By Maulana Abu Huzaifa bin Adam
The foolish claims and statements made by the “Ahle Hadees” sect are many, but in this article we shall briefly refute just one.
Since the time of al-Albaani and his botched, miserably failed attempt at re-grading the Sihaah Sittah and other Kutub of Hadeeth, an attempt in which he ended up contradicting himself several times in the grading of just a single Hadeeth, sometimes declaring it to be Saheeh, other times declaring it to be Hasan, other times declaring it to be Dha`eef, Dha`eef Jiddan, etc., his ventures in the field of Hadeeth and Jarh wat-Ta`deel and the books written by him in those subjects, which in subsequent years were made available online, on websites, available for download as programs, and later on available as apps for mobile, led to the rise of Juhhaal in contemporary times who reject Ahaadeeth on the basis that, “It’s not in Saheeh Bukhaari”, or “It’s not a Saheeh Hadeeth” (and by that they mean it was not graded as Saheeh by al-Albaani, even if illustrious Muhaddithoon of the past had graded it to be Saheeh), and in this manner they reject great Kutub of Deen with contempt, averring: “It’s filled with Dha`eef Hadeeths”. Most of these people are not even aware of the meaning of those terms and have not even heard of Mustalahul Hadeeth or Jarh wat-Ta`deel. They are happy to blindly follow (make Taqleed of) al-Albaani whilst hypocritically condemning those who follow the Four Madhaahib of Haqq.
In this brief article, what we would like to clarify is: “Are all Dha`eef Ahaadeeth to be rejected? Are Dha`eef Ahaadeeth to be treated as Mawdhoo` (fabrications)? When can Dha`eef Ahaadeeth be accepted and quoted?”
We shall therefore be presenting some statements from the illustrious `Ulamaa of the past on this topic so that the readers may understand what the correct stance has been for over a thousand years.
Imaam `Ali al-Halabi said in Insaan-ul-`Uyoon fee Seeratil Ameenil Ma’moon: “It is not hidden that the (books) of biographies (history) encompasses that which is Saheeh, that which is Saqeem, that which is Dha`eef, that which is Mursal, that which is Munqati` and that which is Mu`dhal, but not that which is Mawdhoo` (fabricated). Imaam Ahmad and others from the A’immah had said: ‘When we narrate concerning Halaal and Haraam, we are strict (severe), but when we narrate concerning Fadhaa’il (virtues) and such matters, we are lenient.”
This statement is also narrated by al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi in al-Kifaayah.
Mulla `Ali al-Qaari رحمة الله عليه writes in al-Hazzhul Awfar fil Hajjil Akbar, after mentioning the Hadeeth: “The most virtuous of days is the Day of `Arafah. When it falls on the Day of Jumu`ah, then it is better than 70 Hajj.” (After quoting this, he says) “It is reported by Razeen. As for what the Muhadditheen have mentioned regarding the Isnaad of this Hadeeth, that it is Dha`eef, then, even if it is so, it does not harm the objective, because a Dha`eef Hadeeth is accepted when it comes to Fadhaa’il-ul-A`maal (the virtues of deeds), and this is so according to the majority of the `Ulamaa.”
He also writes in “al-Mawdhoo`aat“, after mentioning the Hadeeth: “Masah (wiping) of the neck is a protection from shackles (i.e. from being shackled on the Day of Qiyaamah).” (He says) “A Dha`eef (Hadeeth) is acted upon when it comes to Fadhaa’il-ul-A`maal (virtues of deeds), and this is according to Ittifaaq (consensus). For this reason, our A’immah (of the Hanafi Madh-hab) have said that Masah of the neck is Mustahabb or Sunnah.”
Imaam as-Suyooti writes in at-Ta`zheem wal-Minnah fee Anna Abawayi Rasoolillaahi صلى الله عليه وسلم fil-Jannah: “I gave the Fatwaa that the Hadeeth mentioning that Allaah brought back to life the mother of (Rasoolullaah صلىالله عليه وسلم) is not Mawdhoo` despite what a group among the Huffaaz (of Hadeeth) had claimed; rather, it is from the category of Dha`eef, and there is permission to narrate (Dha`eef Ahaadeeth) when it comes to Fadhaa’il (virtues).”
Speaking on this same issue of the Hadeeth that mentions that the parents of Rasoolullaah صلى الله عليه وسلم were brought back to life and accepted Islaam, Imaam as-Suyooti رحمة الله عليه writes in al-Maqaamatus Sundusiyyah fin Nisbatish Shareefatil Mustafiyyah: “The people of `Ilm and Hadeeth, both in the times of old and now, they narrate this report and place it amongst the specialities and Mu`jizaat (of Rasoolullaah صلى الله عليه وسلم), and they count it as being from his Manaaqib (virtues) and honours, and they held that the Dhu`f (weakness) present in the Isnaad (of this Hadeeth) is forgiven, and that it is accepted to narrate that which is not Saheeh when it comes to Fadhaa’il and Manaaqib.”
Haafiz al-`Iraaqi رحمة الله عليه writes in Sharh Alfiyyatil Hadeeth: “As for those narrations which are not Mawdhoo` (i.e. those that are Dha`eef), then they (the `Ulamaa) have permitted leniency in its Isnaad and also narrating it without explaining its Dhu`f (weakness), when it is not with regards to issues of Ahkaam (rulings) or `Aqaa’id (beliefs), but rather in issues of encouraging people (to do good), warning them, admonishing them, stories, virtues of deeds, etc. As for when it is with regards to Ahkaam of the Sharee`ah such as Halaal and Haraam, or with regards to `Aqaa’id such as the Sifaat of Allaah Ta`aalaa, etc., then they did not permit leniency in that. From the `Ulamaa who explicitly mentioned this are `Abdur Rahmaan ibn Mahdi, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, `Abdullaah ibn al-Mubaarak and others.”
