Category Archives: Biographies

Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain (Rahimahullah) – Short Bio

Respecting people relative to their stature and revering the noble of history is worship in its own right. The noblest of men to have walked this earth are the Ahlul Bayt, the family of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam. Our faith dictates we remember their virtue and accomplishments together with honouring their memories. It is unfortunate that we find the average Muslim today knowing more about western celebrities than the stalwarts of the Islamic cause who shed blood ensuring the spread of this divine creed. Correcting this mentality and fulfilling this societal gap was one of the leading reasons in authoring these chapters. Chapters of the august personalities from the Ahlul Bayt. This chapter seeks to take a glimpse in the life of an eminent individual, Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain.

Zaid was one of the sons of Zayn al ‘Abidin ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiyallahu ‘anhu. This brother of the famed Muhammad al Baqir (rahimahullah) was born around the eightieth year of the hijrah in the Hashimi family. His father, the inheritor of the knowledge of his grandfather and granduncles, Hussain, Hassan and Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyah radiyallahu ‘anhuma saw to his upbringing amid knowledge and sublime character.

He has narrated ahadith from his father, Zayn al ‘Abidin, his brother, Muhammad al Baqir, and ‘Urwah ibn Zubair. Many sat under his tutorship gaining knowledge. Jafar al Sadiq, Shu’bah, Fudayl ibn Marzuq, Muttalib ibn Ziyad, Sa’id ibn Khuthaym, Ibn Abi Zinad and many others sought knowledge from this great sage. He had taken leaps in amassing knowledge. Imam Abu Hanifah attests to his status with the following:

ما رأيت في زمانه أفقه منه ولا أسرع جوابا ولا أبين قولا

I have not seen anyone in his era with deeper understanding, more witty, or vibrant in speech.[1]

An indication to his high pedigree in the sciences by the greatest scholar of Iraq!

In the 94th year of the hijrah his father passed away whilst he was a young lad of fourteen. Zaid then went under the guardianship of his brother, Muhammad al Baqir, who loved him deeply and saw to his needs as a loving father would. As he grew he continued seeking knowledge from the scholars of the Ahlul Bayt in his era. His thirst for knowledge not quenched he began travelling the breadth of the earth in search of the divine sciences. Though Madinah was a centre of learning he travelled beyond, going to Iraq and as such meeting its scholars and benefiting from them. Al Dhahabi writes regarding him, “He was a man of great knowledge and piety. A lapse in judgment resulted in his martyrdom.”[2] The incident of his martyrdom will be discussed shortly, Allah willing.

The celebrated scholar of the Ahlul Bayt and his student, Jafar al Sadiq, says:

كان والله أقرأنا لكتاب الله وأفقهنا في دين الله وأوصلنا للرحم ما تركنا وفينا مثله

By Allah! He was the most well versed amongst us in the sciences of the Qur’an, held deep understanding of the faith, and strove to join family ties. The likes of him have not succeeded him.[3]

He was opinionated in the fields of jurisprudence and politics as he was a master theologian and scholar. A leader holding the torch of guidance. Abu Zuhrah says, “Zaid was the first Imam (leader) from the Ahlul Bayt after Hussain radiyallahu ‘anhu. He would call people towards his opinions and envisioning novel methods of da’wah.”[4]

As I read and researched the life of this great man, what really struck home was his quality of sincerity and truthfulness. His faith, speech, actions, and stances all dripped with sincerity. This inner quality affected his outer appearance as well, as contemporaries would say:

كنت إذا رأيت زيد بن علي رأيت أسارير النور في وجهه

Whenever I cast a glance at Zaid ibn ‘Ali, I would perceive divine light emanating from his features.[5]

He was affixed to the Qur’an, continuously reciting it and pondering over its meanings. The running theme in his life was concern for the ummah at large. His concern was to work towards achieving unity in the ummah together with seeing to the needs of the people in his era.

He would say to those around him, “Remove yourselves from disgrace and rise to honour. Leave your miserable state and attain good fortune. Eradicate feebleness and come unto glory.”

This was the train of thought amongst the Ahlul Bayt. Unifying the ummah, their words and strength. ‘Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Babak, a companion of his mentions the following:

We travelled to Makkah with Zaid ibn ‘Ali. As the night grew dark and the stars became bright he said to me, “Do you see the bright stars of the Pleiades? Do you think anyone could reach it?” I replied in the negative. He said “By Allah! I wish to grab it and bring it to earth if that’s what it takes to unify the ummah of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam!”[6]

Words cannot justify his praise; this is majesty personified.

Subhan Allah! Hopes and desires of the stuff dreams are made off. These are the lessons left for us by the Ahlul Bayt. Their dreams were of unity and love. O lover of the Ahlul Bayt, this is their path and guidance.

The last and perhaps most challenging part of the life of this great leader was his martyrdom and the events that led to it. Some ungodly men whispered into the ears of Hisham ibn ‘Abdul Malik that Zaid ibn ‘Ali intended starting a rebellion. He was summoned to the court and asked to face these allegations. Zaid said that they were not true, however Hisham refused to believe him.

Zaid said, “Would you like me then to take an oath by Allah on my innocence?”

Hisham replied, “Even if you do take an oath I will not believe you.”

Zaid, “You are not greater than Allah, that you refuse to accept testimony given by his name.”

Hisham became angry and told him to leave. Zaid promised that he would see him again in a manner not pleasing to him. The people of Kufah then came to him pledging their allegiance at his hand. Unfortunately, he accepted their word and prepared for battle. The governor of Iraq faced him with his army. Zaid was martyred in this battle and then crucified for four years!

Al Dhahabi says, “He went to battle on a complication and was martyred. If only he had not done so.”[7]

References

[1] Al A’lam li al Zarkali, vol. 3 pg. 59.

[2] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 389.

[3] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 390.

[4] Al Imam Zaid, Abu Zuhrah rahimahullah.

[5] This quote is attributed to Khasib al Wabishi. See Maqatil al Talibiyyin, pg. 36.

[6] Al Murtada li al Nadwi, pg. 229 from Maqatil al Talibiyyin, pg. 129.

[7] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 391.

Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai (Damat Barakatuhum)

“The critic of a genuine Sufi (muhiqq al-sufiyya) becomes a target of the hadith: ‘Whosoever shows enmity to a single one of My Friends, I have declared war on him.’ While one that abandons all condemnation for what is clearly wrong in what he hears from some of them, abandons the commanding of good and the forbidding of evil.”

[Allamah Al-Dhahabi in al-Muqiza]

Since starting this website, I’ve been requested numerous times to provide some more information on Hazrat Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai (Damat Barakatuhum). However, other than the fact that he is a Khalifah of Shaykh Maseehullah Khan (rahmatullahi alayh), who was one of the foremost Khalifahs of Shaykh Ashraf Ali Thanwi (rahmatullah alayhi) (d.1943), there is not much biographical information available regarding him at the moment. For now, I have compiled below some excerpts from Ulama, and people who have interacted directly with him, from the now defunct website sunniforum, and from other sources.

Regarding the Maulana’s harshness towards the Ulama-e-Soo’ and deviants who drag countless people with them into Jahannum, the following article provides an adequate answer:

Why is the Majlis so Harsh and ‘Extreme’ Towards Deviations and Deviants?

Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai can be easily contacted for Deeni queries or spiritual advice on:

mujlisul.ulama@gmail.com

TESTIMONIES FROM ULAMA AND OTHERS

Shaykh Maseehullah Sherwani Khan (rahmatullahi alayh)

Shaykh Maseehullah was amongst the foremost khalifahs of the accepted Mujaddid, Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi. Uniquely, Shaykh Maseehullah had granted khilafaat to Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai while he was still a student in his Madrasah. A brother who resides in Port Elizabeth relates being in a Majlis of Shaykh Maseehullah in which he stated regarding Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai:

“There was never a student of the likes of Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai. There is not one and there never will be one ever in the history of the Madrasah of Jalalabad in India.”

A revert brother from New York narrates:

“I personally known Hazrat Moulana A.S. Desai for over 20 years and know for a fact that during his madrasah days Moulana Maseehullah Ummat Khan ( rahmatullah alayh) used to come in Moulana A.S. Desai’s room and had to force him to stop reading his madrasah kitabs and would comment by saying ”your doing too much, please take a break”. This was the only student of Maseehullah ( rahmatullah alaih) that he had to force to a break in his studies. Moulana is truly a living Waliullah.”

JAMIATUL ULAMA GAUTENG

In response to some absurd and vile slanders directed at Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai, the Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng issued a response. The full response can be found at the bottom of this page. The Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng are run by Ulama who were close to Shaykh Maseehullah Khan, such as Mufti Hashim Boda who himself was also granted Khilaafat, and graduated from his Shaykh’s Madrasah in Jalalabad. Thus, they have themselves witnessed directly incidents and accounts which affirm Shaykh Maseehullah’s high regard for Maulana Ahmad Sadeq.

The Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng relate that Shaykh Maseehullah  once mentioned that Maulana A S Desai will do the work of a hundred Aalims. On another occasion, in response to complaints regarding Maulana A S Desai’s firm and unwavering acquittal of Amr bil Ma’roof wa Nahy anil Munkar, Shaykh Maseehullah responded that though people were complaining at that time, in 50 years’ time people will be crying and making Du’aa for him. In another Majlis, Shaykh Maseehullah Khan actually took hold of Maulana A S Desai’s hand and took bay’t from him. When Maulana A S Desai completed his course at Jalalabad and the time arrived for his return to South Africa, Shaykh Maseehullah Khan and all the Ustadhs of the Madrasah escorted him to the bus stand to bid him farewell.

Mufti Ibrahim Desai (www.askimam.org)

Mufti Ibrahim Desai states:

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

The editor of the Majlis, Hazrath Moulana Ahmad Sadeck Desai Saheb Madda Zilluhu is an Aalim of a very high calibre. He has a deep understanding of Shariah. This is clearly gauged from his innumerable publications. Hazrath Moulana is the Khalifa of Hazrath Maseehullah Khan Saheb rahmatullah alayh. Hazrath has been selflessly dedicated to Amal bil Maroof and Nahi Anil Munkar for the past few decades. Hazrath is also engaged in various other activities. It is surprising how much one person can do. Allah has granted Hazrath great courage and strength. He is a person of high level of taqwa and mujahadah. He does not go after position and fame. If that was the case, Hazrath would not have selflessly and openly condemned many wrongs and evils for the fear of becoming unpopular. Many people throughout the world continue to benefit from Hazrath Moulana’s publications.

Television is haram and we concur with Hazrath’s view on that. It is possible that the different radio stations err in some issues. If Hazrath points that out, it should be accepted and corrected. It is incorrect to brand Hazrath of being over extreme when he is fulfilling his obligation on Nahi Anil Munkar. Those that claim that Hazrath is extreme, what is their measure to claim that? If people violate the laws of Shariah and Hazrath rightfully condemns that, how can that be extremism? What do such people expect Hazrath to do? Keep quiet? What will that be then? Complacence, which is a sin.

It should also be pointed out that differences of opinions among academics is regarded as academic honesty. This is common even among academics in secular qualifications. The different views among the Ulama, based on academics is a mercy upon the ummah and should be tolerated. If other Ulama have differing views from Hazrath’s views and both are based on academic substantiations, then it will be incorrect to brand any one view as being an extreme view. While we concur with Hazrath on the issue of television and open wrongs of television and radio stations, we may differ with him on other issues. However, we will respect his view and tolerate it as Hazrath’s views are generally substantiated by Shariah.

If anyone claims to have an academically different opinion and he does not stand up to the academic challenges made to him, that is academic dishonesty and such an opinion cannot be tolerated as that is regarded as academic dishonesty.

Another issue is the tone and manner of condemning a vice. This is based of hikmah and wisdom. At times, the Quran condemns certain wrongs in certain ways, medium to harsh. This is based on what is best in the interest of that time and matter. An Aalim of Deen is imbued with hikmah. He exercises that hikmah and whatever he honestly feels between him and Allah is the most efficient tone in condemning a wrong, he does that.

The different ways of Ulama condemning wrongs, some with softness and others harshly etc. should be viewed in this light. Concentrate on the actual issue pointed out rather than focus on the style and tone.

When the laws of Shairah are violated and people, especially Ulama, keep quiet, that incurs the wrath of Allah. The silence of Ulama will lead to distortion of Shariah and Deen. Allah condemned the Ulama of theYahood and Nasaara for keeping quiet against open violation of the Shariah. Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “This knowledge of Deen will be carried by just people from pious predecessors. They will refute distortions of extremists, refute baseless claims and wrong interpretations of ignorant people”.

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Shaykh Abdul Hamid Ishaq

Shaykh Abdul Hamid Ishaq (Damat Barakatuhum) states:

“Moulana Ahmad Saadiq Saheb of Port Elizabeth’s Majlis-ul-Ulama says that the Jihad of the century is to establish Makaatib, and Madaaris. I am in 100 percent conformity to Hazrat Moulana’s suggestion. This is one of the greatest needs of the time. I don’t want to delve into this subject, which, incidentally, is very essential, but the Maktab is a place where, if run correctly, forms the foundation of the Ummat.”

There are currently over 300,000 students studying at Maulana Ahmad Sadeq’s Maktab Madrasahs which are mostly (purposefully) located in remote areas where the Christian NGOs are carrying out their missionary activities. He has had over  1,300,000 children complete the course so far.

Mufti Afzal Husayn Ilyas (Rahimahullah)

Mufti Afzal Husayn Ilyas (Rahimahullah) stated in defense of Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai’s harshness when condemning evil:

“Who are you to judge him?

Study Islamic History, you will find that as per the temperament of the people ALLAAH sends a Nabi accordingly – sometimes firm, other times soft – but in the Shariat of Hadhrat Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) all types of people have been catered for.

Thus if one method does not work use another. In different situations different methods are used. Thus Moulana has got his method. His services will and cannot be forgotten. Your definition of ‘Ambassador of Islaam’ is not correct. My suggestion is to meet the man.

Enjoining what is Right and forbidding evil has various levels, degrees, methods and stages. Firmness can be seen in the life of Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum). Actions of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu), Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) and Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) can be read.

True Ambassodors of Islaam are the sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) – read our translation of ‘Hayaatus Sahabah’ for more details. If a person is burning in a house, a robber is about to steal, a murder about to happen, now when raising the alarm are you going to for in for ‘Tajqeed’ lessons.

There are different methods for different situation whilst different react differently. See the severity, velocity of the sin and firstly recognize sin to be sin which most do not know – this reformation is virtually impossible… “

COMMENTS FROM ENEMIES, STUDENTS, AND OTHERS

Snake Ismail Ibrahim Patel al-Salafi (al-Hanafi) aka Harris Hammam

Despite being the sorry victim of one of Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai’s humiliating refutations (see here: Lies, Distortions, and Slanders of the Salafi Sect), he still felt constrained to open a forum thread specifically in appreciation of Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai – presumably after reading a bit about him:

“I want to highlight his Walaa and Baraa, the sacrifices he’s gone through in life, and his love for the Deen of Allah. He is better than me and most people out there no doubt, and he is most certainly a billion times better than all those Salafis.

And of course, besides the insults, his legendary usage of the English language.

Before anybody starts neg-repping me, may I remind you the Mufti AS Desai is the one is in the middle of refuting me as we speak. Politely disagree with the premise of this thread, if you may.”

“Colonel Hardstone” from Muftisays.com

Muadh Khan from Muftisays.com, who dubs himself ‘Colonel Hardstone’, and is yet another self-appointed ‘Mujtahid’ prowling the internet day and night in the mould of Harris Hammam, vomiting out quarter-baked, error-ridden ‘researches’ for the willing consumption of his boot-licking, salivating audience, reports this from a brother:

“I met Hazrat Maulana AS a couple of weeks back. He is absolutely a Wali of this time. Where would you find a person in this age with plain clothings, I counted 4 or 5 patches on his clothing. his hair was extremely oiled as though he just took a shower. He reminded me of the ahadeeth about Nabi salallahu alayhi wasallam. He was more like bubbly, would talk in hyperness. Extremely witty. Walked with firmly grounding his foot. When he met Mufti XXX’s son the first thing he did was masnoon dua. In the entire time I spent in his company, I grew more and more closer to him. I felt being drawn to him like a magnet. His talk was none of the vocabulary of his writing, but simple English. At time he would explain something trivial but somehow the way he would speak would convince us.

He reminded me of no one but a Wali of Allah. Extremely Mutabi’ sunnah, and pleasant to be in company of. Firm on his stance.”

An Interesting Incident With a Drunkard

A Sister relates an interesting incident:

“Okay, of course i’m going to relate an incident about Ml Ahmed Saadiq Desai of the majlis…..

A certain relative, living in port elizabeth close to ml desai told me this herself…. It was a freezing cold day and her husband went to see moulana for some work. She decided to wait outside moulanas home in the car, since they intended to go shopping thereafter.

Earlier that day her house doorbell rang, and there outside stood this dirty smelly drunkard. Because of the way this guy looked and he was obviously a bit drunk, they (her husband and her) didnt give him anything or even opon the door at all.

Now while she’s sitting in the car, she see’s this same man ringing moulana’s doorbell. Moulana comes and opens the door, asks the guy to take a seat on his doorstep and goes back indoors. After a few minutes he returns with sandwiches and a steaming mug of coffee and serves this drunkard himself. The man eats his fill and leaves happily.

My relative said after observing all this, she sat i the car fighting back tears because of the way this incident touched her and caused her to feel guilty about her own insensitivity. She and so many other neighbors like herself, did not bother to give this person a second look and probably even looked down upon him for being a drunkard on the streets, and yet moulana, in spite of being so busy, left all his work aside and made time to prepare a meal and himself serve him… (!)”

Wild Birds Who Visit His Yard

The same sister gives the following information regarding him:

“Ml desai is a senior khalifah of moulana maseehullah khan sahib (R.A). after completing his studies he was set to go to America and become a lawyer, he went to india for some reason and visted ML maseehullah R.A, who made a great impression on his life. Ml maseehullah (R.A) took an immense liking to him and asked him to stay on and do his aalim course… and ml stayed, completed his aalim course and got khillafat.

Ml is very strict on the shariah (who doesn’ know that!) and he is an extremely busy man, he does A LOT of deen work, runs thousands of maktabs and madaaris throughout the world, writes and translates loads of literature, has to reply to dozens of correspondence’s etc. Every day… and yet he finds time to personally cook a pot of food for the poor every morning and make it into sandwiches, the beggers of the town know ml’s home and come to fetch their sandwiches when they are hungry.

Forget the beggars, ml feeds the wild birds who visit his yard everyday and he has soo much of taqwa and concern for the creation that when he goes to Durban and Johannesburg (which he does regularly) he gives the responsibility of feeding the birds every morning to his neighbor so that when those birds who are accustomed to finding their food come, they do not leave his yard disappointed! Subhanallah! remember we not talking about a guy who has time to sit on his porch and count the stars, this is a man drowning in work!!!

Ml only sleeps 2 hours per night and spends the rest of the night in ibaadah, my friend told me that she saw the musallah which ml uses to perform nafl salaah on, and that musallah has been used soo much that there are literally HOLES by the feet, hands and forehead places on that musallah! Also ml fasts every day except twice a week for years, unless he is travelling or seriously unwell etc.

He lives extremely simple and is very humble, wears and patches his clothes until he can’t use them anymore. ML’s entire house is bare of all unnecessary furniture (including couches and kitchen units!) every single room in his house (except his bedroom) resembles a library, almost the entire house, including the passage, has shelves from ceiling to floor and is lined with kitaabs upon kitaabs. He generally walks to the masjid for salaah. Eid nights he remains awake the entire night in ibaadah and deeni work. Also ml is constantly conscience of death, an example is: someone asked him why do you travel by car when going to Durban and Johannesburg (a 10 – 12 hour journey by car) instead of taking a flight? He replied that he won’t do so becoz he wouldn’t like maut to find him whilst in the plane amongst the kuffaaar and their liquor and nudity etc. he rather take the long journey and be safe!

insha-ALLAH when i get more info on ml i will post…

Famous Criticism of the Transgressions of the Taliban:

A brother states regarding Hazrat Maulana’s famous condemnation of the trangressions of the Shariah committed by the Taliban:

“…it is important that while witnessing many of our own Ulama treading the path which Shaytaan led the Barelwis through, we do not react towards the other extreme and become duped by the very same Shaytaan into treading the path of the Salafis – Surah Fatihah is the greatest protection from being diverted to one of these two extremes.

Our Akaabir gave a very simple prescription for the kind of tasawwuf to be adopted when the majority of the ulama are charlatans, as is the case today: Until the Saalik finds a Shaykh (and they will always be around no matter how rare) who is unwaveringly uncompromising and firm on the Shar’iah, he must adopt patience and acquire the ‘Suhbat’ of the Auliyah by reading their accounts abundantly. Once the Saalik finds a true Shaykh, he should hold on to him like the most precious thing in his life.

Now, regarding Mufti Desai, if you have the means to visit him you should do so. Brother Ibrahim visited him recently and mentioned that he has never come across anyone like him, and that he brings to one’s mind, the stories from the Salaf. His works and writings testify that he really does not belong to this age and is a remnant from the past.

I have read enough from him to also believe that he is a man of tremendous baseerat and perhaps even kashf. Some of what he writes regarding the spiritual aspects of sins and good deeds are written as if he is directly witnessing them himself – the point you made is just one of many examples.

There are also innumerable examples that I can mention where he predicted events many years before they had materialised. More than 7 years ago when he was speaking about Iraq and the Azaab of the Allah (azza wa jal) that struck them due to their actions, he stated clearly that Syria would be next. He had also predicted, more or less, that an enemy power would displace the Talibaan, though only momentarily, as a result of their relaxations of the Shari’ah.

You will not find a Mufti, at least in the English-speaking world, who is more outspoken and prolific in his writings in expressing his support and love for the Talibaan whom he believes to be the closest in the world to Islamic teachings. Despite having mureeds involved there since the time of the Russian invasion, he was completely shocked when he went there and directly witnessed many of their transgressions.

In advising them privately and publically, he was desperately attempting to avert the punishment of Allah (azza wa jal) from descending upon them. The fact that his love for them did not deter him from speaking the Haqq speaks volumes. Within months of his Naseehat, Allah’s azaab did arrive in the form of America…”

Many Inspirational Talks But Little Long-Term Effects

“There are many scholars who are able to give the most inspiring speeches in which the whole audience is captivated and left buzzing for hours afterwards, brimming fully with jazba, ready to change the whole world. However, within a few hours of the talk, all that jazba dissipates away and changing just one’s own habit of sleeping through tahajjud and fajr time becomes an insurmountable task. On the other hand, there are Auliyah (friends of Allah) who hardly speak, but the few words that come from their pure heart, create a life-long effect on countless people. 

I never really understood this concept until I started reading the writings of Mufti A. S. Desai (Damat Barakatuhum). Despite the fact that he is alone in some of his opinions, and I have still yet to come to terms with the tone and style of his writings, he has had quite an effect on me personally. One example is Mufti Saheb’s stance against fizzy drinks. Ever since I read just the introduction of his book on fizzy drinks (I left the rest for later which I haven’t come round to finishing yet), probably more than five years ago, I haven’t drank a drop of fizzy drink. 

The strangest thing has been that, even though all my favourite drinks were fizzy, this abstention has not been difficult at all and I can’t really recall having to do any mujaahadah at all in all these years, even when I’ve been extremely thirsty and the only drink in front of me was my favourite one. 

I’m convinced that Mufti Saheb is a Wali of Allah.” 

A Glimpse into His Daily Schedule

“A brother who recently visited Hazrat told me that Hazrat replies to over a hundred letters daily in addition to writing books and literature continuously. The brother also confirmed that Hazrat only sleeps 2hrs, and whenever he sleeps 2hrs and 30minutes, he laments the fact that he had overslept. Other than his night-long vigil in ibaadah and salaat, Hazrat reads at least 10 Juz from the mushaf daily.

Time and Place is in the control of Allah (azza wa jal), and He (azza wa jal) grants Barakah in Time for the Auliyah.” 

Some of the Works he is involved in:

A mureed states:

“Moulana is a 72 year old,South African(3rd generation iirc) aalim who is a senior khalifah of Ml.Maseehullah Khan Sherwani(r.a.).Moulana gained his initial prominance due to Ml.Maseehullah(r.a.) fondness of him. Moulana was one of the most hard working students in the madressah, completed his studies and was given Ijazah in a very short period of time. Moulana has been involved in various branches of deen. Moulana is a sheikh of tasawwuf,was/is involved in the ta’leem of children,maktab and other levels iirc, also through his awake magazine and al-haq,al-majlis and other publications. Moulana has compiled plenty of books on different speres of deen, including fatawa, tasawwuf, ibadat, responses to baatil, fiqh, aqeedah and many more.

Moulana was also involved in jihad, running jihad camps in the mountains of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa,and he had links to several of the afghan mujahideen. I am not sure if he spent time in afghanistan just as an observer or if he was active in the actual jihad against the soviets. Moulana is a vocifirous votary of the caucus mujahideen. Moulana also runs a humanitarian organisation known as SOSH/servants of suffering humanity. Moulana also runs an extensive project which is known as the maktab project. It is run in many countries, primarily in bangladesh and impoverished muslim communities that have little deen and where christian missioneries are active. In 1999, there were 600 maktab madrasahs run by moulana. I don’t know about the present situation.

It was during one of moulanas visits to the madrasahs in bangladesh that Moulana was arrested and imprisoned in Bangladesh by the CID of Bangladesh and the CIA. Moulana was improsened for 6 months without being formally charged and he was stuck in Bangladesh for another 6 months as his passport was confiscated. During Moulanas detention, he was continously interrogated for 29 days by CID,during which sleep depravation e.t.c. were employed. He was thereafter interrogated by the CIA.During the CIA interrogations he was taken to an elite suburb of Dakha. Amongst the things he was accused of were: Financing al-qaida and Usama Bin Laden; Owning diamond mines with Usama; funding jihad throughn his ‘diamond mines’; conspiring to overthrow the bangali government, assasinating intellectuals, secularists, senior millitary officials e.t.c.; Being part of Usama’s command structure; establishing 421 jihad training units in Bangladesh e.t.c..During Ml. imprisonment, he had the full support of the S.A. govt. and the embassy in Delhi. Embassy officials were sent to report on his well-being and to liase with his legal team and inspect his madrasahs.

Moulana gained a lot of stick during the late 90’s from other deobandis. Moulana was involved in a controversy.He was part of a fact finding mission(of his organisation) to afghanistan. His report on the taliban was critical.He was critical of their ‘wastage of food’, misappropriation of funds, tolerance of bid’ah, acceptance of bay’ah of the shiahs, allowing televisions to be transported through afghanistan,’forsaking the salafi mujahideen on the pretext of them being salafi’ e.t.c. However, in 2000/2001 iirc, when the taliban ‘corrected’ some of these issues he praised them. Moulana has travel restrictions placed on him.

Moulana is very strict in his fatawa and very harsh in his language. It is not appropriate for laymen to desrespect ulama/certain ulama on the basis of his writings. May Allah unite the ulama on haq.

German Revert Sister Who Was Formerly a Fascist Nazi

A revert Sister from Germany states after reading the comments above:

I can only confirm the above, even though we never had the chance to meet our hadhrat wala, but he has been to us like father, guiding us  toward the haqq with firmness and love at the same time. He is a very concerned Muslim and Aalim of the highest degree. The kind you read about in the books of the elders of Deoband.. May allah Ta’ala always protect him, his family, his followers and never let him stray..Ameen

http://ummeahmad.wordpress.com/

JAMIATUL ULAMA GAUTENG’S RESPONSE TO SOME SLANDERS

Some miserable and unfortunate souls have been responsible for fabricating and propagating some vile slanders against Hazrat Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai (Damat Barakatuhum). The terrible weight of sin for such slanders will not only have to be borne by the wretched fabricators, but also by all those who have contributed in propagating the slanderous message and other similar slanders that are invariably directed at those who proclaim loud and clearly the bitter Haqq.

One aspect of those slanders, Hazrat Shaykh Maseehullah Khan’s (rahmatullahi alayh) supposed and alleged negative regard for his own Khalifah (i.e. Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai), will be thoroughly dismantled here.

Shaykh Maseehullah Khan’s uniquely high regard for his Khalifah, Maulana Ahmad Sadeq Desai, the only one to have been granted Khilaafat while still a student, can easily be verified by the innumerable associates of Shaykh Maseehullah who are still alive today, including students, mureeds, and Khulafaa. Shaykh Maseehullah Khan was a Wali of immense spiritual foresight. He once mentioned that Maulana A S Desai will do the work of a hundred Aalims. On another occasion, in response to complaints regarding Maulana A S Desai’s firm and unwavering acquittal of Amr bil Ma’roof wa Nahy anil Munkar, Shaykh Maseehullah responded that though people were complaining at that time, in 50 years’ time people will be crying and making Du’aa for him. In another Majlis, Shaykh Maseehullah Khan actually took hold of Maulana A S Desai’s hand and took bay’t from him. When Maulana A S Desai completed his course at Jalalabad and the time arrived for his return to South Africa, Shaykh Maseehullah Khan and all the Ustadhs of the Madrasah escorted him to the bus stand to bid him farewell. 

Many other incidents witnessed directly and reported by Shaykh Maseehullah’s students, mureeds, Khulafaa, and other associates, demonstrate the immense regard and esteem in which Shaykh Maseehullah and all the Ustadhs of the Madrasah would hold their student, Maulana A S Desai.

In response to the vile slanders, the following message was recently issued by the Jamiatul Ulama Guateng, who are run by Ulama who were close to Shaykh Maseehullah Khan, such as Mufti Hashim Boda who himself was also granted Khilaafat, and graduated from his Shaykh’s Madrasah in Jalalabad. The information contained in the message below from those who had such close and long-standing association with Shaykh Maseehullah Khan to have gained extensive first-hand knowledge of his views, simply affirms the high Ilmi and spiritual status of Maulana A S Desai and exposes the falsity and villainy of the slanders directed at him.

Other similar lies fabricated by self-styled internet “Mujtahids”, aimed purely at discrediting Maulana A S Desai, and stemming mainly from the invariably violently allergic reactions their Nufoos (base desires) exhibit towards the Haqq, will be exposed in a future post insha-Allah.

RESPONSE BY JAMIATUL ULAMA GAUTENG

Yaa Kath-thaab!

O You The Monstrous Liar!

1. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you just 40 hours before the demise of Hazratji (Hadhrat Maulana Maseehullah) Rahmatullahi alayh when Hazrat in his final hours in this earthly sojourn exhorted two South African students to study and emulate Maulana AS DESAI!!!

2. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you in the final days of Hazratji’s life on earth when he ratified his Khulafa List and the name of Maulana AS DESAI was preserved till eternity as Khalifah Mujaaz-e-Bai’t of Hazratji!!!

3. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when in 1990 Hazratji fell so ill, that all Majaalis had come to a standstill? Then Maulana AS DESAI came and never were the likes of such Majaalis seen – official Majlises 3 times a day; after Fajr, mornings and after Asr!!!

4. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Hazratji dedicated the Majlis Mujaahadah Thaaniyah to Maulana AS DESAI calling his name almost a dozen times in the Majlis and devoting his attention to Maulana AS DESAI!!!

5. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Hazratji said in an open Majlis that there was never such a diligent student like Maulana AS DESAI in Jalalabad and never will there be one like him!!!

6. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Hazratji took Maulana AS DESAI’s hand and took bai’t from him!!!

7. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Hazratji told a chap of your ilk complaining about the Fatwas of haraam and saying that he is going to make the water also haraam, “Never was there a student like him. And even if he says that the water is haraam then stop drinking the water.”!!!

8. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Hazratji said that Maulana AS DESAI will do the work of 100 Aalims!!!

9. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Hazratji and all Ustaads of the Madrasah escorted Maulana AS DESAI to the bus stand and bid him farewell after he completed his course!!! Was such a privilege shown to any other student in Jalalabad!!!

10. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Maulana AS DESAI completed his studies in Jalalabad and then wished to proceed to Darul Uloom Deoband as there was no post-graduate studies at that time in Jalalabad!!! What did Hazratji do? He instructed Allaamah Rafeeq Saheb the top Ustaad in Jalalabad to teach Dorah Tafseer to Maulana AS DESAI. Which student had that honour!!!

