne and Allah said to Adam, “Were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created you.” Abu l-Shaykh in Tabaqat al-Asfahaniyyin and al-Hakim narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas: Allah revealed to ‘Isa, “Believe in Muhammad and command your people to believe in him for were it not for Muhammad, I would not have created Adam or the Garden or the Fire and indeed I created the Throne on water and it shook, so I wrote on it: ‘No deity but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’” ‘Amr ibn Aws is in its sanad and he is unknown. Al-Dhahabi said: According to al-Daylami from Ibn ‘Abbas who elevated it [to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)], “Jibril came to me and said: Indeed Allah says ‘Were it not for you, I would not create the Garden and were it not for you, I would not create the Fire.’”

Similar [is the narration] that has become famous on the tongues of story-tellers of the hadith, “I was a Prophet while Adam was between water and clay” and in a narration, “I was a Prophet and there was no Adam, no water and no clay,” because al-Sakhawi inal-Maqasid al-Hasanah, while explaining many of the hadiths which are common on the tongues, and al-Suyuti in al-Durar al-Muntashirah fi l-Akhbar al-Mushtahirah and others clarified that it is mawdu’ with this wording. Yes, it is established from al-Hakim in his Mustadrakand authenticated by Abu Nu’aym in Hilyat al-Awliya’  and al-Bukhari in his Tarikh and Ahmad in his Musnad from Maysarah al-Dabbi: I said, “O Messenger of Allah! When were you a Prophet?” He said, “While Adam was between spirit and body.” According to al-Bayhaqi and Ahmad, [they narrated] from the hadith of al-‘Irbad ibn Sariyah inmarfu’ form, “Verily I was the Seal of the Prophets by Allah while Adam was still in clay” and according to al-Tirmidhi, [he narrated] from Abu Hurayrah that they [i.e. the Companions] said, “O Messenger of Allah! When was prophethood incumbent upon you?” He said, “While Adam was between spirit and body.”

From them is what the preachers mention while commemorating the Muhammadan beauty that one night a needle dropped from the hand of ‘A’ishah and she lost it, and she searched for it and could not find it, so the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) laughed and the radiance of his teeth appeared, illuminating the chamber, and ‘A’ishah saw the needle with that light. Although this is mentioned in Ma’arij al-Nubuwwah and other biographical works that combine both wet and dry [i.e. sound and unsound reports] so none relies on everything that is in them besides a sleepy or drowsy person, it is, nonetheless, not established by narration or meaning.

From them is what they mention when commemorating the Muhammadan hearing that he hears the blessings of one who sends blessings on him without any mediation, though he is far. This is false and not established by any narration. Rather, its opposite is established. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “One who sends blessings on me near my grave I hear it, and one who sends blessings on me from a distance, Allah appointed an Angel who conveys it me. It will suffice him for his world and hereafter [and] I will intercede for him on the Day of Judgment.” Al-Bayhaqi inShu’ab al-Iman, Abu l-Shaykh inKitab al-Thawab and Al-‘Uqayli inKitab al-Du’afa’ transmitted it, and it has corroborative reports (shawahid) which were elaborated by Al-Suyuti in Al-La’ali al-Masnu’ah and Ibn ‘Arraq in Tanzih al-Shar’iah.

From them is what they mention that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) attends personally the gatherings commemorating his birth upon the mention of his birth, and they built on this [the practice of] standing (qiyam) when mentioning the birth in respect and honour. This is also a falsehood from the falsehoods, which is not established by any proof. The mere supposition and possibility [of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) attending] is outside the limit of this explanation.

Such stories as we mentioned are many. The preachers of the Muhammadan excellence and the Ahmadi birth (Allah bless him and grant him peace) evoke them, despite their fabrication and [despite] not being established, with the belief on their part that in mentioning the eminence of the Muhammadan stature is a great reward and an immense virtue, ignorant of the great sin due on one who lies upon the Prophet (upon him prayer and peace) in regards to a statement, an action or a beautiful or perfect description, as clear reports and authentic narrations prove.

In sum, it is necessary for every Muslim to be careful in these matters, and not mention anything except after revising it and verifying it from the reliable books of the reliable scholars, and not dare mention all that his nature concocts or is mentioned by all those who have passed before him if they are from those who gather the bad and the good (al-ghathth wa l-samin), and do not differentiate between north and south, because it is a great sin and immense treachery.

Al-Athar al-Marfu’ah fi l-Akhbar al-Mawdu’ah, pp.16-35 (FromMajmu’ah Rasa’il al-Lakhnawi, volume 5, Edited by: Na’im Ashraf Nur Ahmad, Published by:Intisharat Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad Jami)


The Difference between Bid`ah-e-Hasanah & Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah

[By Maulana Sarfaraz Khan Safdar (rahimahullah)]

It is imperative that we differentiate and explain Bid`ah-e-Hasanah and Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah so as to clarify the issue with those who are unaware of the difference and so that they are not left in trepidation regarding the two.

There are two types of Bid`ah – lexicographic Bid`ah and Shar`i Bid`ah. Lexicographic Bid`ah is the term given to all things which are newly invented, which came into being after the demise of Nabi ﷺ. This includes Ibaadat and Aadat (habitual things). These are divided into five categories: Waajib, Mandoob, Haraam, Makrooh and Mubaah.

Shar`i Bid`ah includes all those innovations which came into being after the three best eras and upon which there is no consent from Nabi ﷺ by way of word, action, clearly or by indication. This is that Bid`ah which is classified under Bid`ah-e-Dhalaalah, Bid`ah-e-Qabeehah and Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah. The Ulama have dilated upon this.

