by Shaykh Muhammad Shareef bin Farid
It has been related in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari on the authority of A`isha, who said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said:
(( ﺇِﻥَّ ﻟِﻜُﻞِّ ﻗَﻮْﻡٍ ﻋِﻴﺪًﺍ ﻭَﻫَﺬَﺍ ﻋِﻴﺪُﻧَﺎ ))
“Every people have an `Eid, and this day is our `Eid.”
The narrative behind this prophetic tradition is that A`isha said: “Once the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace entered upon me, and with me were two servant girls singing the poems of the battles between the `Aws and the Khazaraj. He then came and laid down on the bed and turned his face away from them. Then Abu Bakr entered and rebuked me and them saying: ‘Are the wind instruments of Satan in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?!’ Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace turned to him and said: ‘Leave them!’ However, when they took a brief rest, I ushered them out. This was the day of the `Eid in which the Sudanese usually played with their shields and lances.”
The meaning of his words: “Every people have”; refers to every ethnic group or community. In this statement is an important principle because it gives authoritative recognition of the linguistic, racial, religious and cultural legal existence of all people and by which is established the fundamental right to exist.
The meaning of his words: “…an `Eid”; like New Years Day and other holidays. An-Nisaai’ and Ibn Hibban cited in sound chains of authority on the authority of Anas: “When the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace first came to Medina, they had two days in which they celebrated and made amusement in them, and he said: ‘Allah ta`ala has substituted for these two with two more days better than them: the day of al-Fitr and al-Ad’haa’.”
What can be extracted from this prophetic tradition is the reprehensibility of being jubilant during the holidays of the idolaters as well as resembling them. Shaykh Abu’l-Hafs al-Kabeer an-Nasafi from among the followers of Abu Hanifa went as far as to say: “Whoever gives as much as an egg to an idolater out of esteem for their holiday has disbelieved in Allah ta`ala.” The meaning of his words: “…and this day is our `Eid”; is that this is the `Eid of the people of Islam.
The complete narration of the cited prophetic tradition as it is narrated in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari on the authority of A`isha, may Allah be pleased with her: “Abu Bakr once entered upon me, and there were two servant girls from the Ansaar singing the customary poetry of the Ansaar which they sang about the wars between the `Aws and the Khazraj. She said: ‘They were not actually singing, (but reciting poetry)’. Then Abu Bakr said: ‘Is the wind instruments of Satan in the house of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace?!’ This occurred on the day of the `Eid. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, then said: ‘O Abu Bakr! Every people have an `Eid, and this is our `Eid’.”
A contingent from some of the Sufis uses this prophetic tradition as evidence for the lawfulness of singing, listening to it with musical instruments and without instruments. However, what suffices as a refutation of that is the explicit statement of A`isha in the prophetic tradition by her words: “They were not actually singing”; because she negated singing from them by way of meaning although it had been established for them by verbal expression. The reason for this is because singing is the irrefutable raising of the voice and the modulating hymns which the Arabs call singing. Otherwise a person is not described as singing. It is called singing when the singing of poetic verse is accompanied with the syncopations, lowering of the voice, its arousing, and stimulation which insinuates indecency or explicitly refers to it.
Al-Qurtubi said: “Her statement: ‘They were not actually singing’; means that they were not doing what is normally understood to be singing which singers customarily do. Thus, her statement constitutes a strong safeguard against the kind of conventional singing which is well known; which is designed to motivate and stir the person tranquil and to arouse hidden desires. This type of singing when it is poetic and it describes the beauties of women, wine and other than that from forbidden matters, then there is no disagreement regarding its prohibition…
…As for what the Sufis have invented in that from one perspective there is no disagreement regarding its prohibition. However, the passions of the soul has gotten the better of many people who are associated with spiritual excellence, until there even appears on many of them the actions and behavior of insane people and children; to the point where some of them dance in uniform movements and incessant intermittent routines and even ends with some insolent people among them claiming that that this dancing is form of drawing near to Allah and righteous behavior; and that it is the fruits of sublime spiritual states. However, in reality this is nothing by the fruits of heresy and words of the people of misinterpretation, may Allah assist us!”