11.O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when the great Allaamah Rafeeq Saheb Shaikhul Hadith of Jalalabad actually stood up for the student, AS DESAI!!!!

12. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Maulana AS Desai told Hazratji that people were calling him harsh, Hazratji responded: “Be stern and harsh on them.”

13. O You The Monstrous Liar! Where were you when Hazratji said that people are complaining now, but in 50 years’ time they will be crying and making Du’aa for him!!!

14. O You The Monstrous Liar! On the Day of Qiyaamah, the Truth of the Saadiqeen will avail them and the Lies of the Kaathibeen will destroy them!!!

Salaam to those who follow guidance.

25 Sha’baan 1438

21 May 2017

[Jamiatul Ulama Guateng]

Original document issued by Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng is here:

http://reliablefatwas.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/O-You-The-Monstrous-Liar.pdf

Source: https://reliablefatwas.com/maulana-ahmad-sadeq-desai-damat-barakatuhum/

Ḥujjat al-Islam Moulānā Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotwī – Short Biography

One of the most esteemed personalities in the History of Islam

[By Muftī Sa’īd Aḥmad Pālanpūrī]

Name and lineage 

His name was Muḥammad Qāsim. His historic name was Khurshīd Ḥusayn. His father’s name was As’ad ‘Alī and his grandfather’s name was Shaykh Ghulām Shāh. His entire lineage is as follows:

Muḥammad Qāsim, who was the son of As’ad ‘Alī, who was the son of Ghulām Shāh, who was the son of Muḥammad Bakhsh, who was the son of ‘Alā’ al-Dīn, who was the son of Muḥammad Fattāḥ, who was the son of Muḥammad Muftī, who was the son of ‘Abd al-Samī’, who was the son of Moulānā Muḥammad Hāshim.

His lineage links up to Qāsim bin Muḥammad bin Abī Bakr (Radhiyallahu Anhu)

Birth and demise

He was born in 1248 A.H (1832) in the town of Nānotah. He passed away on Thursday 4 Jamādal Ūlā 1297 A.H (1879) after Ẓuhr ṣalāh. To Allah do we belong and unto Him shall we return.

Hometown

His hometown was Nānotah, which is a marginally populated town. It is situated twelve miles east of Deoband, fifteen miles south of Sahāranpūr, nine miles west of Gangoh and seven miles north of Delhi.

His ancestral grandfather-  Moulānā Muḥammad Hāshim (rahimahullah), was very close to the Mughal Emperor Shāh Jaḥān. Moulānā Muḥammad Ḥāshim (rahimahullah) settled in Nānotah and in so doing transformed it into an Islamic town. It was in this town that his progeny flourished and it was from this very town that the radiant star – Moulānā Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotwī (rahimahullah), shone forth.

Childhood

During his childhood, he saw a dream that he was sitting in the lap of Allah Ta’ālā, which his grandfather interpreted to mean that Allah Ta’ālā will grant him abundant knowledge and he will become a well-known personality. His intelligence, prowess, courage, quick thinking, broad mindedness and diligence stood out from his childhood days and he always took first position in his class. He had an affinity for poetry from an early age and would write his stories and games in rhyming form.

Education

His primary education began in the Madrasa of Nanotah. He then studied Arabic under Molana Muhtab ‘Ali (rahimahullah) in Deoband. Impressed by Molana’s wisdom and deep insight, Molana Muhtab ‘Ali (rahimahullah) gave him the title of “‘ilm ki Bakri” (goat of knowledge), a reflection of his constant pursuit of knowledge. He then studied for a short while under Molana Muhammad Nawaz in Saharanpur. He then went to Delhi in the company of Molana Mamluk ‘Ali (rahimahullah) in 1259 A.H, where he began studying Kafiyyah (an intricate book on Arabic grammar) and completed his studies in five years. He studied hadith under Molana Shah ‘Abd al Ghani Mujadidi[1]  (rahimahullah). After arriving in Delhi, he began excelling at such a rapid pace that none could keep up with him; he could read intricate books of philosophy just as a hafiz can recite a portion of the Qur’an.

While residing in Delhi, he also sought spiritual reform from Molana Haji Imdad Allah al Thanwi al Makki (rahimahullah) and began his efforts of self-purification.

Personality and character

Allah Ta’ala had made Molana an awe-inspiring personality because of which many people lacked the courage to address him, even though he was a light-hearted person with exceptional character. He preferred to be alone and from an early age and would prefer remaining silent. This is another reason why people would think twice before engaging in a conversation with him. He was extremely generous and a big-hearted, who took pleasure in entertaining guests and acts of hospitality. His wife was the same as him and even more so, such that she was the one who inspired his generosity. He would say: “My generosity is the result of Ahmed’s mother (i.e. his wife).”

Dislike for status

His condition for many years was such that if any person addressed him as “Molwi” then he would not reply, but if he was addressed by his name then he would be pleased. He disliked being praised and was uncomfortable with it. He was informal with everyone and kept a relationship more of friendship than as a teacher with his students. He disliked being referred to as ‘Molana’ and would say: “This title has spoilt everything, if there had not been a necessity, I would have remained hidden, such that no one would have known of my existence.”

Glad tidings

During his days as a student, he saw a dream that he was standing on the Ka’bah and thousands of rivers were flowing from it. His teacher, Molana Mamluk ‘Ali (rahimahullah) interpreted this to mean: “Knowledge will spread from you abundantly.”

On one occasion, his mother complained to Molana Haji Imdad Allah (rahimahullah) about his unemployment and lack of income, on which Haji Imdad Allah (rahimahullah) laughed and said:

This man is about to become such that he will have hundreds of attendants. He will attain such fame that his name will be known across the world. You complain of poverty when Allah Ta’ala is going to grant him a thousand fold more, such that he will be better than those who are employed.

His mother lived to see this prediction come true.

Haji Imdad Allah (rahimahullah) also said about him:

People of his caliber used to be found in the early years of Islam, now for years to come, we will not see another.

Life history

After completing his studies, he took on the responsibility of editing at the Ahmedi publications company in Delhi. During this time, Molana Ahmed ‘Ali Saharanpuri (who added the footnotes to Sahih al Bukhari) tasked Molana with adding the footnotes to the last five or six chapters of Sahih al Bukhari, which he fulfilled to perfection- each footnote taken from reliable books and nothing from his own opinion.

Later Jihad was declared against the British but due to difficulties faced at that time, the Muslims were not victorious. As soon as the British had gained complete control of the country, they issued a warrant for his arrest. He remained hidden for a few days and then departed for hajj and by the time he returned an official pardon had been announced.

After returning from hajj, he began acting as editor for Munshi Mumtaz ‘Ali in Mirat, while at the same time teaching. It was during this time that the foundation for Dar al ’Ulum Deoband was laid. After a little while, he went to Deoband and saw to every aspect of the Madrasa. He taught all the books with no reservation and would render such a commentary that none had ever heard nor seen. He expounded amazing facts in each subject; reconciling differences of opinion and explaining each law in detail. The effects of his teachings remain to this day.

He performed his first hajj in 1277 A.H and during the journey, in the month of Ramadan, he memorised the entire Qur’an and recited it in Tarawih salah. He performed his second hajj in 1285 A.H and the third in 1294 A.H and it was when returning from this hajj that his illness began, which proved to be fatal.

Children

He had two sons: Molana Muhammad Ahmed rahimahullah (former principal of Dar al ’Ulum Deoband) and Muhammad Hashim (rahimahullah). He also had three daughters.

Students

He had numerous students but the most famous are:

Sheikh al Hind Molana Mahmud Hassan Deobandi (rahimahullah). He studied the majority of his books in Dar al ’Ulum Deoband and studied hadith under Molana Qasim Nanotwi (rahimahullah). The first graduation ceremony of the Dar al ’Ulum was held for him.

Molana Fakhr al Hassan Gangohi (rahimahullah), who added the footnotes to Abu Dawud. His personality was exactly the same as Molana Ashraf ‘Ali al Thanwi (rahimahullah) and was a very capable scholar too at that. He also acquired his knowledge from Dar al ’Ulum Deoband.

Molana Ahmed Hassan Amrohawi (rahimahullah). Molana Qasim Nanotwi (rahimahullah) had great affection for him and he also loved Molana dearly. He was very intelligent and a proficient scholar.[2]

Aside from these three illustrious personalities, Molana rahimahu Llah had many more students, however the sacrifices and services of his other disciples and students have not been recorded, even though he treated them all equally.[3]

Accomplishments

The accomplishments for which he is most famous are three:

Establishing Madaris- more so Dar al ’Ulum Deoband.

Calling for Jihad against the British.

Services to Islamic knowledge.

We will now highlight his achievements in each of these fields.

Establishing Madaris

In 1274 A.H (1857) when the British had taken control of the entire country and the Mughal dynasty came to an end, Islam and Muslims became a target, and it was the Muslims who suffered the pain of the piercing claws of the British most. The reason for this is that the entire aspect of conqueror and conquered, usurper and usurped, victory and defeat, existed between the Muslims and the British. Those ‘ulama who were rendering services to din during the rule of the Mughal dynasty, did so either receiving a wage or assistance from the royal court and as such lived in relative ease. A few ‘ulama also rendered services in their own private capacity; teaching, tutoring and lecturing in their own localities. However after the British took over, there no longer remained any assistance from the government- wages or financial assistance. Poverty and impoverishment created an entirely new challenge and slowly the traces of the glory of Islam began to dwindle, as the ‘ulama now became occupied with their own livelihood. What was to happen to the future of Islam? This was a vital question.

However, Allah Ta’ala says in the Noble Qur’an:

وَالَّذِیْنَ جَاهَدُوْا فِیْنَا لَنَهْدِیَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَاۚ

We shall definitely show our avenues (of guidance and insight) to those who exert themselves in Our cause.[4]

Allah Ta’ala inspired all the saints at the same time with the idea that the only way of protecting din and Islam is to now establish Madaris using public funds. This meant that those ‘ulama who until this point in time were rendering services to din in their own private capacity will now have to join together and work collectively. One of the benefits of this would be that the institute would see to their basic needs and as a result they would be able to serve din with no worry of having to earn a livelihood. Another benefit of this would be that if any ‘alim, out of necessity or for any other reason, were to abandon his responsibilities then another would take his place. The garden would continue being watered even if the gardener were to change. “Public funds” is general and not from a particular person- work would continue relying upon the funds of the general public. They would not depend upon the wealth or donations of the government, wealthy or those in authority; which would mean that the madrasa would suffer no harm if a select few refused to assist the madrasa; as the loss suffered on account of them would be borne by another. In addition, the general public who will assist the madrasa will not try to influence the madrasa in any way. If funds are taken from a particular individual then the life and death of the madrasa is dependent upon that very one person. Another harm of this is that true reliance in Allah will not be gained, as opposed to when a person has no one else to rely upon except Allah. The third most harmful aspect of relying upon the funds of a particular individual is that he will have the ability to influence madrasa policy and what is taught therein.

On account of this inspiration, ‘ulama began opening madaris across India but there still remained a few who did not understand this inspiration or the true reality of it. Thus, they continued their efforts of din on their own and just as a roof cannot stand without a pillar, their services too did not last very long and slowly they became preoccupied with earning a living and their services to din came to an end. A few of them did indeed build madaris but disliked asking from the general public and so remained dependent upon specific individuals or the government. As a result, these madaris either had to close due to lack of finance or inevitably became government institutions.

It is a great favour of Allah that not only did these ‘ulama understand the meaning of this inspiration but also understood its importance and true reality. It is without a doubt that Molana Qasim Nanotwi rahimahu Llah understood its importance more than all and in fact wrote it out for us, which is preserved to this day. He wrote:

The principles on which this madrasa (Dar al ’Ulum Deoband) and others like it will operate.

This makes it clear that these principles are not only stipulated for Dar al ’Ulum Deoband but for every madrasa relying on public funds. Let us examine numbers 6, 7, and 8 of these principles.

6) As long as this madrasa will not have any fixed income then, Allah willing, it will be run with attention turned towards Allah. If it will attain a fixed income, such as rental, trade or government grants then the attention will be turned away from Allah and reliance upon Allah will fade. In this way divine assistance will stop, infighting will begin and we will find ourselves becoming dependent.

7) Assistance from the government and influential people is harmful.

8) There is more blessing in the funds attained from the general public, who do not seek any favour in return. In essence it is the general public whose intentions are nobler.

These principles should be read over and over again and pondered over deeply, one will then see how true this inspiration was. Nevertheless, as a result of this inspiration the ‘ulama began to establish madaris based upon these principles and now almost a century later, we are forced to admit that if they had not done so then Islam would have faded into non-existence in India.

Molana Qasim Nanotwi rahimahu Llah used his influence to establish the building of various madaris and in his short life managed to build four.

Dar al ’Ulum Deoband

Madrasa Qasimiyyah Shahi Muradabad

Madrasa Manbaʼ al ’Ulum Galawati

Madrasa Jami’ Masjid Amrohah

All of these Madaris were founded by Molana but it is the good fortune of Dar al ’Ulum Deoband that Molana became its supervisor and maintained it, as Deoband was his second hometown. All the illustrious personalities from Deoband such as Molana Haji ‘Abid Hussain (rahimahullah) (first principal of Dar al ’Ulum Deoband), Molana Rafi’ al Din (rahimahullah) (second principal of Dar al ’Ulum Deoband), etc all had a close relationship with Molana Qasim Nanotwi (rahimahullah). After 1857, Deoband became his true home town, which had already been predestined, and he took up permanent residence in Deoband and saw to all the needs and requirements of the Dar al ’Ulum. The other madaris founded by Molana did not receive the same favour and as a result could not reach the same level as Dar al ’Ulum Deoband. Today this Madrasa has grown into a huge firm tree providing fruit to the entire world.

Calling for Jihad against British

In the latter half of the nineteenth century a time of difficulty began for all Muslims in India when it became a battleground for the British. The rule of the Mughal Empire ended and the Muslims were now faced with many threats, both internal and external. However Allah Ta’ala sent such individuals who fought these threats and succeeded in keeping the pillars of din standing. Molana Qasim Nanotwi (rahimahullah) is the leader of this group of illustrious individuals. Just as he began the establishment of Madaris so too did he begin fighting all external and internal threats. When the British decided to take control of India by force of the sword, Molana fought them back at Shamili. When the British began attacking all religions in India, specifically the din of Islam, it was Molana who combated them, earning the gratitude of not only the Muslims but the Hindus as well. In the fair of Chandapur (in the district of Shah Jahanpur) the Hindus were singing his praises. They too acknowledged Molana’s intelligence, prowess, and ability to debate, and would flock to gather around him from afar, as the threats posed by the British affected all Indians.

The British then changed their game plan and tried to attack the Muslims from the rear, preparing a small group of Hindus to oppose the Muslims and Islam. Molana fought back this threat head on as well.

The British then adopted a new plan, establishing schools appearing to teach Islam but in actual fact were enforcing British teaching. This was a cunning plan and a well placed web, but Molana saw its true nature and saved the Muslims from its snares.

The British then thought of another plan and created a small group from among the Muslims to oppose the majority. Molana thwarted their plans in this as well. In essence, Molana fought whatever plot the British could devise, setting the standard for all future ‘ulama that it is compulsory upon them to fight against all forms of mischief and threats to Islam.

Services to Islam in the field of knowledge

With the arrival of western education in India, Molana saw the change in the mindset of the people; people were no longer satisfied with narration alone but wished to know the wisdom and secret behind each law. This is why Molana began substantiating each law of din and his books comprise more of logical reasoning than narration. This change in the mindset of the people was first perceived by Molana Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Delhwi (rahimahullah 1114 A.H-1174 A.H), which is the reason for his authorship of his famous book- Hujjat Allah al Balighah, in which he presented the wisdoms behind each tenet of din.

After Shah Waliullah (rahimahullah), it was Molana Qasim Nanotwi (rahimahullah)  who rendered services in this direction. The services of Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) differed from that of Shah Waliullah  (rahimahullah) in three aspects:

Shah Waliullah (rahimahullah) did not debate matters pertaining to belief separately, whereas Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) discussed it as a separate subject explaining its law and principles. This is one of the great achievements of his life.

Shah Waliullah (rahimahullah) would explain the wisdom behind the laws of din in general or only regarding specific acts mentioned in hadith and not each and every act, whereas Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) explained the wisdom behind even the most trivial of acts and at times also highlighted the wisdom behind what the fuqaha describe as Khilaf al Qiyas (acts contrary to reasoning) proving them to be in accordance with reason after all. However, it is unfortunate that more could not be done in this line but whatever has been serves as a guide and proof for us. The senior scholars who came later took this effort further. Al Masalih al ’Aqaliyyah li Ahkam al Naqliyah of Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) as well as of other scholars is worth reading in this regard.

The substantiations of Shah Waliullah (rahimahullah) were based more upon reasoning and logic whereas Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) was able to make even the most intricate and purely logical reasoning perceivable. This was unique to his literary works which cannot be found anywhere else.

The same can be said for both Molana Nanotwi rahimahu Llah and Shah Waliullah (rahimahullah) that their knowledge was more inspired than derived only from books. Allah Ta’ala had granted both of them a great share of inspired knowledge.

Whatever the case, Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) wrote thirty-six books to guide this Ummah, which can be divided into three categories:

easy

difficult

intricate

Easy books

Qiblah Numa– This is in Urdu, which explains that the Ka’bah is not an object of worship but the direction one faces during worship. Only the first quarter is easy.

Hadiyyat al Shia- This is in Urdu, which debates matters of difference with the Shia. This is the easiest of all his books.

Tuhfah Lahmiyyah- This is in Urdu, which explains that consumption of meat is the natural inclination of man. This was jointly written by Molana and one of his close friends.

Ajwibah Arba’in- This is in Urdu and in two volumes. It provides answers to forty questions posed by the Shia. The first volume was jointly written by Molana (rahimahullah) and Molana ‘Abdullah Anbitawi rahimahu Llah. The second volume was written by Molana (rahimahullah) alone.

Fuyud-e Qasimiyyah- This is in Urdu and Farsi. This book discusses various topics. The discussion on Jumu’ah in villages was translated and published separately under the title: Laws of Jumu’ah, which is why we have not mentioned it as a separate book.

Waqi’ah Mehlah Khuda Shanasi- This is in Urdu. It is a discussion of the truth of din which took place in his first debate in Shah Jahanpur 1293 A.H. Munshi Muhammad Hashim, owner of Hashimi publications and Molana Muhammad Hayat, owner of Dhiya’i publications, printed and published this jointly. The entire debate of Molana Nanotwi  (rahimahullah) has been related in it.

Mubahathah Shah Jahanpur- This is in Urdu and also discusses the truth of din and a refutation of Christianity. This is the second debate that took place in Shah Jahanpur in 1295 A.H. It was compiled by Molana Fakhr al Hassan Gangohi (rahimahullah) and Sheikh al-Hind (rahimahullah).

Lataif-e Qasimiyyah- This is in Farsi. It discusses various topics and is a compilation of nine treatises, the last of which is regarding Jumu’ah in villages. Also in this book is Al Haqq al Sarih fi Ithbat al Tarawih which comprises of the treatise of Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) and Molana Gangohi (rahimahullah). This is why Al Haqq al Sarih has not been mentioned separately.

Tasfiyyat al ’Aqaʼid- This is in Urdu and debates the principles and beliefs of din. It is a reply to the letter of Sir Sayed.

Intisar al Islam- This is in Urdu. It is a reply to ten objections raised against Islam’s teachings. The Majlis Ma’arif al Qur’an edition surpasses all previous editions.

Hujjat al Islam- This is in Urdu and discusses matters pertaining to din and belief, and is a must-read for every Muslim. The Majlis Ma’arif al Qur’an edition surpasses all previous editions.

Qasaʼid-e Qasimi- This is in Urdu, Farsi and Arabic. It is a collection of poetic renditions on various topics.

Makatib-e Qasimi- This is in Farsi and is a compilation of the letters written by Molana Nanotwi rahimahu Llah.

Al Ajwibah al Kamilah fi Aswilah al Khamilah- This is in Urdu and is a reply to five baseless objections by a Shia.

Hashiyyah al Bukhari- This is in Arabic. The sub-notes of Sahih al Bukhari written by Molana Ahmed ‘Ali Saharanpuri (rahimahullah), which is generally found in all copies of Sahih al Bukhari ; the final five chapters were written by Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah).

All of these books were easy, even though the subject matter extremely weighty. The method of elucidation was not just simple and easy but extremely so, such that any person is able to derive benefit from it.

Difficult books

1. Masabih al Tarawih- This is in Farsi and the subject matter is apparent from the title. In addition, other amazing and intricate facts have also been discussed relating to the topic. This book was translated by Molana Ishtiyaq Ahmed Deobandi (rahimahullah), which has been published under the name Anwar al Masabih. However, this book has not been analysed as it should have been and work still remains to be done on it.

2. Taqrir Dil Pazir- This is in Urdu and debates many issues. It was not completed and comprises of only what was written.

3. Barahin-e Qasimiyyah- This is in Urdu and debates several issues pertaining to din and belief. It was jointly written by Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah)  and his student- Molana ‘Abd al ’Ali (rahimahullah).

4. Tahdhir al Nas min Inkar Athar Ibn ‘Abbas- This is in Urdu. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu ‘anhu) states that there are seven earths and on each earth prophets’ were sent. This book is a detailed discussion of this report. In addition a detailed discussion on the finality of nubuwwah was also included. This book became extremely popular and widely accepted during Molana’s (rahimahullah) lifetime. Many individuals raised objections to this book and their objections were replied by Molana (rahimahullah) himself.

5. Jawabat Ma’durat al ’Ashar- This is in Urdu. This comprises of ten objections raised by Molana ‘Abdul ‘Aziz (rahimahullah) on the book Tahdhir al Nas min Inkari Athar Ibn ‘Abbas and the replies given to it by Molana. These objections were not raised in refutation but rather in search of knowledge, such that Molana ‘Abdul ‘Aziz (rahimahullah) later agreed with the opinions of Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) after hearing his replies. In addition, Molana ‘Abd al Qadir al Badayuni (rahimahullah) also objected to this book and published a refutation of it under the name-Fasih al din Badayuni. Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) replied to this book. The original as well a copy of it can be found in the library of Molana ‘Abd al Ghani (rahimahullah). Another copy of it can be found in the personal library of Molana Qari Muhammad Tayyab  (rahimahullah).

Another person, who most probably resided in Rampur, also raised objection to Tahdhir al Nas. Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) also replied to his objections and a written copy of this can be found in Palawaddah. The student of Molana- Molana Ahmed Hassan Amrohawirahimahu Llah, also wrote a reply to his objections. A written copy of it can also be found in Palawaddah. It was this very book which Ahmed Radha Khan Barelwi misquoted and misinterpreted, in his propaganda against Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah). However as the saying goes:

Whoever tries to blow out the flame ignited by Allah

Will burn his beard but the flame will not be extinguished

6. Asrar-e Qur’ani- This is in Farsi and is a substantiated reply to all questions relating to the Qur’an. The commentary of Mu’owadhatayn– (Surah al Falaq and Surah al Nas) is also included in this book.

7. Intibah al Muʼminin- This is in Farsi. This is a commentary of a hadith reported in al Mishkat al Masabih (under the chapter of the virtues of the ‘Asharah Mubasharah in the third section), narrated by ‘Ali (radiyallahu ‘anhu) regarding the khalifas of Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

8. Jamal e Qasimi- This is in Urdu and discusses the aspects of Sima’a al Mowta,Wahdat al Wujud and Hayat al Nabi. This is a compilation of two books.

9. Towthiq al Kalam fi al Insat Khalf al Imam- Also called Al Dalil al Muhkam fi al Insat Khalf al Imam and is in Urdu. It discusses the reason why one following the imam should not recite Qira’ah behind the imam. Both names refer to the same book but in Towthiq there are a few additional lines.

10. Makatib-e Qasim al ’Ulum- This is in four volumes comprising of eleven letters, ten of which are Molana Nanotwi’s rahimahu Llah: a discussion on Fadak, a commentary on hadith al ’Umma, a discussion on what has been slaughtered in the name of others besides Allah, the ‘ismah (infallibility) of the prophets’, a solution to ahadith that seem to contradict each other regarding a Makatab[5], a reply to a letter by the Ahl al Hadith ‘Alim- Molana Muhammad Hussain al Batalawi, a reply to those who deny nubuwwah and the miracles of the prophets’, the ruling regarding taking of interest in India and the income received from a land left in trust, the martyrdom of Hussainradiya Llahu ‘anhu and a discussion on the issue of Imamah and a reply to the substantiation of Al Tusi and a commentary of the two ahadith. The eleventh is a commentary on the hadith: “He who does not recognise the imam of his time”.

All these are in Farsi. The letters- one to seven, have been translated by Molana Qari Tayyab rahimahu Llah, which have been published in the twelfth volume of Al Qasim. It has been presently edited and simplified by Professor Anwar al Hassan Sherkoti, now Pakistani, and published under the title of Anwar al Nujum. Unfortunately I have not been able to read this as yet.[6]

11. Al Haz al Maqsum min Qasim al ’Ulum- This is in Arabic and is a discussion on Al Juz al ladhi la Yatajazzi and a research into poetic rendition and music. It comprises of two letters of Molana Rahimullah Bijonwari (rahimahullah)- student of Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah), written in eloquent Arabic. It concludes with mention of two miraculous feats of Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah).

These were the difficult books of Molana Nanotwi (rahimahullah) and how true was the statement of Molana Qari Tayyib (rahimahullah) regarding them:

The wisdom of these books is like a huge and fertile country, which contain all the necessities of life, having no shortage of provisions or treasures. It has all the required modes of transport but the road to this country is hidden and very difficult to travel. There are no signs which make traversing this road easier nor any indications through which one can perceive the fertility of the land and take benefit from it. Apart from a select few, none possess any knowledge of this country or know of the road to it. Without a doubt the wisdom and knowledge of Molana Qasim Nanotwi (rahimahullah) is like this country and because of the lack of signs, hints, necessary directions, footnotes, tables of contents and translations, even the general ‘ulama cannot benefit from it, let alone the common masses.[7]

Intricate books

Qiblah Numa- The Ka’bah is not an object of worship but rather the direction faced during salah. The final three quarters of this book are extremely difficult. Molana Ishtiyaq Ahmed rahimahullah has rendered great service to it but still it cannot be understood appropriately. Qari Tayyab (rahimahullah) has also written a detailed commentary on it but sadly it has been lost.

Makatib-e Qasim al ’Ulum- The letter which contains the commentary of Hadith al ’Umma is extremely difficult.

Ab Hayat- This is in Urdu and proves that the prophets’ are alive in their graves. This is understood to be the most difficult of all Molana’s books. Even though Molana Ya’qub Nanotwi  (rahimahullah) had a portion of it removed, as he was of the opinion that none would be able to understand it (these extracted portions of Ab Hayat are in Pilawaddah), there still remains a dire need for a commentary to be written on it. Perhaps Allah Ta’ala will grant me the ability to fulfill this service.

This is a total of thirty-six books, wherein the wisdom of Molana Qasim Nanotwi rahimahu Llah glimmers like pearls. Molana Qari Tayyibrahimahu Llah writes in praise of this wisdom:

The introduction to his books comes naturally such that the most important points glare one in the face. Every discussion is substantiated and well-laid out such that it appeals to the mind and its intricacies easily understood. In addition, Molana’s step by step method of explanation removes all doubts and misgivings in a clear and manifest manner such that thousands of other similar aspects are resolved, even if it is related to a different chapter. All these aspects are solved by his systematic approach and in fact many doors of knowledge and understanding are opened to the heart. A person is forced to accept that this aspect of Shari’ah is so logical and within reason that it seems as if that is the only natural conclusion.

In the words of Molana Muhammad Ya’qub (rahimahullah, first principal of Dar al ’Ulum Deoband):

Molana Nanotwi rahimahullah had a philosophical mind, which is why such deep concepts came naturally to him and as a result when discussing various laws of Shari’ah, he would do so from a philosophical point of view, resulting in not only that one aspect being resolved but thousand others like it. In so doing the wisdom of his philosophical view became apparent.

Nevertheless bringing various laws of Shari’ah under one logical principle and extracting intricate laws from this principle or to gather various aspects and laws of Shari’ah and extract one principle that governs them all, was unique to the knowledge of Molana rahimahu Llah.[8]

What is even more astonishing is that generally logic and reasoning relates to the derivation of laws and not hadith. It can be said that this law is logical or within reason but it is very difficult to say the same regarding a hadith; that it is within reason and logic dictates that this be the ruling. However, according to Molana Qasim Nanotwi (rahimahullah) even the narrations in hadith were not beyond reason and logic. His deep insight saw the logic and reason within narration just as he saw the logic and reason within the various laws of din. For example, according to Molana the Ka’bah being situated where it is today, it being the first House of Allah, the building of al Masjid al Aqsa forty years after the Ka’bah, even the distance between the Ka’bah and al Masjid al Aqsa, which is approximately two hundred and fifty or three hundred miles, all fall within logical reasoning and are not mere historic facts or coincidences. The details of this can all be read in his book Qiblah Numa.[9]

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Molana Shah ‘Abd al Ghani Mujadidi, was the son of Abu Sa’id, who was the son of ‘Aziz al Qadr, who was the son of Safiyy al Qadr, who was the son of Muhammad ‘Isa, who was the son of Sayf al Din, who was the son of Muhammad Ma’sum, who was the son of Ahmad (Mujadid Alf-e Thani). He is the author of Inhaj al Hajah fi Hal Sunan ibn Majah. He was born in Delhi (1235 A.H) and passed away in Madina (1296 A.H).

[2] They are known as Hassanayn-e Thalathah,i.e the three Hassans.

[3] This was all taken from Sawanikh-e Umariby Molana Muhammad Yaqub Nanotwi V, who was among the first teachers of Dar al ‘Ulum Deoband.

[4] Surah al ‘Ankabut: 69

[5] Makatab: A slave with whom an agreement has been reached upon dispensation of a fixed sum in exchange for his freedom.

[6] This was at the time that the book was written but now I have managed to obtain and read it. The author has made a splendid effort but this book has not been solved as yet and an intricate book such as this cannot be understood by mere translation. Thus, much work still remains to be done in this regard.

[7] The introduction of Anwar al Masabih, page 15, 16

[8] Hikmat-e Qasimi page 20-22

[9] Hikmat-e Qasimi page 22, 23

Muhiyuddin ibn al-Arabi (rahimahullah) and his Aqeedah

Shaykh Muhyi al-Din Ibn ‘Arabi (d. 638)

Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-‘Arabi, Abu Bakr Muhyi al-Din al-Hatimi al-Ta’i al-Andalusi al-Mursi al-Dimashqi, known as Ibn ‘Arabi to differentiate him from Qadhi Abu Bakr Ibn al-‘Arabi the Maliki jurist. A scholar of Arabic let­ters at first, then tafsîr and tasawwuf, nicknamed al-Qushayri and Sultan al-‘Arifin in his time for his pre-eminence in tasawwuf, known in his lifetime for his de­voutness to worship, asceticism, and generosity, Ibn ‘Arabi was praised by al-Munawi as “a righteous friend of Allah and a faithful scholar of knowledge” (waliyyun sâlihun wa ‘âli­mun nâsih), by Ibn ‘Imad al-Hanbali as “the absolute mujta­hid without doubt,” and by al-Fayruzabadi as “the Imam of the People of Shari‘a  both in knowledge and in legacy, the educator of the People of the Way in practice and in knowl­edge, and the shaykh of the shaykhs of the People of Truth through spiritual experience (dhawq) and understand­ing.”