“Bid`ah is of two types: one is a lexicographic Bid`ah and the other is a Shar`i Bid`ah. Lexicographically, Bid`ah is every new invention which includes Ibaadaat and Aadaat. This Bid`ah is further divided into five categories. The second type is that Bid`ah which increases (or decreases) in any revealed Deeni matter after the passing of the three best  era. This increase is devoid of consent from Nabi ﷺ. There  is no consent from Nabi ﷺ on these actions, neither by way of word, action, explicit or by indication. This is the meaning of Bid`ah-e-Dhalaalat” [Tarweejul  Jinaan/Junna page 161]

For a more detailed explanation on Bid`ah-e-Hasanah and Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah refer to Irshaadus Saari, vol.3, page 344, Umdatul Qaari, page 356, vol.5, Nawawi Sharah Muslim, page 285, vol.1 and  Mudkhal, page 257, vol.2.

Haafidh Ibn Hajar (rahmatullahi alaihi) writes:

“The crux of the matter is this that if Bid`ah has an acceptable proof in the Shariah, then it would be classified as a Bid`ah-e-Hasanah. If the Bid`ah has an unacceptable proof then it would be classified as Bid`ah-e-Qabeehah. Otherwise it would be Mubaah. Bid`ah is divided into five categories.” [Fathul Baari, page 219, vol.4]

A similar explanation is given in Allamah Aini’s Umdatul Qaari. Refer to page 356, vol.5.

Now this much remains to be explained, that what is acceptable in the Shariah and what is unacceptable in the Shariah. Hadhrat Imaam Shaafi (rahmatullahi alaihi) states:

“Bid`ah is of two types. That Bid`ah which contradicts the Kitaab (Qur`aan Majeed), Sunnah, Ijma or Athar of a Sahaabi. This is Bid`ah-e-Dhalaalah. That Bid`ah which does not contradict anything of these, this is a Hasan Bid`ah, in accordance to the words of Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu):‘This is a good Bid`ah’” [Minhaajus Sunnah, page 128, vol.2]

That action which Nabi ﷺ left out notwithstanding the conditions and ability being in existence during his era and that the Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiyallahu anhum) and Taabieen also left out is undoubtedly a Bid`ah and deviation. This is so because it is in contradiction to the Kitaab, Sunnat, Ijma of the best of eras and Qiyaas. If there exists a little proof for it, then sometimes it may be a good action, whereupon reward is due and sometimes it is merely a permissible action which warrants neither reward nor sin.

The summary of the discussion of Qiyaas in Majaalis-e-Abrar and the above-mentioned texts, results in the definition of Bid`ah-e-Hasanah and Bid`ah-e-Sayyiah is as follows:

Bid`ah-e-Hasanah is that action whose prevention was removed after the demise of Nabi ﷺ. Or its conditions and ability  of execution came into existence after Nabi ﷺ. Some proof for its execution can be found in Kitaabullaah, Sunnat, Ijma or Qiyaas. This is known as Bid`ah-e-Hasanah or in other words it is also regarded as lexicographic Bid`ah, which is not rejected or accursed. The texts of Allaamah Ibn Rajab etc. has already been quoted which adds more light on the subject.

As for that action, which could have been executed during the era of Nabi ﷺ but he did not carry it out and the Sahaabah-e-Kiraam, Taabieen and Tabe Taabieen, notwithstanding their extreme love and affection for Nabi ﷺ also did not carry out this action, then such actions are called Bid`ah-e-Qabeeha, Bid`ah-e-Sayyia and Bid`ah-e-Shar`iah.   Besides this, the Ijtihaad of a non-Mujtahid, especially in our times, is definitely not classified as Bid`ah-e-Hasanah. In this regard the Fuqahaa-e-Kiraam (rahmatullahi alaihim) have stated:

“It is stated in Nisaabul Fiqh that Bid`ah-e-Hasanah are those actions which the Aimmah-e-Mujtahiddeen have classified as Bid`ah-e-Hasanah. If any person in our era classifies anything as Bid`ah-e-Hasanah then this is contrary to the Haqq, because it is stated in Musaffa that all Bid`ah in our era are deviation.” [Fatawaa Jaamiur Riwaayat and Junna, page 60]

From this text we clearly see that Bid`ah-e-Hasanah is only that which the Aimmah-e-Mujtahiddeen have classified as such. Ijtihaad and Qiyaas are only permissible in those issues and Masaa`il regarding which no Qur`aanic or Ahaadith texts exist, and the conditions and possibility of their execution did not exist during the time of Nabi ﷺ and the best of eras, in fact, it (conditions and possibilities of execution) came into existence only after these eras. If any person in this present age classifies any new action as a Bid`ah-e-Hasanah, then his claim would be totally rejected and discounted.

This is that Bid`ah regarding which Mujaddid Alfe Thaani (rahmatullahi alaihi) stated:

“How can those things which are rejected ever be regarded as Hasan and good?”

Who Split The Moon??


[A.U. ASIF, Darbhanga]

It was the historic date of May 4, 1967 when the U.S.A. launched the ‘Orbiter-4’ from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The mission was to photograph 95% of the lunar surface. On May 11, 1967 a wide angle picture was taken of the hidden side of the moon from an altitude of about 3000 kms. This photograph, bearing the number 67-1805, shows a straight-line crack on the moon’s surface which is estimated to be about 240 kms. long and up to eight kms. wide in places.

A careful study of the picture shows that this straight-line crack has the following features.

* The cracks by natural causes are never found in a straight line. They are always irregular or in waves. But this crack is in a perfectly straight line which shows that it must have come about owing to something unnatural.

¤ It has marked raised rims.

¤ It is near the south pole of the moon on the side hidden from view to the Earth.

¤ The centre of the straight-line crack is located at about 65 degrees south and 105 degrees east.

¤ This crack on the lunar surface cuts through several large older craters and is itself cut and partly obliterated by a small younger crater about its center.


Later on, this straight-line crack was also photographed by the astronauts, Armstrong and Aldrin, from 63 miles above the moon. This crack too is visible in the numerous photographs brought by the Apollo mission.