Imam al-`Asqalaani said: “In this prophetic tradition is that the lawfulness of manifesting happiness during holidays is from the rites of the religion. In it also is the permissibility of a man entering upon his daughter while she is with her husband, since this is customary. It also establishes the permissibility of a parent disciplining the daughter or son in the presence of their spouses, even when the spouse neglects to do so, since disciplining is the duty of parents. It establishes that lawful compassion between spouses is that shown towards women. In it also is showing kindness towards a woman and seeking to attract their affections. In it also is that the places of the people of spiritual excellence should be free of diversions and nonsense, even when there is no sin involved, except with their permission.
This prophetic tradition also establishes that if the spiritual disciple sees something which is objectionable in the presence of his spiritual guide (shaykh), that he should immediately object to it; and in doing so it does not constitute a breach of the relationship with the spiritual guide. On the contrary, it is correct courtesy with him and fulfilling the responsibility of maintaining his sanctity and showing respect for his rank. In it also is the permissability of a spiritual disciple passing legal decision in the presence of his spiritual guide by what is known to be correct in his spiritual path.
The prophetic tradition also gives evidence of the lawfulness of listening to the voice of a servant girl singing, even when she is not in the direct service of the person listening. This is because, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace did not object to Abu Bakr listening to them. Rather, he objected to his objection of them. Further, the indication that A`isha made for them to leave implies that it is the locus of permissability of servant girls singing in the presence of others is conditioned by it being safe from temptations.”
The two `Eids are the days of al-Fitr and al-Ad’haa, whose legality is established by the words of Allah ta`ala: “Then pray to your Lord and make sacrifice”; and His words: “He has succeeded who purifies himself by giving alms, then mentions the Name of his Lord and then prays.”
The Shehu, may Allah be merciful to him said in his Mirat’t-Tullab: “As-Shibrakhiti said in his commentary upon the al-Mukhtasar: ‘The majority of the scholars of Qur’anic exegesis agree that what is mean by His words: ‘Then pray to your Lord and make sacrifice’ are the two `Eid prayers and the animal sacrifice made for the Day of Sacrifice. It states in the al-Ahkaam of Ibn al-`Arabi: ‘`Ikrama said: ‘A man used to present his alms before performing the prayer’. The Sufyan said about that: ‘Allah ta`ala says: ‘He has succeeded who purifies himself by giving alms, then mentions the Name of his Lord and then prays’.
In the Miftaah as-Sadaad, the commentary upon the Irshaad’s-Saalik it states: ‘The prominent opinion is the prayer of the `Eid is a confirmed Sunna for the person for whom the jumu`a prayer is incumbent, and no one else.’ He then said after a bit: ‘Ibn Zarquun related that it is collective obligation.’
As-Shibrakhiti said in his commentary upon the al-Mukhtasar regarding the words of the author (Khalil ibn Is’haq): ‘The Sunna of the `Eid is two rak`ats based upon the more prominent opinion’; ‘What can be extracted from his words is what will be cited, or it missed him that it is a collective Sunna. However, the view of the madh’hab of Malik is that it is an individual Sunna for the one upon whom jumu`a is obligatory, and not upon every responsible person. It is also said that regarding the obligation both `Eid prayers that they are individual and collective.
