By Shaykh Muhammad Shareef bin Farid
Jumu`a is Friday the sixth day after Sunday. The word jumu`a comes from the dialect of the Banu `Uqayl. It is named that because it was the description of the day in which many people would gather together during the days of jahiliyya.
The first human to call it jumu`a was Luway, the great ancestor of our master, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Prior to this it was called al-`uruuba (‘it became Arabized’) because it was the day in which Arabs would gather together in the outlying area of Dar an-Nadwa.
However Allah named it jumu`a in the eternity of His knowledge by His words: “…when you are called to the prayer on the day of Jumu`a”. It is a verse from the verses of the Qur’an the Eternal Uncreated Speech of Allah which is eternal with His Eternity with no beginning to it.
Jumu`a in the language of the People of Allah is the day of the emanation of His Divine Name the Gatherer (al-Jaami` – ﺍَﻟْﺠَﺎﻣِﻊُ ), that is to say, it is the day in which Allah ta`ala gathers the emanation of Divine Names and Attributes upon the hearts of the Knowers among His servants during their gathering together for the Jumu`a prayer.
It is for this reason that the jurist made five pillars for the soundness of the Jumu`a:
 the Congregational Mosque (masjid jaami`u) in which the people gather together (yajtama`a);
 the congregation of Muslims (jama`at) around which a village or town develops;
 the sermon to which the people gather (yajtami`u) and listen to the admonitions of Allah;
 the Imam behind which the people gather to pray their prayers; and
 residence, which is that the people are resident socially together, not travelers or strangers.
Each of these pillars are from the attributes of human socialization and gathering, which is an emanation of the Divine Name the Gatherer.
It is for this reason that Shaykh Uthman Dan Fodio, may Allah be merciful to him said while he was in Sifawa:
“Realize that the Absolute Being Exalted is He is the Source of the entire cosmos with respect to its Reality, while other than Him is only its equidity with respect to appearance. For everything in creation is an emanation of His Perfection, Majesty and Beauty…Humanity in general is an emanation of the Divine Names of Essence, Majesty and Beauty…The human being specifically is a manifestation of His Divine Name the Gatherer…The heart of the human being is the locus of the manifestation of the totality of the Divine Names and Attributes.”
Of course the human being referred to here is the Perfect Man, that is, our master and Prophet, Muhammad, upon him be the best blessings and most perfect peace who said as it was related by ad-Daylami on the authority of Abu Raafi`: “And He taught me all the Names as He taught Adam all the Names.”.
There is no doubt that the day of Jumu`a and its prayer is immense with Allah ta`ala with respect to the gathering together of the community in Divine emanations, unveilings and spiritual arrival. It is for this reason that it is called Jumu`a with the People of Allah, and Allah knows best.
Among the virtues of this day as it was related by Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him who said: “Verily it was named Jumu`a because Allah ta`ala gathered together the creation of Adam, upon him be peace.”
Some of the jurists said: “It was named Jumu`a in Islam and this is because of the gathering of the people at the masajid on that day.”
Among the virtues of this days is what he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said as related by Ibn Abi Shayba and others on the authority of Abu Lubaba ibn Abd’l-Mundhir:
”The day of Jumu`a is the master of all the days, and the greatest of them with Allah. It is greater with Allah than the day of al-Fitr and the day of al-Adhaa. In it are five traits: Allah created Adam in it; in it he was caste down to the earth; in it Adam died; in it is an hour which if the servant makes a request during it for anything Allah will grant it, as long as he does not request what is forbidden; and in it the Hour will be established. For there is no Angel, land, heaven, wind, mountain or sea except that they are all in fright from the day of Jumu`a that the Hour will be established during it.”