Now, passing through a paragraph on page 169 in the Gospel of Barnabas, we get Jesus Christ predicting: “Verily, I say to you that the moon shall minister sleep to him in his boyhood, and when he shall be grown up he shall take her in his hands. Let the world beware of casting him out because he shall slay the idolaters…”

Again, we find Arius, the bearer of the original teachings of Jesus Christ, calculating and informing Salman Farsi that Jesus of Nazareth had foretold that the comforter, the promised Prophet, would disclose himself to the world by a miracle that would be done by him in 617 A.D. The miracle would be seen simultaneously over large areas of the then known earth, he predicted. We get also the following verse in the chapter ‘The Moon’ in the Holy Quran:

The hour drew nigh and the moon was split into two parts (each part of the moon moving away from the other)’ [Qur’an 54:1].


After going through the Biblical teachings and the Qur’anic verse, let us now see what the history tells:

It was the full-moon night of the 14th of the lunar month of Rajab, in the eighth year after Prophethood and five years before Hijrah i.e., corresponding to 617 A.D. On this Friday night (the period after sunset on Thursday) a group of Pagans along with a group of Jews came to Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) and challenged him that if he was the Prophet of the God, he should prove it by splitting the moon into two. The Pagan challengers comprised Abu Jah-bin-Hashan, Aas Ibnil Vail, Aswad bin Mutallib and several Jewish elders. Prophet Mohammad went on top of surrounding height known as Abu Kubais and at a ‘sign of his finger, the moon was split into two’. one piece going in one direction and the other in another direction. The time was approximately three hours after sunset at Mecca.


The Muslim witnesses on the spot at the time were: Ali Ibne Abu Taleb, Zubair bin ­Mutam Naufil, Anas Bin Malik, Abdullah-Bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Omar Farooq, Huzaifa Ibnil Yaman (radhiyallahu anhum).

All the disbelievers (the Jews) and the believers ran to their homes and informed their relatives about the happening. Thus this miracle was seen by the whole of Mecca.

Abdullah bin Masood (radhiyallahu anhu) was at this moment at Minah about 6 to 8 miles away. He also saw it there. People of all the neighbouring towns and villages, despatched by Abu Jahl bin Hashim, confirmed seeing the moon split into two on that eventful night. It was also seen in Syria and Palestine. The caravans arriving at Mecca from these countries confirmed that all the local people of the numerous towns in these countries had also seen it with great amazement

[Pages 418.423, Vol. II – Tafrihul Askia Fil Ahwal-ul­ Ambia].

In India

Raja Bhoj, King of Dhar – a town near the Chambal river in Malwa plateau on the western side of central India, was enjoying a quiet mid­night in his palace garden, where he saw the moon split into two halves, which moved away from each other. Frightened at this sight, he raised an alarm thinking the destruction of the world was at hand. This disturbing sight was witnessed by hundreds of thousands of people of central India.


The pandits searched through various Sanskrit books and pointed out from `Bhavishya Purana’ (Chaper XVII: C-3) that it had been foretold that a great personage would be born in Arabia, whose name would be Mohammad and who would influence the world with his teachings. The splitting of the moon would be one of his miracles. That those who would not follow the teachings of this great Prophet would eventually be losers in earth and in the next life. Then Raja Bhoj immediately sent his Prime Minister to Arabia. He met Prophet Mohammad at Mecca and became Muslim. The Prophet gave the name of ‘Abdullah’ for Raja Bhoj. When his Prime Minister returned, Raja Bhoj gladly became Muslim adopting the name Abdullah. The shrine of this King Abdullah alias Bhoj is still in existence just outside the town of Dhar. [Page 10, Asrar–e–Tasovuff, published in Lahore, May, 1925 edition].

There was a merchant traveller Sahu, son of Joginder, who lived at Tarbandan. He too saw the splitting of the moon on this eventful night. There was a big uproar in the Delhi area where thousands of people witnessed this miracle. They also found out from the Sanskrit records that this miracle had been performed by the tenth or final Avtar this world would have. Those who would not follow him would be doomed eventually in this life and the next. Sabu later on embraced Islam.

Thus the straight-line crack, photographed by orbitter-4, and the Apollo mission, is nothing but the sign of the demonstration of the splitting of the moon in 617 A.D. by Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him).

[Radiance, Delhi, India]

What’s in a Beard??


[A brief article on the importance of keeping a beard with answers to some common misconceptions in the light of Qur’aan and Hadith]

The position that Islam has, or will have, in the world has a great deal to do with how the Muslims look at it, and to what extent they practice on its teachings. There was a time when Islam was running through every vein in a Muslim’s body, and his actions were a living portrait of the glory and beauty of Islam, so the flag of Islam fluttering proudly in the sky, lifted by the winds of success. The non-Muslims could not dare to question Islamic concepts, because living examples of Islamic perfection were in front of them. When the spirit of Islam started drifting away from the hearts of the Muslims, their bodies were no longer inclined to take all measures, undergo all hardships to practice their flawless religion. The new place for Islam was not a strong firm heart, but a dark, dusty corner in the human mind. It would no longer be nurtured and cared for, upheld and protected by the warmth of love and devotion, but would now be probed and dissected by the cold, merciless and unfeeling instruments of intellect, theory and logic. It was no longer a deep feeling, a faith or way of life, but had become a set of rules, a doctrine or constitution like the ones made by man, to be amended and abridged at will.

Where did we go wrong? The answer is simple. We left the pattern of life of our dear Prophet ﷺ who spent his days and nights, his sweat and blood, trying to teach us, and turned to what others had to offer. If we want our respect, dignity and position of honor back, we must revert to that same pattern. This is why the subject of the noble practices of Rasulullah’s ﷺ Sunnah, holds so much weight. This article has been compiled as a reminder of one of the very important Sunnahs – the beard. We hope that the readers will not only read it carefully, but will make a concerned effort to convey the information to others.

Allah Ta’ala prefers people who sin and admit their mistakes, over those who do good deeds and behave in a conceited manner. Its unfortunate that today we disobey Allah and instead of admitting it, find some sort of excuse to justify our misdeeds, even if it means criticizing the Shariah or inventing our own guidelines for what is important in Islam and what isn’t. Below are some common excuses and reasons people use to explain why they don’t keep a beard. If you examine these with an objective, Islamic mind you will see how weak and baseless they really are.  The purpose of this article is not to condemn anyone or label anyone under a certain category but, when we say ‘Islamic awareness’ it means Islamic awareness in its entirety, not just what seems appealing. And that is what we are trying to do, so that  each Muslim can at least know what is expected from him. The ability to practice comes from Allah.