It has related by Abu Mansuur ad-Daylami on the authority of Talha ibn `Ubaydallah, may Allah be pleased with him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said:
ﻟَﻴْﻠَﺔُ ﺍﻟْﻔِﻄْﺮِ ﻟَﻴْﻠَﺔُ ﺭَﺣْﻤَﺔِ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﻳُﻌْﺘِﻖُ ﻓِﻴﻬَﺎ ﺍﻟﺮِّﻗَﺎﺏَ، ﻓَﻤَﻦْ ﺳَﺠَﺪَ ﺳَﺠْﺪَﺗَﻴْﻦِ ﻛَﺘَﺐَ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪُ ﻟَﻪُ ﻣِﻦَ ﺍﻟﺜَّﻮَﺍﺏِ ﻛَﻤَﻦ ﺻَﺎﻡَ ﺭَﻣَﻀَﺎﻥَ ﻣِﻦ ﺻَﻐِﻴﺮٍ ﺇِﻟَﻰ ﻛَﺒِﻴﺮٍ ﻭَﺫَﻛَﺮٍ ﻭَﺃُﻧْﺜَﻰ ﻭَﻳُﻌْﻄِﻴﻪِ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪُ ﺗَﻌَﺎﻟَﻰ ﺛَﻮَﺍﺏَ ﻣَﻦ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﻓِﻲ ﺍﻟْﺠُﺒَﺎﻧَﺔِ ﺍﻟﺼَّﺤَﺮَﺍﺀِ ﻣِﻦَ ﺍﻟْﻤَﺸْﺮَﻕِ ﻭَﺍﻟْﻤَﻐْﺮِﺏِ
“The night of the breaking of the fast (laylat ‘l-fitr) is the night of the mercy of Allah, in which Allah frees slaves. Whoever makes two prostrations during this night, Allah will write for him the reward of all those who fast Ramadan, whether young, old, male or female. And Allah ta`ala will give him the reward of one who prays in places of worship in the desserts from the east to the west.”
It has been related by Abu Nu`aym al-Haafidh, Abu `Ali al-Hadaad and Abu Mansuur ad-Daylami on the authority of Daws ibn Umar and Abu Hani, may Allah be pleased with both of them that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said:
ﻣَﻦ ﺍَﺣْﻴَﺎ ﻟَﻴْﻠَﺘَﻲْ ﺍﻟْﻌِﻴﺪِ ﻭَﻟَﻴْﻠَﺔَ ﺍﻟﻨِّﺼْﻒِ ﻣِﻦ ﺷَﻌْﺒَﺎﻥِ ﻟَﻢْ ﻳَﻤُﺖْ ﻗَﻠْﺒُﻪُ ﻳَﻮْﻡَ ﻳَﻤُﻮﺕُ ﺍﻟْﻘُﻠُﻮﺏُ
“Whoever gives life to the two nights of `Eid and the night of the fifteenth of Sha`baan, his heart will never die on the day when hearts will die.”
It has been related in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari on the authority of Anas who said:
” ﻛَﺎﻥَ ﺭَﺳُﻮﻝُ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢَ ﻻَ ﻳَﻐْﺪُﻭ ﻳَﻮْﻡَ ﺍﻟْﻔِﻄْﺮِ ﺣَﺘَّﻰ ﻳَﺄْﻛُﻞَ ﺗَﻤَﺮَﺍﺕٍ”
“The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not go out on the day of `Eid’l-Fitr until he had eaten some dates.”
The meaning of his words: “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not go out”; where the expression ‘go out’ means to walk or circulate during the first part of the day.
The meaning of his words: “…on the day of `Eid’l-Fitr”; is that he mentioned the al-Fitr in particular because this is absent in the day of al-Ad’haa, which is in contrast since it is highly recommended to eat breakfast consuming something from his sacrificed animal; as it was stated explicitly in the prophetic tradition: “He should not eat on the day of al-Ad’haa until he has prayed.”
In the narration of Ibn Maja: “…until he has returned.” Ahmad added: “…he should then eat from his sacrificed animal.” In the narration of Abu Bakr al-Athram: “…until the time of forenoon.” This is the same as in the narrations of the al-Muntaqa and the an-Nayl.
In the narration of al-Bayhaqi: “He should then consume something from the liver of his sacrificed animal.” This is the same as in the narration of the `Umdat’l-Qaari. In the narration of ad-Daraqutni in his as-Sunnan he added: “…until he returns and he should then consume something from his sacrificed animal.” The meaning of his words: “…until he had eaten some dates”; that is to say, three, five, or seven or less than that, or more.
Ibn Qudama said: “We do not know of any disagreement regarding expediting consuming food on the day of al-Fitr.” The wisdom in the recommendation of dates is what it in them of sweetness, and the strengthening of the sight which becomes weak due to fasting. Other reasons are that the consuming of something sweet conforms to the sweetness of faith; it removes the desire to sleep; and is easier to consume than anything else.