His Teachers

He travelled East and West in the study of hadith, taking knowledge from over a thousand shaykhs, among them Abu al-Hasan ibn Hudhayl, Muhammad ibn Khalaf al-Lakhmi, Ibn Zarqun, Abu al-Walid al-Hadrami, al-Silafi, ‘Abd al-Haqq al-Ishbili, Ibn ‘Asakir, Ibn al-Jawzi, and Ibn Bushku­wal. His principal shaykhs in tasawwuf  were Abu Madyan al-Maghribi, Jamal al-Din Yunus ibn Yahya al-Qassar, Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Tamimi al-Fasi, Abu al-Hasan ibn Jami‘, and al-Khidr (alayhis salaam).[2]  He became known first as al-Shaykh al-Kabir (“The Great Shaykh”) then al-Shaykh al-Akbar (“The Great­est Shaykh”) with specific reference to the sciences of tasaw­wuf in which he authored hun­dreds of books.[3]

His Doctrine (‘Aqîda)

His greatest and best-known work is his last, al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya (“The Meccan Conquests”) which begins with a statement of doctrine – translated in the present volume – about which al-Safadi said: “I saw that from beginning to end it consists in the doctrine of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari without any difference whatso­ever.”[4]

His Rank of Mujtahid Mutlaq

In jurisprudence Ibn ‘Arabi is often said to follow the Zahiri school, but this is incorrect since he himself denies it, as quoted by Ibn ‘Imad from Ibn ‘Arabi’s two poems al-Ra’iyya and al-Nuniyya, which state respectively:

        Laqad harrama al-Rahmânu taqlîda Mâlikin

            wa Ahmada wa al-Nu‘mani wa al-kulli fa‘dhurû

    The Merciful forbade me to imitate Malik, Ahmad,

Al-Nu‘man [Abu Hanifa] and others, therefore pardon me.

 Lastu mimman yaqûlu qâla Ibnu Hazmin

lâ wa lâ Ahmadu wa la al-Nu‘mânu

I am not of those who say: “Ibn Hazm said”—

Certainly not! Nor “Ahmad said” nor “al-Nu‘man said.”[5]

The Controversy Surrounding Him

The name of Ibn ‘Arabi remains associated with contro­versy because of those who criticized him severely for the work attributed to him under the title Fusûs al-Hikam (“The Pre­cious Stones of the Wisdoms”). The attribution of this work in its present form to Ibn ‘Arabi is undoubtedly incor­rect as the Fusûs contradicts some of the most basic tenets of Islam expounded by Ibn ‘Arabi himself in his authen­tic works, such as the finality of Prophethood, the primacy of Prophets over non-Prophets, the abrogation of all religious creeds other than Islam, the everlastingness of the punish­ment of Hellfire and its dwellers, the abiding therein of anyone that does not accept the Prophet after his coming, Pharaoh’s damna­tion, etc. Nevertheless the Fusûs have re­ceived commen­taries by the following scholars among others: Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi (d. 671), ‘Afif al-Din al-Tilim­sani (d. 690), Mu’ayyid al-Din al-Jundi (d. 700), Sa‘d al-Din al-Farghani (d. 700), Kamal al-Din al-Zamalkani (d. 727), Dawud al-Qaysari (d. 751), Kamal al-Din al-Qashani (d. 751), Sayyid ‘Ali al-Hamadani (d. 766), Khwaja Muham­mad Parsa (d. 822) the intimate friend of Shah Naqshband, Mawlana Jami (d. 898), Isma‘il al-Anqa­rawi (d. 1042), ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi (d. 1144), and others.

Al-Suyuti’s Response to al-Biqa‘i

In response to an attack by Burhan al-Din al-Biqa‘i (d. 885) entitled Tanbih al-Ghabi ila Takfir Ibn ‘Arabi wa Tahdhir al-‘Ibad min Ahl al-‘Inad (“Warning to the Ignoramus Concerning the Declaration of Ibn ‘Arabi’s Disbelief, and Cautioning the Servants of Allah Against Stub­born People”) Sayyid ‘Ali ibn Maymun al-Maghribi (d. 917) wrote a fatwa entitledTanbih al-Ghabi fi Tanzih Ibn ‘Arabi (“Warning to the Ignoramus Concerning Ibn ‘Arabi’s Vindication”). Al-Suyuti wrote a fatwa with the same title, in which he stated:

The scholars past and present have differed concerning Ibn ‘Arabi, one group considering him a friend of Allah (walî) – and they are correct – such as Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah al-Sakandari and ‘Afif al-Din al-Yafi‘i, another considering him a heretic – such as a large number of the jurists – while others expressed doubts concerning him, among them al-Dhahabi in al-Mizan. Two opposed verdicts are reported from Shaykh ‘Izz al-Din ibn ‘Abd al-Salam, one attacking him, and one describing him as the Spiritual Pole (al-qutb). What reconciles them is indicated by Shaykh Taj al-Din ibn ‘Ata’ Allah in Lata’if al-Minan [fi Manaqib Abi al-‘Abbas al-Mursi wa Shaykhihi Abi al-Hasan al-Shadhili], namely, that Shaykh ‘Izz al-Din at the beginning acted in the fashion of jurists in passing quick judgment on the Sufis. When Shaykh Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili went to pilgrimage and returned, he came to Shaykh ‘Izz al-Din before entering his own house and con­veyed to him the Prophet’s (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) greeting. After that, Shaykh ‘Izz al-Din humbled himself and began to sit in al-Shadhili’s gatherings….[6] Our shaykh, Shaykh al-Islam, the last remnant of the mujtahids, Sharaf al-Din al-Munawi replied, concerning Ibn ‘Arabi, that silence was safest. And this is the stance that befits every truly God­-wary person who fears for himself. For me, the last word concerning Ibn ‘Arabi – and this is accepted neither by his contemporary admirers nor by his detractors – is that he be considered a walî, but reading his books is forbidden.[7]

Whatever is transmitted and attributed to the [Sufi] Shaykhs – may Allah be well pleased with them – if it contradicts external knowl­edge, bears various possibili­ties:

First, we do not concede its attribu­tion to them until it is estab­lished as authentic.

Second, after authentic­ity is established, it may have a figurative meaning; if not, then one should say: “Perhaps it has a figurative meaning for the people of internal knowledge and the knowers of Allah Almighty.”

Third, this may have come from them in a state of intoxication and distraction, and the lawfully intoxicated person is not taken to task as he is not held responsible in such a state.

Holding a bad opinion about them after all these resolutions is a sign of deprivement of success. We seek refuge in Allah from failure and a terrible verdict, and from all evils![8]

Ibn ‘Arabi’s Admirers

Al-Suyuti’s attitude and what he reports from al-Munawi is echoed by Imam al-Safadi who said of Ibn ‘Arabi: “He was a very great man, and whatever can be under­stood from his words is excellent and upright; as for what we find difficult, we leave its matter to Allah, for we were not tasked with following him nor with doing all that he said.”[9] Similarly al-Qari admitted in one of his fatwas against Ibn ‘Arabi and his works: “The safest course in Religion concerning the person of Ibn ‘Arabi is silence, as the scholars differed about him.”[10]

The hadith master Ibn al-Najjar (d. 643) wrote a long notice on him in his biographical history in which he said: “I met him in Damascus and copied some of his poetry. What a wonderful shaykh he was!”[11] Among the famous authorities who held a good opinion of Ibn ‘Arabi are the following:

· The Qur’anic commentator and jurist Imam al-Baydawi who called him “the Imam of Verification in reality and outwardly”;

· The Qur’anic commentator Abu al-Su‘ud;

· Imam al-Safadi, the author of al-Wafi bi al-Wafayat;[12]

· Zayn al-Din al-Khafi al-Akbar Abadi;[13]

· The hadith master al-Sakhawi who chronicled al-Biqa‘i’s fitna in his Ahsan al-Masa‘i fi Idah Hawadith al-Biqa‘i and went on to write al-Qawl al-Munabbi ‘an Tarjima Ibn ‘Arabi which he summarized in al-Kifaya fi Tariq al-Hidaya. He also authored another book titled Tajrid Asma’ al-Akhidhin ‘an Ibn ‘Arabi in which he listed all the scholars who borrowed material from the Shaykh.[14]

· Al-Adnahwi (11th c.) who called him in his Tabaqat al-Mufassirin “the Peerless Shaykh in his Time.”a

· Ibn ‘Imad al-Hanbali who called him “the Great Knower of Allah” (al-‘ârif al-kabîr);[15]

· Kamal al-Din ‘Abd al-Wahid ibn ‘Abd al-Karim Ibn al-Zamalkani al-Dimashqi (d. 651) who called him “the Ocean re­plete with all kinds of divine knowledges”;

· Safi al-Din al-Azdi al-Ansari in his epistle on the scholars of his time;

· Shaykh Jalal al-Din al-Dawani (d. 907);[16]

· Majd al-Din al-Shirazi al-Siddiqi in his fatwa entitled al-Ightibat bi Mu‘alaja Ibn al-Khayyat;[17]

· Al-Sayyid al-Jurjani whose Ta‘rifat in­cludes Ibn ‘Arabi’s termino­logies;

· The renowned lexicographer, hadith scholar and jurist al-Fayruzabadi who in his commentary on al-Bukhari’s Sahih often quotes Ibn ‘Arabi’s ex­planations;

· Imam al-Yafi‘i who called him in his Tarikh “the Paragon of the Friends of Allah in knowledge and fiqh out­wardly and inwardly”;

· The lexicographer and hadith master Murtada al-Zabidi who often cites Ibn ‘Arabi in his commentary on al-Ghazzali’s  Ihya’ entitled Ithaf al-Sada al-Muttaqin.

· Qadi al-Qudat Shams al-Din al-Bisati al-Maliki who opposed before the Sultan – in Ibn Hajar’s presence – ‘Ala’ al-Din al-Bukhari’s verdict of takfîr of Ibn ‘Arabi and whoever accepted him;[18]

· Shaykh al-Islam Siraj al-Din al-Makhzumi who said: “Our shaykh,Shaykh al-Islam Siraj al-Din al-Bulqini and likewise Shaykh Taqi al-Din al-Subki used to criti­cize the Shaykh in the beginning, then they changed their position after they realized what he was saying and the explanation of his intent.”[19]

· Al-Bulqini who was reported by his student al-Makhzumi as saying: “We seek refuge in Allah from say­ing that he [Ibn ‘Arabi] asserts indwelling (hulûl) or communion-with-the-divine (ittihâd)! He is far above that. Rather, he is one of the greatest imams and among those who have probed the oceans of the sciences of the Book and the Sunna.”[20]

· Shaykh al-Islam Zakariyya al-Ansari in the chapter on apostasy in his book Sharh Kitab al-Rawd fi al-Fiqh wa al-Fatwa;[21]

· Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami in his Fatawa Hadithiyya;

· Imam Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Bakri;

· The hadith master and Qur’anic commentator Shaykh Isma‘il Haqqi in his book al-Khitab;

· Imam Muhammad Ibn ‘Abidin, the foremost authority in the late Hanafi school;[22]

· The Ottoman writer Katib Çelebi who devoted a chapter on Ibn ‘Arabi in his book Mizan al-Haqq fi Ikhtyar al-Ahaqq;

· Shaykh Mulla al-Jami in Nafahat al-Uns;

· The hadith master of Damascus and Renewer of the Fourteenth Islamic century, Shaykh Badr al-Din al-Hasani;[23]

· The Wahhabi supporter, student of al-Shawkani, scho­larly nawab of Bhopal and author of Abjad al-‘Ulum Siddiq Hasan Khan al-Qinnawji in the third chapter of his Takhrij al-Wasaya which he titled: “Concerning the Instructions of One of the Pure People of Excel­lence Com­monly Named ‘Sufis’ – Allah Grant Us and All of Them Mercy Through the Immense Honor of the Master of Messengers e (bijâh sayyid al-mursalîn)” The chapter then begins: “The most sublime shaykh and knower of Allah (al-shaykh al-ajall al-‘ârif billâhi ta‘âlâ) said in al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya…” Al-Qinnawji then goes on to cite Ibn ‘Arabi for over forty pages.[24]

· Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi in his Qawa‘id al-Tahdith;[25]

· Imam Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari in his Maqalat.[26]

· Muhammad ‘Abduh calls him al-Shaykh al-Akbar;b

 · Shaykh al-Islam al-Munawi who cited him over two hundred times inFayd al-Qadir and elsewhere declared:

A group of scholars professed suspension of judgment and benefit of good opinion (al-taslîm)… their Imam being Shaykh al-Islam al-Nawawi who replied, when asked about Ibn ‘Arabi: (Those are a people who have passed away. Theirs is that which they earned, and yours is that which you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do) (2:134). [Ahmad] Zarruq reported from his shaykh al-Nuri the words: “They differed about him from the verdict of disbelief to that of spiritual primacy (qutbâniyya); giving the benefit of good opin­ion is therefore an obligation.”[27]

Wahda al-Wujûd or Oneness of Being

Perhaps the most famous misrepresentation of the Shaykh that resulted from the Fusûs is the attribution to him of the doctrine of “one­ness of being” (wahda al-wujûd) in the pan­the­istic sense of the im­manence of the Deity in everything that exists. Al-Qari cites, for example, a verse of poetry which he references to the Fusûs, stating:

Subhâna man azhara al-ashyâ’a wa huwa ‘aynuhâ

Glory to Him Who caused things to appear

and is those very things![28]

This attribution and others of its type are evidently spurious and Ibn ‘Arabi’s ‘Aqida flatly contradicts them. Fur­thermore, verifying scholars such as Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi in his epistles, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi in al-Radd al-Matin ‘ala Muntaqid al-‘Arif Billah Muhyi al-Din and Idah al-Maqsud min Wahda al-Wujud, and al-Sha‘rani in al-Yawaqit wa al-Jawahir and Tanbih al-Aghbiya’ ‘ala Qatratin min Bahri ‘Ulum al-Awliya have re­phrased Ibn ‘Arabi’s ex­pression of “one­ness of being”(wahda al-wujûd) as “one­ness of per­ception” (wahda al-shuhûd) in the sense in which the Prophet  (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) defined excel­lence (ihsân) as “worshipping Allah as if you see Him.”[29] And to see Him is to see nothing else. This is what is meant in such ex­pressions as the question uttered again and again by the late Shaykh ‘Abd al-Hamid Kishk: “Allah is my Lord! Is there in all existence any but He?”  (Allâhu rabbî! Hal fi al-wujûdi siwâh?) or apho­rism 133 of Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah: “The universes are affirmed by His affirmation of them and they are erased by the unicity of His Essence” (al-akwânu thâbitatun bi ithbâtihi wa mamhuw­watun bi ahadiyyati dhâtihi). Shaykh ‘Abd al-Hadi Kharsa explained:

Those who have come to know Allah Ithrough His own self-disclosure to them(ta‘rîf Allâhi lahum) – they did not come to know Him via their minds – have known him with the light which Allah I imparted to their hearts and minds. This light then reflected itself upon all things. Then they saw that all things subsist in Allah, and they wit­nessed the Onenesse of Allah I in all those created aspects despite their multiplicity. For these aspects have no autonomy of existence. Their subsistence is only through the divine Sustainment (qayyûmiyya) and their affirmation is through the Support (imdâd) of Allah. [Allah chooses for Himself whom He will, and guides unto Himself him who turns (toward Him)] (42:13). The people of turning to Allah (ahl al-inâba) Allah guides unto Himself. The people of His choice (ahl al-ijtibâ’) are those whom He especially purifies (istafâhum). [And peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen]  (27:59). O Allah, let us be of them and with them! Aamin.[30]

Al-Nabulusi said in his Diwan:

Beware of witnessing any other [Causator] than Him!

[Of this] cease your concern.

There is neither “you” nor “I” in this existence.

Verily, Existence is the True through Whom we appear

And through Whom we return to extinction.

When we return through Him, it is as if we never were

And when we appear through Him, yet He appears without our help.

O child of contingencies! Do not think yourself

—for you certainly are not—the One without beginning

Even if He caused you to appear and took care of you!

Truly, indwelling is the delusion of the ignoramus

Whose favorite occupation is finding fault

With the discourse of the people of Allah.

I never heard nor shall I ever hear a sane and reasonable person

Declare that the Real inhabits a contingent being!

Now, if some texts actually said this, they said it

Only on the firmly-established basis of the Prophet’s pact.[31]

Dr. Sa‘id al-Buti said:

What is the meaning of the expression “one­ness of perception”? When I interact with causes with full respect to the ways of Allah, His orders, and His Law, knowing that the sustenance that comes to me is from Allah; the felicity that enters my home is from Allah Almighty; my food is readied for me by Allah – I mean even the smallest details; the wealth with which I have been graced, comes from Allah; the ill­ness that has been put in my being or that of a relative of mine comes from Allah Almighty; the cure that followed it is from Allah Almighty; my success in my studies is by Allah Almighty’s grant; the results which I have attained after obtaining my degrees and so forth, are from Allah Almighty’s grant – when the effi­cacy of causes melts away in my sight and I no longer see, behind them, other than the Causator Who is Allah Almighty: at that time, when you look right, you do not see except the Attributes of Allah, and when you look left, you do not see other than the Attributes of Allah. As much as you evolve in the world of causes, you do not see, through them, other than the Causator, Who is Allah. At that time you have become raised to what the spiritual masters have called oneness of perception. And this oneness of percep­tion is what the Messenger of Allah rexpressed by the word ihsân [which he defined to mean]: “That you worship Allah as if you see him.” You do not see the causes as a bar­rier between you and Allah. Rather, you see causes, in the context of this doctrine, very much like pure, trans­parent glass: the glass pane is present – no one denies it – but as much as you stare at it, you do not see anything except what is behind it. Is it not so? You only see what is behind it. The world is entirely made of glass panes in this fashion. You see in them the efficacy of Allah in perma­nence, so you are always with Allah Al­mighty. None has tasted the sweetness of belief unless he has reached that level of perception.[32]

Ibn Taymiyya’s Unreliability

Ibn Taymiyya is quoted in his Fatawa as being asked re­peatedly about “the verdict of Islam concerning Ibn ‘Arabi who asserted Oneness of Being,” and other similar questions. However, it seems that Ibn Taymiyya did not review the Shaykh’s huge  Futuhat in its totality when he answered these questions. At times, his discussions about Ibn ‘Arabi depend, as he puts it, on “whether these are his actual words” while at other times he attacks him outright on the basis of these unverified assumptions, or himself levels specific accusations against the Shaykh. Muhammad Ghurab – a contemporary autho­rity on Ibn ‘Arabi’s works – in a book pub­lished in the 1980s by Dar al-Fikr in Damascus, states having read the Futuhatseveral times from cover to cover without finding the expressions for which Ibn Taymiyya took the Shaykh to task while citing this work. The late scholar of Damascus Shaykh Mahmud al-Rankusi similarly affirmed that Ibn Taymiyya an­swered questions about Ibn ‘Arabi without con­firming them against his actual writings, and that the sharp temper of the former further complicated his attitude towards the Shaykh. On the basis of these opinions and in the light of Ibn Taymiyya’s occasional reservations and his otherwise apparently correct approach to ambiguous expres­sions, it seems that the misquotations of Ibn ‘Arabi became so numerous in Ibn Taymiyya’s time that it became incon­ceivable to him that they were all incorrect, whereupon he treated them as facts. The errors causing these misquota­tions can also be inferred from the fact that since the misquota­tions revolved around issues of doctrine – in which misunderstand­ings are fraught with grave dangers – and in light of the Shaykh’s complex style and obscure expressions, queries would be commonly sent to muftis con­cer­ning what some people thought they had read, without actually citing nor understanding the expressions in ques­tion. All this could have been avoided by the due observance of faithfulness (amâna) in textual citation, as the early scholars insisted with reference to hadith transmission. Yet many later scholars, be­ginning with Ibn Taymiyya and after him, relied on second and third-hand paraphrases and attributions, endorsing the accusa­tions against Ibn ‘Arabi and even generalizing them so as to target all tasawwuf. Finally, Ibn Taymiyya in his letter to al-Munayji actually states his admiration for the Futuhat and reserves his criticism only for the Fusûs![33]

Other Critics of Ibn ‘Arabi

Among the scholars claimed by al-Qari as condemning Ibn ‘Arabi as an innovator or even an outright heretic (zindîq) and disbeliever because of Fusûs al-Hikam: Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam, al-Jazari, Sharaf al-Din ibn al-Muqri, Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi, Sa‘d al-Din al-Taftazani,[34] Jamal al-Din Muham­mad ibn Nur al-Din,[35] Siraj al-Din al-Bulqini who suppos­edly ordered his books burnt,[36] Burhan al-Din al-Biqa‘i, Ibn Taymiyya,[37] and his student al-Dhahabi who said:

He may well have been one of the Friends of Allah Whom He strongly attracted to Himself upon death and for whom He sealed a good ending. As for his words, who­ever understands them, recognizes them to be based on communion-with-the-divine (ittihâdiyya), knowing the deviation of those people and comprehending theirs ex­pressions: the truth will be apparent to him as against what they say.[38]

The Hanafi shaykh ‘Ala’ al-Din al-Bukhari, like Ibn al-Muqri, went so far as to declare anyone who did not declare Ibn ‘Arabi a disbeliever to be himself a disbeliever. This is the same ‘Ala’ al-Din al-Bukhari who said that anyone that gives Ibn Taymiyya the title Shaykh al-Islam is a disbe­liever.

Al-Haytami’s Response

Al-Haytami said in his Fatawa Hadithiyya:

Our shaykh [Zakariyya al-Ansari] said in Sharh al-Rawd… in response to Ibn al-Muqri’s statement: “Whoever doubts in the disbelief (kufr) of Ibn ‘Arabi’s group, he himself is a disbeliever”:

The truth is that Ibn ‘Arabi and his group are the elite of the Umma. Al-Yafi‘i, Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah and others have declared that they considered Ibn ‘Arabi a walî, noting that the language which Sufis use is appropri­ate among the experts in its usage and that the knower of Allah (‘ârif), when he becomes completely ab­sorbed in the oceans of Unity, might make some statements that are liable to be misconstrued as indwelling (hulûl) and union (ittihâd), while in reality there is neither indwelling nor union.

It has been clearly stated by our Imams, such as al-Rafi‘i in his book al-‘Aziz, al-Nawawi in al-Rawda and al-Majmu‘, and others:

When a mufti is asked about a certain phrase that could be construed as disbelief, he should not immediately say that the speaker should be put to death nor immediately make permissible the shed­ding of his blood. Rather, let him say: The speaker must be asked about what he meant by his statement, and he should hear his explanation, then act accordingly.[39]

Look at these guidelines – may Allah guide you! – and you will find that the deniers who assault this great man (Ibn ‘Arabi) and posi­tively assert his disbelief, are riding upon blind mounts, and stumbling about like a camel affected with troubled vision. Verily Allah has blocked their sight and hearing from perceiving this, until they fell into whatever they fell into, which caused them to be despised, and made their knowledge of no benefit. The great knowledge of the Sufis and their utter renunciation of this world and of everything other than Allah testify to their inno­cence from these terrible accusations, therefore we prefer to dismiss such accusa­tions and consider that their statements are true realities in the way they expressed them. Their way cannot be denied without knowing the meaning of their statements and the expressions they use, and then turning to apply the expression to the meaning and see if they match or not. We thank Allah that all of their deniers are ignorant in that kind of knowledge, as not one of them has mastered the sciences of unveilings (mukâshafât), nor even smelled them from a distance! Nor has anyone of them sincerely fol­lowed any of the awliyâ’ so as to master their terminol­ogy.

You may object: “I disagree that their expressions refer to a reality rather than being metaphorical phrases, therefore show me something clearer than the explana­tions that have been given.” I say: Rejection is stubbor­ness. Let us assume that you disagree with what I have mentioned, but the correct way of stating the objection is to say: “This statement could be interpreted in several ways,” and proceed to explain them. You should not say: “If it meant this, then… and if it meant that, then…” while stating from the start “This is kufr”! That is ignorance and goes beyond the scope of sincere faithfulness  (nasîha) claimed by the critic.

Do you not see that if Ibn al-Muqri’s real motivation were good advice, he would not have exagger­ated by saying: “Whoever has a doubt in the disbelief of the group of Ibn ‘Arabi, he himself is a disbeliever”? So he extended his judgment that Ibn ‘Arabi’s followers were disbelievers,  to everyone who had a doubt as to their dis­belief. Look at this fanaticism that exceeds all bounds and departs from the consensus of the Imams, and goes so far as to accuse anyone who doubts their disbelief.  (Glori­fied are You, this is awful calumny!) (24:16) (When you welcomed it with your tongues, and uttered with your mouths that whereof you had no knowledge, you counted it a trifle. In the sight of Allah, it is very great) (24:15).

Notice also that his statement suggests that it is an obligation on the whole Community to believe that Ibn ‘Arabi and his followers are disbelievers, otherwise they will all be declared disbelievers – and no one thinks likes this. As a matter of fact, it might well lead into something forbidden which he himself has stated clearly in his book al-Rawd when he said: “Whoever accuses a Muslim of being a disbeliever based on a sin committed by him, and without an attempt to interpret it favorably, he himself commits disbelief.” Yet here he is accusing an entire group of Muslims of disbelief.[40] Moreover, no con­si­deration should be paid to his interpretation, because he only gives the kind of interpretation that is detrimental to those he is criti­cizing, for that is all that their words have impressed upon him.

As for those who do not think of Ibn ‘Arabi and the Sufis except as a pure light in front of them, and believe in their sainthood – how can a Muslim attack them by accus­ing them of disbe­lief? No one would dare do so un­less he is accepting the possibility to be himself called a disbe­liever. This judgment reflects a great deal of fanati­cism, and an assault on most of the Muslims. We ask Allah, through His Mercy, to forgive the one who uttered it.

It has been narrated through more than one source and has be­come well-known to everyone that whoever opposes the Sufis, Allah will not make His Knowledge be­ne­ficial, and he will be inflicted with the worst and ugliest diseases. We have witnessed this taking place with many naysayers. For example, al-Biqa‘i – may Allah for­give him! – used to be one of the most distinguished scholars, blessed with many meritorious acts of worship, an excep­tional intelligence, and an excel­lent memory in all kinds of knowledge, especially in the sciences of tafsîr and hadith, and he wrote numerous books, but Allah did not allow them to be of any kind of benefit to anyone. He also authored a book called  Munasabat al-Qur’an in about ten volumes, about which no-one knows except the elite, and as for the rest, they never heard about it. If this book had been written by our Shaykh Zakariyya [al-Ansari], or by anyone who believes [in awliyâ’], it would have been copied with gold because, as a matter of fact, it has no equal: for (Of the bounties of thy Lord We bestow freely on all, these as well as those: the bounties of thy Lord are not closed to anyone) (17:20).

Al-Biqa‘i went to extremes in his denial and wrote books about the subject, all of them clearly and excessively fanatical and deviating from the straight path. But then he paid for it fully and even more than that, for he was caught in the act on several occasions and was judged a disbeliever. It was ruled that his blood be shed and he was about to get killed, but he asked the help and protection of some influential people who rescued him, and he was made to repent in Salihiyya, Egypt, and renew his Islam.[41]

Al-Dhahabi’s Warning to Critics of Sufis

Al-Dhahabi voiced something similar to al-Haytami’s warnings against those inclined to attack Sufis:

Our Shaykh Ibn Wahb [= Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id] said – may Allah have mercy on him: ‘Among the predica­ments that mar the discipline of narrator-discreditation are the divergences that take place between the follow­ers of tasawwuf (al-mutasawwifa) and the people of ex­ternal knowledge (ahl al-‘ilm al-zâhir); animosity there­fore arose between these two groups and necessi­tated mutual criticism.’

Now this [animosity against Sufis] is a plunge from which none escapes unscathed except one thor­oughly knowledgeable with all the evidentiary proofs of the Law. Note that I do not limit such knowledge to the branches [of the Law]. For, concerning many of the states de­scribed by the people of truth (al-muhiqqîn)  among the Sufis, right can­not be told from wrong on the mere basis of knowledge of the bran­ches. One must also possess firm knowledge of the principles of the Law and be able to tell apart the obligatory from the possible, as well as the rationally impossible from the customarily impossible.

It is, indeed, a position fraught with danger! For the critic of a true Sufi (muhiqq al-sûfiyya)  enters into the hadith: “Whosoever shows enmity to one of My Friends, I shall declare war upon him.”[42] While one that abandons all condemnation for what is clearly wrong in what he hears from some of them, abandons the commanding of good and the forbidding of evil.[43]

Some of Ibn ‘Arabi’s Sayings

It is remarkable that there were very few contemporaries of Ibn ‘Arabi among his accusers, although he travelled and taught all over the Islamic world and, as Ibn Hajar stated, “he made his mark in every country that he entered”[44] while his admirers among the authorities of Islam lived both in his own lifetime and later.

Among the Shaykh’s sayings:

· “Whoever is truthful in something and pursues it diligently will obtain it sooner or later; if he does not obtain it in this world, he will obtain it in the next; and whoever dies before victory shall be elevated to the level of his diligence.”

· “The knower of Allah knows through eyesight (basar) what others know through insight (basîra), and he knows through insight what virtually no-one knows. De­spite this, he does not feel secure from the harm of his ego towards himself; how then could he ever feel secure from what His Lord has foreordained for him?”

· “The knower’s declaration to his student: ‘Take from me this science which you can find nowhere else,’ does not detract from the knower’s level, nor do other similar declarations that appear to be self-eulogy, because his intention is only to encourage the student to receive it.”

· “The discourse of the knower is in the image of the lis­tener accor­ding to the latter’s powers, readiness, weak­ness, and inner reserva­tions.”

· “If you find it complicated to answer someone’s question, do not answer it, for his container is already full and does not have room for the answer.”

· “The ignorant one does not see his ignorance as he basks in its dark­ness; nor does the knowledgeable one see his own knowledge, for he basks in its light.”

· “Whoever asks for a proof for the oneness of Allah, a donkey knows more than him.”

Ibn ‘Arabi’s short book of poetry Tarjuman al-Ashwaq (“The Inter­preter of Desires”) is considered one of the mas­terpieces of classical Arabic poetry and has been translated in several languages. The Futuhat al-Makkiyya also contains some outstanding samples of the Shaykh’s poetry. Following is a poem he addresses to the Ka‘ba:

1. In the Place of refuge my heart sought refuge,

      shot with enmity’s arrows.

2. O Mercy of Allah for His slaves, Allah placed His trust

 in you among all inanimate forms.

3. O House of my Lord, O light of my heart,

      O coolness of my eyes,[45] O my heart within,

4. O true secret of the heart of existence,

      my sacred trust, my purest love!

5. O direction from which I turn from every quarter and

 valley,

6. From subsistence in the Real, then from the height,

      from self-extinction, then from the depths!

7. O Ka‘ba of Allah, O my life,

      O path of good fortune, O my guidance,

8. In you has Allah placed every safety

      from the fear of disaster upon the Return.

9. In you does the noble Station flourish,

      in you are found the fortunes of the slaves of Allah.

10. In you is the Right Hand that my sin has draped

      in the robe of blackness.[46]

11. Multazam is in you – he who clings to love for it,

      will be saved on the Day of Mutual Cries.[47]

12. Souls passed away longing for Her,

      in the pain of longing and distant separation.

13. In sorrow at their news she has put on

      the garment of mourning.[48]

14. Allah sheds His light on her court,

      and something of His light appears in the heart.

15. None sees it but the sorrowful

      whose eyes are dark from lack of sleep.

16. He circumambulates seven times after seven,

      from the beginning of night until the call to prayer.

17. Hostage to endless sadness, he is never seen

      but bound to effort.

18. I heard him call upon Allah and say, beside the Black

   Stone: “O my heart!

19. Our night has quickly passed,

      but the goal of my love has not passed!”[49]

Ibn ‘Imad said: “He died – may Allah have mercy on him! – in the house of the Qadi Muhyi al-Din ibn al-Zaki and was taken to Qasyûn [Damascus] and buried in the noble mound, one of the groves of Paradise, and Allah knows best.”[50]

Shaykh Muhyi al-Din Ibn ‘Arabi

Islamic Doctrine

(‘AQÎDA AHL AL-ISLÂM)[51]

The Blessings and Peace of Allah Upon the Messenger of Allah and Upon his Family and All his Companions

[Al-Futuhat §130] My faithful brethren – may Allah seal your lives and mine with goodness! – when I heard the saying of Allah I about His Prophet Hûd u, as the latter told his folk who had belied him and his apostleship: (I call Allah to wit­ness, and do you (too) bear witness, that I am inno­cent of (all) that you ascribe as partners (to Allah)) (11:54), [I saw that] he called his folk to witness in his regard – although they belied him – that he was innocent of associating any partners to Allah, and that he positively con­firmed His Oneness; and since he knew that Allah Iwill sum­mon human beings before Him and ask them about what he himself knew, either to exon­er­ate or convict them, until every single witness bears witness;

[131] And since it was related that the caller to prayer  (mu’adhdhin) is wit­nessed to by every living and non-living thing as far as his voice can reach, and by everything and every­one that hears him; hence “The devil flees at the call to prayer, pas­sing wind”[52] so that he will not hear the caller’s call to prayer and then have to witness on the latter’s behalf, thereby becoming one of those who contribute to the felicity of the one being wit­nessed to, whereas he is the absolute enemy and does not bear for us an iota of good – may Allah curse him!