1. One argument that is commonly heard is that the Qur’an is silent on the issue of the beard. To answer this we ask, “Where in the Qur’an does it say that we are only supposed to act  on what is in the Qur’an, and reject the teachings of Rasulullah ﷺ?”

The Qur’an very clearly states:

‘Obey Allah and the Prophet ﷺ’ (Quraan)

There are many commandments that are necessary for us to fulfill, but are  not mentioned in the Qur’an. Take for example the number of Raka’ts in each Salaat.  They have been explained to us by Rasulullah ﷺ  yet there is no objection on the authenticity and importance of the matter. To  acceptance Rasulullah’s ﷺ  instructions and reject others on the basis that they are not found in the Qur’an amounts to mocking his flawless teachings. 

2. Some people forsake keeping a beard, claiming that the reformation of the heart and purification of the soul is their first priority. They argue that it doesn’t matter if one doesn’t keep a beard, so long as the heart is clean. 

This type of reason is a symptom of one’s misunderstanding (or ignorance) of the basic Islamic fundamentals and concepts. The heart that is actually pure will lead it’s beholder to complete obedience of Allah and his Prophet ﷺ. It defies logic to think that one can have a heart free of all corruptive elements and at the same time sin persistently, not wanting to adopt the noble appearance of the Holy Prophet ﷺ. Everyone will agree that a ‘pure’ heart will definitely contain the love of Allah. Allah says that if you love me, you must follow the Prophet ﷺ. If you do so, your love for Allah will prove true, and only then will Allah love you in return. 

“Say, (O Muhammad, to mankind): If ye love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you…” (Quraan)

Therefore, it should be correct to say that love for Allah and the disobedience of his Prophet ﷺ are two opposite things, and can never be in a person’s heart at the same time.  
3. There is another claim that shaving is only a minor sin.

First of all, since intentionally omitting an obligatory commandment is a major sin, and growing a beard is obligatory (as you will see ahead), it is wrong to say that shaving is a minor sin. It should be known that repetitively and persistently committing minor sins is itself a major sin. That means that for each minute that this act continues, the sin will keep accumulating and will become more weightier than major acts of disobedience, as these latter sins do not progressively increase after the act is over.

4. Some say that Rasulullah ﷺ kept a beard merely because it was an Arabic custom in those days. Since shaving is now regarded as the norm and the fashionable thing to do, if the Prophet ﷺ was present with us, he would do the same. (May Allah forgive the Muslims who utter such foolish words, and may he give them the opportunity to repent before they die.)

The Arabs, amongst other things, used to bury their daughters alive, answer the call of nature in public , perform Tawaaf naked around Ka’bah and braid their beards,  indulge in gambling and drinking wine. The Prophet ﷺ shunned these acts and strictly prohibited his followers from them. However, amongst his teachings is that keeping a beard is an act of Islam, a sign of Muslims, and he ordered the believers  to grow their beards in opposition to the non-believers who were accustomed to cutting their beards.

“Oppose the pagans! Grow your beards long and trim your mustaches.”  

5. There is yet another group of people who, despite knowing the unlawfulness of shaving their beard, claim that if they were to keep beards would lose esteem in the eyes of the people and no longer be looked at in the same way.

Before we respond, we should explain to these idealists what the true meaning of respect, dignity and honor is. We will mention that if someone only likes a person when they make their appearance in a certain way and despises them otherwise that’s not really liking the person. It’s just getting them to look a certain way that appeals to them, the same goes for respect. Respect is not gained on the material attributes an individual possesses, but is due to the abstract qualities within.

Secondly, Allah Ta’ala has clearly stated that the non-Muslims will never be satisfied with us until we get caught up in trying to please them that we lose our own senses, moral values, and eventually become one of them. If that is what we yearn, then we are opening ourselves up to the wrath and displeasure of Allah. 

Thirdly, if we are looking to earn respect in the eyes of non-Muslims, or expecting to get respect because of them, we are in great deception. How is it possible to get respect from something or someone that Allah has made devoid of?

How true are the words from Hazrat Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu):

‘We were the most degraded people, but Allah gave respect through Islam. If we were to seek respect through a medium other than that which Allah has bestowed us with respect, he would surely hurl us into the pits of disgrace.’  

These were just a few general answers to the questions usually raised regarding this issue.

To justify the permissibility of shaving  the beard by saying that it is ‘merely’ a Sunnah and shrug it off with  unimportance is not correct. It should  be clear that when we say “the beard is a Sunnah”, it revolves around the fact that it was one of the many noble  practices of Rasulullah ﷺ. The Prophet ﷺ didn’t just keep a beard, he also  ordered the Muslims to grow them, and showed his anger and displeasure to  those who shaved in his time. All the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum), Tabi’een and the righteous Khulafa  meticulously observed this practice. All these elements serve to prove that it is obligatory (Waajib) for a Muslim to  keep a beard. This fact alone is enough for someone to accept that the  growing of a beard is a commandment  and must be fulfilled. However, for  the benefit of our fellow Muslims and  as a reference, we will list some facts. 

“From among the natural practices of Islam is the trimming of the mustache and fully growing the beard. The fire-worshippers grow their mustaches long and cut their beards. Do the opposite: trim mustaches and let your beards grow long.”

For those individuals who think there may be the proverbial difference of opinion among the scholars’ on this matter, the following facts are noted.