Further, some of the Taabi`uun considered it highly recommended to break the fast with anything sweet such as honey. This was transmitted by Ibn Abi Shayba on the authority of Mu`awiyya ibn Qirra, Ibn Sireen and others. All of this is applicable regarding those who are able to do so; if not, then it is merely necessary that he break the fast, even with water in order to achieve the resemblance of adherence to the Sunna.
The wisdom in eating before the `Eid prayer is in order that a person not assume that it is necessary to fast until he actually prays the `Eid prayer. It is as if by doing so he seeks to preempt this pretext.It is said that the wisdom in eating before going out to the prayer is because Satan who was incarcerated during the month of Ramadan is not released until after the the prayer of the `Eid.
Thus, it is highly recommended to expedite the breaking of the fast early in order to be protected from his whispering. Some of the people of knowledge consider it highly recommended for a person not to leace his home on the day of al-Fitr until he has eaten something. It is also highly recommended for him to break his fast with dates, and that he should not eat on the day of al-Ad’haa until after he has returned from the prayer.
It has also been related regarding eating on the Day of Fitr before going ut to the `Eid Prayer in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari using the same narration from Marjan ibn Raja on the authority of Anas ibn Malik who said:
“The dates should be eaten in odd numbers.”
Ibn Abi Jamra made clear intimation to meaning of this by his words: “As for making them an odd number, al-Muhallab said: ‘This is clear indications of the oneness of Allah ta`ala. It is for this reason that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace used to utilize an odd number in al of his affairs, in order to take baraka from that’.”
In a narration of Abu Dawud on the authority of Ibn Mas`ud: “Utilize an odd number O people of the Qur’an. Indeed Allah is Uniquely Odd and He loves the odd.” In the narration of al-Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurayra: “Verily Allah has ninety-nine Names, short of one. No one memorizes them except that he will be entered into Paradise. He is the Uniquely Odd and He loves the odd.”
In the narration of Abd’r-Razaaq on the authority of al-Hassan mursalaan: “Indeed Allah is Uniquely Odd and He loves the odd. Whoever does not perform the witr is not from among us.” Thus, the meaning of his words, upon him be blessings and peace: “…He loves the odd”; is that the expression odd in terms of enumeration is superior to numbers which are even especially regarding His Divine Names because it is a clear proof of the Oneness of His Divine Attributes.
For Allah ta`ala loves that which is odd in everything, even in things which are enumerated as odd. He also loves the servant behaving in accordance with His Divine character and actions, glory be to Him, the Exalted. For this reason the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace loved behaving and acting in accordance with what Allah azza wa jalla loved. This prophetic tradition is proof that all the actions of the Sunna are a manifestation of gnosis of Allah ta`ala and are indications of His Divine Oneness.
O Allah accept our fasting, our abstinence, our vigils, our prayers, supplications and Qur’anic recitations. Give us good in this life and the Next and redeem us from the punishment of the Fire.
The `Eids are a time of glorification of Allah and performing much remembrance of him by Angels, humanity, djinn and the whole of creation. It has been related in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari on the authority of Abdallah ibn Yusr, who said:
” ﺇِﻥْ ﻛُﻨَّﺎ ﻓَﺮَﻏْﻨَﺎ ﻓِﻰ ﻫَﺬِﻩِ ﺍﻟﺴَّﺎﻋَﺔِ، ﻭَﺫَﻟِﻚَ ﺣِﻴﻦَ ﺍﻟﺘَّﺴْﺒِﻴﺢِ ”
“When we had finished with the `Eid prayer at that hour was the time for the glorification of Allah.”
The meaning of his words: “When we had finished with the `Eid prayer at that hour”; is reference to the fact that the completion of the prayer of the `Eid occured at that particular hour similar to the time it was done during the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The accusative particle ‘inna’ (indeed) is an indication of extenuating phrase after a significant one; thus, making it a contingent conditional phrase.
The origin of this interpolation is from Ahmad where he explicitly expressed it in the nominative case and with its connecting phrase. Ahmad then related a prophetic tradition by way of Yazid ibn Khumayr who said: “Abdallah ibn Yusr, the Companion of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace once came out to the people on the day of the `Eid’l-Fitr or al-Ad’haa, and he objected to the Imam tarrying with the prayer. He then said: “We were with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace and we had completed the prayer at this particular time.” This is the same in the narrations of Abu Dawud on the authority of Ahmad and al-Hakim by way of Ahmad also, who verified its soundness.