[132] Now, if the enemy himself is obliged to testify on your behalf to what­ever you call him to witness regarding your own person, it is even more cer­tain that your friend and beloved should testify on your behalf – for the latter shares your religion and belongs to your religious community – and it is more certain that you yourself should testify, in this world, for yourself, to Oneness (al-wahdâniyya)  and Belief (al-îmân).

The First Testimony of Faith

[133] Therefore, O my brethren, O my beloved – may Allah be well pleased with you! – a weak slave calls upon you to wit­ness, a poor one utterly depen­dent on His Lord in every glimpse of the eye, the author and maker of this book [al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya (“The Meccan Conquests”)]; he calls you to testify in his regard, after calling Allah I to witness, His angels, and who­ever is present with him and hears him among the believers, that he bears wit­ness in word and in full conviction (qawlan wa ‘aqdan) that:

[134] Allah the Exalted is One God, without second in His divinity;

[135] Transcendent above possessing a mate or a son;

[136] Absolute owner [of all] (mâlik) without partner; absolute king (malik) without minister;

[137] Creator (sâni‘) without any disposer of affairs (mudab­bir)  with Him;

[138] Existing in Himself  (mawjûdun bî dhâtihi), without any dependence on, or need for an originator (mûjid) to originate Him. Rather, every existing thing other than Him, depends on Him and needs Him to exist. The whole universe exists through Him, and He alone can be said to exist in Himself.

[139] There is no outset (iftitâh)  to His existence nor end to His permanence. His existence is absolute and unconditioned.

[140] He is subsistent in Himself (qâ’imun binafsih): not as a spatially boun­ded substance (jawhar mutahayyiz) – for then place would be assigned to Him; nor as an accident (‘arad) – for then permanence would be impossi­ble for Him; nor as a body (jism) – for then He would have a direction (jiha) and a front (tilqâ’).

[141] He is transcendent (muqaddasun) above possessing directions (jihât) and regions  (aqtâr).

[142] He can be seen with the hearts and the eyes, if He so wills.

[143] He established Himself over His Throne just as He said and in the mean­ing that He intended; also, the Throne and every­thing else was estab­lished by Him (bihi istawâ),[53] and (unto Him belong the after (life), and the former) (53:25).

[144] He has no conceivable equivalent whatsoever (laysa lahu mithlun ma‘qûl), nor can minds represent Him. Time does not confine Him, nor place lift nor transport Him. Rather, He was when there was no place, and He is now as He ever was.[54]

[145] He created fixity (al-mutamakkin) and place (al-makân),[55] brought time into existence, and said: “I am the One, the Ever-Living” (anâ al-Wâhid al-Hayy).[56] Preserving His creations in no way tires Him. Attributes which do not describe Him and are devised by creatures do not apply to Him.[57]

[146] Exalted is He far above being in­dwelt by originated matters, or indwel­ling them, or that they be “after Him” or that He be “before them”! Rather, we say: “He was and there was nothing with him.” For the words ‘before’ and ‘after’ are among the locutions of Time, which He invented.[58]

[147] He is the Self-Sustaining Sustainer of All (al-Qayyûm) Who sleeps not, the All-Compelling Subduer (al-Qahhâr) Whom one resists not. (There is noth­ing whatsoever like unto Him) (42:11).

[148] He created the Throne (al-‘arsh) and made it the boundary  (hadd) of istiwâ’, and He created the Footstool (al-kursî) and made it encompass the earth and the heavens.

[149] The Sublimely Exalted (al-‘Alî)contrived the Tablet and the Sublime Pen, making them bring about the inscription of His Knowledge concerning His creation until the Day of Determina­tion and Verdict.

[150] He contrived the entire universe without precedent. He created crea­tion then caused what He created to wither.

[151] He sent down the souls (al-arwâh) into the specters (al-ashbâh) as cus­to­dians, and made those soul-endowed specters deputies on earth.

[152] He made subservient to us all that is in the heavens and the earth from Him, whereof not one atom moves except back to Him and because of Him.

[153] He created everything without need for it, and no neces­sity drove Him to do so, but with His foreknowledge that He would create whatever He created.

[154] (He is the First and the Last and the Manifest and the Hidden) (57:3), (and He is able to do all things) (5:120, 11:4, 30:50, 42:9, 57:2, 64:1, 67:1).

[155] (He surrounds all things in knowledge) (65:12) (and He keeps count of all things) (72:28), (He knows the traitor of the eyes and that which the bosoms hide) (40:19). (Should He not know what He created? And He is the Subtle, the Aware) (67:14).

[156] He knew all things before they came into existence, then He brought them into existence exactly as He knew them. He has known them without beginning to His knowledge, and such knowledge in no way becomes newer upon the renewal of origination (tajaddud al-inshâ’). He brought all things to perfec­tion in His knowledge, then He established them firmly (bi ‘ilmihi atqana al-ashyâ’a fa ahkamahâ). Likewise, He has full knowledge of their smallest details (juz’iyyât) according to the consensus and complete agree­ment of the people of sound scru­tiny.[59] (Knower of the invisible and the visible! and exalted be He over all that they ascribe as partners (unto Him)) (23:92).

[156—A]  (Doer of what He will) (85:16), He is therefore willing (murîd) for existent entities in the earthly and heavenly worlds. However, His power is without link to anything (lam tata‘allaq bi shay’) until He wills it.[60] Like­wise, He does not will anything until He knows it. For it is impossible in the mind that He wills something of which He knows not, or that one who is endowed with the choice of not doing, should do what He does not want to do. Likewise, it is impossible that all these realities be attributed to one who is not living, and it is impossible that the Attributes subsist in other than an Entity described by them.

[157] There is not in all existence any observance nor sin, any gain nor loss, any slave nor free man, any cold nor hot, any life nor death, any happening nor elapsing, any day nor night, any moderation nor inclination, any land nor sea, any even nor odd, any substance nor accident, any health nor sickness, any joy nor sadness, any soul nor specter, any darkness nor light, any earth nor heaven, any assembling nor disjoining, any plenty nor scarcity, any morn­ing nor evening, any white nor black, any sleep nor wakefulness, any visible nor hidden, any moving nor still, any dry nor moist, any shell nor core, or any of all such mutually contrasting, variegated, or similar entities, except it is so willed by the Real – Exalted is He!

[158] How could He not will it when it is He Who brought it into existence? And how could the one endowed with free will, bring into existence what He does not want? None can turn down His command, and none can dispute His decision.

[159] ([He] gives sovereignty unto whom [He] will, and [He] withdraws sovereignty from whom [He] will. [He] exalts whom [He] will and [He] abases whom [He] will) (3:26). ([He] sends whom [He] will astray and guides whom [He] will) (7:155). What­ever Allah wants, comes into exis­tence (mâ shâ’a Allahu kân), and whatever He does not wish to be, does not come into existence (mâ lam yasha’ an yakûna lam yakun).

[160] If all creatures convened to want something which Allah does not want them to want, they cannot want it. Or, if they convened to do something which Allah does not want to bring into existence – although they willed it whenever He wanted them to will it – they cannot do it; nor can they even be capable of doing it; nor does He enable them to.

[161] Therefore, disbelief and belief, observance and sin, are all according to His desire (mashî’a), His wisdom (hikma), and His will (irâda). And He – Glorified is He! – is described as pos­sessing such will without beginning.

[162] The universe is in oblivion and nonexistence, although firmly estab­lished in itself in [the divine] knowledge. Then He brought the universe into existence without reflection (tafakkur) nor deliberation(tadabbur) such as accompany ignorance or un­awareness and would then presumably provide Him the know­ledge of what He knew not – greatly exalted and elevated is He above that! Rather, He brought it into existence on the basis of foreknowl­edge(al-‘ilm al-sâbiq), and the exact specification (ta‘yîn) of transcendent, pre-existent will(al-irâda al-munaz­zaha al-azaliyya) determining just how it brought the universe into being with respect to time, place, forms, masses, and color. None exists exerting will, in reality, other than He. For He says: (And you will not, unless Allah wills) (76:30, 81:29).

[163] Just as He knows, He determines(kamâ ‘alima fa ahkama); just as He wills, He details (arâda fa khassasa); just as He foreordains, He brings into existence (qaddara fa awjada). Likewise, He hears and sees what­ever moves or stands still and whatever utters a sound in all creation, whether in the low­est world or the highest. Distance (al-bu‘d) does not in any way hamper His hearing, for He is the Near (al-Qarîb). Nor does nearness (al-qurb) veil His sight, for He is the Far (al-Ba‘îd).[61] He hears the discourse of the self in itself (kalâm al-nafs fi al-nafs), and the sound of the hidden contact upon its touch. He sees the very blackness in darkness, and water inside water. Neither admixture (imtizâj), nor darkness, nor light veils Him,[62] (and He is the Hearer, the Seer) (42:11).

[164] He speaks, not after being previously silent nor fol­lowing pre­sumed tacitness, with a speech pre-eternal and begin­ningless like the rest of His attributes, whether His knowledge, will, or power. He spoke to Musa u. He named it [His speech] the divine Bestowal (al-tanzîl), the Book of Psalms (al-zabûr), the Torah, and the Evangel. [All this] without letters (hurûf), sounds (aswât), tones (nagham), nor languages (lughât). Rather, He is the Creator of sounds, letters, and languages.[63]

[165] His speech is [spoken] without [the organs of] uvula and tongue, just as His hearing is without auditory meatus nor ears, His sight is without pupil nor eyelids, His will is without cogitation (qalb) nor inner reflection (janân), His knowledge is without compulsion (idtirâr) nor examination of any proof, His life is without the vapor which is caused in the cavity of the heart by the admixture of the elements. His Entity accepts neither increase nor decrease.

[166] Glorified, most glorified is He Who, from afar, comes near! To Him belongs tremendous majesty, surpassing goodness, magnificent generosity! Everything that is other than Him is but an outpouring of His munificence. His grace unfolds it and His justice folds it up again.

[167] He perfected the making of the universe and made it uniquely excellent(akmala san‘a al-‘âlami wa abda‘ahu) when He brought it into existence and invented it. He has no partner in His domain (milk) nor joint disposer of affairs (mudabbir) in His dominion (mulk).

[168] Whenever He shows favor He sends comfort and ease; and this is His kindness. Whenever He sends adversity He pun­ishes; and this is His justice. In no way does He intrude upon another’s domain so as to be attributed tyranny and injustice. Nor is anyone besides Him entitled to pass judgment on Him so that He could be attributed apprehension or fear from such. Eve­rything other than Him is under the authority of His subjugation  (qahr) and subject to the disposal of His will and His command.

[169] It is He that inspires with Godwariness or rebelliousness the souls of those who are legally responsible. It is He that disre­gards the transgressions of whomever He will, and holds to task whomever He will, both here and on the Day of Resurrection. His justice does not hold sway (yahkum) over His kindness nor does His kindness hold sway over His justice.

[170] He brought forth the world as two handfuls (qabdatayn) to which He gave two levels  (manzilatayn), saying: “These are for Paradise, and I care not (lâ ubâlî)![64] Those are for Hellfire, and I care not!”[65] No-one raised the least objection at that time. One handful stands under the Names of His adversity (balâ’), and one stands under the Names of His favors (âlâ’).

[171] If He wished that the whole universe be in felicity, it would be so; and [if He wished that it be] in misery, it would not have obtained the slightest degree of felicity. However, He did not wish it so, and it was exactly as He wished. Consequently, people are either miserable or happy, here and on the Day of Return. There is no possibility to change whatever the Pre-eternal One has decided. He has said, concerning prayer: “It is five al­though it counts as fifty.”[66] (The sentence that comes from Me can­not be changed, and I am in no wise a tyrant unto the slaves)(50:29) for My authority over the disposal of affairs in My domain and the accomplishment of My volition in My dominion.

[172] All this is because of a reality that sights and insights  (al-absâr wa al-basâ’ir) are utterly unable to see, nor can mental powers and minds stumble upon its knowledge except through a divine bestowal and token of the All-Merciful’s generosity towards him whom He nourishes among His servants, and who was fore-chosen for this at the time he was summoned to witness. He then came to know – when He was given to know – that the Godhead (al-ulûha) devised this allotment and that it is one of the refinements of the One Who is without beginning.

[173] Glory to Him besides Whom there is no effecter (fâ‘il), nor any self-existent being (mawjûd li nafsih)! (And Allah has created you and what you make) (37:95), (He will not be questioned as to what He does, but they will be questioned) (21:23), (Say—For to Allah belongs the final argu­ment — Had He willed He could indeed have guided all of you) (6:149). [67]

The Second Testimony of Faith

[174] Just as I have called upon Allah and His angels, as well as all His creation and yourselves, to testify in my regard to my declaration of His oneness, likewise, I call upon Him – glorified is He! – and His angels, as well as all His creation and your­selves, to testify in my regard to my firm belief in the one He elected and chose from the very time he existed. That is: our master Muhammad r whom He sent to all people without exception, (a bearer of glad tidings and a warner) (2:119, 34:28, 35:24, 41:4) (And as a summoner unto Allah by His permission, and as a light-giving lamp) (33:46).

[175] The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) thus conveyed fully all that was revealed to him from his Lord, discharged His trust, and acted faithfully (nasaha) toward his Com­mu­nity. He stood, in his farewell Pil­grimage, before all those present among his followers, address­ing and reminding them, deterring and caution­ing them, giving them glad tidings and warning them, promising and threat­ening them. He showered them with rain and made them tremble with thun­der. He did not address anyone specifically at the exclusion of others in his ad­mo­nition. He did all this after permission from the One, the Everlasting I. Then he said: “Lo! Have I conveyed the message?” They replied: “You have conveyed the message, O Messenger of Allah!” So he said: “O Allah! Bear witness.”[68]

[176] Likewise, [I call upon all] to testify that I firmly believe in everything that the Prophet  (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) brought – that which I know and that which I know not. Among the things which he brought is the decree that death comes at a time specified in the presence of Allah I and that, come that time, it is not delayed. I, for my part, firmly believe this, without the slightest reservation nor doubt.

[177] Just as I firmly believe and declare that the interrogation of the two examiners in the grave is true; the punishment in the grave and the rais­ing of the bodies from the grave are both true; the review in the presence of Allah I is true; the Basin is true; the Balance is true; the flying (tatâyur) of individual Records in every direction is true;[69] the Bridge is true; Paradise is true; Hell­fire is true; (A host will be in the Garden, and a host of them in the Flame) (42:7) truly; the agony of that day is true for one group; as for an­other group, (the Supreme Horror will not grieve them) (21:103);[70]

[178] The intercession of the angels, the Prophets, and the Believers, followed by the taking out of the Fire, by the most Merciful of those who show mercy, of anyone He wishes, is true; a group of the grave sinners among the Believers shall enter Hellfire and then exit it through intercession and gratification truly; eternal and everlasting world-without-end (al-ta’bîd) in the midst of the pleasures of Paradise is true for the Believers and those who affirm Oneness; eternal and everlasting world-without-end in the Fire for the dwellers of the Fire is true; and all that was announced by the Books and Messengers that came from Allah – whether one came to know it or not – is true.

[179] This is my witness in my own regard, and it is the responsibility of each and every person that it reaches, to bring it forward if asked about it, whenever and wherever he may be.

Final Supplication

[180] May Allah grant us and grant you the greatest benefit with this faith. May He make us adhere to it firmly at the time of journeying from this abode to the abode of true life. May He replace for us this abode with the abode of munificence and good pleasure. May He intervene between us and a dwelling with (raiments of pitch) (14:50). May He count us in the troop that take their record with the right hand and return from the Pond fully sated, those in whose favor the Balance weighs down and whose feet stand firm on the Bridge. Truly He is the Munifi­cent (al-Mun‘im), the Giver of All Good (al-Mihsân)!

[181] (All praise to Allah, Who has guided us to this. We could not truly have been led aright if Allah had not guided us. Verily the messengers of our Lord did bring the Truth!) (7:43).

Bibliography

Abu Nu‘aym al-Asfahani. Hilya al-Awliya’ wa Tabaqat al-Asfiya’. 12 vols. Ed. Mustafa ‘Abd al-Qadir ‘Ata. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, 1997.

Al-Adnahwi. Tabaqat al-Mufassirin. Ed. Sulayman ibn Salih al-Khazzi. Madina: Maktaba al-‘Ulum wa al-Hikam, 1997.

Al-Bayhaqi. Al-Asma’ wa al-Sifat. Ed. Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari. Beirut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabi, n.d. Reprint of the 1358/1939 Cairo edition.

–––––––. Al-Asma’ wa al-Sifat. 2 vols. Ed. ‘Abd Allah al-Hashidi. Riyad: Mak­taba al-Sawadi, 1993.

Al-Buti. Kubra al-Yaqinat al-Kawniyya. Beirut and Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1997.

Al-Dhahabi. Mizan al-I‘tidal. 4 vols. Ed. ‘Ali Muhammad al-Bajawi. Beirut: Dar al-Ma‘rifa, 1963.

–––––––. Mukhtasar al-‘Uluw li al-‘Ali al-Ghaffar. Ed. M. Nasir al-Din al-Albani. Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 19912.

–––––––. Al-Muqiza fi ‘Ilm Mustalah al-Hadith. Ed. ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda. Aleppo: Maktab al-Matbu‘at al-Islamiyya, 19983.

Al-Fattani. Tadhkira al-Mawdu‘at. Cairo: al-Matba‘a al-Muniriyya, 1343/1924-1925.

Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi. Nawadir al-Usul. Beirut: Dar Sadir, n.d. Repr. of Istanbul ed.

Al-Haytami, Ahmad. Al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyya. Cairo: Mustafa al-Baba al-Halabi, Repr. 1970, 1989.

Al-Haythami, Nur al-Din. Majma‘ al-Zawa’id wa Manba‘ al-Fawa’id. 3rd ed. 10 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 1982.

Hilmi. Al-Burhan al-Azhar fi Manaqib al-Shaykh al-Akbar. Cairo: Matba‘a al-Sa‘ada, 1326/1908.

Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam. Al-Ishara ila al-Ijaz fi Ba‘d Anwa‘ al-Majaz. Ed. ‘Uthman Hilmi. Al-Matba‘a al-‘Amira, 1313/1895.

–––––––. Al-Mulha fi I‘tiqad Ahl al-Haqq. InRasa’il al-Tawhid. Ed. Iyad Khalid al-Tabba‘. Beirut and Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1995. Also in Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi‘iyya al-Kubra, vol. 8 p. 219-229.

Ibn ‘Arabi, Muhyi al-Din. Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya. 1-  vols. Eds. ‘Uthman Yahya and Ibrahim Madkur. Cairo: al-Hay’a al-Masriyya al-‘Amma li al-Kitab, 1972- .

Ibn al-Athir. Al-Nihaya fi Gharib al-Athar. 5 vols. Eds. Tahir Ahmad al-Zawi and Mahmud Muhammad al-Tabbakhi. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1979.

Ibn Hajar. Inba’ al-Ghumr bi A‘mar al-‘Umr. 4 vols. Ed. Hasan Habash. Cairo: Lajna Ihya’ al-Turath al-Islami, Wizara al-Awqaf, 1994.

–––––––. Al-Isaba fi Tamyiz al-Sahaba. 8 vols. Calcutta, 1269/1853.

–––––––. Lisan al-Mizan. 7 vols. Hyderabad: Da’ira al-Ma‘arif al-Nizamiyya, 1329/1911. Repr. Beirut: Mu’assassa al-A‘lami, 1986.

Ibn ‘Imad. Shadharat al-Dhahab fi Akhbar Man Dhahab. 8 vols. Beirut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabi, n.d.

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya. Al-Manar al-Munif fi al-Sahih wa al-Da‘if. 6th ed. Ed. ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda. Beirut: Dar al-Basha’ir al-Islamiyya; Aleppo: Maktab al-Matbu‘at al-Islamiyya, 1994.

Ibn Taymiyya. Majmu‘a Fatawa Ibn Taymiyya. 36 vols. Cairo, 1984.

Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham. Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine. 7 vols. Moutain View: Al-Sunna Foundation of America, 1998.

Al-Kattani, al-Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ja‘far. Nazm al-Mutanathir fi al-Hadith al-Mutawatir. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, 1980.

Al-Kawthari, Muhammad Zahid. Maqalat. Ryad and Beirut: Dar al-Ahnaf, 1993.

–––––––. Ed. Al-Bayhaqi, Abu Bakr. Al-Asma’ wa al-Sifat. Beirut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabi, n.d. Reprint of 1358/1939 Cairo edition.

Al-Nawawi. Bustan al-‘Arifin fi al-Zuhd wa al-Tasawwuf. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 1985.

Al-Qari. Firr al-‘Awn. See Risala Wahda al-Shuhud.

 –––––––. Risala fi Wahda al-Shuhud. Istanbul: Dar al-Ma‘arif, 1294/1877.

Al-Qasimi. Qawa‘id al-Tahdith. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya and Dar Ihya’ al-Sunna al-Nabawiyya, n.d.

Al-Qinnawji [Siddiq Hasan Khan]. Takhrij al-Wasaya Min Khabaya al-Zawaya. Ed. ‘Abd Allah al-Laythi al-Ansari. Beirut: Mu’as­sasa al-Kutub al-Thaqafiyya, 1986.

Al-Qurtubi. Al-Asna fi Sharh Asma’ Allah al-Husna. 2 vols. Ed. Muhammad Hasan Jabal, Tariq Ahmad Muhammad, and Majdi Fathi al-Sayyid. Tanta: Dar al-Sahaba li al-Turath, 1995.

Al-Sakhawi, Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman.Al-Daw’ al-Lami‘ li Ahl al-Qarn al-Tasi‘. 12 vols. in 6. Ed. Muhammad Jamal al-Qasimi. 1313/1896. Repr. Beirut: Dar al-Jil, 1992.

Shatta, Ibrahim al-Dusuqi. Sira al-Shaykh al-Kabir Abi ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Khafif al-Shirazi. Cairo: al-Hay’a al-‘Amma li Shu’un al-Matabi‘ al-Amiriyya, 1977.

Al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din.  Al-Durr al-Manthur fi al-Tafsir al-Ma’thur. 8 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1994.

–––––––. Tanbih Al-Ghabi Fi Takhti’a [or Tanzih]Ibn ‘Arabi. Ed. ‘Abd al-Rahman Hasan Mahmud. Cairo: Maktaba al-Adab, 1990.

REFERENCES:

[1] In al-Qari, Firr al-‘Awn (p. 141-142).

[2] Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah in Lata’if al-Minan (1:84-98) states that there is con­sensus among the Sufis that al-Khidr is alive. Ibn al-Jawzi in his book‘Ujala al-Muntazir fi Sharh Hal al-Khadir (cf. Hajji Khalifa, Kashf al-Zunun [2:1125] and Abu Ghudda infra) voices the extreme view that to suggest that al-Khidr is alive contradicts the Shari‘a, yet in his Mana­qib al-Imam Ahmad (p. 144) he himself narrates the report of a meeting of Bilal al-Khawass with al-Khidr! Ibn al-Qayyim in al-Manar al-Munif (p. 67-76) and his editor, ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda, also claim that al-Khidr is not alive. Among the strongest transmitted proofs to the contrary are two reports, one narrated by Imam Ahmad in al-Zuhd whereby the Prophet e said that Ilyas and al-Khidr meet every year and spend the month of Ramadan in al-Qudus, and the other narrated by Ya‘qub ibn Sufyan from ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz whereby a man he was seen walking with was actually al-Khidr. Ibn Hajar declared the chain of the first fair and that of the second sound in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 6:435). He goes on to cite another sound report narrated by Ibn ‘Asakir from Abu Zur‘a al-Razi where­by the latter met al-Khidr twice, once in his young age, the other in his old age, but al-Khidr him­self had not changed.

Al-Qadi ‘Iyad in his notice on Ibn Abi Zayd inTartib al-Madarik  narrates from al-Ajdabi: “I was sitting with Abu Muhammad [Ibn Abi Zayd] when Abu al-Qasim ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abd al-Mu’min the mutakallim was with him. A man asked them about al-Khidr and whether it could he said that he was still in this world in spite of all this time and would not die until the Final Hour comes and whether this is refuted by the words of the Almighty,[We did not give any human being before you immortality] (21:34). They both replied to him that that was possible and per­mitted and al-Khidr could live until the Final Trumpet was blown. For immortality is connected to remaining as long as the Next World remains, while remaining until the Trumpet is blown is not immortality. Do you not see that Iblis – may Allah curse him – is not immortal, but he is one of those deferred until the Day of a Known Time?”

The hadith master al-Sakhawi stated: “It is well-known that al-Nawawi used to meet with al-Khidr and converse with him among many other unveilings (mukâ­shafât).” Al-Sakhawi, Tarjima Shaykh al-Islam Qutb al-Awliya’ al-Kiram wa Faqih al-Anam Muhyi al-Sunna wa Mumit al-Bid‘a Abi Zakariyya Muhyi al-Din al-Nawawi  (“Biogra­phy of the Shaykh of Islam, the Pole of the Noble Saints and Jurist of Mankind, the Reviver of the Sunna and Slayer of Innovation Abu Zakariyya Muhyiddin al-Nawawi”) (Cairo: Jam‘iyya al-Nashr wa al-Ta’lif al-Azhariyya, 1354/1935 p. 33).

Al-Barzanji in his book al-Isha‘a li Ashrat al-Sa‘a (1997 ed. p. 279-281; 1995 ed. p. 204-205) lists proofs to the effect that al-Khidr u is alive and shall face and belie the Antichrist (al-Dajjâl), as he is the one meant in the hadith whereby a man faces the Antichrist and belies him, whereupon the latter saws him in half then revives him only to be belied again. Narrated from Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri by Abu Ya‘la in his Musnad (2:332) and al-Hakim (1984 ed. 4:581=orig. ed. 4:537), both with a chain containing ‘Atiyya ibn Sa‘d who is weak, and with another chain (by Abu Ya‘la 2:535) containing Sufyan ibn Waki‘ who is weak; also narrated from Abu Umama al-Bahili by Ibn Majah in his Sunan (book of Fitan) with a chain containing Isma‘il ibn Rafi‘, who is weak in his memorization; also narrated by Nu‘aym ibn Hammad (d. 288) in Kitab al-Fitan (2:551) who said: al-Zuhri said: ‘Ubayd Allah ibn ‘Abd Allah [ibn] ‘Utba narrated to us that Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri said… The latter is a sound chain but there are several unnamed links between Nu‘aym and al-Zuhri. Also narrated by al-Dani (d. 444) in his book al-Sunan fi al-Fitan  (6:1178) but with a chain that stops at the Tabi‘i Abu Mijlaz. None of the weakness mentioned above in the chains raised to the Prophet e is grave. If the weak links are at the same levels of the narrators’ biographical layers and are judged to strengthen each other, it would raise the grade of the hadith to “fair due to corroborative/witness chains”  (hasan li ghayrih). It is confirmed by the hadith related from Abu ‘Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah whereby the Prophet (sall said: “It may be that one of those who saw me and heard my speech shall meet the Dajjal.” Narrated by Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (15:181) with a weak chain according to Shaykh Shu‘ayb al-Arna’ut, however, Imam al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan said it is also narrated from three other Companions and thus graded the hadith itself “fair and single-chained (hasan gharîb) as narrated from Abu ‘Ubayda,” and Allah knows best.

[3] See Hilmi’s 284-entry bibliography in al-Burhan al-Azhar as well as the books of Prof. Michel Chodkiewicz (The Seal of Saints and An Ocean Without Shore) and his daughter Prof. Claude Addas (Quest for the Red Sulphur).

[4]In al-Suyuti, Tanbih al-Ghabi (p. 71).

[5]In Ibn ‘Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab (5:200).

[6]Cf. al-Suyuti’s Tanbih al-Ghabi (p. 52-54).

[7]Al-Suyuti, Tanbih al-Ghabi fi Takhti’a Ibn ‘Arabi (p. 17-21). The correct title has tanzihinstead of takhti’a as in Hajji Khalifa’s Kashf al-Zunun (1:488) and al-Qari’s works.

[8]Al-Suyuti, Tanbih al-Ghabi (p. 59-60).

[9]In al-Suyuti, Tanbih al-Ghabi (p. 70).

[10]Al-Qari, Risala fi Wahda al-Shuhud (p. 62).

[11]Ibn al-Najjar, Dhayl Tarikh Baghdad as quoted in al-Suyuti, Tanbih al-Ghabi (p. 64-66) and in Ibn Hajar, Lisan al-Mizan (5:311 #1038).

[12] As related from al-Biqa‘i by al-Suyuti in Tanbih al-Ghabi (p. 40-41).

[13] As related from al-Biqa‘i by al-Suyuti inTanbih al-Ghabi (p. 42-43).

[14] See al-Sakhawi, al-Daw’ al-Lami‘ (8:17) and al-Kawthari’s Maqalat (p. 412-413).

aAl-Adnahwi, Tabaqat al-Mufassirin (p. 230 #276).

[15] In Shadharat al-Dhahab (5:190).

[16] Al-Qari wrote Firr al-‘Awn in reply to him.

[17] Al-Qari addresses it towards the end of Firr al-‘Awn (p. 142f.).

[18] See Ibn Hajar, Inba’ al-Ghumr bi A‘mar al-‘Umr (3:403-404), year 831.

[19] In Hilmi, al-Burhan al-Azhar (p. 32-33).

[20] Ibid. (p. 34).

[21] As stated by his student al-Haytami, Fatawa Hadithiyya (p. 331).

[22] See his Majmu‘a Rasa’il Ibn ‘Abidin (2:271).

[23] On the hadith master Imam Badr al-Din al-Hasani see the biography by his student Shaykh Mahmud al-Rankusi entitled al-Durar al-Lu’lu’iyya fi al-Nu‘ut al-Badriyya (Damas­cus, 1951). Dr. Wahbe al-Zuhayli told us that Shaykh Badr al-Din al-Hasani fasted every day of the year except the two days of ‘Id, including on the Day of ‘Arafa during pilgrimage.

[24] Al-Qinnawji, Takhrij al-Wasaya (p. 119).

[25] Al-Qasimi, Qawa‘id al-Tahdith (p. 348-351).

[26] Al-Kawthari, Maqalat (p. 412-413).

b Muhammad ‘Abduh, Tafsir al-Manar (1:18).

[27] In Ibn ‘Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab (5:192).

[28] In al-Qari, Risala fi Wahda al-Shuhud (p. 55).

[29] Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, al-Nasa’i, and Ibn Majah; from ‘Umar by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, and al-Nasa’i; and from Abu Dharr by al-Nasa’i, all as part of a longer hadith.

[30] From his Damascus lessons on the Munajat of Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah, 21 September 1997.

[31] i.e. if some texts seem to affirm indwelling, they do so metaphorically, as the literal given of divine Transcendence is not open to question.

[32] From Dr. Sa‘id al-Buti’s unpublished commentary on the Hikam of Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah.

[33] “I was one of those who, previously, used to hold the best opinion of Ibn ‘Arabi and extol his praise, because of the benefits I saw in his books, such as al-Futuhat, al-Kanh, al-Muhkam al-Marbut, al-Durra al-Fakhira, Matali‘ al-Nujum, and other such works.” Ibn Taymiyya,Tawhid al-Rububiyya in Majmu‘a al-Fatawa (2:464-465).