In the Shafi’ee book, Al-Lubab, Imam Ibn Ar-Rifaah says that Imaam Shafi’ee in his book, Kitaab-ul-Umm, has clearly stated that shaving the beard is Haraam.  The Maliki School of thought, as expressed in Kitabul Ibaadah and Al-Lihya-fil Islam, says that to shave the beard is Haraam and to trim it in such a way that it changes ones natural and facial features is also haram. Sheikh-ul Islam Ibn Taimiyyah has also given the verdict of shaving the beard being Haraam, and has further listed all the Ahadith in which we have been commanded to oppose the actions of non-Muslims. He then comments that Shari’ah orders us to oppose them and if we adopt their appearances it will create the kind of love and friendship for them which is prohibited and which we should be trying to avoid.

Allama Qurtubi states that shaving the beard, pulling the hair out and shortening it are all not permissible.

Imam Ibn Hazam Zahiri has quoted a consensus of the Ulama that to cut the mustache and lengthen the beard is Fardh.

The author of Manhal, in his commentary of Abu Dawood says:  
“Therefore, to shave the beard is haraam according to the Muslim jurists Abu Hanifa, Maalik, Shafi’ee, Ahmed and others”.

The author of Durr Mukhtar states:

“None of the scholars have declared it (shaving the beard) as permissible. This is sufficient in proving a consensus of all the scholars of Deen, from the time of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) to the present day, on the obligation of keeping a beard. Now that we know it is Waajib What’s in a  Beard?, we should study the details of the length of the beard as determined by the  Shari’ah.

Some individuals accept the concept of the beard, but form their own conclusions regarding the length, based on their own research. This is not an appropriate way to look at Shari’ah. Just as it is necessary to consult Ulama in matters pertaining to worship, marital affairs and beliefs, it is also imperative to refer to them for guidance in matters of Sunnah practices. Otherwise we will not be able to practice the Deen as a whole. We will end up taking what seems appropriate to us and discarding whatever we dislike. This will result in a direct breach of Allah’s orders.

“O believers! Enter into Islam completely”.  

There is a common misconception that the requirement for an Islamic beard is that it must be visible from forty feet. If the beard fits this description it is in perfect order and there is no set length for the beard in the Shari’ah. This view is no more than a combination of speculation and presumption based on opinion and has nothing to do with Islamic principles or any reliable source of information. The Shari’ah has determined that the beard is one fist. How one fist? First of all, let us look at the words. The Prophet ﷺ used to tell the Ummah to grow their beards.  Imam Nawawi  states  the  Prophet ﷺ used four  terms, at various occasions for this purpose.


All of them mean “to fully elongate, lengthen”. The  last word Irkhawa means to  unreservedly expand the length of  something.

Once a disciple of Khabab (radhiyallahu anhu) asked him how the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhu) knew that Rasulullah ﷺ used to be reciting Quran in Zuhr and Asr prayers. He replied “By observing the movement of the blessed beard (not chin) of Rasulullah ﷺ we could tell that he was reciting.” In a Hadith of Tirmizi it is related, “Rasulullah ﷺ had a very thick beard.” Ibn Jawzi has reported from Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) that Rasulullah ﷺ had a fully grown beard.

Whenever the Prophet ﷺ ordered us to do something, his own actions defined the method of that act. This is the case in all matters of Deen, and the beard is no exception. For more details we look at how the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) emulated his actions, because they had seen him and had directly learned from him. Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) has relied on the actions of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) as a yardstick to gauge and define the sayings and practices of Rasulullah ﷺ. Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), for example, was known for his care in strictly following the Sunnah. Imam Bukhari (rahimahullah) states:

“When Ibn Umar performed Hajj or Umrah, he used to hold his beard with his clasped fist, and cut the hair exceeding it.” 

The same is narrated about Hazrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) and Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu). This narration is also quoted in Imam Mohammed’s Kitabul Athaar. No doubt remains that the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) used to grow their beards quite long during the year, and trim them back to one fist’s length after hajj or Umrah. The beard of the Prophet ﷺ himself was so thick that it covered his upper chest in length and width.

Based on the evidence and facts from Hadith we can determine the real definition of the beard in the Shari’ah. The scholars of Deen have unanimously come to the same conclusions mentioned previously.

Allama ibn Hummam in his famous book Fathul Qadeer states:

“To trim the beard when it is less than one fist in length, like some westerners do, is the way of the hermaphrodites, and none of the scholars have declared it  permissible.”

The decision most accepted by the Shafi’ee scholars is to leave the beard as it is when it exceeds one fist’s length. This is the ruling of the Hanafis as well. With the addition that if it is longer than one fist, it is desirable that it be cut back to the fist length. The  Maaliki scholars also say that if the beard grows exceptionally long, it should be trimmed down to one fist. Although a great deal can be written on this subject, it is the writer’s humble opinion that the information provided is sufficient for anyone desiring some general knowledge on the topic and willing to practice upon it.

Even though cutting the beard is a practice of non-Muslims, you may be surprised to know that there are some distinguished individuals amongst them who disagree with the concept. Below are the excerpts of a thesis written by an American, Dr. Charles Homer.

“A correspondent has asked me to invent some sort of electronically operated needle, to reduce the time wasted daily on shaving. I do not understand why people dread and tremble at the thought of having a beard. People grow hair on their heads, so why do they regard it as incorrect, defective and unacceptable to have hair on their face? When the hair fails to grow on the head, then baldness is regarded as a defect, and a cause of shame. Every effort is made to hide it. Yet, it is surprising that a man will daily remove hair from his face, depriving himself from that which is a most evident sign of manhood, without a bit of shame.
“the beard and mustache give the human being’s face strength of manhood, a stead fast character, individual integrity and exclusive identity. His survival and safety too are tied to this brave appearance. These are the only hair that differentiate the males from the females. The hair in all  the other parts of the body are common between the male and female. Women, deep in their consciences, are more appreciative of men with beards and mustaches. Profoundly, they prefer a male with a beard to the ones without this manly facial feature.

“Outwardly it would appear that they dislike the beard and mustache. The only reason for this is that they have bound themselves to follow unrealistic friends and the latest fashion in dress and, unfortunately, these days the beard and mustache are out of fashion. A little bit of hair before the nostrils and the mouth acts as a filter against harmful dust and germs entering the nose and the mouth. A lengthy and thick beard protect the throat from colds.