The meaning of his words: “…was the time for the glorification of Allah”; is that it took place at the time of forenoon, which is the time of the glorification of superogatory prayers. Thus when the time passes it is considered a reprehensible time to perform the `Eid prayers. In the a sound narration of at-Tabarani: “…and that was at the time of the glorification of forenoon.” His saying: ‘the time of glorification’ means that this time is the moment in which the `Eid prayer should commence.
This is proof that the prayer of `Eid actually takes the place of the glorification of duhaa for that day and is an indication of the superiority of the prayer of the forenoon. It also provides evidence of the lawfulness of expediting the performance of the prayer of the `Eid, and the reprehensibility of postponing it very late. Some of the scholars said that it should be performed after the expansion of the sun towards its zenith, and no disagreement is known to exist regarding this opinion.
It has been related in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari on the authority of Abu Sa`id al-Khudri, who said:
” ﻛَﺎﻥَ ﺭَﺳُﻮﻝُ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻳَﺨْﺮُﺝُ ﻳَﻮْﻡَ ﺍﻟْﻔِﻄْﺮِ ﻭَﺍﻷَﺿْﺤَﻰ ﺇِﻟَﻰ ﺍﻟْﻤُﺼَﻠَّﻰ ”
“The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to go outside of the town to the place of prayer on the days of fitr and ad’haa.”
The meaning of his words: “…to the place of prayer…”, is that it was a well known locale in Medina which was one thousand cubits from the door of the masjid, as Umar ibn Shibba said in his Akbar’l-Medina on the authority of Abu Ghasaan al-Kinaani, the companion of Malik.
This prophetic tradition establishes that it is more appropriate for the khutba to be delivered by the Imam while he is standing on the earth than it would be on the minbar. The difference between this place of prayer and the masjid is that it should be an empty space, in which the Imam can see everyone present, in contrast to the masjid which has places some restricted areas where some people can not be seen. It is to this empty place that the people should go to pray the `Eid prayers.
Thus, the `Eid prayer should only be prayed in the masjid when there is a necessity to do so. It is for this reason that this prophetic tradition establishes the right of the scholars to object to the Amirs when they fabricate something contrary to the Sunna. It also establishes the lawfulness of a scholar swearing to the truthfulness of what he informs others about. It also establishes the proof for it being highly recommended to go out into the deserts for the `Eid prayers, and that it is superior to praying in the masjid. This is due to the persistence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace doing that although the value of his masjid was well known.
As-Shafi said in his al-Umm: “It has reached us that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace used to go out during the two `Eids to the place of prayer in Medina. This was the same with those who came after him, except when there was an excuse of heavy rain or the like. This is the same judgment for populations of the general lands of Islam, except for the people of Mecca.”
It has been related in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari on the authority of Jaabir ibn Abdallah, who said:
” ﻛَﺎﻥَ ﺍﻟﻨَّﺒِﻰُّ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺇِﺫَﺍ ﻛَﺎﻥَ ﻳَﻮْﻡُ ﻋِﻴﺪٍ ﺧَﺎﻟَﻒَ ﺍﻟﻄَّﺮِﻳﻖَ ”
“The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to redirect himself on the way returning on the day of the `Eid.”
In the narration of al-Isma`ili: “When he went out to the `Eid, he would return another way from the way he went.” At-Tirmidhi said: “Some of the people of knowledge extract from this that this action is highly recommended for the Imam.” This is the opinion of as-Shafi`, however in his al-Umm he considers it highly recommended for the Imam and those who follow him. This is the opinion held b the majority of the followers of as-Shafi`. Ar-Raafi` said: “In short, no one required to do this except the Imam.”
Qadi Abd’l-Wahaab al-Maliki said: “The Imam should do this so that the people of both directions can witness him. It is said that this includes those who reside in the two ways from among men and jinn. It is said that this should be done so that equity can be established between them in the advantage of the bounty of his passage. Or so that equity can be established between them in their receiving baraka from him. Or so that they can all smell the fragrance of the musk in the road in which he passes, because the Imams were known for that. It is said that this was originally done because the road to the place of prayer was in the south of the city, so when he return he would take the direction of the north of the city. Thus, he would return in another direction from which he went originally.