Imaam an-Nawawi writes in at-Taqreeb: “According to the people of Hadeeth (i.e. the Muhadditheen) it is permissible to have leniency with regards to the Asaaneed that are weak and to report that which is not Mawdhoo` (fabricated), and acting upon it without explaining its Dhu`f (weakness) when it is not (Ahaadeeth) pertaining to the Sifaat of Allaah or Ahkaam.”
Imaam al-Kamaal ibn al-Humaam رحمة الله عليه writes in Kitaab-ul-Janaa’iz in Fat’hul Qadeer: “Istihbaab (something being Mustahabb) is also established from that which is Dha`eef, but not from that which is Mawdhoo` (fabricated).”
Imaam an-Nawawi رحمة الله عليه writes in al-Adhkaar: “The Muhadditheen and the Fuqhaa have stated that it is permissible – in fact, Mustahabb – to make `amal (act) upon a Dha`eef Hadeeth when it comes to issues of Fadhaa’il (virtues), exhortations, warnings, as long as it is not Mawdhoo` (fabricated). As for when it comes to Ahkaam such as Halaal and Haraam, business, marriage, divorce, etc., then in such cases one does not act except upon a Hadeeth that is Saheeh or Hasan, unless it is out of precaution in one of those issues (i.e. if there is a Dha`eef Hadeeth urging caution regarding something, so one abstains as a precautionary measure).”
Imaam ibn Hajar al-Makki al-Haytami رحمة الله عليه writes in al-Fat’hul Mubeen: “The `Ulamaa have Ittifaaq (consensus) regarding the permissibility of acting upon Dha`eef Ahaadeeth when it comes to Fadhaa’il-ul-A`maal (the virtues of deeds), because if the Hadeeth is Saheeh in and of itself, then it has been given its right by us acting upon it, and if it is not (Saheeh) then too in practicing upon it no harm has ensued such as Halaalizing something which is Haraam or prohibiting something that is Halaal, nor the loss of any person’s Haqq.”
It is mentioned in al-Qowlul Badee` and elsewhere that the Madh-hab of Imaam Abu Haneefah رحمة الله عليه is that a Dha`eef Hadeeth is better than Ra’i (opinion) and Qiyaas (analogy), when a (Saheeh) Hadeeth is not found regarding that particular issue.
Imaam ibn Mahdi رحمة الله عليه said, as is narrated from him by Imaam al-Bayhaqi رحمة الله عليه in al-Madkhal: “When we narrate from Nabi صلى الله عليه وسلم regarding Halaal and Haraam and the Ahkaam, then we are severe with regards to the Asaaneed (chains of narrations) and in criticising the Rijaal (narrators), but when we narrate regarding virtues, reward and punishment, then we are lenient regarding the Asaaneed and the Rijaal (narrators).”
The Muhaddithoon have also stated that when the Ummah has accepted a particular Dha`eef Hadeeth and acted upon it all the years (meaning, all the years the Fuqahaa had accepted a particular Hadeeth and acted upon it), then we will act upon that Hadeeth as though it is Saheeh (i.e. the fact that the Fuqahaa had accepted it all the years raises it to this level).
We shall suffice with this amount from the quotations of the A’immah. For those with some knowledge of the history of Islaam, they will know that the names of the A’immah we have mentioned above are not lightweights; these were all giants in the Deen.
This should be sufficient to debunk the ridiculous claim that if a Hadeeth is not found in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, it must be rejected. Many of these people are ignorant of even Masaa’il pertaining to Istinjaa, but they are bold in throwing forward their views when they are entirely devoid of any `Ilm of Deen, some of them being unable to read even a single word of Arabic. Thus, you will hear them making ridiculous statements such as, “The book‘Hayaatus Sahaabah’ must be rejected because it’s filled with Dha`eef Ahaadeeth.” Any person who has actually studied Hadeeth even to a minute extent would know how laughable their claims are.
We would like to end this article by listing some important points:
When it comes to the grading of Ahaadeeth, we follow the illustrious Muhadditheen of the past, not a person who passed away in 1999 like al-Albaani. The Ahaadeeth have already been graded long ago by such Muhadditheen whom Allaah Ta`aalaa has honoured and elevated, that for all the years of Islaam their Kutub have been taught and accepted by the entire Ummah at large.
It is the height of hypocrisy to condemn a person for following one of the Four Madhaahib of Haqq, and then blindly follow a man who passed away the other day. Addressing these people, we say: “Yes, you are making Taqleed of him regardless of your denial. When it comes to Hadeeth grading, why do you blindly believe that a Hadeeth is Saheeh, or Hasan, or Dha`eef, or Mawdhoo`, simply because he said so? Have you studied Hadeeth yourself, studied Mustalahul Hadeeth, Jarh wat-Ta`deel, `Ilm-ur-Rijaal, Usool-ul-Hadeeth, etc., and thereafter analysed the Asaaneed of those Hadeeth to know whether or not they are Saheeh? The majority of those who quote him today quote him from English translations because they are not even capable of reading the original Arabic texts.
The `Ulamaa have cited Ittifaaq (consensus) on the permissibility of quoting and acting upon Dha`eef Ahaadeeth when it comes to Fadhaa’il (virtues). Thus, to reject a Kitaab like Fadhaa’il-e-A`maal on the basis that, “It’s filled with weak Hadeeth”, is stupid. The author, Hadhrat Shaykh Zakariyya رحمة الله عليه, was an `Aalim with greater knowledge and understanding of Hadeeth than these “Ahle Hadees” would have even if they lived several times over.
May Allaah Ta`aalaa grant us the correct understanding, Aameen.
والله تعالى أعلم وعلمه أتم وأحكم