“A person with a beard has never forsaken his wife. A person with a beard always upholds the honor of the beard that is demanded from him. It gives him that prestige and position that is befitting only for males.

“How unreal it is, that a full grown adult desires that his face appears like that of a child. God had created the beard and the mustache for the male adult to adorn his face with them. Whoever laughs and mocks at those with beards is in act laughing and mocking Jesus, because Jesus had a beard.” 

Dr Homer’s statement speaks for itself and needs no explanation, but his concluding words are a real eye-opener for us Muslims. After nineteen centuries have passed he still honours his Prophet Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam) so much that he classifies that person who laughs at the beard as having directly insulted Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam), because it was his noble practice to keep a beard. For the Muslims who claim to have true love for Rasulullah ﷺ but fall short of following in his footsteps, it is time to face up to the reality and to accept their responsibilities. We ask Allah to forgive us all our shortcomings in obeying Him and His Prophet ﷺ and to ask Him to grant us the ability to truly repent for our mistakes and live a life that pleases Him. 

Ref: The Beard of A Muslim and its importance, Shaikh Zakaria (rahimahullah)  

The Beard: A Hallmark of Imaan, Mufti Ashiq Ilahi (rahimahullah)

The ‘Hanafi Stance’ Regarding The Black Magic Spell Cast on the Prophet ﷺ

By Bassam Zawadi

It is claimed by some that the so-called Hanafi stance on the story of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is that its a concoction and an insult to the  Prophet’s stature.  

The vast majority of Muslim scholars  have accepted this story to be true  however and have argued that it does nothing to impugn the Prophets  character, or his status as the  Messenger of Allah.

Muslim scholars have offered two lines of proposed assessments of the story. 1) What happened to the Prophet (peace be upon him) was a form of illness and this is not impossible for Prophets, nor does it impugn their character and prophethood. This doesn’t affect the  reliability of his deliverance of the message, which is what Allah’s promise  for protection ultimately ensured to secure, and 2) The magic only affected the Prophets (peace be upon him) limbs and organs, but it did not affect his heart, beliefs  and intellectual capacity to convey the revelation being sent to him (i.e. it only had  a significant affect on him on the outside, but not in the inside).  

Secondly, its not true to characterize  the rejection of this incident as a Hanafi stance just because a few Hanafi  scholars may have rejected the story.  An example being Abi Bakr al-Jassas who may have likely done so due to his  Mutazilite inclinations. Regardless of  what motivated his rejection of the  story, al-Jassas doesn’t speak on behalf of the entire Hanafi school!. Rather, we find that the Hanafis have either accepted this story  as either true or narrated it without objecting to it.  Below we present at least five examples of these Hanafi scholars.  

1)  Abi Ja’far at-Tahawi (d. 321 A.H.) narrates two ahaadeeth mentioning the incident of the Prophet having a  spell casted upon him and after that  proceeds on to argue that black magic  has remained a real part of our world  up until the time of the Prophet, and  consequently remains so up until ours as well…. [Sharh Mushkil al-Athaar, (al-Risaala, 1st edition, 1994; edited Shuab al-Arna’ut, Volume 15, pp.179-181]

These two ahadeeth indicate that  black magic remained existing until the time the Prophet (peace be upon him) was influenced by black magic. If it (i.e. black magic) remained until that time, then its existence even after that is possible as well.


2)  Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 333 A.H.) in his commentary of the Qur’an makes  mention of the incident without any  display of criticism or rejection of it. In fact, he mentions it as a valid opinion  when it comes to explaining the  historical context of the revelation of Surah 113 and even goes further to demonstrate that the story serves as a proof for the prophethood of  Muhammad (peace be upon him) because the story demonstrated that he was able to overcome this trial…


But according to us fi maa QEELA  [regarding what had been said], i.e. that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was influenced by magic, there are two means of demonstrating his Messengership and Prophethood:

One of them is that, that the Prophet knew via revelation about the black  magic spell casted on him. For this was done secretly, and no one could have known about it except via revelation.

Secondly: The recitation of the Quran  quashes the effect of magic, just as the  staff of Musa (peace be upon him)  destroyed the effect of Pharaohs  tricks. [Taweelat Ahlussuah, (al-Risaala, 1st edition, 2004; edited  by Fatima Yusuf), Volume 5, p. 543]  

Some have tried to suggest that when al-Maturidi says fi  maa  Qeela, that he is using Qeela as a seeghat tamridh in order to signify that the opinion regarding the veracity of this story is weak. However, its very critical  that  one pays close attention to not only the methodology of al-Maturidi, but also the context itself. The word Qeela which literally translates to it was said, could actually be used to mean just that (i.e. relaying what has been said about a certain matter).

Dr. Majdi Baslum in his introduction to the commentary of al-Maturidi (Taweelat Ahlussunnah) says that al-Maturidi commonly uses Qeela to either eliminate the isnad or to simply present a list of opinions about a matter before he proceeds on to  critically assess each one of them. In other words, al-Maturidi would often use Qeela in the basic linguistic sense of it. And when we look back at his  comments on the incident of the  black magic spell cast on the Prophet  (peace be upon him), we precisely  see that  this is how he is using it. Its difficult to read the Qeela here as a  seeghat tamridh without imposing it upon the text and even if we assume for the sake of argument that this is indeed the case, what is crystal clear is that al-Maturidi had no theological objections to the story itself. On the contrary, he  saw it as a potential positive argument for the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him).  