It is said that this should be done in order to make manifest the rites of Islam in both directions. It is said that this is in order to manifest the remembrance of Allah. It is said that this is in order to irritate the hypocrites and the Jews, and it is said that this is in order to incite fear in them by the large numbers of people with him. It is said that this is done in order to be on guard against the intrigues of the hypocrites and Jews or against one of them. It is said that this is done in order cause joy to become general among them by means of his passing, or in order that they can take baraka from him as a result of his passage and their seeing him, and that they can attain advantage from him in fulfilling their needs regarding legal decisions, instructions, adherence, guidance, the giving of alms, his giving of the greetings of peace to them and other than these. It is said that this should be done in order that visitations can be made to the relatives among the living and the dead, as well as to connect the bonds of kinship.
It is said that it should be done in order to bring about cheerfulness among them by the alteration of their circumstances to that of forgiveness and contentment. It is said that during his passage to the place of prayer the Imam should give alms, and when he returns there usually does not remain any wealth with him, thus he returns in another direction so that he does not have to turn away those who ask. However, this last point is extremely implausible because it requires proof to corroborate it. Finally, it is said that this is done simply in order to to decrease the number of the crowd walking with him.”
It has been related in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari on the authority of al-Bara’, who said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said in a sermon on the day of sacrifice:
(( ﺇِﻥَّ ﺃَﻭَّﻝَ ﻣَﺎ ﻧَﺒْﺪَﺃُ ﺑِﻪِ ﻓِﻰ ﻳَﻮْﻣِﻨَﺎ ﻫَﺬَﺍ ﺃَﻥْ ﻧُﺼَﻠِّﻰَ ﺛُﻢَّ ﻧَﺮْﺟِﻊَ ﻓَﻨَﻨْﺤَﺮَ، ﻓَﻤَﻦْ ﻓَﻌَﻞَ ﺫَﻟِﻚَ ﻓَﻘَﺪْ ﺃَﺻَﺎﺏَ ﺳُﻨَّﺘَﻨَﺎ ))
“The first thing that we begin with on this day of ours is we pray then return and make our sacrifices. Whoever has done so, has accomplished our Sunna.”
The meaning of his words: “the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said in a sermon on the day of sacrifice”; is that it was the day of the `Eid’l-Ad’haa as Mansuur stated it explicitly in his narration on the authority of as-Sha`bi regarding the same prophetic tradition because the cited speech occurred during the khutba. The wording of Mansuur on the authority of al-Bara’ ibn al-`Aazib who said: “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace gave a khutba to us on the day of al-Ad’haa and said…” and he went on to cite the following tradition.
The meaning of his words, upon him be blessings and peace: “The first thing that we begin with on this day of ours is we pray”; and then the Imam gives the khutba after the prayer.
The meaning of his words, upon him be blessings and peace: “…then return and make our sacrifices”; is that the meaning of the prophetic traditions of al-Bara’ establishes the invalidation of the sacrifice made before the prayer, by the apparent statement of his words from another path of transmission: “Whoever offers sacrifice before the prayer has no sacrifice.” That is to say, that whoever sacrifices his animal before the prayer, then he has not performed the sacrifice, which means that he has not fulfilled the sacrifice of slaughtering his animal properly.
The meaning of his words, upon him be blessings and peace: “Whoever has done so, has accomplished our Sunna”; is evidence that the proper time of the animal sacrifice should begin after the performance of the prayer.
As for the prophetic tradition of al-Bara’ its apparent wording seems to contradict its proper interpolation because his words: “The first that we began with on the day of ours is that we pray then return and make our sacrifices”; gives the perception that these words occurred before the occurrence of the prayer, which then necessitates the sermon preceding the actual prayer, based on the assumption that these words were actually apart of the sermon of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and since the prayer is followed by the sacrifice. However, the correct explanation is that what was intended is that he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace prayed the `Eid, and then made the khutba in which he said the following statement.