[34] In the epistle attributed to him and entitled Fadiha al-Mulhidin or Risala fi Wahda al-Wujud, a title also used by al-Qari. Al-Kawthari revelad in his Maqalat (p. 413) that the real author of al-Taftazani’s supposed epistle was ‘Ala’ al-Din al-Bukhari. The Hanafi jurist Isma‘il Kalnabawi responded to that epistle in a fatwa cited in full in al-Burhan al-Azhar (p. 18-22).

[35] As named by al-Qari in his Risala fi Wahda al-Wujud (p. 61).

[36] In al-Qari, Firr al-‘Awn (p. 144). Al-Fayruzabadi said: “If the report whereby Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam and our shaykh al-Bulqini ordered Ibn ‘Arabi’s books burnt were true, not one of his books would have re­mained today in Egypt or Sham, and no-one would have dared copy them again after the words of these two shaykhs.” In Hilmi, al-Burhan al-Azhar (p. 32). Al-Hilmi adds (p. 34) that a further proof that al-Subki changed his position concerning Ibn ‘Arabi is that he wrote many refutations against the heresies of his time but never wrote against Ibn ‘Arabi, although his books were widely read in Damascus and elsewhere.

[37] He wrote al-Radd al-Aqwam ‘ala ma fi Fusûs al-Hikam but is on record as not objecting to Ibn ‘Arabi’s other works, as noted.

[38] Mizan al-I‘tidal (3:660). Al-Dhahabi in the same chapter makes derogatory com­ments and reports a strange story which Ibn Hajar cited in Lisan al-Mizan. Al-Qari also attributes negative comments on Ibn ‘Arabi to al-Suyuti in the latter’s al-Tahbir li ‘Ilm al-Tafsir and Itmam al-Diraya Sharh al-Niqaya.

[39] Al-Khadimi wrote in the introduction to hisSharh Ma‘ani al-Basmala: “It was stated in al-Bazaziyya that if a certain question has a hundred aspects, ninety-nine of which entail disbelief and one precludes it, the scholar must lean towards the latter and not give a fatwa to the apostasy of a Muslim as long as he can give his words a good interpretation. Also, in al-Usul: No preference is given in the face of abundant evidence to the contrary.” As cited in al-Burhan al-Azhar (p. 17-18). In Bustan al-‘Arifin al-Nawawi states, after reporting Abu al-Khayr al-Tibyani’s apparent breach of the Shari‘a: “Someone that imitates jurists without understanding may imagine wrong and object to this, out of ignorance and stupidity. To imagine wrong here is plain recklessness in giving vent to suspicions against the Friends of the All-Merciful.  The wise person must beware from such behavior! On the contrary, if one did not understand the wisdoms from which they benefited and their fine subtleties, it is his duty is to understand them from one who does. You may witness such occurrences about which the superficial person gets the illusion of deviation, but which are actually not deviant. On the contrary, it is obligatory to interpret figuratively the actions of the friends of Allah.” As cited in al-Suyuti’s Tanbih al-Ghabi (p. 45-46) and Ibn ‘Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab (5:194). The rules spelled out by al-Nawawi, al-Haytami, and al-Khadimi refute the presumption that only the statements of the Prophet r may be interpreted figuratively (cf. al-Qunawi in al-Qari’s Risala fi Wahda al-Wujud p. 110 and al-Suyuti’s Tanbih al-Ghabi p. 44-45, as against ‘Ala’ al-Din al-Bukhari in al-Qari’s Firr al-‘Awnp. 153; cf. al-Munawi in Ibn ‘Imad, Shadharat 5:194) or that “every truth that contravenes the outward rule of the Law consists in disguised disbelief (zandaqa)” (al-Qari, Firr al-‘Awn p. 152). The most shining refutation of the latter claim lies in the Prophet’s r hadith of the straying desert traveller who, finding his mount and provisions after having lost them, is so over­whelmed by joy that he exclaims: “O Allah, You are my slave and I am Your master!” Narrated from Anas by Muslim in his Sahih.

[40] Al-Sakhawi in al-Daw’ al-Lami‘ similarly points out this contradic­tion between al-Biqa‘i’s expressed principles and his actual practices.

[41] Al-Haytami, Fatawa Hadithiyya (p. 331). For the account of the condemnation of al-Biqa‘i himself as a kâfir see al-Sakhawi’s al-Daw’ al-Lami‘ and al-Shawkani’s al-Badr al-Tali‘.

[42] The complete hadith states: “Whosoever shows enmity to one of My Friends, I shall declare war upon him. My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have en­joined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with su­per­erogatory works so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes, his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask something of Me, I would surely give it to him. Were he to seek refuge in Me, I would surely grant him it.Nor do I hesitate to do any­thing as I hesi­tate to take back the believer’s soul, for he hates death and I hate to hurt him.” Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari. Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam in al-Ishara ila al-Ijaz (p. 108) said: “The ‘hesi­tancy’ of Allah I in this hadith is a meta­phor of the believer’s superlative rank in the presence of Allah and connotes a lesser hurt to prevent a greater harm, as in the case of a father’s severance of his son’s gangrened hand so as to save his life.”

[43] Al-Dhahabi, al-Muqiza (p. 88-90).

[44] Ibn Hajar, Lisan al-Mizan  (5:311 #1038). See also his words in al-Intisar li A’imma al-Amsarand in al-Qari’s Risala fi Wahda al-Wujud (p. 113).

[45] The mere sight of Ka‘ba is considered worship.

[46] The hadith “The Black Stone is the right hand of Allah” is narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas, Jabir, Anas, and others by Ibn Abi ‘Umar al-Ma‘dani in his Musnad, al-Tabarani, al-Suyuti in al-Jami‘ al-Saghir (1:516), Ibn ‘Asakir in hisTarikh (15:90-92), al-Khatib in his (6:328), and others. Al-‘Ajluni stated that it is sahîh as a halted report from Ibn ‘Abbas as narrated by al-Quda‘i in the wording: “The Corner is the Right Hand of Allah on earth…,” and declared it hasanas a hadith of the Prophet r. Ibn Qu­tayba in Mukhtalaf al-Hadith (1972 ed. p. 215) attributes it to Ibn ‘Abbas and relates a saying of ‘A’isha that the Stone is the deposi­tory of the covenant of souls with Allah. Its mention in the Reliance of the Traveller (p. 853b) as “narrated by al-Hakim, who declared it sahîh, from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr,” is incorrect.

[47] Multazam is the space between the Black Stone and the Ka‘ba’s door (including the two) where prayers are answered.

[48] An allusion to the kiswa or black cloth covering the Ka‘ba.

[49] Ibn ‘Arabi, Futuhat (original ed. 1:701).

[50] Main sources: Hilmi, al-Burhan al-Azhar; Ibn ‘Imad,  Shadharat al-Dhahab (5:190-202); al-Suyuti, Tanbih al-Ghabi.

[51] From ‘Uthman Yahya’s edition of al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya  (1:162-172), Part Three of “The Meccan Conquest,” chapter entitled “Attach­ment Comprising the Essential Creed of All, Which is the Doctrine of the People of Islam Agreed To Without Examining the Proof Nor the Pre­s­en­tation of Evidence” (Waslun Yatadammanu Mâ Yanbaghî an Yu‘taqad ‘alâ al-‘Umûm wa Hiya ‘Aqîdatu Ahl al-Islâmi Musallama­tan min Ghayri Nazarin ilâ Dalilin wa lâ ilâ Burhân). Also quoted in full in Hilmi’s al-Burhan al-Azhar (p. 69-77).

[52] Part of a hadith of the Prophet r narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari and Muslim.

[53] Cf. al-Shibli in Ibn Jahbal’s Refutation of Ibn Taymiyya §27 (published in full separately): “The Merciful exists from pre-eternity while the Throne was brought into being, and the Throne was established and made firm (istawâ) by the Merciful.”

[54] See Appendix entitled “Allah is Now As He Ever Was” in our translation of Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam’s al-Mulha fi I‘tiqad Ahl al-Haqq, published separately under the title The Belief of the People of Truth.

[55] Or: “He created place and all that takes place.”

[56] i.e. I am in no need of any of you.

[57] Lâ tarji‘u ilayhi sifatun lam yakun ‘alayhâ min sun‘ati al-masnû‘ât. Ibn ‘Arabi apparently allows inferred attributes which do describe Him, such as “The Far” (see §163 below and note) in contradiction of the general principle that the divine Names and Attributes are ordained and non-inferable (cf. Appendix entitled “The Names and Attributes of Allah Are Ordained and Non-Inferable” in our translation of Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam’s The Belief of the People of Truth).

[58] See our translation of Ibn Khafif’s Correct Islamic Doctrine (pub­lished in full separately) §10: “In no way does He subsist in originated matters (laysa bi mahall al-hawâdith) nor they in Him.” This is due to the mutually exclusive nature of contingency (hudûth) and incontin­gency (qidam). The former refer to whatever is created, the latter to the be­ginningless and uncreated, “and the twain never meet.”

[59] This is directed against the Mu‘tazila and those affiliated with them.

[60] The notion of “linkage”  (ta‘alluq) between the pre-eternal Attributes of Act and the acts pertaining to creation was expressed by some scholars as a distinction between two types of linkage (ta‘alluq) to the act: “beginninglessly potential” (salûhî qadîm) and “actualized in time” (tanjîzî hâdith).

[61] No such Attribute is established in the texts, but Ibn ‘Arabi here states it without contra­diction of his own precept (§145, cf. §180) that “Attributes which do not describe Him and are devised by creatures do not apply to Him” since He uses “the Far” in the same way that some have used the indefinite qualificative “Separate” (bâ’in) – like­wise not found in the Qur’an and Sunna – meaning “far and separate from crea­tion,” so that nearness in no way affects Him as it affects creatures. Al-Tabari (in his Tafsir on verse 17:79) relates from some of the Salaf a contrary position which states that Allah is not said to be “in contact with,” nor “separate from” anything. The latter is reminiscent of Abu Nu‘aym’s narration from ‘Ali in Hilya al-Awliya’ (1997 ed. 1:114 #227): “How can even the most eloquent tongues describe Him Who did not exist among things so that He could be said to be ‘separate from them’ (bâ’in)? Rather, He is described without modality, and He is (nearer to [man] than his jugular vein) (50:16).” Al-Bayhaqi reports the Ash‘ari position on the issue from Ibn Mahdi al-Tabari: The Pre-eternal One (al-Qadîm) is elevated over His Throne but nei­ther sitting on(qâ‘id) nor standing on (qâ’im) nor in contact with (mu­mâss), nor separate from (mubâyin)the Throne – meaning separate in His Es­sence in the sense of physical separation or distance. For ‘contact’ and its opposite ‘separation,’ ‘standing’ and its opposite ‘sit­ting’ are all the char­ac­ter­istics of bodies (ajsâm), whereas (Allah is One, Everlast­ing, neither begetting nor begotten, and there is none like Him.) (112:1-4) Therefore what is allowed for bodies is impermissible for Him.” Al-Bayhaqi, al-Asma’ wa al-Sifat (Kawthari ed. p. 410-411; Hashidi ed. 2:308-309). This shows with remarkable clarity that those who made it a categorical imperative to declare that “Allah is separate from creation” went to excess, although their intention was to preclude notions of indwelling. Examples of these well-founded excesses are given by Ibn Khuzayma: “Whoever does not defi­nitely confirm that Allah established Himself over His Throne above His seven heavens, separate (bâ’in) from His creation, he is a disbeliever who must be sum­moned to repent” [in al-Dhahabi’s Mukhtasar al-‘Uluw (p. 225-226)] and Sulayman ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab: “It is obligatory to declare that Allah is separate  (bâ’in) from His creation, established over His throne with­out modality or likeness or examplarity” [in al-Tawdih ‘an Tawhid al-Khallaq fi Jawab Ahl al-‘Iraq (1319/1901, p. 34, and new ed. al-Riyad: Dar Tibah, 1984)].

[62] The Prophet r said: “His veil is light, and if He removed it, the glorifications (subuhât) of His face would burn everything His eyesight fell upon.” Narrated from Abu Musa by Muslim, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Abu ‘Awana, Abu Dawud al-Tayalisi, Ibn Abi ‘Asim, al-Ajurri, and al-Bayhaqi in al-Asma’ wa al-Sifat (Kawthari ed. p. 180-181; Hashidi ed. 1:465-466 #392-394). Al-Bayhaqi said: “The veil mentioned in this and other reports refers to creatures for they are the ones who are veiled from Him by a veil He created in them. Allah said of the disbe­lievers: (Nay, but surely on that day they will be covered from (the mercy of) their Lord) (83:15). His saying: ‘if He removed it’ means if He lifted the veil from their eyes without empowering them to see Him, they would have been burnt and would have been unable to bear it.” Al-Qurtubi in al-Asna (2:92) said: “If he had removed from them the veil, His majesty (jalâl), awe (hayba), and subjugation (qahr) would have caused everything His sight fell upon to disappear – from the Throne to the undersoil, for there is no end to His sight, and Allah knows best.” Cf. Ibn Khafif’s ‘Aqida §12: “Nor does He hide Himself(istatara) with anything created.”

[63] See Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam’s refutation of those who claimed the pre-eternality of letters and sounds in various passages of his Mulha.

[64] In al-Nihaya, entry b-l-â: “Al-Azhari said that a number of scholars glossed ubâlî as ‘loathe’ (akrah).” Meaning: “It adds nor subtracts nothing from My greatness.”

[65] Narrated from Anas by Abu Ya‘la with a chain of trustworthy narrators except for al-Hakam ibn Sinan al-Bahili who is weak, and by Ibn Marduyah; from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Qatada al-Sulami by Ahmad and al-Hakim who declared it sahîh, and al-Dhahabi concurred; from Mu‘adh ibn Jabal by Ahmad with amunqati‘ chain missing the Successor-link; from Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri by al-Bazzar and Ibn Marduyah; from Ibn ‘Umar by al-Bazzar and al-Tabarani; from a Companion named Abu ‘Abd Allah by Ahmad in his Musnad  with a sound chain according to Ibn Hajar in al-Isaba (7:258 #10198); from Abu Musa al-Ash‘ari by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir; from Abu al-Darda’ by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir and Ahmad with a sound chain in the Musnad  according to al-Kattani. Also narrated, but without the words lâ ubâlî, from Abu Hurayra by al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi in Nawa­dir al-Usul; without mention of the handfuls, from ‘Umar by Malik in al-Muwatta’, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi (hasan), al-Nasa’i, and others. Al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur under the verse (And remem­ber when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their reins, their seed) (7:172) cited other narrations to that effect from Abu Umama, Hisham ibn Hakim, and other Companions. Al-Fattani in Tadhkira al-Mawdu‘at said its chain was “muddled”(mudtarib al-isnâd)  because of great varia­tions in it, which makes the narration  mutawâtir al-ma‘na or mass-narrated in its import – as opposed to its precise wording – as indicated by al-Kattani in Nazm al-Mutanathir, due to the great number of Companions that relate it.

[66] Hadith qudsi within the narration of the Prophet’s r  ascension: “The day I created the heavens and the earth I made obligatory upon you and upon your Commu­nity fifty prayers: therefore establish them, you and your Community…. Let them be five prayers every day and night, and let every prayer count as ten. That makes fifty prayers. This word of Mine shall not be changed nor shall My Book be abrogated.” See the translation of Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki’s his collated text of the sound narrations of the Prophet’s risra’ and mi‘raj entitled al-Anwar al-Bahiyya min Isra’ wa Mi‘raj Khayr al-Bariyya translated in full in Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani’sEncyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine.

[67] For §168-173 see also Ibn Khafif, al-‘Aqida al-Sahiha §32-37: “[32] Allah is doer of what He will: [33] Injustice is not attributed to Him, [34] And He rules over His dominion as He will, without [anyone’s entitlement to] objection whatso­ever. [35] His decree is not revoked nor His judgment amended. [36] He brings near Him whomever He will without [need for] cause and He removes far from Him whomever He will without [need for] cause. [37] His will for His servants is the exact state they are in.”The Ash‘ari position is that Allah rewards and punishes without being obliged to do so by the actions of His servants (“Allah is doer of what He will”). He is free to place the disbeliever in Paradise and the believer in Hellfire without any injustice on His part (“Injustice is not attributed to Him”), since He owns all sovereignty over the heavens and the earth, and no one received any share or authority from Him to ob­ject to what He does.

The evidence for this is in the verses: (Know you not that unto Allah belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth? He punishes whom He will, and forgives whom He will. Allah is Able to do all things) (5:40);(Say : Who then can do aught against Allah, if He had willed to de­stroy the Messiah son of Mary, and his mother and everyone on earth? To Allah belongs the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them. He creates what He will. And Allah is Able to do all things) (5:17); (The sentence that comes from Me cannot be changed, and I am in no wise a tyrant unto the slaves) (50:29). At the same time it is obligatorily known that Allah does not take back His promise to reward those who believe and do good and punish evil-doers: (But as for those who believe and do good works We shall bring them into gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide for ever. It is a promise from Allah in truth; and who can be more truthful than Allah in utterance?) (4:122). The scholars have described the former evidence as “based on reason” (dalîl ‘aqlî) and the latter as “based on law” (dalîl shar‘i), noting that it is the latter which takes precedence over the former. Cf. al-Buti, Kubra al-Yaqinat (p. 149).

[68] Narrated from Abu Bakrah al-Thaqafi, Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn Mas‘ud, and Jabir by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, and al-Darimi.

[69] The Prophet r was asked by ‘A’isha – may Allah be well-pleased with her: “Will the beloved remember his beloved on the Day of Resurrection?” He replied: “On three occasions he will not: At the Balance until it either weighs for or against him; at the time the individual Records fly in every direction, so that he should be given his record either with the right hand or the left; and at the time a long neck comes out of the Fire, winding itself around them [at the Bridge over Hellfire]…” Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad with a fair chain, ‘Abd al-Razzaq, Ibn Abi Shayba, Ibn al-Mundhir, al-Hakim who stated it is sahîh, al-Ajurri in al-Shari‘a, and ‘Abd ibn Humayd in his Musnad as stated by al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur. Abu Dawud narrates it in his Sunan without mention oftatâyur.

[70] Another possible translation is: “the interrogation of the two examiners in the grave is real; the punishment in the grave and the rais­ing of the bodies from the grave are both real; the review in the presence of Allah is real; the Basin is real; the Balance is real; the flying(tatâyur) of individual Records in every direction is real; the Bridge is real; Paradise is real; Hell­fire is real; (A host will be in the Garden, and a host of them in the Flame)(42:7) really; the agony of that day is real for one group; as for an­other group, (the Supreme Horror will not grieve them) (21:103).” Cf. Ibn Khafif’s Aqida §83: “Paradise is true; Hellfire is true; Resurrection is true; the Rendering of Accounts is true; the Balance of Deeds is true; the Bridge [over the Fire] is true; the punishment of the grave is true; and the questioning of the angels Munkar and Nakîr is true.”

مولانا محمد سالم صاحب قاسمی علیہ الرحمہ – مختصر سوانحی خاکہ

ایک چراغ اور بجھا  

حضرت حکیم الامت مولانا اشرف علی تھانوی نور اللہ مرقدہ کے آخری شاگرد رشید ،  معارف قاسمیہ کے أمین و پاسبان ، حضرت حکیم الإسلام قاری محمد طیب صاحب رحمہ اللہ کے جانشین ،  وقف دارالعلوم دیوبند کے صدر مہتمم ، آل انڈیا مسلم پرسنل لاء بورڈ کے نائب صدر ، ہزاروں علماء وصلحاء  کے سرپرست ومربی ، خطیب الإسلام حضرت مولانا محمد سالم صاحب قاسمی نور اللہ مرقدہ ، آج علم وعمل ، صلاح وتقوی  اور رشد و ھدایت سے بہر پور زندگی گزار کر ، بلاشبہ لاکھوں سوگواروں کو روتا بلکتا چھوڑ کر اپنے خالق حقیقی سے جا ملے ،
اللہ تعالٰی حضرت کی بال بال مغفرت فرمائے ،
اور تمام پسماندگان کو  صبر جمیل عطا فرمائے ،
اس عاجز کی سلسلہ عالیہ نقشبندیہ کے تمام متوسلین سے خصوصاً اور جملہ اھل ایمان سے عموماً درخواست ہے کہ حضرت والا رحمہ اللہ کے لئے زیادہ سے زیادہ ایصال ثواب اور دعائے مغفرت کا اھتمام کریں ،
ان شاء اللہ حضرت مرحوم کا سوانحی خاکہ بعد میں پیش کیا جائے گا ،
والسلام ، محمد طلحہ قاسمی ، بھیونڈی
26 رجب 1439 ،  14 اپریل 2018

مختصر سوانحی خاکہ

دارالعلوم وقف دیوبند کے صدر مہتمم خطیب الاسلام حضرت مولانا محمد سالم صاحب قاسمی علیہ الرحمہ

نام: محمد سالم

والد کا نام: (حکیم الاسلام قاری) محمد طیب

جائے پیدائش: دیوبند، سہارنپور، انڈیا

تاریخ پیدائش: ۲۲ جمادی الثانی ۱۳۴۴ھ مطابق ۸ جنوری ۱۹۲۶ء

ابتدائی تعلیم: مختلف اساتذہ سے انفرادی طور پر

ثانوی تعلیم: دار العلوم دیوبند

تکمیل: دار العلوم دیوبند

موجودہ اہم ذمہ داری:سرپرست دار العلوم وقف، نائب صدر مسلم پرسنل لاء

حالیہ پتہ: دیوبند، سہارنپور، انڈیا

تمہید

خطیب الاسلام حضرت مولانا محمد سالم صاحب قاسمی خانوادۂ قاسمی کے گل سر سبد اور حکیم الاسلام حضرت مولانا قاری محمد طیب کے خلف اکبر و جانشین اور دارالعلوم وقف دیوبند کے مہتمم اور اس کے سرپرست ہیں۔
نیز حکیم الامت حضرت مولانا محمد اشرف علی تھانویؒ کے صحبت یافتہ اور شاگرد بھی ہیں،
زمانۂ تعلیم کے ان کے رفقاء میں کئی ممتاز شخصیات میں سے ایک نام شیخ المشائخ مرشدالامت حضرت اقدس مولانا سید محمد رابع حسنی ندوی دامت برکاتہم العالیہ کا بھی ہے، جو ہدایہ کے سبق میں ان کے ساتھ تھے، ان کے معاصرین اور رفقاء تعلیم میں حضرت مولانا اسعد مدنی ابن شیخ الاسلام حضرت مولانا حسین احمد مدنی اور مولانا عتیق الرحمن بن مولانا محمد منظور نعمانی وغیرہ شامل ہیں۔

ولادت باسعادت

اس علمی خانوادہ اور بزرگ والدین کی گود میں آپ کی ولادت بروز جمعہ بتاریخ ۲۲ جمادی الثانی ۱۳۴۴ھ مطابق ۸ جنوری ۱۹۲۶ء کو دیوبند میں ہوئی۔

تعلیمی مراحل

آپ نے ۱۳۶۷ھ مطابق ۱۹۴۸ء میں فراغت حاصل کی، آپ کے دورۂ حدیث شریف کے اساتذہ میں حضرت مولانا سید حسین احمد مدنیؒ، شیخ الادب حضرت مولانا اعزاز علی صاحبؒ، جامع المعقول و المنقول حضرت مولانا ابراہیم صاحب بلیاویؒ اور حضرت مولانا سید فخر الحسن صاحبؒ وغیرہ ہیں۔

درس و تدریس

تعلیمی مراحل سے فراغت کے فوراً بعد ہی دار العلوم دیوبند میں بحیثیت مدرس مقر ر ہوئے اور ابتداء ً نورالایضاح اور ترجمۂ قرآن کریم کا درس آپ سے متعلق رہا، پھر بعد میں بخاری شریف، ابوداؤد شریف، مشکوٰۃ شریف، ہدایہ، شرح عقائد وغیرہ کتابیں آپ سے متعلق رہیں،

۱۴۰۳ھ مطابق ۱۹۸۲ء میں دار العلوم میں پیدا ہونے والے اختلاف کے بعد آپ نے اپنے رفقاء کے تعاون سے دار العلوم وقف کے نام سے دوسرا دار العلوم قائم کر لیا، جس کے شروع سے مہتمم اور اب سرپرست ہیں، ساتھ ہی بخاری شریف کی تدریسی خدمات کا فریضہ بھی انجام دے رہے ہیں۔

تعلق بیعت و ارشاد

حضرت مولانا محمد سالم صاحب دامت برکاتہم نے بیعت و ارادت کا تعلق حضرت مولانا شاہ عبدالقادر رائے پوری سے قائم کیا، لیکن اصلاح و تربیت اپنے والد ماجد حضرت مولانا قاری طیب صاحبؒ سے لی، اور ان کے مجازِ بیعت و ارشاد ہو کر ان کے متوسلین اور خلفاء کی تربیت فرمائی۔
مولانا کے سلوک و ارشاد میں تربیت و اجازت پانے والوں کی بھی ایک بڑی تعداد ہے، اجازت یافتہ حضرات کی تعداد ۱۰۰ سے متجاوز ہے۔

عہدے و مناصب

(۱) مسلم پرسنل لاء بورڈ کے ماضی میں رکن مجلس عاملہ اور اب نائب صدر۔
(۲) سرپرست دار العلوم وقف دیوبند۔
(۳) صدر مجلس مشاورت۔
(۴) رکن مجلس انتظامیہ و شوریٰ ندوۃ العلماء۔
(۵) رکن مجلسِ شوریٰ مظاہر العلوم وقف۔
(۶) مسلم یونیورسٹی علی گڑھ کے کورٹ کے رکن۔
(۷) سرپرست کل ہند رابطۂ مساجد۔
(۸) سرپرست اسلامک فقہ اکیڈمی، انڈیا۔
انعامات و اعزازات
(۱) مصری حکومت کی طرف سے برِّصغیر کے ممتاز عالم کا نشانِ امتیاز۔
(۲) مولانا قاسم نانوتوی ایوارڈ۔ (۳) حضرت شاہ ولی اللہؒ ایوارڈ۔
اور بہت سے انعامات و اعزازات سے آپ کو نوازا گیا ہے ۔
(بصیرت فیچرس)

Hazrat Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullah Alaih)

By Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng

Birth: 132 Hijri 

Demise: 189 Hijri 

Age: 57 Years 

Name: Muhammad  

Patronymical Name (Kunyat): Abu Abdullah  

Lineage: Abu Abdullah, Muhammad Bin Hasan Shaybaani (Rahmatullahi alaih) 

Birth: Imam Muhammad was born in the town of Waasit in Iraq. 

Education: Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) studied in Kufa. 

Descent, Race: Imam Muhammad’s forefathers stayed in Damascus. Thereafter, they moved to Iraq to a town by the name of ‘Waasit’.

Imam Muhammad was born in this town in the year 132 Hijri and brought up in Kufa. (At that time, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was 29 years old. Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) lived until the age of 57 and he passed away 7 years after Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Some Accolades
Ustaad of Hadeeth and Fiqh, Imam (leader), Mujtahid (independent jurist), Aabid (worshipper), Zaahid (pious), Jawwaad (generous), Fayyaaz (philanthropist) and the author and compiler of many kitaabs, this sums up the great personality whose name is Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih), who deduced over a hundred thousand Masaail, compiled approximately a thousand kitaabs and left behind innumerable students. 

Khateeb Baghdaadi (Rahmatullahi alaih) wrote that once Ibne Aktham said to Yahyaa bin Saalih (Rahmatullahi alaihima): 

“You have spent time in the company of Imam Maalik bin Anas and Imam Muhammad bin Hasan (Rahmatullahi alaih). Tell me, who have you found more well versed in Fiqh (i.e. a Faqeeh)?”

Spontaneously Yahyaa bin Saalih replied:
“Imam Muhammad is a greater Faqeeh than Imam Maalik.”

Ta’leem and Tarbiyat
After a short stay in Waasit, his honourable father moved to Kufa. This is where Imam Muhammad’s primary Ta’leem (Deeni education) began.

After the Haramain Shareefain, Kufa was known in that era to be the headquarters of Ilm. At that time, Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Abu Yusuf, Mis’ar Bin Kiddaam and Sufyaan Thawree (Rahmatullahi alaihim), were prominent and famous scholars in Kufa. Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) studied the entire Quraan Majeed, Uloom-e-Adabiyah (language sciences, ethics and moral science), thereafter he studied Ilm-e- Deen (religious sciences). 

Meeting Imam Abu Hanifah for the first time
Imam Muhammad was once present in the Majlis of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi aliah). (This happened when he was 14 years old). 

After the Majlis, he intended to meet Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) introduced him to Imam Abu Hanifah.

Imam Muhammad asked Imam Abu Hanifah: “A na-baaligh (minor) boy read his Esha Salaah and slept. The next morning, before Fajr Salaah he became baaligh (mature). Will he have to repeat his Esha Salaah?” 

“Yes, he has to repeat his Namaaz”, replied Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). 

Immediately, Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) stood up, went to a corner and repeated his Salaah. Spontaneously, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “Insha-Allah, this boy will become an intelligent man.” 

After this meeting, Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) would frequent the Majaalis of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was of tender age and exceptionally handsome.

When he requested for enrollment in the classes of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) said:  “First do your Hifz, then come.”

After seven days Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) came to Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). Upon seeing him, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) said:  “I told you to first do your Hifz, then come.” 

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied:  “I completed my Hifz.”

Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) then told his father:  “Firstly, shave his head.”  [A lad with long hair is very handsome looking. Hence, by shaving his hair, it reduces his beauty-Translator.]

However, after his head was shaven, his beauty increased. At this juncture, Abu Nawaas (Rahmatullahi alaih) said this poem: 

“They shaved his head to lessen his beauty.
His face had both day and night; 

They removed his night. However, his day remained just as bright (and beautiful).”  (‘Day’ in the poem refers to a shaven head and ‘night’ refers to long hair).

Hence, when Imam Muhammad was accepted in the classes of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), his hair was long. This is called ‘Night’ in the poem. When his hair was shaven, then his beauty and handsomeness increased. This is referred to as ‘Day’ in the poem. Generally, by shaving the hair, beauty and at times handsomeness disappears. But this did not happen to Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih)-Translator.)

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) remained a student of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) for four years. He would accompany Imam Abu Hanifah during his journeys as well. He learnt Fiqh from Imam Abu Hanifah.

Lessons by Imam Abu Hanifah During the era of Mansoor (in Baghdaad) Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) would go to the jail and study Fiqh from Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) who ws imprisoned for refusing to take up the post of the Qaadhi.
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih)
After the demise of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) studied under Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). He completed his Fiqh course by Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Then he went to Madinah Munawwarah and studied under Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alah) the famous Hadith kitaab called Muwatta.

Imam Abu Yusuf
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was experienced and well versed person in determining the intelligence of his students. He tried his utmost best to bring out the full capability of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih). Ismail Bin Hammaad (Rahmatullahi alaih) says that Imam Abu Yusuf would conduct lessons in the mornings. At that time, Imam Muhammad had to go for Hadith lessons to his other Ustaads. When he would come to Imam Abu Yusuf’s Hadith lessons, many Masaail would have already been explained and discussed (during his absence).
But for the sake and benefit of Imam Muhammad, Imam Abu Yusuf would repeat all those Masaail.

Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) was an expert in Hadith just as Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) was an expert in Fiqh.

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was very fortunate to have two great scholars of his time, the likes of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) and Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) as his Ustaads. Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) says: 

“I spent 3 years by Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) and learnt over seven hundred Ahadith from him.”

Enthusiasm for Ilm
His enthusiasm for Ilm was to such a high degree that he (Imam Muhammad) himself says: 

“I recieved 30,000 Dirhams as inheritence after the demise of my honourable father. I spent 15,000 Dirhams to purchase Nahw (Arabic grammar) and Ash’aar (literature) kitaabs  and 15 000 Dirhams to purchase Fiqh kitaabs.” 

His Excellence in Understanding the Qur’aan Majeed
Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was well versed in understanding the Quraan Majeed. His Student, Imam Shaafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) is a witness to this. 

Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) states, “I haven’t seen anyone to be a greater Aalim of the Qur’aan Majeed than Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih).”

Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) also says:  “When Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) would discuss any Mas’alah, he would explain it in such a perfect manner, that it would seem as if the Qur’aan Majeed had been revealed to him.”