3) Abi al-Layth as-Samarqandi  (d. 373 A.H.) in his Quranic  commentary explains the historical context of Surah 113:5 to be referring to the story of the Prophet being affected by Labid the magician…


Allah All-Mighty said: And from the  evil of an envier when he envies 
[113:6], meaning from all envy. He intends by this Labid ibn Asma the Jew [Bahr al-Uloom, (Dar al-Kutub al-Iliah, Beirut, 1st edition,  1993), Volume 3, p. 526-527]

4)  Abi al-Barakaat an-Nasafi (d.710  A.H.) similarly in his commentary on the Qur’an also accepts the validity of the story. [see: Madaarik at-Tanzeel wa-Haqaaiq at-Taweel, (Dar al-Kalim  at-Tayyib, Beirut; edited by Yusuf Ali Bidaywi, 1st edition, 1998), Volume 3, pp. 700-701]

5)  Badrul-Deen al-‘Aini (d. 855 A.H.) in his commentary on Saheeh al-Bukhari refers to those who reject the  story as “heretics” (mulhideen) and  refutes the theological objection to the story by demonstrating that it had no  implications on  Muhammad (peace be upon him) in terms of his role as the Messenger of Allah…[see: Umdat  al-Qaari,  (Dar al-Kutub al-Iliah, Beirut; edited by Abdullah Mahmoud Abdullah  Umar, 1st edition, 2001),Volume 15, p.135]


It was narrated that Aaishah (May Allaah be pleased with her) said: A spell was put on the  Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) until he imagined that he had done a thing when he had not done it. – Of course none of this entails that there was a compromise on the ability to convey revelation.

Some heretics objected to the hadeeth of Aisha. They said: How can the magic  affect the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), whilst magic is kufr and an action of the devils? How can its harm reach the Prophet (peace be upon him)  while he was under the protection of Allah and Allah supporting him with  the angels, and the revelation was protected  from the devils? And I answer: That  this objection is invalid, for Allah said to His Messenger: Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the daybreak. [113:1], until He says: in knots [113:4], and Blowers: are those magicians who  tie knots. None of this entails that the  effect of this was permanent or that it affected him internally or his capacity  as a Messenger. Rather, the effect of the magic is similar to what a sick  person gets affected by when he  gets a fever or pleurisy, such as weakness in speech or minor delusion. Then this disappeared and Allah quashed the plots of the magician. There is a consensus regarding the Prophets infallible ability to convey revelation. [Umdat  al-Qaari, (Dar al-Kutub al-Iliah, Beirut; edited by Abdullah  Mahmoud Abdullah Umar, 1st  edition, 2001),Volume 15, p. 135]

In a nutshell, we observe that its absolutely false to say that the Hanafi  stance is to reject the story of the black magic spell casted on the Prophet (peace be upon him). Its shoddy scholarship to take isolated opinions of individual scholars and use that to paint a stance on an entire school of thought. 

Alleged Statement of Imam Abu Hanifa About Prophet ﷺ Following his Opinions

By Waqar Akbar Cheema

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم الحمد لله وحده و الصلاة و السلام على من لا نبي بعده و على آله و أصحابه أجمعين

Sometimes back I found a fellow referring to an alleged statement of Imam Abu Hanifa. Although he did not derive any conclusions from it, it really alarmed me because there is a potential of gross misuse of the statement as recorded in the work usually cited.

In this time of tribulation (fitna) there are people –liberals and the secular– who never cease to twist the meanings of the Qur’an according to whims and wishes and to restrict the scope of countless hadith narrations to seventh century Arabia. To these people statements of scholars and mutahid imams mean nothing but at the same time if somehow they can use a statement attributed to any of great early scholars they forget everything else and take any such statement as ultimate evidence as if it is a revelation from Allah. This attitude speaks a lot of their objectives and objectivity. And what if the statement they use is not authentic to begin with?

The alleged narration:

The alleged statement goes as;

قال أَبُو حنيفة: لو أدركني رسول الله صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وأدركته لأخذ بكثير من قولي

Below is the reproduction of the translation given in the article by Muhammad Altaf Hussain Ahangar titled “Iqbal and Hadith.”

Khatib Baghadadi in his history, with reference to Yusuf Ibn Isbat, writes:

Abu Hanifa used to say that if the Prophet (s.a.w) would have found me and I could have found him (i.e. both would have lived at the same time), then He [the Prophet (s.a.w)] would have adopted many of his (Abu Hanifa’s) thoughts. Religion is not anything else except the good and fine opinion.

Let’s find out and analyze the truth of these words;

What works actually record this narration?

The narration is as such related by Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 453 A.H.)[1] and before him Ibn Hibban (d. 354 A.H.)[2] and has been reproduced by some later writers as well.

Authenticity of the Narration:

Now we discuss the most important issue i.e. the authenticity of this report.

1- The rules of narration (riwayah) check:

Wherever the report is given with a chain of narrator, we find that it comes through Yusuf bin Asbat (not “Isbat”). And this narrator itself is not truly reliable.

Ibn Abi Hatim said, “He is not to be sought evidence with.”[3]

And Imam Bukhari said, “He had buried his books, and did not narrate the narrations the way they were written.”[4] i.e. he mixed the things up

So these facts about the person attributing the words to Imam Abu Hanifah make the case of the narration quite weak. The following details will further add to the clarity on the evident dubious nature of the narration.

2- The rational rule (dirayah) check:

Imam al-Hafiz Muhibuddin Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Mahmud aka Ibn al-Najjar al-Baghdadi (d. 643 A.H.) actually showed that what the narration says is not tenable rationally. He first reproduces the narration and then writes;

“It is narrated from Abu Hanifa (rahimahullah) and all his fellows rule accordingly as to what is narrated from al-Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) that when the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) gave the sermon, he in a lengthy report said, ‘Verily Makkah is one the sanctuaries of Allah (where nothing can be harmed)” Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “Except idhkhir  (a kind of grass), O Messenger of Allah”, so the Prophet (saaw) said, “”Except idhkhir ” Abu Hanifa said regarding it, ‘The Prophet (saaw) himself intended to make this exception (already), Abbas (just) uttered it before him.” Thus Abu Hanifa did not interpret it in a way making the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) follow the opinion of Abbas, so how could he (speak of to) make him follow his own opinion?”[5]

Simply put, there is a narration in which apparently the prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said something after his uncle and a great companion Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) had spoken of it, yet Abu Hanifa said the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has already decided to say it. It’s only that Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) in that moment uttered it before him i.e. the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) did not follow the opinion of Abbas (radhiyallahu angu). The argument is, when he did take the pain to interpret the narration against the apparent meanings just to avoid the notion of Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) following someone else opinion albeit of a great companion, how could then he say that Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) would ever need to follow his own opinion?