It has been related by Abu’s-Shaykh and Ibn Mardawiya on the authority of Abu Hurayra who said:
“I heard Abu’l-Qasim, may Allah bless him and grant him peace say: ‘Among the seven days, Allah chose over all the days the day of Jumu`a. In it He created the heavens and the earth. In it He decreed their creation. In it Allah created the Paradise and the Fire. In it He created Adam and in it he was caste down from Paradise and repented to Him. In it the Hour will be established. For there is nothing from creation except that it is in terror on Friday fearing that the Hour will be established during that day, except the heedless among men and jinn’.”
Among the virtues of Friday is what he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said: “Verily this day Allah made as a holiday for the Muslim.”
There are Divine Names of Allah and other invocations which have specific impact when recited on Friday. Among them are the Names: al-Awwalu – the First; al-Baseeru – the Seeing and the second statement of the shahadatayn (the two testimonies), namely:
ﻣُﺤَﻤَّﺪٌ ﺭَﺳُﻮﻝُ ﺍﻟﻠﻪِ
“Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”.
As for the first Divine Name – al-Awwalu, the protected friend of Allah, Muhammad Tukur, may Allah be pleased with him, said in his Qira’l-Ahibaa:
“Whoever realizes that He is the First becomes absent from everything besides Him. The manner of drawing Near to Allah by means of this Name is related to returning to Him in the beginning of all things and at its ending. The manner in which one can behave in accordance with this Name is by being the first person and the last of them to proceed towards the good and to be connected to what is good. The special qualities of this Divine Name, is that it brings about reunion and reunification, because the traveler who persists in reciting this Name by saying: ‘Yaa Awwalu’, every Friday 1000 times will round up all his business affairs.”
As for the second Divine Name – al-Baseeru, the gnostic sage Shaykh Muhammad Tukur said in his Qira’l-Ahiba:
“The special quality of the Divine Name: al-Baseeru is its effectiveness in bringing about success in one’s affairs, for whoever recites it by saying ‘Yaa Baseeru’ before the Friday juma` prayer one 100 times, Allah will open for him his inner vision and make him successful in righteous words and actions.”
As for the third phrase: “Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”; the gnostic sage Shaykh Muhammad Tukur said in his Qira’l-Ahiba:
“Some of the people of Allah say that whoever writes the phrase:
‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and grant him peace.’; 35 times after the Friday prayer and carries it on his person Allah will provide him with strength in obedience to Allah divine assistance for baraka and suffice him from the tricks of the devils.”
The best form of remembrance on Friday is sending much blessings and peace upon the Messenger of Allah, as Shaykh Abdullahi Dan Fodio said in his Ta`leem al-Anaam:
“It is also confirmed and recommended to do a lot of prayers on the Prophet every Jumu’a (Friday).”
It has been narrated by an-Nisaai’ on the authority of Aws ibn Aws that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said:
“Verily the best of your days is the day of Juma`a, so send abundant blessings upon me during it, for your blessings are shown to me.” This was also been narrated by Ahmad, Ibn Ubay, `Aasim, al-Bayhaqi, at-Tabaraani and Ibn Khuzayma.
Shaykh Abdullahi Dan Fodio also said in his Diya’l-Qawa`id:
“It has been related that whoever says during the day of Juma`a one thousand times:
ﺍَﻟﻠَّﻬُﻢَّ ﺻَﻞِّ ﻋَﻠَﻰ ﻣُﺨَﻤَّﺪٍ ﺍﻟﻨَّﺒِﻲِّ ﺍﻟْﺄُﻣِّﻲ
‘O Allah send blessings upon Muhammad the Unlettered Prophet’; then they will see that night in sleep either a Self Disclosure of their Lord, His Prophet, or they will see their place in Paradise. If thy do not see these in that night, then they will see them during the second Juma`a, or the third or the fifth. However, this cannot happen except after the purification of their intention, the presence of the heart along with correct courtesy.”
May Allah ta`ala give us all correct courtesy with You on Friday, purify our intention solely for Your sake and make our hearts resolute in seeking after His bounty and favor. There is no power or might besides You the Exalted the Mighty; and peace and blessings be upon our master Muhammad and his family to the number of all those who remember him and to the number of all those who forget him.