His Excellence in Fiqh
Just as he was perfect and an expert in Qur’aan and Hadeeth, he was also perfect and an expert in the field of Fiqh. Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) says: 

“I haven’t seen anyone to be more knowledgeable in the fields of Halaal, Haraam, ‘ilal (defects in narrations of Hadith), naasikh (abrogating injunctions) and mansookh (abrogated injunctions) than Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih).” 
Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) also said: “If people are impartial, then surely no one has seen the likes of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) in Fiqh.” 

At another time Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) said:  “I have not attended a Majlis which was conducted by a greater Faqeeh than Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih).” 

Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) also said:  “Whoever I questioned in ‘Ilm (i.e. Deeni knowledge), his face changed (expression), except for Imam Muhammad Bin Hasan Shaybaani.”

Khateeb Baghdaadi also writes that in the field of Jurisprudence, the most thanks he can give is to Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Moulana Abdul Hay (Rahmatullahi alaih) writes that someone asked Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (Rahmatullahi alaih) from where he had learnt ‘Ilm? He replied: “From the kitaabs of Imam Muhammad.”

His Speech-Pure and Eloquent The speech of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was articulate and filled with eloquence. It is for this reason that the audience would attain great enjoyment. 

Thus, Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alai) remarked, “If I wish to say that the Qur’aan Majeed was revealed on his tongue then judging on his eloquence and clarity, I can say so.” 

His Excellence in Deducing Masaail from the Qur’aan Majeed Imam Shaafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) said:  “I once spent a night by Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih). I spent the whole night in ‘Ibaadat (Salaah), whilst on the other hand Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was laying sidewards on his bed.

In the morning, Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) read Salaah without making wudhu. I asked him for the reason, upon which he explained:

“Were you under the impression that I was in a deep sleep last night? No, in fact I was contemplating over the Qur’aan Majeed and deduced a thousand Masaail. Whilst you have made ‘Ibaadat the entire night thereby only benefitting yourself, I deduced Masaail and benefitted the entire Ummat.” 

It is also narrated that Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to make Tilaawat of one third of the Qur’aan Majeed every night.

His Nights
Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) would divide the night into three portions;
1. One part for sleeping
2. The second part for Namaaz
3. The third for teaching

However, Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahai alaih) would remain awake most of the nights. 
When he was asked as to why he would sleep so little, he would say:

“How can I sleep whilst the Muslims (general public) sleep with the thought and trust that when they have a Mas’alah (Deeni question) to ask, they will ask me. I will then explain it to them, Insha-Allah. So, if I sleep then it will be the destruction of Deen (i.e. in other words, there wouldn’t be anyone to inform them of the Masaail of the Deen-Translator).”

His Mind was Free Only for Mutaala’ah (studying)
His love for Mutaala’ah (studying), writing and deducing Masaail was to such an extent that he told his household that they shouldn’t ask him for any of their worldly needs. If there is anything which they require from the market, etc. they should ask his worker. In this way, his (Imam Muhammad’s Rahmatullahi alaih) time was saved and his concentration was not disturbed.

This was his manner of studying from the beginning. Thus, at the young age of twenty he conducted lessons in the Musjid of Kufa.

His  Studying  Denied  Him  Time  to Change  His  Garments
It  is  mentioned  in  one  narration  that  Imam  Muhammad (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  would  be  so engrossed  in  studying,  deducing  Masaail,  etc.  that his  clothes  would  become  dirty.  Thus,  when  hi s clothes  would  become  dirty,  his  household  would bring  (clean)  clothes  to  him  which  would  force  him  to change his garments.

Love for His Ustaad
Imam  Muhammad  (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  did  not  conduct  himself  as  a  student  of  Imam  Abu  Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  in  class  times  only  and  during  the  days  of  studying  by  him.  In  fact  he  was  an  ardent  lover  of  his  Ustaads.  Just  like  benefitting  from  them,  he  was  restless  and  always  in  the  quest  of  going  to  meet  them  and  gain  their  Du’aas. When  Imam  Abu  Yusuf  (Rahmatul lahi  alaih) was  appointed  the  Qaadhi  of  Baghdaad,  Imam  Muhammad (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  at  that  time  was  in  Kufa.  But  the  separation  from  Imam  Abu  Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  was  very  difficult  upon  Imam Muhammad  (Rahmatullahi  alaih). Eventually,  due  to  the  love  he  had  for  his  Ustaad,  he  wrote  a  letter  from  Kufa  to  Imam  Abu  Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi  alaih) seeking  his  permission  to  go  to  Baghdaad  and  benefit  from  him,  visit  him  and  take  Du’aas  from  him.

However, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) knew the capabilities of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) and keeping the benefit of people in mind, replied as follows: 

“Don’t take the trouble of coming to Baghdaad. Otherwise, the people of Kufa will be deprived of asking and knowing Masaail and learning Knowledge. The people of Kufa flock to you because of your Knowledge, Therefore, carry on benefitting them.”

His Life at Home
Imam Haazim (Rahmatullahi alaih) says that the grandson of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: 

“I once asked my honourable mother regarding the life of her honourable father at home. She said: ‘My beloved son! Allah’s Qasm! Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) would sit and study with stacks of Kutub (piled around) him. He was always engrossed in studying and writing. He would not speak to anyone. I have never heard a word from him while he was studying. If the need would arise for him to say something, he would do so by making a sign with his eyebrows or fingers.’ ”

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) would be engrossed fully in his studying. For verily, the joy and sweetness that is experienced in studying Deeni knowledge is indescribable. 

His Journey to the Holy Grave of Our Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and his studying by Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) It has been explained before that Imam Muhammad’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) studying by Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaihima) ignited a passion for learning Hadith in the heart of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Thus, he was in search of such an Ustaad who could teach Hadeeth. When Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) heard of Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) and his Kitaab Muwatta, he packed his bags and travelled to Madinah Munawwarah.

Yet, at that time there were many great scholars and Shuyookh (experts in Deeni knowledge) in Kufa and Basrah. In Makkah Mukarramah there was Sufyaan Bin ‘Uyaynah, in Khurasaan there was Abdullah Bin Mubaarak. In Madinah Munawwarah there were many great scholars: Ibraahim Bin Muhammad, Abdullah Bin Muhammad et al.

However, in the Dars of Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) there were a few exclusive qualities which made it become the Markaz (head quaters) of the Islamic world. And these things made Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) undertake a journey of over a few 100 kilometers from Kufa to Madinah Munawwarah.

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was Imam Maalik’s student for three years. From all the Ahaadeeth that he learnt from Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih), 700 of them he learnt with their chains of narrators.

Imam Muhammad’s Question to Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih)
When Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was Imam Maalik’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) student, he was still very young.

Once, he asked Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) a Mas’alah: 

“If a Junubi (a person who requires a Fardh Ghusl) requires water and water is only available in the Musjid, no water is available outside, is it Jaaiz for him to go into the Musjid to fetch the water?” 

Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied: “A Junubi can not enter the Musjid.” 

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) added:  “Namaaz is about to begin and water is available only in the Musjid, what should he do?”  (Assuming no one is available to give him that water-Translator.) 

Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied with the same answer. This question and answer were repeated several times. Eventually, Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih):  “So, what is your opinion?” 

“Such a person should make Tayammum, enter the Masjid to take the water and go outside and make Ghusl,” replied Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) (astonished) asked:  “From where have you come?”  

Indicating towards the ground, Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) answered: “I am from the people of here.” (Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was referring to the earth, in other words he was saying that he was from the people of this Dunya who was created from sand and will return back to sand (grave.) In reality, this is not a lie. The Ulama-e-Haq and Ahlullaah’s gaze is always focused on Maut. Hence, they attribute almost everything to its quick termination. And Allah knows best.-Translator.)

Saying this he stood up and went away. After leaving, the people said: “That was Muhammad Bin Hasan (Rahmatullahi alaih), the special and close student of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).” 
Hearing this, Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: 

“He said that he was from (the people of) Madinah Munawwarah?”  (Imam Maalik never pick up the Ishaarah (indication) of Imam Muhammad when he pointed to the ground –Translator.)

The people replied: “Yes, but saying so he indicated to the ground.” 

Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “That is why he was so daring and brave (to me).” (In other words because he was a student of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) he was so courageous.)

Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) and Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih)
Qadhi Abdul Aasim (Rahmatullahi alaih) has written in his Mabsoot: 
“Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked Imam Muhammad   (Rahmatullahi alaih): 

“Who was a greater Aalim, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) or Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih)?” 

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked:  “In what aspect?”

“In the knowledge of the Qur’aan Shareef,” replied Imam Shaf’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih). 

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied:  “Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).” 

Then Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked:  “Who had more Knowledge regarding the Sunnat of Rasulullah (i.e. Hadeeth)?” 

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) said:  “Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) had more understanding of Hadeeth and Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) knew more Ahaadeeth.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) and Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) had a Very High Stage of Knowledge Muhammad Bin Abdus-Salaam (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates from his father that once he asked Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullah alaih) a Mas’alah. Accordingly, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) answered the Mas’alah. After some time, he asked the same question to Imam Muhammad (rahmatullahi alaih). However, his answer was different to that of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Thus, he informed Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) about it and also suggested that he should discuss the Mas’alah with Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Accordingly, both went to the Masjid and discussed the Mas’alah. The Mas’alah was debated by both great Imams. In the beginning of the debate, the discussions were understood. However, soon their debate reached such ‘Ilmee depths that only their voices were heard but nothing was understood. 

“Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) is the Greatest of His Time,” said Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih)
Mu’allaa Bin Mansoor (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates:  “Once I met Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) when he was the Qadhi. Upon seeing me he asked: 

‘O Mu’allaa! Nowadays, whose Ilm (knowledge) are you taking?’ 

I replied: “I am taking Ilm from Imam Muhammad Bin Hasan (Rahmatullahi alaih).” 

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “Yes, yes! Cling to him, because he is today’s greatest Aalim.” 

Few years thereafter, Mu’allaa Bin Mansoor (Rahmatullahi alaih) met Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked: 

“O Mu’allaa! From whom are you learning Knowledge nowadays?” 

Mu’allaa replied: “Only from Imam Muhammad  (Rahmatullahi alaih).” 
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied:  “Very good! Remain in his company because he is one of today’s high ranking scholars.” 
His Solving ‘Difficult’ Masaail Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was extremely clever and intelligent. He could untie difficult knots in Masaa’il easily.

Thus, Imam Bukhari (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates that once Fudhail Bin Ibraahim (Rahmatullahi alaih) was asked a Mas’alah: 

If a frog falls and dies in vinegar, is the vinegar paak (pure) or na-paak (impure)?

Fudhail Bin Ibraahim (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied:  “I don’t know, ask Yahya Bin Sallaam   (Rahmatullahi alaih).”

When Yahya Bin Sallaam (Rahmatullahi alaih) was asked, he replied: “I don’t know, ask Uthman Bin Uyaynah (Rahmatullahi alaih).”

When Uthman Bin Uyaynah was asked, he replied:  “I don’t know, ask Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih).”

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) was asked, he thus answered: 

“The vinegar is paak (pure).”

He further explains: 

“If a frog dies in water, the water remains paak. And if that water is poured in the vinegar, the vinegar will also remain paak. Similarly, if a frog dies in vinegar, the vinegar will remain Paak.”

Upon this explanation of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih), the audience was left dumbstruck. 

Once, Haroon Rashid told Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih):  “I am a just ruler. And a just ruler will enter Jannat. To the contrary, Zubaidah (Haroon Rashid’s wife) said: “No! You are a Zaalim (oppressor), a Faajir (open sinner) and you won’t enter Jannat!” 

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked Haroon Rashid: “Tell me, during sinning or after sinning, did the fear of Allah ever grip your heart?” (i.e. did you/do you feel the Presence of Allah?) 

Haroon Rashid replied:  “Allah’s Qasm! After sinning, the fear of Allah which I have is un-describable!” 

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied:  “Then you will have two Jannats. Because Allah Ta’ala says:  

For the one who fears standing before his Rabb [and answering for his deeds] there are two Jannats.

Yahood and Nasaaraa would bring Imaan if they Read his Kitaabs Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih) once said: “If the Yahood and Nasaaraa had read (studied) Imam Muhammad’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) compilations, they would have embraced Imaan immediately.” 

Verifying this statement of Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaih), Moulana Muhammad Jahlamee (Rahmatullahi alaih) writes:  “One Christian priest was given Da’wat (invitation to Islam) by several Muslim Ulama, however, he refused their Da’wat. 

Coincidently, he came across Imam Muhammad’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) Jaami’-Kabeer (one of his kitaabs). Upon reading it he immediately embraced Imaan. He commented that if the author of this Kitaab had to claim to be a prophet and offer this Kitaab to verify his prophethood, no one will be able to refute and oppose him.

He further commented that he pondered over the status of this one individual from the Ummat of Muhammad (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam). The knowledge of Muhammad (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) himself is then unimaginable!  

In The Obedience of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), He Never Feared ‘Disrespecting’ The Khalifah!
Nothing prevented Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) from practising upon the Ahkaam (Laws) of Allah and the Sunnah of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Thus, it is mentioned that once the Khalifah Haroon Rashid was walking with his entourage. Upon seeing him, all the people stood up except Imam Muhammad Bin Hasan (Rahmatullahi alaih).

After some time, the Khalifah’s minister called Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) (to the palace). The students and followers of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) were worried as to what the Khalifah’s decision will be. Upon reaching the Khalifah, he was asked: “Why did you not stand up on a certain day (so and so day and place)?” 

Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied: “I am in the class (category) of the Ulama. I did not wish to exit that class and enter the class of the servants of the Khalifah. By standing for the Khalifah, one removes himself from the class of Ulama and enters the servants of the Khalifah’s group. I disliked this. Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “The one who wants (and is pleased with) people to stand out of respect, should prepare his abode in Jahannam.” 

Haroon Rashid said: “You have spoken the truth.” 

His Compilations
Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) spent his whole life in Knowledge. He compiled the most kutub (plural of Kitaab) in the Hanafi Mathab. Moulana Abdul Hay and Moulana Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaihima) have written that Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) compiled 999 Kitaabs. If he had lived longer, he would have compiled 1000 Kitaabs.  

His Demise (Inna Lillahi Wa Inna Elayhi Raaji’un)
Imam Muhammad Bin Hasan (Rahmatullahi alaih) passed away in the year 189 Hijri. He passed away in Ray. Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) and the Imam of Nahw (Arabic grammar), Imam Kisaai (Rahmatullahi alaih) both passed away in the same year. According to one narration, both these great Imams passed away on the same day and according to another narration, Imam Kasaai (Rahmatullahi alaih) passed away two days after Imam Muhammad. After burying both these Imams, Haroon Rashid lamented:  “I buried Fiqah and Nahw in Ray.”

He is Seen in a Dream
A few days after the demise of Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih), someone saw him in a dream. He asked him: “How did you find Maut, O Imam Muhammad?” Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied: “I was pondering over the Mas’alah of the Mukaatab slave, when suddenly Maut overtook me.”(Mukaatab is that slave whose master has given him a sum/amount to pay upon which he will be freed. Such a slave is permitted to work and earn for his freedom-Translator.)

His Stage in Jannat
Imam Muhammad Bin Ahmad (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates from his father:  “I saw Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) in a dream. I asked him: “How did Allah Ta’ala treat you?”  Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied: ‘Allah Ta’ala granted me Jannat and told me: ‘If I wanted to punish you, then I wouldn’t have given you knowledge.’ I then asked further: “Which stage is Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) in?” He replied: ‘He is in a stage higher than me.’  I then asked regarding Imam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullahi alaih):  He replied: “He is in A’laa ‘Illiyeen” (The Highest of Highest Stages.) 

May Allah Ta’ala grant us the Tawfeeq to value these pious scholars who sacrificed their families and lives to formulate and codify the Laws of Allah Rabbul Izzah and the Shari’ah. May Allah Ta’ala reward them fully, illuminate their Qabrs with Noor and make their Maghfirah.

May Allah Ta’ala help us to follow in their footsteps and grant us the ability to understand their writings and explanations. Aameen. 

Hazrat Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi Alaih)

[Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng]

Foreword 
It is reported that Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaihima) said: 

“If the Fuqaha are not the Awliya of Allah then there is no Wali of Allah.” 

The greatest of the Awliya of Allah were the Fuqaha. Fiqh is all about creating Khashyat (fear and awe in the heart) of Allah. Pious people who abandoned Fiqh invariably fell into bid’aat. It is, therefore, imperative to study and master the subject of Fiqh. Among the masters of Fiqh were the two illustrious associates of Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaihim). When mentioned together they are refered to as Saahibain (the two companions). This article casts light on the illustrious Faqih. The It is hoped that by studying this article, fervor for Fiqh and inculcating Taqwa which are sorely missing in the Ummah today will be produced, Aameen. 

HAZRAT IMAM ABU YUSUF (RAHMATULLAHI ALAIH) 

Birth: 93 Hijri 

Demise: 182 Hijri 

Age: 89 Years 

Name: Ya’qoob  

Patronymical Name (Kunyat): Abu Yusuf 

Lineage: Abu Yusuf Bin Ibraahim Bin Habeeb Bin Sa’d Bin Buhair Bin Mu’awiyah Bin Quhaafah Bin Nufail Ansaari Bajali (Radhiyallahu anhu) 

Birth: Imam Abu Yusuf was born in Kufa. 

Education: Imam Abu Yusuf studied Ilm in Kufa, and also resided therein.  

Descent/Race: Imam Abu Yusuf was an Arab and not among the slaves (Mawaalee). His progeny links up to the Ansaar who were the residents of Madinah Munawarrah who offered all the support they could give to Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the Muslim arrivals from Makkah Mukarramah. 

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was born in Kufa, in the 93rd year Hijri, and passed away in the 182nd year Hijri. He lived for 89 years. 

The Barkat of the Mubaarak hand of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam)
Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) great grandfather was the illustrious Sahabi of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Hazrat Sa’d Bin Hatabah (Radhiyallahu anahu). (Hatabah was his mother’s name. Some have said that his mother’s name was Hasanah.)

Despite his (Hazrat Sa’d’s) yearning to participate in the Battle of Uhud, he was not granted permission due to his tender age.

He was, however given permission to participate in the Battle of the Trench (Khandaq) and other expeditions with the Sahabah. Thus, he was among the soldiers of Allah and Islam.

“Behold! The army of Allah will always be the successful ones.” (Qur’aan)

Ibne Abdul-Bar (Rahmatullahi alaih) has written in ‘Isti’aab’: 

During the Battle of the Trench, Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) observed the great-grandfather of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) fighting the enemy with bravery, valour and boldness despite his tender age. Thus, Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) called him and asked: 

“O young boy! Who are you? ”

Hazrat Sa’d (Radhiyallahu anhu) replied:  “Labbaik (I am present, O Allah’s Rasool!) I am Sa’d Bin Hatabah.”

Hearing this, Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) called him and (applauding him) said: “Well done! Well done! Come here, come here!”

Hazrat Sa’d went and stood next to Nabi (Sallallahu alahi wasallam).

Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) placed his Mubaarak hand on the head of Hazrat Sa’d and made Du’a: “May Allah make you successful.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to take pride in this incident and say: “Till today I can perceive the Barkat of the Mubarak hand of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam).” 

The Beauty and Elegance of Imam Abu Yusuf
In consequence of the blessed hand of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) beauty and elegance were such that whoever set their gaze on the face of Imam Abu Yusuf, would observe the Noor on his forehead. His face would shine as though someone had applied oil on his face.

His Quest for ‘Ilm (Islamic knowledge), His Mother’s concern and Imam Abu Hanifah’s Intuition
Ali Bin Ja’d (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to say: “When my father passed away, I was very young. My mother took me to a washerman to learn and earn (how to wash clothes to make a livelihood).

Imam Abu Hanifah’s (Rahmatullahi  alaih) classes were  on the way to the washerman. I left the washerman and joined the Majlis (classes/gathering) of Imam  Abu  Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  alaih).

When this continuously happened, (i.e. I spent more of my  time by Imam Abu Hanifah) my mother forced me to go  to the washerman.

However, I wasn’t ready to leave Imam Abu Hanifah’s Majlis and go elsewhere. Eventually, my mother who was by then tired of forcing me to go to the washerman approached Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) and lamented:

“I am a widow. This boy is an orphan. I earn by knitting. I don’t know what you have told this boy that despite me forcing him, he is not prepared to leave you! ” 

Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  alaih) told my mother: “Keep him here with us, he will study Ilm (Deeni knowledge) and soon sit on a luxurious turquoise blue carpet in a courtyard eating roasted pistah (pistachios) and  drinking faloodah (a type of a desert).”

Some have mentioned that Imam  Abu Hanifah told Imam Abu  Yusuf’s mother:
“He is learning how to drink faloodah mixed with roasted pistah (pistachios).”

Hearing this answer of Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Abu Yusuf’s mother became extremely upset  and said: “Old man! You have  become decrepit and you are not  mentally well!  ”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  says:
“When I (eventually) became the  Qaadhi, I was (once) sitting on the luxurious rug in (Haroon Rashid) courtyard the Khaleefah’ s whilst his (the Khaleefah’s) servants brought (for me) roasted pistahs mixed in faloodah.

The Khaleefah told me: “Have some faloodah. This is a special type of a faloodah which is not made all the time.”

Hearing this statement of the Khaleefah, I smiled.
The Khaleefah asked for the reason of my smiling. I explained the whole episode which transpired and also told the Khaleefah: “This is my Ustaad,  Imam Abu Hanifah’s karaamat (miracle).”

The Khaleefah remarked: “Undoubtedly, Ilm (Islamic Knowledge) benefits a person and  elevates his status in the Dunya (world) and Aakhirat (Hereafter).”

Then he said: “May Allah Ta’ala have mercy upon Imam Abu Hanifah! He would see those things with his spiritual eyes which couldn’ t be seen with the normal eyes.”

Imam Abu Hanifah’s Mercy and Barkat in Wealth
Khateeb Baghdaadi (Rahmatullahi  alaih) narrates the following episode from Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih):

“I was studying Hadith and Fiqh.  However, my condition was lamentable due to the poverty I was experiencing.

Once whilst I was in the Majlis of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  alaih), my father entered. Upon seeing him,  I stood up and went  outside with him.                                                          
My father told me: ‘My son! Look, you will be unable to follow the footsteps of Imam Abu Hanifah.  By  the Grace  (Fadhl)  of  Allah,  he  has  everything  by  him. Whatever he wishes to eat, he can  eat and whatever he wishes to drink, he drinks. On the contrary, what is your condition? You are in need of a livelihood in order to live.  At least have some consideration for the future.’

This concern of my father entered and settled in my heart. I began paying less interest in studying Ilm and devoted more of my time in earning, because this was my father’s assent and my condition’s demand.

(Note: From various narrations it is understood that Imam Abu Yusuf was married and was a father evenbefore studying Ilm, for this reason his father would stress on him to earn a livelihood.)

Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) observed that my attendance in his classes decreased. This caused much grief  to Imam Abu Hanifah.

One day, as usual, I arrived late. Imam Abu Hanifah asked me: ‘Where have you  come  from? Why are you not punctual?’ I replied: ‘I am occupied in earning my livelihood, and this is my father’s command.’

Saying this, I sat down in the Majlis. After some time I intended to stand up and leave, but Imam Abu Hanifah stopped me.

When the students were dismissed, Imam Abu Hanifah handed me a bag and said: ‘Use this and concentrate fully on your lessons.’

When I looked in the bag, I found 100 Dirhams.

Imam Abu Hanifah had also emphatically told me: ‘If this money gets finished, then tell me,  but be punctual in the lessons from now on!’

Thus I once more began attending the lessons punctually. After some time, Imam Abu Hanifah gave me another bag of 100 Dirhams, and again stressed on attending lessons punctually.  In this way, it continued. I don’t know how Imam Abu Hanifah knew that the money was depleted. Never did I tell him that  the money was finished nor did I ask him for more. Yet, Imam Abu Hanifah would give me 100  Dirhams.

This generosity of Imam Abu  Hanifah made my life more comfortable. I once more began attending the Majlis of Imam Abu  Hanifah more punctually. None of  my needs were left unfulfilled.

Allah Ta’ala caused doors of Ilm and wealth for my future to open by the barkat and Tawajjuh (special attention) of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).
May Allah Ta’ ala reward him fully for this.”

Imam Abu Yusuf’s Study Days Ibraahim Bin Jarraah (Rahmatullahi alaih) says:  “I personally heard Imam Abu Yusuf saying:  ‘We studied Ilm. And with us innumerable students studied as well. However, only he who sufficed with milk, benefitted from his Ilm.’”

What Imam Abu Yusuf meant was that during his study days, his family would mix roti in milk and keep that for him. Imam Abu Yusuf would eat that in the morning and would then proceed for classes. When he would return from classes, he would eat the same. He would not waste time in waiting for special and delicious meals to be prepared.

On the other hand, other students would wait for delicious, sumptuous and special meals, and in the process miss some parts of their lessons.

Imam Abu Yusuf’s Dedication to Ilm
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) became so in love with his Shaikh, guide and Ustaad (Imam Abu Hanifah), that he was prepared to leave all worldly work and be present for lessons. 
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahamatullahi alaih) was heard saying during one of his lessons: 

“My son passed away, however, I did not partake in his ghusl, kafan etc. I handed these responsibilities over to my neighbours and friends. I did this so that I wouldn’t miss any lesson, and this would not bother my conscience that – I was absent for a particular Sabaq (lesson).”

Some have written that the same happened when Imam  Abu Yusuf’s father passed away. Imam  Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) preferred being absent from his father’s Janazah rather than missing classes. ”

Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to say: I had no student as punctual for classes than Imam Abu Yusuf.”

Had Dawood Taai (Rahmatullahi  alaih) also followed Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) in this, people would have benefitted from him (just like how they are benefitting from Imam Abu Yusuf)  as well.”

(Dawood Taai was also a student of Imam Abu Hanifah. However, he took to solitude and an ascetic life over grounding himself in Fiqh. Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) thus commented that had Dawood Taai  become a Faqeeh, people would have benefitted from him just as they benefitted from Imam  Abu  Yusuf– Translator.)  

Imam Abu  Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) once said: “Imam Abu Yusuf  is the greatest scholar among his rank of Fuqaha.”

History bears witness to the fact that whosoever studied under Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) became a high-ranking scholar. However, (only) Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) became Imam Abu Hanifah’s successor without any difference among the Ulama.

(Note: After the demise of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), the person who took his place was Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). All the Ulama are unanimous on this. Just like after the demise of a Shaikh, the Mureeds choose his closest Khaleefah to continue benefitting and gaining proximity from, so too is the case here, that  when Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) passed away, the Ulama and students chose to benefit from Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) -Translator).

Through the Barkat of the company, classes and khidmat of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) developed a sharp intellect, a spiritually cleansed heart and a deep and vast understanding of Fiqh.

His Absorption in Ilm
Once, Imam  Abu  Yusuf’s uncle came to the Dars (lessons) of Imam Abu Hanifah  (Rahmatullahi alaih). There was a discussion taking place on a certain Mas’alah (Deeni Matter). Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) was  presenting arguments for his view  on the Mas’alah very forcefully. His voice was raised and fervently  he was debating his stand point.  The uncle of Imam Abu Yusuf stood in wonder as it was the third day that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) had been without food.

(From this episode we can learn what engrossment those illustrious souls had for ‘Ilm of the  Deen Learning and discussing Ilm, was in fact the nourishment of  their souls- Translator) 

The Complaint of Imam Abu Yusuf’s wife to Imam Abu Hanifah It is recorded, that the inclination,  enthusiasm and love Imam Abu  Yusuf (Rah matullahi alaih) had for Ilm was well known. Similarly, the complaint of his studying, zeal and engrossment in Ilm was not only made by his parents and uncle, but this was even the complaint of his wife.

It is narrated from her that at times Imam Abu Yusuf would stay  in the service and company of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), and would only return home at night. Sometimes he would spend the entire night by Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), and not return home for few days.

(Note: The task the illustrious Fuqaha had set upon themselves was preservation of the Shari’ah.  They were out in the Path of Allah  Rabbul  ‘Izzah. Had they not codified the Shari’ah, the Deen of  the masses would have been laid  to waste. The occasional lengthy  absence of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) in no way put  unbearable harm to his family and  hence his presence in the Ilmi gatherings of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) was of greater importance. He did not infringe on the right of his family.  The similitude is of a Mujaahid sent on a campaign. Both, the Faqeeh and the Mujaahid are the defenders of the Deen. In their call up for incumbent Deeni services they will necessarily have to  stay  away  from  their families for periods of time. This is even tolerated when the husband has to go on an important business trip. There should, therefore be no  objection to the above incident in  Hazrat Imam Abu Yusuf’s auspicious life- Translator.)

One day, she went to complain to  Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  alaih) about this.
Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) spoke to her, made her understand and told her to make Sabr. He also told her that Insha Allah, Allah Ta’ala will very soon remove their days of poverty and hunger and Allah Ta’ala will bestow upon them more than  what they expect.

Very soon thereafter, Allah Ta’ala opened for them doors of grace, favour, mercy and bounties. Poverty had left them. One day, she asked Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih): “How much money do we have?”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) replied: “I don’t know the total. As far as I know (for sure) is that at the moment we have 700 mules and 300 horses in our (personal) stables.”

The Desire of making Amal on  Hadith made him attend Imam Abu Hanifah’s Classes
Imam Zahid Kauthari (Rahmatullahi alaih) has written an interesting story regarding  Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih).

He writes: When Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to attend Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) classes, he  (Qadhi Abu Laila) used to have lots of consideration for Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). It was the practice and habit of  Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila, that whenever he was faced with difficult or complicated Masaail,  he would refer to Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) for its solution.

Observing this, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) would remain restless wishing to attend Imam Abu Hanifah’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) lessons, however, he was deprived of this opportunity.

Coincidentally, Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) relations with  Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila terminated.  The reason of the termination of relations was that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) once made Amal on the purport of a  Hadith. Upon doing this, Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila prevented Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) from doing that. However, Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi alaih) refuted Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila in the light of the Hadith.

What had happened, was that it was the Nikah of Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila’s daughter. At the Nikah ceremony, dates were thrown to those present. The crowd began to collect the dates. Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) also began to  collect the dates. Upon seeing this, Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila stopped Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) from doing this. He said: “This looting of dates is Makrooh!”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied: “No doubt looting is forbidden, but that is only in warfare, not when scattered in a Nikah ceremony.”

This answer of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) changed the colour of Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila’s face.

This led to the termination of relations between Qadhi  Ibne Abi Laila (Rahmatullahi alaih) and Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Thereafter, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahamatullahi alaih) began to attend Imam Abu Hanifah’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) Dars.

In actual fact, Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila had forgotten the  mentioned Hadith’s proper purport and application of the prohibition.

In the Hadith it is mentioned that once dates were thrown to the Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu anhum), however they remained seated on their places. They did not collect the dates. Upon seeing them in this state, Nabi (Sallallahu  alaihi wasallam) asked: “Why don’t you people collect the dates?”

They replied: “You prevented us, O Rasool of Allah.” Nabi (Sallallahu  alaihi wasallam) said: “I prevented only in booty, not from this (occasion). Go and collect!”

Some Views Regarding Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) leaving Qadhi IbneAbi Laila’s Classes and attending the Classes of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih)
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) remained in the service of Qadhi Muhammad Bin Abi Laila (Rahmatullahi  alaih) for nine years.

He benefitted tremendously from the knowledge of Muhammad Bin Abi Laila (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Thereafter he attended the Majaalis (plural of Majlis) of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Why did Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) leave Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila (Rahmatullahi alaih)  and proceed to Imam Abu Hanifah  (Rahmatullahi alaih)?

Regarding this, many have written  numerous reasons, in which facts are little and fictions many. Several baseless reasons have been tendered. 

Very little has been recorded and mentioned with regards to Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) Ta’leem (studying) and Tarbiyat (upbringing etc.).

However, many narrations and episodes bear witness that whatever (Ilm – knowledge etc.)  Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) had acquired, it was through his desire, yearning and  Imam Abu Hanifah’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) care and  monetary aid.

The first Ustaad of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was Muhammad Bin Abi Laila  (Rahmatullahi alaih), who was an excellent, great and accomplished scholar from among the Tab-e-Taabi’een. His knowledge and  experience were very vast.