On the reality of the alleged narration:

An Egyptian scholar Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari (d. 1371 A.H.) has discussed the narration in detail in his dedicated work on the narrations about Imam Abu Hanifa in “Tarikh Baghdad” of al-Khatib.

Following detail gives a fair proof on the origins of the narration.

Imam Mofiq bin Ahmad al-Makki (d. 568 A.H.) narrated the following words Imam Abu Hanifa on authority of Yusuf bin Khalid;

لو أدركني البتي لترك كثير من قوله

“If al-Batti would have found me, he would have left many of his opinions (in favor of mine).”[6]

Abu al-Mo’id Muhammad bin Muhammad al-Khwarazmi (d. 665 A.H.) narrates it with the following words;

لو أن البتي رآني لأخذ بكثير من أقوالي

“If al-Batti would have found me he would have adopted many of my sayings.”[7]

al-Batti here refers to a Kufan scholar who later settled in Basra, Usman bin Muslim al-Batti (d. 143 A.H.)

Shaykh al-Kawthari, following al-Mo’id al-Khwarazmi, argues that it is actually a scribal error or confusion of the narrator that made the narration as it is now recorded in Tarikh al-Baghdad etc.. In the narration al-Batti ( البتي) first became al-Nabi (النبي). This is easy to understand as the skeleton of both the words is same and the difference is only of the dots (nuqaat). Then seemingly undergoing the narration-by-meaning phenomenon the word النبي was replaced by  رسول الله and thereafter understandably the words صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ added to it.

This is no far-fetched an assertion, in fact we have a categorical example like it, in totally a different context, recorded in Tarikh Baghdad [8] itself where it is stated that a narrator confused the words رأيت البتي (I saw al-Batti) and put them as رأيت النبي (I saw the Prophet).

In fact this seems to be too general a mistake and confusion. Another example of the same is quoted by Al-Qifti (d. 646 A.H.)[9]

These examples show it was quite common for people to mix the two in both writing and reading.

So the reasonable conclusion is that the actual narration is misconstrued, apparently by, Yusuf bin Asbat who often did such things due to inadvertence and ignorance.[10] Here please recall Imam Bukhari’s statement about him quoted above.

The phrase, “Religion is nothing but fine opinion:

Coming to the last phrase, “Religion is not anything else except the good and fine opinion”, Shaykh al-Kawthari is of the opinion that this too involves confusion due a scribal error. He argues that the Arabic wording هل الدين إلا الرأي الحسن was originally هل أرى إلا الرأي الحسن i.e. what would he opine except according to the good opinion.He supports this by the fact that al-Batti too like Abu Hanifa was known for making extensive ijtihad and as as such known to be among Ahl al-Ra’i.[11]

Having looked into various old manuscripts myself I find the explanation quite plausible but it is a bit lacking in external independent support. However, even if accepted as such the phrase still does not signify more than the fact that when a matter is not resolved directly through Qur’an, Sunnah or the verdicts of the companions and it comes down to the opinions of the scholars then among those opinions the religious verdict is on nothing but the best of those opinions.

The principle of Imam Abu Hanifa:

Here I must quote the principle of Imam Abu Hanifa about the order of precedence among the the sources of Shariah.

ما جاء عن الله تعالى فعلى الرأس والعينين وما جاء عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فسمعا وطاعة وما جاء عن الصحابة رضي الله عنهم تخيرنا من أقوالهم ولم نخرج عنهم وما جاء عن التابعين فهم رجال ونحن رجال

“What comes to us (directly) from the Allah the Almighty (i.e. in the Qur’an) is held the most supreme by us, and what reaches us from the Messenger of Allah -peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – we (simply) listen and obey, and what reaches from the Companions -Allah be pleased with them- we chose the best from their opinions and do not leave them all (i.e. we stick to one of their opinions) and what comes to us from the opinions of the Followers (tabi’un), so they are men like us.”[12]

This shows the truth of the above explanation for he clearly stated that he could not think of leaving the opinions of the Companions even let alone leaving a hadith or thinking that Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) would ever -God forbid- follow his opinion. But yes he, being himself a Follower (tabi’i) could contend with another of the same category and expect him to follow his opinion once he convinced him of its fineness.

And Indeed Allah knows the best!


[1] Tarikh al-Baghdad wa Ziyuluhu, Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyah, Beirut 1417 A.H, vol.13 p.386

[2] Al-Majruhin, Dar al-Wa’i, Halb, 1396 A.H. vol.3 p.65

[3] Mezan al-A’itdal, Dar al-Ma’rifah, Beirut 1963 vol.4 p.462 No. 9856

[4] ibid.

[5] Kitab al-Radd ‘alaa Abu Bakr al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, included in Tarikh al-Baghdad wa Ziyuluhu, vol.22 p.54

[6] Manaqib al-Imam al-‘Azam Abi Hanifa, Da’ira al-Ma’arif al-Nizamia, Hyderabad Deccan 1321 A.H. vol.2 p.102

[7] Jami’ al-Masanid, Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut n.d. vol.1 p.63

[8] Tarikh al-Baghdad wa Ziyuluhu, vol.2 p.78

[9] Inbah al-Ruwat ‘ala Anbah al-Nuhat, Maktaba al-‘Ansariya, Beirut 1424 A.H. vol.2 p.344

[10] Ta’nib al-Khatib ‘ala Ma Saqahu fi Tarjimati Abi Hanifah Min al-Akazib, Dar al-Basha’ir al-Islamiyyah, Beirut, 1990 p.175

[11] ibid.

[12] Ibn Hazm, Al-Ahkam fi Usool al-Ahkam, Dar al-Afaq al-Jadida, Beirut n.d. vol.4 p.188