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) benefitted from him in both, Ilm and Amal.

However, that was a time when every person and student was dependent on Imam Abu Hanifah’s (Rahmatullahi  alaih) Majlis. Despite the excellence, virtues, Ilm etc. of Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila (Rahmatullahi alaih), when he was faced with a difficult Mas’alah, he would first ask Imam  Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Observing this, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) thought that he should also attend Imam Abu Hanifah’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) classes. However, his Ustaad’s respect prevented him from  doing so.

He was therefore deprived of this opportunity in the beginning.  However, due to some reasons, he terminated his lessons by Qadhi  Ibne Abi Laila (Rahmatullahi alaih), and sat as a student in the lessons of  Imam Abu Hanifah  (Rahmatullahi  alaih).

Some have said that the reason for leaving Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila’s  (Rahmatullahi alaih) lessons was due to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) having a difference with him.

However, this is not correct, because Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) also differed in various Masaa’il with Imam Abu  Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).  Therefore, this view of differing with Qadhi Ibne Abi Laila (Rahmatullahi alaih) is not correct.

Another reason tendered is that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) would discuss and debate with Imam Zufar (Rahmatullahi  alaih) who was the student of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  alaih).

Through these discussions and debates, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) distinguished the level of Fiqah between Imam Abu Hanifah and Qadhi Ibne Abi  Laila (Rahmatullahi  alaihima).

Those who have an understanding of that era’s manner of gaining and seeking Ilm and teaching, will not bother regarding the various views and opinions offered by different people.

In actual fact, that was the initial era of the learning and gathering of various branches of knowledge.  Ilm which was in the hearts of hundreds of individuals was gathered and learnt. Therefore, the students of that time would frequently attend as many Ahle-Ilm’s (Ulama ’s ) classes as possible in order to gather and learn Ilm. Also, the Ulama of those times studied under hundreds of Ustaads. 

Allamah Zaahid Kautharee (Rahmatullahi alaih) has recorded that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) had 104 top ranking, expert and qualified Ustaads.

So, with this being the case and situation, would Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) be content with one Ustaad? He also, as was the norm of that time, sat as a  student at the feet of many great Akaabir (senior and expert) scholars. Therefore, enthusiasm for Ilm made Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi alaih) leave Qadhi  Ibne Abi Laila (Rahmatullahi alaih) and attend Imam Abu Hanifah’s  (Rahmatullahi alaih) lessons.

His yearning to Learn Hadith and his Sharp Memory
Muhammad Bin Jareer Tabaree (Rahmatullahi alaih) has mentioned that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was a great Aalim and a great Haafiz-e-Hadith, he was famous for his memorization of Hadith and was very sharp minded. He could learn 60-70 Ahadith merely by listening and then narrate them to the people.

Hasan Bin Ziyaad (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates: “We left with Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) for Hajj. Along the way, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) became sick. Therefore, we stopped (camped) at Bir-e-Maimoon.
Here, Abu Muhammad Sufyaan (Rahmatullahi alaih) came to visit Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) told us: “I would like to hear Hadith from Abu Muhammad Sufyaan (Rahmatullahi alaih).”

(When this request was put forth to him) Hazrat Sufyaan (Rahmatullahi alaih) immediately narrated 40 Ahaadith. When Hazrat Sufyaan (Rahmatullahi alaih) left, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) told us:  “Now test me those Ahaadith which Sufyaan (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrated.” 

Thus, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrated all of the 40 Ahaadith there and then. Although Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was afflicted with sickness, he was already old and the difficulties of the journey were plenty, yet this was the condition of his memory.

Imam Zahabee (Rahmatullahi alaih) has regarded Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) from  among the Huffaaz of Hadith.

Imam Jawzee (Rahmatullahi alaih)  has written that Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi alaih) is from among those 100 people of the Ummat whose (sharp) memory was well known.

When Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to sit in the lessons of his Ustaad he would by heart 50s, then in each lesson 60 Ahaadith with their Sanad (chains of narrators). 

Haafiz Ibne Hajar (Rahmatullahi alaih) has narrated the aforementioned (Rahmatullahi  alaih) from Hasan Bin Ziyaad in  this manner, that once Imam Abu  Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) fell ill he was on journey). (whilst Sufyaan Bin ‘Uyaynah (Rahmatullahi alaih) went to visit him. Sufyaan Bin ‘Uyaynah (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrated to  him 40 Ahaadith.

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) learnt (remembered) those Ahaadith and when Sufyaan Bin  ‘Uyaynah (Rahmatullahi alaih) left, he narrated them to his friends and companions. His friends and companions were amazed at his memory.

Abu Mu’aawiyah (Rahmatullahi alaih) has mentioned that he used to go with Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) for Hadith-classes. However, he would write down the Ahaadith he heard fromhis Ustaad, but Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) would remember all the Ahaadith by heart without (even) writing them down.

The Khaleefah, Haroon Rashid  was Imam Abu Yusuf’s Saathi (classmate, i.e. they were learning Ilm together).

Once, people complained to him about Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). He replied: 

“I know Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) and his Ilm from my childhood. He wouldn’t write down any Hadith during classes (which he heard from the Ustaad). Yet, his memory was so strong, that he would remember all the Ahaadith. After classes, those who had written would correct their mistakes from Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).”

Imam Maalik and Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaihima) flourished  in the Same Era
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) lived in the same era as Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih). Both these great personalities were Mujtahideen (experts in formulating Masaa’il). Both these  great personalities also differed in some Masaa’il. In some Masaail, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) gave preference to Imam  Maalik’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) view.  The details of this can be found in  Fiqh Kitaabs.

His Relation, His Ustaad, Company and Service to Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was proud to be a student of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). He would always speak about his Ustaad in praiseworthy terms. His purpose in life was to spread his Ustaad’s  Ilm far and wide. He would tell the people about his Ustaad’s Ilm and  Kamaal (perfection)

It is mentioned in one narration, that after every Namaaz, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to make Du’a-e-Maghfirat for his Ustaad first, then for his parents.

Allaamah Seemyaree (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates that once Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) told him (Allaamah Seemyaree) that never did it happen that he (Imam Abu Yusuf Rahmatullahi alaih) read Namaaz and thereafter not make Du’a for his Ustaad, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). Perhaps due to this good practice  Allah Ta’ala bestowed upon him Barkat in Ilm and Tafaqquh (a deep and thorough understanding in Ilm).

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) once said: “I spent 29 years  in the service of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).  Every day of these years I read  Fajr Salaah next to him.”

In another narration it is mentioned that he said: “Never did I leave the Kurtah (i.e. company) of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) during the mornings nor during the afternoons except for when I was sick.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was known for  his  intelligence, foresight and sharp-memory. In this long period (by  his Ustaad) he became a beautiful  reflection of the greatness and the excellence of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). He absorbed Ilm from Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) and achieved the position of Ijtihaad  (formulating Masaail).

His Zeal for Ilm
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) initially lived a very poor and difficult life. He was the only son of his father. Despite this, nothing was an obstacle for him in learning  Ilm.

Yusuf Bin Sa’eed (Rahmatullahi alaih) said that Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi alaih) was in the service of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) for a long period of time. Not one day was it  such that he was not present with  Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  alaih) for Fajr Salaah.

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said that he spent plenty of  years in the service of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). Except for the days he was sick, never was he ever absent. Even on  the days of Eid he was present.

Consider the fact that on both these days (days of Eid), everyone  spends them in the company of  their family. Despite these being  days  of  happiness and spending   with family, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) preferred spending them in the company of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), learning Ilm over (spending time with) his family.

He said: “There was no gathering more beloved to me than the Dars of Imam Abu Hanifah, for verily, I have not seen a greater Faqeeh than Imam Abu Hanifah and a better Qadhi than Ibne Abi Laila.”

The Value and Worth of One Lesson of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).
At times after the demise of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) would lament and say: “If only I was able to be in just one lesson of Imam A’zam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) and I was able to solve my Ilmee difficulty (ambiguity) by him, even if I had to sacrifice half my wealth for one Ilmee-Majlis!” 

It is recorded that at that time, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) had money to the value/amount of two million. In other words, he wished to spend one million in order to sit in one Majlis by Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).  In reality, when there is enthusiasm and yearning to learn and study Ilm, then its value will be such. Hence, the saying is so true:

“Whosoever has not tasted its sweetness will not understand.”

He became what Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) wanted Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) had a strong connection, love and affection for all his students, in particular for Imam Muhammad, Zufar and Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaihim). He would teach them with much love. The most beloved from the three was Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Before passing away, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) wrote a will for Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). 

Perhaps the ‘Firaasat-e-Mu’min’ (the intuition of a pious Mu’min) of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) perceived that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) will not only sit on a throne as an Ustaad (be an Ustaad), but his perfection in Ilm (knowledge) and Amal (practice) will make him see a day that he will obtain the position of a Qadhi. And there is no doubt in this.

This hope of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) eventually materialised. The Wasiyyat (bequeath) Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) wrote for Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was such a document which will be remembered and revived due to the benefits it contained.

This explains the amount of ‘Muhabbat’ (love) Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) had for Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) became what Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) expected him to become.

“Are You Setting Yourself Up Before Mastering?”
After gaining Ilm from great Shaikhs of the time, expert Ulama and Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) conducted his own classes. However, he did not inform his ‘Muhsin’ and ‘Murabbi’ (i.e. Shaikh and Ustaad), Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) about this, nor did he make Mashwarah (consult) with him. Upon learning of this, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) sent one of his students to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) with five questions. 

Zain Bin Nujaim (Rahmatullahi alaih) has written in his Kitaab, Al-Ashbaah Wan Nathaair:  Once Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) sent a student to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) with five Masaail:  

1. A washerman tore some clothes. Will he be paid for his washing? 

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi Alaih) said: “No, he won’t be paid.” 
The student said: “You are wrong.”  
Then Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “Yes, he will be paid.” 

The student said: “That is also wrong. If he washed the clothes before they tore, he will be paid.” 

2. What is the status of ‘Dukhool’ (entering) Namaaz (i.e. beginning Namaaz), Fardh or Sunnat?”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “Fardh.”

The student replied: “Incorrect.” 

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “Then it is Sunnat.”

The student replied: “Incorrect.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahnatullahi alaih) looked at him surprised.

The student said: “It is both (Fardh and Sunnat) at the same time. Because Takbeer-e-Tahreemah is Fardh and raising the hands is Sunnat.” 

3. The student who was sent by Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked: “A pot of food is being cooked on a stove. A sparrow fell in the pot. Can the curry and meat which are cooked in that pot be permissible to eat or not (i.e. Halaal or not)?”     

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “Why not? It is permissible.”

The student said: “Incorrect.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) then said: “It is not permissible.”

The student said: “Incorrect.” Then he said: “If the meat was cooked before the sparrow fell, then it will have to be washed thrice and eaten (not the curry).” 

4. The student further asked: “A person’s wife is a Zimmi (a Zimmi is a non-Muslim who lives in a Muslim land with safety by paying Jizyah (tax) -Translator). She died whilst she was pregnant. In which  Qabrastaan will she be buried?”                                                     
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) said: “In the Qabrastaan of  the Muslims.”

The student replied: “Incorrect.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “Then, in the Zimmi’s Qabrastaan.”

The student replied: “Incorrect.”   

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) looked at him surprised.

The student said: “She will be buried in the graveyard of the Yahoodis (Jews), however her back will be made to face the Qiblah because a baby’s face in  the womb faces the back of  a  woman.”

5. The student asked: “A man’s ‘Umme Walad’ (concubine slave  girl) married a man without her master’s permission. In the meantime, her master died. Is Iddat incumbent on her (the Iddat  of the demise of her master)?”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: “Iddat is Waajib.”

The student said: “Incorrect.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said: is not Waajib.” 

The student said: “Incorrect. If the  slave’s husband did have relations with her, then Iddat is not Waajib.  If he didn’t have relations with her, Iddat will be Waajib.”

After this, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) understood how many mistakes he was making. He headed to Imam Abu  Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) and explained his condition. Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) told him: “Are you performing before mastering?”

A Similar Incident
Once, Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi alaih) became sick. Because he was Imam Abu Hanifah’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) special and close student, Imam Abu Hanifah went to visit him.

After asking Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi alaih) relevant questions pertaining to his health  etc., Imam  Abu  Hanifah  (Rahma tullahi  alaih) said: “I have lots of hope and trust in you. You will be of much benefit to the Ummah. I leave you (to guide and benefit the Ummah) after my demise.”

After Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) recovered from his sickness, he thought of  opening his own Madrasah. Thus,  he began his own Dars. (His Ustaad, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) was not aware of this as Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) did not consult with him inform him- Translator).

Until one day, when Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  alaih) asked Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) a difficult Mas’alah.

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) did not answer it satisfactorily. Thus, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) commented: “Subhaanallah! A person who conducts his own lessons, speaks and discusses the  Deen of Allah and addresses number of students, yet he is unaware of a large Tijaarah Mas’alah (Mas’alah regarding business dealings etc.). Then, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  alaih) offered Naseehat:

“The one who regards himself  independant of Ilm has handed  himself over to his nafs.”

Dominion in Ilm is for Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih)
Hazrat Hammaad Bin Abu Hanifah  (Rahmatullahi alaih) who was the son of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) mentioned that once Imam Zufar and Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaihima) had a discussion regarding a  Mas’alah.

Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) was also present in this gathering. After a few hours passed, and they still hadn’t come to any conclusion, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) commented: “Dominion in Ilm is reserved for Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih); you  (referring to Imam Zufar Rahmatullahi alaih) won’t be able to gain it.”

Ustaad and Qadhi
Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) Tadrees (classes) were running for 16 years – 150 Hijri to 166 Hijri. In the year 166 Hijri, he became the Qadhi. He remained a Qadhi for 17 years. However, whilst he was a Qadhi, he still conducted classes. He would see to the work of a Qadhi during the day and teach during the night.

Haroon Rashid commented regarding Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) hard work: “Due to the occupation of being a Qadhi, he conducts lessons during the nights (to the people). Yet, his quality of Ilm is such that he doesn’t teach with any Kitaab or any notes (i.e. short-notes).”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to approach his students in a very cheerful and a friendly manner. He would never be miserly in teaching nor would he waste time. He would ensure that his students became experts in their studies.

He used to tell his students that despite him being an Ustaad and a Murabbee (guide, sheikh), they shouldn’t accept and believe any of his discourse without a proof. 

He would listen and answer the questions and objections of his students with a cheerful face (i.e. a smile on his face), tolerance and Sabr. He would try his utmost best to satisfy them with an appropriate answer. More episodes of this nature will be narrated further on in this treatise.

The Speciality of Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) Classes
The method of teaching in the era of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was that the Shuyookh (experts) of Hadith would dictate to their students and the Aimmah (plural of Imam) would only conduct Fiqh classes. However, Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) classes were of both, Fiqh and Hadith. 

He would not only suffice on ‘Akhbaranaa’ and ‘Haddathanaa’ or ‘Qaala’ and ‘Aqoolu’ when teaching. In other words, he would not suffice with narrations. When teaching a Hadith he would also include subtle points and express Ijtihaad (Formulating Masaail) regarding the particular Hadith. 

Ali Madinee (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates that when Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) came to Basrah in the year 180 Hijri, a few of us would attend his Majlis in order to gain benefit. His method of teaching was that he used to narrate ten Ahaadith and thereafter explain Fiqhi points.

A professional Muhaddith is not a person who memorizes Hadith, but a person who formulates Masaail from Hadith.

His Students’ Love for Attending his Classes
Bishr Bin Ghiyaath Mareesi (Rahmatullahi alaih) was one of the students of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). However, regarding ‘khalq-e-Quraan’, (the Qur’aan Majeed being Makhlooq -a created object- his view was that of the Mu’tazilee. (In reality, the Ahlus Sunnah Wal-Jamaa’at’s Aqeedah/belief) is that the Qur’aan Majeed in not Makhlooq-Translator). Bishr Mareesi is a compiler of various Kutub which he had studied from Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). He was from among the Ahle-Zuhd and Ahle-Wara (people who have abandoned the luxury and comfort etc. of the world, and people who have a lofty standard of Taqwa-Translator).

However, because of him conforming to the view of the Mu’tazilahs (in the Mas’alah of Khalq-e-Quraan), people were not attracted to him.

Regarding him, Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates: “Once I was in the Majlis of Qadhi Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) when he expelled Bishr Mareesi from his classes. (The reason was the same as mentioned above-Translator)

Some time thereafter, when I went again to the Majlis of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih), I was surprised to see Bishr Mareesi there as well. I told him, “After being expelled from Imam Abu Yusuf’s classes you still attend his classes?”

Bishr told me, “I can’t afford to lose that which I had gained from sitting in this Majlis due to my misbehaviour towards Imam  Abu  Yusuf.”

The reason for this was that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was an embodiment of ‘kamaalaat’ (perfection) and ‘fazaail’ (virtue). It was for this reason that whosoever entered his Majlis once (or for the first time) would never search for someone else’s Majlis. Whosoever would come to his Majlis once would become independent of the Majaalis of others. Whosoever  witnessed even one blink of Ilm and Baseerat (insight) from Imam Abu Yusuf would not go anywhere else.

Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi  alaih) Love for His Students
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was very tolerant and patient. Never was a frown seen on his forehead. Hasan Bin Ziyaad  (Rahmatullahi alaih) says:  “Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was more opened-hearted than Imam Zufar (Rahmatullahi alaih) in Ta’leem (teaching).

Whenever I would ask Imam Zufar (Rahmatullahi alaih) a question or put forward any Ilmee Difficulty (which he had not understood or required more explanation), Imam  Zufar (Rahmatullahi alaih) would explain to me. If I still did not understand, I would again ask, and Imam Zufar (Rahmatullahi alaih) would answer again. If then too I did not understand and asked again, Imam Zufar (Rahmatullahi alaih) would become angry and would tell me:

‘You are a real useless; you are void of intelligence; you don’t have any understanding in you, you will never be successful in learning Ilm!’

Hearing this, I would feel very down, depressed and sad. (In this condition) I used to go to Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) Majlis. I used to ask him and he would reply. I would do this several times until I would understand, and each time Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) would answer with even more love,  soft heartedness and softness. He used to try to pass on to me all his knowledge and would say: ‘Don’t worry. Be patient and ponder. When you will do this, you will understand. If I am able to, then I will transfer whatever Ilm I have to you.”

Explaining a Mas’alah whilst in Sakaraat (Agonies of Death)!  Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was extremely fond of teaching Masaail. Never was he negligent in this regard. Difficulties in learning and teaching were easy upon him. He did not allow anything to be an obstacle in his path of learning, teaching and spreading Ilm. What more than even in Sakaraat he did  not abandon this Fardh duty of Tableegh?

Ibraahim Bin Jarraah (Rahmatullahi alaih) says: “When Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) became sick, I went to visit him. I observed that he was unconscious. When he regained some consciousness, he opened his eyes and asked me: “O Ibraahim! What is the best way of Rami-e-Jimaar, (pelting during Haj), walking or on a conveyance?”

I replied: “Walking.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied: “Incorrect” 

I replied: “Then on a conveyance.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied: “Incorrect”

Thereafter he explained: ‘For the one who intends to stay there for Du’a, it is best that he pelts walking (on-by foot). And the one who intends not to stay, it is best that he pelts on a conveyance.’

After a little while, I got up to leave. Hardly did I reach the door, when I heard the people weeping. Immediately I turned around to see. I found that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) had left this temporary abode. May Allah Ta’ala bestow upon him His Mercy.”

The Kutub-Khana (library) will be a Means of My Maghfirat
Ali Bin Isa (Rahmatullahi alaih) says: “Once I went to visit Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). I thought he will be resting, thus I would not be able to meet him. When I knocked, immediately I was granted permission to enter. When I entered, I found Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) in a (separate) room with stacks of Kitaabs around him.  I told Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih), “I thought that I wouldn’t get to meet you.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) told me, “These are files and records of all rulings. Qiyaamat’s Day when my verdicts and I will be  interrogated as to how I had passed my verdicts, I will present these (files and  papers) in the court of Allah.”

Classes during Travelling as Well Whenever Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) would go on journey people used to benefit from his lessons and Ilm.

Once when Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) travelled to Basrah, huge gatherings of students crowded around Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) in order to benefit and learn from his Ilm. The ‘Ashaab e-Hadith’ (those studying Hadith) desired to benefit from Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi alaih) first as well as the Ashaab-e-Fiqah (those  studying Fiqh).

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “I am well versed in both subjects. One cannot be preferred over the other.” Thus, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked both groups one question, and the group which answered correctly will  be  addressed first.

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) removed his ring from his finger and asked, “Someone placed this ring of mine in his mouth, and bit it into pieces. What should I do?” Some  students from the  Ashaab-e-Hadith (those who were studying  Hadith) tried to answer, but Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih)  did not find their answer satisfactory.

Then one student stood up from the Ashaab-e- Fiqah (those who were studying Fiqah) and  answered. “The value of the gold  (that was on the ring) will be  taken from that person and given to the owner of the ring. The broken ring will be given to the one who had broken it on condition that its owner doesn’t wish to keep it by him.”

Hearing this, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “Let the members of this man’s group (Ashaab-e-Fiqah) enter my residence.”

Thus, the Ashaab-e-Fiqah entered where Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was staying and he addressed them first.

Many Benefitted from His Classes Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) conducted classes in different ways for approximately 32 years. Countless students benefitted from his classes. His students became great Muhadditheen, Fuqaha of their times, Imams of their era and mountains of knowledge. Many students set off to Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) classes. Students from various places, such as: Khurasaan, Jawzujaan, Balkh, Marw, Hiraat, Ray, Baghdaad, Kufa, Basrah and  Madinah Munawwarah came to learn Ilm from him.

The names of his students will make this article lengthy,  therefore we have omitted all  their names.

The Respect Shown to Him
Whilst Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was a great and a respectable personality in regards to the ‘Ilm (knowledge) he had, he was also respected by one and all in his field of being a Qadhi (A Judge in an Islamic court).

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) showed kindness and good character to one and all. It was his habit to display good character to his friends, close and special friends, family, enemies and opponents equally. 

He was the Qadhi of one of the world’s biggest Courts. Great and important people appearing in the court used to humble themselves out of respect in the presence of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Even the Khalifah, Haroon Rashid would humble himself in respect whilst in the presence of this great Imam, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

The Khalifah Haroon Rashid would display the utmost Adab (respect) to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Despite being shown so much respect, it was his (Imam Abu Yusuf’s) practice to do the same. When Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) would meet or greet anyone, he would do so with much humility and Adab (respect).

He would treat everyone equally. He would not hurt the feelings of anyone.    

His Poverty
After  completing  his  studies,  Imam  Abu  Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  got  married.  According to some Riwaayaat (narrations), he got married whilst studying. However, at that time he was experiencing extreme poverty. During his days of poverty, it is recorded that he could not afford to buy paper.

Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi  alaih) used to go to the Mathbah (slaughterhouse) and take the skin of animals and write down Masaa’il on it.

A Yahoodi’s Statement
It is recorded that during the days of Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahatullahi  alaih) poverty, hunger and hardship, a Yahoodi (Jew) who was living down the road built his wall in such a way that the public road narrowed. Thus, it became difficult for the public to pass by his house. Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) went to lay an objection to the Yahoodi about this. In a mocking way, the Yahoodi replied to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih): “Sir! The day your conveyance passes my house with difficulty will be the day I will break my wall.”  

Allah Ta’ala did not like this attitude of the Yahoodi soon towards Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Very soon thereafter, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) became the Qadhi (Judge). One day, cavalcade of Qadhi Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) passed on the same street on which the Yahoodi was residing. When they passed the house of the Yahoodi, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) reminded him of his promise. Thus, the Yahoodi had to break his wall.

The Method of his ‘Amr bil  Ma’roof’ (commanding  good/virtue)
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was fearless in the department of Amr bil ma’roof (commanding virtue). Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) would not give preference to anyone when it came to the matters of Deen, whether it be a noble person or a government official.  Even if the ruler of the time acted against the teachings of Deen,  Imam Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullaahi  alaih) would reprimand him. He  would tell him that in rulership he  (Imam Abu Yusuf) is under him (the ruler/Khalifah) but if he (the ruler/Khalifah) errs or acts in contrast to the Laws of Deen and matters of Deen, then it is (obligatory) on him (Imam Abu Yusuf) to rectify him (the Khalifah).

In the Court of ‘A daalat (justice), a King and a Donkey are Equal
It is narrated that once a case of the Khalifah Haroon Rashid and a Yahoodi (Jew) was brought to Qadhi Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Accordingly, both parties presented themselves in the court of Qadhi Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih).                                          Thinking of himself to be a normal and a simple citizen, the Yahoodi (Jew) sat (slightly) behind the Khalifah. Qadhi Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) could not tolerate to see this difference. Hence, he addressed the Yahoodi (Jew) in the presence of all in the court, “Sit in line with the Khalifah! This is an Islamic Court. Here there is no preference given to anyone. In the court of ‘Adal (justice), a king and donkey are equal.”

The Sentence of Qatl (the execution) of a Zindeeq in Court of Haroon Rashid
It is recorded that once a Zindeeq was brought to the court of the Khalifah Haroon Rashid. (A Zindeeq is a person who whilst claiming to be a Muslim, he/she openly subscribes to a tenet in conflict with the established Teachings of Islam). Haroon  Rashid called for Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). When Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih)  entered the court of the Khalifah,  Haroon Rashid told him, “Speak to this Zindeeq!” (In other words, discuss with him so that he realizes his error and makes  Taubah – Translator.)

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “O Ameerul-Mu’mineen! Call the executioner. Order that the leather mat be spread. Then invite him to Islaam. If he accepts Islaam, then well and good, otherwise behead him. There is no use in debating with him because he already accepted (Imaan) but turned away from it.”

A Witty Response
Once, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) went for Haj with the Khalifah Haroon Rashid. Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) made Imamat of either Zuhr or Asr Salaah. Because of being Musaafir, Qasr of the Salaah was made. (Qasr is when a Musaafir -a person who travels 77.5 km or more- shortens his Fardh Salaah. In place of 4 Fardh of Zuhr, Asr and Esha, he only reads 2. But he has to read 4 if he follows a Muqeem (resident) Imam. Fajr and Maghrib remains the same.)  

After making Salaam after two Rak’aats, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) announced to the Musallees (people following the Imam), “Complete your Salaah! I am a Musaafir.”

One Muqeem (resident) from Makkah Mukarramah said (whilst he was in Salaah), “We know and are more aware of this Mas’alah than you and the one who taught you this (Mas’alah).”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “If you were as you say then you wouldn’t have spoken in Salaah.”

Hearing this answer, the Khalifah Haroon Rashid was overjoyed and remarked, “If I was offered this answer for half of my kingdom, I would have accepted the offer!”

The Khalifah Haroon Rashid’s  Desire and Imam Abu Yusuf’s Independence
Once, the Khalifah Haroon Rashid told Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih), “O Imam Saab! You come to us (visit us) very seldom whereas I always yearn for your visits and to be in your company.” Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “The yearning is due to my rare coming. If I come more often, the yearning and respect will fade away.” The Khalifah Haroon Rashid praised this answer of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Imam Abu Yusuf’s Method of Handling Matters
Sa’eed bin Uthmaan (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates on the authority of his father that once the Khalifah Haroon Rashid was delivering a Jumu’ah Khutbah, when suddenly a man stood up and addressed the Khalifah in the presence of all.  He said to the Khalifah, “Allah’s Qasam! You do not do justice in distributing wealth, nor do you do justice to the people /public. You did this and you did that!”(He mentioned some of the things the Khalifah did- Translator.)                       
By the command of the Khalifah, the man was caught and was brought to the Khalifah after the Jumu’ah Salaah.

The Khalifah Haroon Rashid also called Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullaahi alaih). When Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) came, he found the man in handcuffs and chains tied around his legs, with two executioners standing with their swords drawn next to him.

The Khalifah looked at Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) and  said, “O Ya’qoob! (This was Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) name as mentioned in the beginning of this book -Translator.) This man whom you see handcuffed and chained told me such things which till today no one had the guts to say!”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “O Ameerul-Mu’mineen! So what is the problem? Similar (and even worse than this) happened to our Nabi (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam), yet  he (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) forgave them.                                                                                  
Once a man came to Nabi (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) and said whilst taking a Qasam (oath) “Under oath I am telling you, do, justice!” Nabi (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) replied (calmly), “If I don’t do justice then who will do justice?” saying this, Nabi (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) made him Maaf.

Yet on another occasion, an Ansaari brought Hazrat Zubair (Radhiyallaahu anhu) (he was the cousin of our beloved Nabi (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)    -Translator) to Nabi (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) to judge between them. Nabi (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) passed the verdict in favour of  Hazrat Zubair (Radhiyallaahu anhu).

The Ansaari commented, “O Rasool of Allah! Did you pass the verdict in favour of Hazrat Zubair (Radhiyallaahu anhu) because he is your cousin?” Even then, Nabi  (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) made him Maaf.”

Hearing all of this, the anger of the Khalifah cooled down and ordered that the man be released.
Imam Abu Yusuf to the Rescue of  the Khalifah’s Nikaah
Once, the Khalifah Haroon Rashid had an argument with his wife Zubaidah. The argument became heated until eventually Queen Zubaidah uttered such words which caused the anger of the Khalifah to reach its peak. 

Due to anger, the Khalifah Haroon Rashid told his wife Zubaidah, “If you do not go out of my kingdom by the end of the day, you are divorced!”

When eventually both their anger had subsided, they were remorseful over what happened. However, they were in a problem as to what they should do to avoid Talaaq to fall. In the end they went to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said to them, “The kingdom of the Khalifah stretches from east to west (i.e. very vast is his kingdom). It is impossible to go out of this (vast) kingdom. 
However, Zubaidah should go to the Baitullaah, because that (the House of Allah) is not included in the kingdom of the Khalifah.” (This is because the Masaajid are  the Houses of Allah Azza Wajall on earth and they are not owned by anyone, not even the Khalifah.  Hence, Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’aan Majeed, “Indeed, the Masaajid belong to Allah.” -Translator)                                                        
The Khalifah and his wife were pleased with this verdict of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Accordingly, they acted upon this which saved their Nikaah (marriage). In return, they gave Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) a gift which consisted of a huge some of wealth.

Another Solution
Bishr bin Waleed (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates that one day he asked Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih), “Hazrat! My father is a Christian. He is very old and weak. Sometimes I meet him or see him on the road. Should I help him by holding his hand?”  Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “Not when he is on  his way to the church.”

Imam Abu Yusuf’s ‘Ilm
Some have commented that if Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) had no other student besides Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih), then this would be sufficient.

Dawood bin Rashid (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “When I would find Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) engaged in any ‘Ilmee discussion, it would appear as if he was scooping handfuls of treasures of Ilm and Ma’rifat.

Hadith was on his tongue, Fiqah was on his tongue and in the field  of Ilm he was matchless.”

“Until both parties are not present, I cannot pass  my  verdict”
Once, the Khalifah Haroon Rashid asked Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih), “What is your verdict regarding faloodah  (a type of a desert) and lawzeenah  (sweetmeat made of almonds)? Which of the two is superior?”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) replied, “O Khalifah! I cannot pass my verdict until both  parties are not presented to me.”

The Khalifah Haroon Rashid instructed that both should be prepared and presented to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi  alaih) began eating (tasting) from  both dishes a little by little. Sometimes he ate from the and sometimes from the lawzeenah.

After eating a fair amount from both dishes, he called out, “O Khalifah! Until today, I have not seen two opponents fighting as much as these two dishes. Whenever I intend and make up my mind to pass my verdict in the favour of one, immediately the other overwhelms this one.”

Purchase a Boat to Save Your Nikaah
‘Allaamah Zaahid Al Kautharee (Rahmatullahi alaih) has written in his kitaab that once Imam Maalik (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrated, “It has reached me that a man once went to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) and said, “Hazrat! I have taken an oath that if I don’t purchase a jaariyah (slave girl) then my wife is divorced. However, I have realized that to do so is not easy upon me, because I have much love and attachment towards my wife and I have lots of respect for her.”                                                                         Hearing this, Qadhi Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “Why don’t you buy a boat because it is also a jaariyah?”

(Jaariyah is an Arabic word which means slave girl. It also has the meaning of a boat. Hence, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) used the second meaning to save the man’s Nikaah-Translator)

Your Silence was Best
There was a student in the Majlis-e-Dars (lessons) of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). Who would always remain silent.

Once, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) approached him and asked, “Why don’t you speak (ask)”?

The student replied, “Very well. If it is a command, I shall do so.” 

Later (during classes), he asked, “Hazrat! When should a fast be broken?”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “When the sun sets.”

The student asked, “And if the sun doesn’t set and half the night passes? Then what should a person in such a condition do?” Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “Brother! Your silence was best (for you). I have erred opening your tongue (i.e. making you speak).”

The Adab and Respect of Imam Abu Yusuf for the Qur’aan Majeed Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was a Haafiz of the Qur’aan  Majeed. In fact, this (Hifz of the Qur’aan Majeed) was the condition for enrollment in the Dars of Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) would not allow any non-Haafiz as his students. Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) learnt the respect, Adab and honour for the Qur’aan Majeed from his honourable Ustaad, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Hazrat Muwaffaq (Rahmatullahi alaih) has written that once Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was going somewhere. Along the way, he passed by two people who were engaged in an argument concerning a transaction (business deal). One of them told the other, “Our example is like how it appears in the Qur’aan…” Thereafter he recited the Aayat: “(When two disputants came to Nabi Dawood (Alaihissalaam) so that he (Nabi Dawood) may judge between them the truth. Hence, one of them said,) “This is my brother. He has ninety nine ewes, while I have only one. He said, “Give it to me!” and he has been harsh towards me in speech.” (This can  be further studied under the Tafseer of Surah Saad, from  Aayat  number 21 -Translator.)

Upon hearing this, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) became extremely angry and due  to sorrow, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) went into a Haal (state) and almost became unconscious. When this state eventually went away, and Imam  Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) regained his (full) consciousness, in a stern voice, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said to the person, “Don’t you fear Allah?! You have made the Qur’aan Majeed a customary speech?! The one who recites the Qur’aan Majeed, should recite it with Khushoo’ (humility), Khudhoo’  (submission), Khauf (fear for Allah Ta’ala) and awe (respect). The Qur’aan Majeed should not be read in a way that it offends someone. Have you lost your intelligence that you have used the Kalaam of Allah for laghw wa  la’ib (play and amusement)?!”

Hazrat Muhammad bin Fudhail  (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “My heart was not clean towards Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) because he didn’t agree to all of the rules of the government.  But the day I heard him reprimanding in this way, I began liking him.”

Generosity and Selflessness When Qadhi Abu Yusuf  (Rahmatullahi alaih) became the  Qadhil-Qudhaat (chief judge), Allah Ta’ala had bestowed upon him plenty of wealth. Doors of Rizq were opened for him.

Despite all of this, he was not overtaken by pride. He didn’t appoint a guard to sit by his door.  Despite being the head of the court of justice, he lived his life as a student (seeking ‘Ilm).                              
However, it was his lifetime regret to accept this post (of becoming the chief judge). In his last days, he would lament and say, “If only I left this worldly abode in a state of poverty. If only I had not accepted the post of a Qadhi (judge).”

The Khalifah Haroon Rashid gave Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) land which was excluded from the payment of tax. Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) used to give all its yearly produce as Sadaqah (charity) to the poor.

Prior to his demise, much of his wealth was accumulated. Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) made Wasiyyat (bequest) that all his wealth should be distributed to the Ghurabaa’ (the needy).

Approximately 400,000 (of that era’s currency) was distributed to the poor in Makkah Mukarramah, Madinah Munawwarah, Kufa and Baghdad.

Just One Container from which Mother and Son used to Make Wudhu from
The life of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) portrays a perfect example of Akhlaaq (good character). Despite being seated in the court of justice, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) maintained his lofty pedestal of Akhlaaq.
                                                   Many people loose their focus in regard to (maintaining their) Akhlaaq (good character), however, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was an exception to this.

During his days of being a Qadhi (judge), Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) would meet people, adopt humility, help the needy, take care of the needs of people and respect and honour  ‘Ilm (Deeni knowledge).

He experienced days of poverty in  his youth. Yet, not once did he use words of ingratitude (when mentioning his young days).

One such episode is narrated hereunder.

Hazrat Abdullah bin Mubaarak (Rahmatullahi alaih) says, “Once I was by Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). In our discussion, he explained his state of poverty. I consoled him. Upon leaving, accidently, I bumped and broke a container which was near him. Upon seeing this, Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) face displayed grief. However, he didn’t utter a word.

I asked him, “What is the matter?” He replied, “This was the only container which my mother and I used to use for drinking water and making Wudhu.” Upon hearing this, Abdullah bin Mubaarak (Rahmatullahi alaih) was much affected and sent some money to repay for the damage he caused.

Softheartedness, Generosity and Humility
Just like how Imam Abu Hanifah  (Rahmatullahi alaih) had many excellent dispositions, likewise, soft heartedness and generosity were outstanding qualities which were found in Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). We (generally) notice that when a person is not aware of his good nature etc., then people take  advantage of his softheartedness and generosity which at times exceeds the boundary of Israaf (extravagance). However, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was not bereft of understanding his responsibilities. 

This can be understood from the following. Once, a man came to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) and said, “I wrote a letter in your name to a certain person and requested a particular sum of money. The person sent me the money. Now he is asking me to repay him. Please help me in the situation I find myself in.”

When Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) heard this, he immediately gave an instruction that the man be arrested and put in jail until he repays the full amount.
                                                                                                           Upon hearing this verdict of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) the man said, “Hazrat! Once I did the same with your Ustaad, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). I wrote a letter in his name to acquire some money from a particular person. The man in turn  gave me the money. When I informed Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih), he repaid the man on my behalf and said, “Write a letter in my name to whoever you assume will give you money upon seeing my name.”

The man continued, “Hazrat! You are also from his (Imam Abu Hanifah’s) students. I expected the same from you. However, not only did you refuse me, you even imprisoned me.”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “Brother! I am not Imam Abu Hanifah! He was a prominent and a renowned scholar. People used to respect him due to his knowledge and virtue. Hence, upon seeing his name money was given. On the other hand, I am a government  dignitary. Hence, there is a great possibility that whomsoever you write a letter to in my name will give you money due to fearing me, though he dislikes it (giving money ).”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) kept him in jail for some time in order to teach him a lesson. When the man understood his error and Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was comfortable that he was remorseful, he called for him and told him, “I repaid your debt to the man on your behalf. And I hereby release you. And I warn you that even if that man returns the money to you happily, you should not accept it. Go, don’t do this in future!”

Answering the Falsehood of the Ahl-e-B id’at
Once, enemies, haasideen (envious people) and adversaries publicized that Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) view is of the Qur’aan Majeed being Makhlooq (a created object). (In reality, the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa’at’s Aqeedah (belief) that the Qur’ aan Majeed is the Kalaam of Allah -Translator.)

The close companions and student of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) approached him and said, “Hazrat! You prevent us from adopting this Aqeedah (belief) whilst you teach others the opposite?”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was baffled at this. His close companions and students explained the rumour which had been publicized. He remarked, “You people are witness to have fallen for the trap of the haasideen and adversaries. They are dense in their mentalities. What difficulty is there upon them to publicize a blatant lie regarding me if they could lie regarding Allah Ta’ala (by claiming that the Qur’aan Majeed is Makhlooq)!” Then Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “This is the habit of the Ahl-e-Bid’at. They attribute their (corrupt) beliefs upon others whilst in reality they (upon whom they attribute their corrupt beliefs) are totally in opposition to that.”

A Similar Incident
A similar incident to the one mentioned above is recorded that once adversaries falsely claimed and publicized that Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) accepts the Shahaadat (testimony) of a person who believes (i.e. adopts the corrupt Aqeedah) that Allah Ta’ala is not aware of actions prior to the actions occurring (Na’uthu Billaah!).

When Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) came to know of this, he remarked, “This is  totally incorrect. If such a man is brought to me, I will ask him to make Taubah (from this corrupt Aqeedah of his.) If he refuses to do so, I will command that he be executed.”

Imam Abu Yusuf’s Bond with Fiqah
Hasan bin Abi Maalik  (Rahmatullahi alaih) said that once Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “I (once) became so sick that I lost my memory. As a result I forgot the all Deeni knowledge besides ‘Ilm-e-Fiqah.”

Upon hearing this, someone asked, “Hazrat! the reason for that?” Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “Besides Fiqah, whatever else I knew was in my memory. Due to the sickness, my memory was lost, hence I forgot whatever I had learnt (by memory). From maturity till today, I am bonded with Fiqah. My example is like a  person who returns to his hometown after leaving it for several years. Tell me, will he forget the way to his house? In fact, automatically his feet will head towards the direction of his house.”

Imam Abu Yusuf – Great, Noble and Eloquent Imam 
Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was a great Imam, a perfect Faqeeh, an expert scholar, a Haafiz of Sunan (Ahaadith), a Mujtahid of Islam and the foremost student of Imam Abu  Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih). Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was the first to write Kitaabs in the Hanafi Math-hab. He was the first to dictate Masaa’il and to spread them. Hence, they reached far and wide.  He was the first to be a Qaadhi Qudhaat (chief judge). He was known by all the titles Ulama are generally called by nowadays.

‘Allaamah bin Abdil Barr (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “In my knowledge besides Imam Abu Yusuf there is no Qadhi whose Hukm (authority) spread to the East and West.”

Muhammad bin Ja’far (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “Imam Abu Yusuf was the greatest Faqeeh of his era. He reached the most perfect stage (of perfection) in ‘Ilm (knowledge), Hilm (forbearance), dominiance and  rank.”

Husain bin Waleed (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “When Imam Abu Yusuf used to speak, one would be left flabbergasted at the elegance and beauty of his speech.”

He further said, “I once heard him discussing difficult Mas’alah. His tongue (i.e. speech) a appeared as  if it was moving (flowing) like an arrow striking its target. Most of the people could not understand his speech and explanations due to its elegance. We used to marvel at this and have lengthy discussions of how Allah Ta’ala made his tongue in command of the art of speech and how every difficulty appears easy for him.”  

Wash your Mouth before Taking  His Name
Imam Tahaawi (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates with his Sanad (chain of narrators) that once Ibne Abi Imraan said, “The great Muhaddith, Ali bin Ja’d (Rahmatullahi alaih) was once dictating to us Hadith and Masaa’il. During classes he said,  “Imam Abu Yusuf narrated to  us…  …  …”                                                                                                
From the crowded class which consisted of zealous, ardent and dedicated students, someone remarked, “What?! Are you  mentioning Abu Yusuf?”

Ali Bin Ja’d (Rahmatullahi alaih) perceived from the manner of this  remark and comment that Imam Abu Yusuf’s (Rahmatullahi alaih) name was not taken with its due respect. Respectable words, titles  and honour were not used. Hence, Ali Bin Ja’d (Rahmatullahi alaih) in a raised and stern voice bawled out to the student, “Whenever you intend to mention Imam Abu Yusuf’s name, you should first wash your mouth with ‘Ashnaan’  (a type of a fragranced grass) mixed in warm water. Only after you do this can you take his honourable name on your tongue.”

Muhaddith A’mash and Imam  Abu Yusuf
Once, Muhaddith A’mash (Rahmatullahi alaih) (who was one of Imam Abu Yusuf’s Ustaads) asked Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) a Mas’alah.  Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) answered the Mas’alah.

Hearing the answer, Muhaddith A’mash (Rahmatullahi alaih) asked  in surprise, “From whence have you taken this answer and what is the basis (proof) for the answer?”

Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) replied, “Hazrat! I answered the Mas’alah in the light of a particular Hadith that you have narrated to us.”                                                                             
Muhaddith A’mash (Rahmatullahi alaih) smiled and said, “Abu Yusuf!  I remember that Hadith from before your father got married, but only today, after you explained it to me, have I learnt its interpretation (i.e. meaning) and it is perfectly correct. My  mind did not even go to that (explanation).”

Imam Abu Yusuf’s Maqaam (status) in the Eyes of His Ustaad, Imam Abu Hanifah
In his student days,  Imam  Abu  Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) dedicated his full concentration, attention and effort in studying. It was by virtue of the Barkat (blessings) of his handing himself over, humility and Muhabbat (love) that his Ustaad, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) also loved him wholeheartedly.

Once, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) had taken  ill.  His Ustaad, Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) went to visit him. Upon leaving, when reaching the door, Imam Abu Hanifah  (Rahmatullahi alaih) became pensive (sorrowful and thoughtful).

Someone asked the reason for this sudden reaction. Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) lamented, “May Allah Ta’ala not make it, but if this youngster passes away, then the greatest scholar on earth will be lost.” 

Hazrat Ismail (Rahmatullahi alaih), the grandson of Imam  Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) said,  “My grandfather (Imam Abu Hanifah) had ten special students. However, none (of them) was on par to Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih).

Imam Abu Yusuf’s Era
Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was famous for his ‘Ilm, Fazal, Fiqah, Hadith and justice. Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullaahi alaih) flourished in the time when great Aimmah (plural of Imam) of the Tabi’een and Tab-e-Tabi’een lived. In that era, ‘Ilm, Tafseer, Hadith, history, the four Mathabs etc. were welcomed, discussed and taught in almost every home. Great and prominent scholars lived in that era, the likes of Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Ahmad bin Hambal, Imam Shafi’ee, Sufyaan Thawree, Imam Awza’ee, Abdullah bin Mubaarak, Sufyaan bin ‘Uyaynah, Muhammad bin Ishaaq, Yahya bin Ma’een, Wakee’ bin Jarraah, et al. may Allah Ta’ala’s Special Mercy be upon all of them. Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alaih) and other great Aimmah praised the ‘Ilm and the high rank of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) which clearly denotes the status of Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih). 

We have already quoted the sayings of great scholars in the previous lines, however, we will quote few more in the following paras.

‘Sayyidul Ulama’-the Leader of the Ulama
Whenever Ali bin Saalih (Rahmatullahi alaih) who was in the company and Khidmat (service) of great and prominent Ulama of his time, the likes of Imam Shu’bah and Imam Abu Thi’b (Rahmatullahi alaihima) used to narrate from Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih), he would say, “Sayyidul Ulama and Afqahul Fuqaha said… … …”                                                                                                   Meanings:

• Sayyidul Ulama-The leader of the Ulama
• Afqahul Fuqaha-The most well versed of jurists.

Imam Abu Hanifah’s Eminent Student
Hazrat Talha bin Ja’far (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “Imam Abu Yusuf was famous and eminent. His ‘Ilm and Fazal (virtue) was of a very high stage. His ‘Ilm (knowledge), Hikmat (wisdom), nobility, dignity and rank had reached their perfect state. He was the first to spread the knowledge of Imam Abu Hanifah far and wide.”

Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad were none lesser (in virtue and status) than the three Imams
Saahibain, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaihima) both settled on lofty pedestals of ‘Ilm, ‘Amal, Fiqah, Ijtihaad, Istimbaat and Istikhraaj of Masaa’il.

Both were in no way lesser in Ijtihaad and Istimbaat of Masaa’il than the Aimmah-e-Thalaathah (the three Imams of the three Mathabs, viz. Imam Maalik, Imam Ahmad bin Hambal and Imam Shafi’ee (Rahmatullahi alaihim).

Imam Shafi’ee and Imam Ahmad bin Hambal (Rahmatullahi alaihima) both benefitted from Saahibain. The Challenge of the Khalifah    
                                                                                         “Bring forth someone like Abu Yusuf!”
When the Abbasi government saw no way to maintain their rulership except with the Hanafi Fiqh and Fuqaha, Khalifah Haroon Rashid made Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) the Qadhil-Qudhaat (chief judge). (Before this he was a magistrate judge-Translator.)

It was as though Imam Abu Yusuf was in charge of all the ministers and court cases.

Hafiz Ibne Abdul Barr said, “Qadhi Abu Yusuf was in charge of appointing judges in the east and west.” Imam Abu Yusuf himself said, “I was given authority of all the courts of the cities.”

However, haasideen (jealous people) and adversaries could not bear to see this great Maqaam (position) Imam Abu Yusuf enjoyed. 

Hence they began objecting: “Abu Yusuf is a great Faqeeh and Aalim. You (Haroon Rashid) have overstepped the limits in raising his post. You have given him superlative Izzat (honour) and Ikraam (respect). On what basis have you done this?”

Responding to this and many other similar objections, Haroon Rashid said, (Note: Haroon Rashid was also a great and qualified scholar and Faqeeh-Translator)

“(I have done this because) I know  Imam Abu Yusuf very well. I am forced to hand him this high position and pedestal of honour and respect on the basis of his experience in this field.

Allah’s Qasam! I have taken his Imtihaan in every Baab (section/subject) of  ‘Ilm and found him to be the most  experienced, accomplished, talented and well versed. He used to join us for Hadith Dars (classes). We used to write down  (notes  etc. during classes). But he had no need to write. After classes, the students used to surround him and correct their notes from his memory (i.e. Imam Abu Yusuf would repeat the lessons by memory and the students would correct errors in  their notes -Translator.)

With regards to his status in Fiqah, no one has come on par  with him till today. Great and  prominent scholars would (go to him and) appear/look small in front of him.

Great Fuqaha would come to him.  He used no notes nor any Kitaab when addressing the public. When we used to be together (in  a Majlis/gathering), he would ask the Ulama and Fuqaha if they had  any questions. They would say,  “We would like to ask regarding  such and such a Baab (section/chapter).”

There and then, Imam Abu Yusuf  would answer them. And in no time he would solve difficult Masaa’il. This was that specialty which the Ulama of his time did not have.

Besides all of these points, he is perfect, firm and righteous on his Deen and Math-hab.”

Thereafter, Haroon Rashid challenged them by saying, “Bring  forth anyone who is on par to Imam Abu Yusuf!”   

Imam Abu Yusuf as the Qadhi These are not the only incidents in the life of Imam Abu Yusuf. Many other occasions denote how Imam Abu Yusuf upheld Islam whilst he was a Qadhi Qudhaat (chief judge). The reason for him accepting this high post was to uphold the Laws of Allah Ta’ala, hence we can see his success in this regard.

Together with his effort, good character and the ‘Tafaqquh’ (deep understanding of Islamic Knowledge) he raised and stabilized this post and even had such an influence and created such firmness within the government that the ministers and government officials began to envy him and became jealous.

When Wahb bin Wahb Abdil Bukhtari was appointed to be in charge of this post after Imam Abu Yusuf, he used to concoct Ahaadith to justify the permissibility of every act of Haroon Rashid. He did this a few times. At first Haroon Rashid did not say anything.

Haroon Rashid was also well versed in ‘Ilm (he was also a scholar). But how long could he remain silent bearing in mind that he stayed in the company of a trustworthy, religious and Allah-Fearing Qadhi (i.e. Imam Abu Yusuf)?

Once Haroon Rashid was pigeon-flying, and Qadhi Wahb came to him. The Khalifah Haroon Rashid asked, “Is there even a Hadith for this (pigeon flying)?”

Immediately he quoted the following ‘Hadith’: “Hishaam bin ‘Urwah narrated to me that his father narrated from Ummul-Mu’mineen, Hazrat Aisha who used to say that Nabi (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) used to pigeon-fly and he even showed a liking to it.” (Note, this is a concocted narration-Translator)

Upon hearing this, Haroon Rashid raged with anger and in a stern voice said, “Get out of my sight! If you were not from the Quraish, I would have expelled you!” And this is what happened, he was expelled after a few days. 

Imam Abu Yusuf was a great Qadhi who was in charge of all the courts of the government. A great Khalifah, Haroon Rashid, who was powerful and autocratic, yet his respect for Imam Abu Yusuf was such that he gave Imam Abu Yusuf permission to enter his court-room with his conveyance. Unlike others who had to keep their conveyance outside and walk in the court-room. When Imam Abu Yusuf would enter the court-room, Haroon Rashid would be the first to make Salaam. Imam Abu Yusuf had permission to enter the court-room at any time. 

Why do you come to Muhaddith Abu Mu’aawiyah in the Presence of Imam Abu Yusuf?
Hasan Bin Maalik said, “When we would go to Muhaddith Abu Mu’aawiyah to learn the Ahaadith pertaining to Ahkaam-e-Fiqh which were narrated by Hajjaaj bin Artaat, he would ask us, “Is Qadhi Abu Yusuf not among you?” 

We would say, “Yes, he is.”

Then in surprise he would say, “You people are strange! You leave Imam Abu Yusuf and come to me?!”

He further said, “We would gather by Hajjaaj bin Artaat. When he dictated Ahaadith to us, Imam Abu Yusuf used to memorize them. After classes, we would write down the Ahaadith from Imam Abu Yusuf.”

The Status of Hanafi Fiqh Someone once asked Imam Muzanee (Rahmatullahi alaih) (the most senior student of Imam Shafi’ee Rahmatullahi alaih) regarding the people of Iraq. He answered in the following manner:

“Their leader is Imam Abu Hanifah.The staunch follower of Hadith among them is Imam Abu Yusuf. The one who deduced the most Masaa’il among them is Imam Muhammad. The most analogical among them is Imam Zufar.”

You are One of Your Kind
Ibne Abi Imraan (who is one of Imam Tahaawi’s Ustaads) said, “I have seen Ali bin Ja’d Thawree to be a proficient and well versed person. I have seen Hasan bin Saalih to be a unique person of his time. I have seen Ameerul-Mu’mineen in Hadith, Imam Malik. I have seen Ibne Abi Thi’b endowed with distinguished and special qualities. I have seen Laith bin Sa’d to be inimitable in his era. I have seen Shu’bah bin Hajjaaj to be a unique person of his kind. However, I have not seen anyone possessing what Imam Abu Yusuf had.”

Great scholars of his (Imam Abu Yusuf’s) time have mentioned many praises regarding him. If all have to be mentioned, this book will become lengthy. 

Imam Abu Yusuf’s Beautiful Palace
Al-Qawwaas said, “Once I went to meet Ma’roof Karkhee. He asked me regarding the well-being of Imam Abu Yusuf. I told him, “Hazrat! He is unwell. His sickness is deteriorating.” 

Ma’roof told me, “See, if Imam Abu Yusuf’s sickness deteriorates and something happens (i.e.  he passes away) then inform me immediately! Don’t delay in informing me!” 

Al-Qawwaas further said, “As I left and passed Darur-Rafeeq, I saw Imam Abu Yusuf’s Janaazah emerging (i.e. being carried to the graveyard). People were gathering in multitudes. I also joined in following the Janaazah. Then I remembered Ma’roof’s words. I thought to myself that if I go to inform Ma’roof, I will miss the Janaazah Salaah. Ma’roof will miss the Janaazah as well. Nevertheless, I remained for the Janaazah Salaah.

Soon thereafter, I went to meet Ma’roof Karkhee and informed him of Imam Abu Yusuf’s demise.  He became extremely sad and remorseful. The colour of his face changed and he continuously repeated  ‘Inna Lillaah…’

I asked him, “O Abu Mahfooz! (This was his Kunyat). Why do you show such remorse, regret and sadness in missing the Janaazah Salaah?”

He replied, “Last night I saw a dream. I saw Jannat and I saw a splendid palace with beautiful curtains hanging and servants standing in wait. I asked the people of Jannat,“Who is this prepared for?”

They replied, “For Qadhi Abu Yusuf.”

I asked, “How did he achieve this stage? What earned him this splendid palace?”

They replied, “By virtue of him spreading ‘Ilm and patiently bearing the bitter tongues of adversaries. And him forbearing the torments of people with a smile on his face.”

If Only This Did Not Transpire! Abu Bakr Khassaaf (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates from  his father that when Imam Abu Yusuf was on his  death-bed, he (Abu Bakr’s father) sat by his head side. Imam Abu Yusuf was asked, “Do you have any fear or grief in this state?”

He replied, “By Allah! Yes! Regarding one matter. Once, a Christian made a case against Haroon Rashid. I called for both, Haroon Rashid and the Christian. When the Khalifah Haroon Rashid came, a Musalla (rug) was spread on which he sat. However, I did not ask for a Musalla for the Christian to sit on. This is what bothers me. This is my heartfelt remorse and regret with which I am leaving this worldly abode. If only this did not transpire!”

Taqwa, Piety and His Children’s TarbiyatUpbringing
Ibrahim bin Jarraah (Rahmatullahi alaih) narrates, “Once we were sitting by Imam Abu Yusuf. Bishr bin Waleed was also with us. Imam Abu Yusuf’s son Yusuf was also present. They began discussing a Mas’alah. However, Imam Abu Yusuf looked intensely at his son and remarked, “What are you wearing?”

The reason was that his son wore an expensive Jubbah. On the other hand, Imam Abu Yusuf’s Taqwa and piety demanded non-tolerance at seeing his children donning expensive (and smart) clothes.

Zuhd, Wara’ and Ibaadat

(Zuhd-Abstinence from the luxury and comfort of the world.

Wara’-Very high state of Taqwa, awareness of Allah Ta’ala)

Ahmad bin Atiyyah said that Muhammad bin Sumaa’ah used to say, “Despite the lofty position of being a Qadhil-Qudhaat (chief judge), the responsibilities, tasks, managing the vast kingdom’s matters, seeing to basic needs etc. his daily Ma’mool (practice) was to perform hundred Rak’aats Nafl Salaah.”

Muhammad bin Sabbaah (Rahmatullahi alaih) said, “Imam Abu Yusuf was a pious man. He used to perpetually be in the state of Rozah (fast).”

Taqwa and Fear for the Aakhirat Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was extremely virtuous and pious. At times he was heard supplicating to his Rabb, 

“O Allah! You are aware that I have never committed a Haraam (forbidden) act, nor did I consume any Haraam wealth.

O Allah! You are aware that whenever two people (or groups) presented their cases to me, never did I favour any one of them nor did I desire that the judgement be in favour of a certain one of them, even if he was the Khalifah of the time.

O Allah! In return of this, do forgive me.”

Abu Hafs commented that Imam Abu Yusuf’s whole life is testimony to the above.

At times, Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) was heard petitioning,

“O Allah! You are aware that whenever two parties came to me, and if one of them was weaker than the other, then I would always treat them equally. I treated the Khalifah and a normal layman /shopkeeper equally. Never was my mind (or heart) persuaded by the status, rank and distinction of any person.

O Allah! If I ever did so, then do forgive me.”

A Warrant of Jannah in a dream Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) himself said, “Once I saw Imam Abu Hanifah in a dream and that he was in Jannat. He was surrounded by Sahaabah from all sides and he was in the centre. Upon seeing me, he said, “Abu Yusuf! Bring a pen and paper so that I can write down the names of my companions in Jannat.”  I said, “Hazrat! Do write my name in that blessed list.” Upon my request, Imam Abu Hanifah wrote my name also in the list.”

His Penitence and Focus on Allah Azza Wa Jall on His Deathbed Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) fell ill a few days before his death. He sensed that his days were limited. He used to repeatedly say during these last few days, 

“I spent seventeen years as a Qadhi (in the work of Iftaa and Qadhaa etc.). Now my time is near (to leave this temporary abode-Translator).”

He used to be overcome with a unique Haal (spiritual ecstasy) during his illness.

The just and honest way in which  he managed the position of a Qadhi has been explained (in the period of which he was the Qadhi). However, in his last moments, he lamented, “If only I left this world inpoverty and hunger and I did not accept the post of a Qadhi! Then too I am grateful unto Allah that I did not commit Zulm (oppression) on anyone intentionally, nor did I favour a party, nor was it my desire that a particular party win a case.”

Imam Sha’bee writes in his Kitaab ‘Kifaayah’,

“When the agonies of death (Sakaraat) overcame Imam Abu Yusuf, he supplicated,

“O Allah! I always kept Your Kitaab, the Sunnah of Your Nabi and the Sahaabah’s views in mind (before passing a verdict). I made Imam Abu Hanifah a bridge between You and I. You are Most Aware that I did not have any enmity for any superior person nor any weaker one. Never was I inclined to a superior group,  nor  bigoted towards a weak man, party or group.

O Allah! In Your Knowledge if I am speaking the truth, then forgive me.”

Allaamah Ibne Jawzee (Rahmatullahi alaih) said,“On his deathbed, Imam Abu Yusuf was heard supplicating,          

“O Allah! You are well aware that I did not oppress anyone. I did not force anyone. I did not pass an incorrect verdict intentionally upon anyone. I passed my judgements whilst keeping Your Kalaam and Your Nabi’s Sunan (Hadith) in mind. Whenever I was confronted with any difficulty, I placed Imam Abu Hanifah between You and I. Imam Abu Hanifah was more aware and well versed of Your Ahkaam (Laws) than I and never did he overstep the boundaries of Your Ahkaam (Laws).”

The Stages of Imam Abu Hanifah and Saahibain-Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullai alaihim)
Ibne Abi Rajaa’ narrates from Muhammadiyah (who was regarded to be from among the Abdaal-a class of Auliyah), 

“Once I saw Imam Muhammad (Rahmatullahi alaih) in a dream. I asked him, 

“O Abu Abdillah! How did Allah treat you?”

He replied, “Allah forgave me and told me, “If I wanted to punish you, I wouldn’t have made you a treasure of ‘Ilm (i.e not given you so much of Knowledge).”  

I asked him, “What about Imam Abu Yusuf?”

Imam Muhammad replied, “Fawqee.” (i.e. he is in a higher stage (of Jannah) than me.)

I asked, “What about Imam Abu Hanifah?”

He replied, “Fawqahu Bitabaqaat.” (i.e he is in A’laa ‘Illiyeen which is many stages above him.)

The Acknowledgement of Opponents
It is written in Hadaaiqul-Hanafiyah that a day after Imam Abu Yusuf passed away one of his adversaries was seen much grieved and sorrowful. When people enquired about this state of his, he replied, “Last night in a dream I saw Imam Abu Yusuf in Jannat. I asked the door-keepers of Jannat as to what Amal (action) Imam Abu Yusuf did which earns him this lofty stage.

They replied, “He acquired and taught ‘Ilm with patience and endurance and due to spreading and propagating ‘Ilm.”

Golden Words of Advice Hereunder are a few golden and precious words of advice this great Imam offered. After all, studying and reading his life which bears testimony to his handing himself over to ‘Ilm and be known as a mountain of knowledge and playing an important role in the Hanafi Math-hab, one would have asked him for Naseehat if he was alive today. However, he has left behind plenty of advice and examples of how to treat and learn ‘Ilm. For the benefit of the reader we present some hereunder. 

➡ Imam Abu Yusuf would advise his students, “O Students! Learn and study ‘Ilm only and solely for the pleasure of Allah. Do not entertain any other intention with it. It is my experience that in whichever class/lesson I sat submissively I left the Dars with dignity and honour. And in whichever Dars I sat with arrogance and vanity, I left with disgrace.” (This is a very important Sabaq (lesson) for students of Deen. Always sit with utmost respect, humility and attention in front of your Ustaad. A student of Deen should never point out faults and errors of his Ustaad. This leads to his quick destruction in both, Dunya and Aakhirat-Translator.) 

➡ “Abstain from the company of the one who is oblivious (fearless) of the disgrace and humiliation of Qiyaamat.”  (Students of Deen should befriend people who speak and discuss Deeni topics in their free time. There is great harm in discussing worldly and non-Deeni topics in one’s free time. This results in the Noor of ‘Ilm evaporating from one’s heart which leads to one failing to gain Tafaqquh (a deep and thorough understanding of Deen, Masaa’il, Fiqah, Hadith, Tafseer etc.-Translator.) 

➡ Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahmatullahi alaih) would say, “Ilm is such that if you hand yourself fully to it, it will give you in return only a little of it. When you have acquired some of it, don’t relax on it (the little you have). Infact, continue in its quest (to gain and learn more).”  

➡ “It is a disgrace for government officials to be shabbily dressed and live a life of jest (play, amusement, fun, sports, touring, merrymaking and transgressing the Laws of Allah). However, it is an honour for Ulama (Hufaaz are also included-Translator) and Qudhaat to live a simple lifestyle.” 

➡ “The one who searches for Naadir (rare and scarce) Hadith will fall prey to slandering (unintentionally) Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam).” 

➡ “There are three fundamental Ni’mats (bounties):  

1. Islam- No Ni’mat can be perfect without it.

2. Health- There is no pleasure in any leisure without it.

3. Independency- Without which one will experience no Sukoon (peace of mind).”