It has been related in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari: “Ibn Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, used to glorify Allah during the days at Mina after every prayer, on his bed, in his tent, while sitting and while walking, and during the whole of these days of Mina. Maymuna used to glorify Allah on the day of sacrifice. And the women used to glorify Allah when praying behind Aban ibn Uthman and Umar ibn Abd’l-Azeez on the nights of tashreeq (11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja) along with the men in the mosque.”
The meaning of his words: “Ibn Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, used to glorify Allah”; is that as for the wording of the glorification the soundest which has been transmited is what was related b Abd’r-Razaaq with a sound chain on the authority of Salman who said: “Glorify Allah b saying: ‘Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, kabeera’.”
It has been transmitted by Sa`id ibn Jubayr, Mujaahid, Abd’r-Rahman ibn Abi Layla, which Ja`far al-Fariaabi related in the Kitaab’l-`Eidayn b way of Yazid ibn Abi Ziyaad on the authority of the above mentioned transmitters, which also the opinion of as-Shafi` who added that one should say: “…wa lillahi’l-hamd.”
It is also said that one should glorify Allah ta`ala three times with Allahu akbar and then add: “Laa ilaha illa Allah wahadahu laa shareeka lahu” to the end. It is said that one should glorify Allah two times b saying: ‘Allahu akbar’ and then say after that: ‘laa ilaha illa Allah, wa Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar wa lillahi’l-hamd’; which comes to us b way of Umar; and something similar was transmitted on the authority of Ibn Mas`ud, and is the expressed opinions of Ahmad and Is’haq. However, in these times people have added some additional words which have no foundation to them.
The meaning of his words: “…during the days at Mina after every prayer on his bed, in his tent, while sitting and while walking, and during the whole of these days”; is that the custom inclusive in this prophetic tradition is that the existence of the glorification should be performed during these days at the end of every prescribed prayer, as well as in all other circumstances.
The meaning of his words: “…Maymuna used to glorify Allah on the day of sacrifice”; refers to the Maymuna the daughter of al-Haarith, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The meaning of his words: “…. And the women used to glorify Allah”; are the women of al-Medina. This is evidence for the permissibility of women being present for the prayers in the mosques.
The meaning of his words: “…when praying behind Aban ibn Uthman”; is that he was above mentioned Abaan ibn Amir’l-Mu’mineen Uthman ibn`Afan, who was the Amir of al-Medina at that time.
The meaning of his words: “…and Umar ibn Abd’l-Azeez”: is that he was the Amir’l-Mu’mineen and the mujaddid of the first century of Islam Abu Hafs Umar ibn Abd’l-Aziz ibn Marwaan ibn al-Hakam ibn Abi’l-`Aas ibn Umayya ibn Abdushams ibn Abdumanaaf ibn Qusay ibn Kilaab al-Qurayshi al-Umawi al-Medini. He was the Imam, traditionist, learned mujtahid, ascetic, worshipping and spiritual master. He was from among the Imams of independent judgment and Rightly Guided Khalifs. His mother was Umm `Aasim bint `Aasim ibn Umar ibn al-Khataab. He was appointed Amir of al-Medina in the year 86 A.H. until 93 A.H. It was then that the people prayed the `Eid prayers behind him.
The meaning of his words: “…on the nights of tashreeq (11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja) along with the men in the mosque”; is that the phrase tashreeq refers to the days of tashreeq, which are the three das after the day of sacrifice, which is the 10th of Dhu’l-Hijjah. These days are called tashreeq because they are the days in which the meat of the sacrificed animals is laid out in strips in the sun to dry.
Regarding the glorifications performed on these days there is disagreement among the scholars in several areas. Among them are those who restrict the glorifications to be done after all prayers. Among them are those who specify the glorifications to be done after the prescribed prayers and not superogatory.
Among them are those who specify the glorifications to be performed by men and not women; however, this contradicts the apparent expression of the prophetic tradition: “…along with the men in the mosque.” Some say it should be done while in congregation and not individually; while performing current prayers and not missed prayers; by those resident and not those traveling and those who reside in the metropolis and not those living in small villages. It is apparent that al-Bukhari chose this prophetic tradition because it is inclusive of all the above opinions and corroborates them.
Also, among the scholars there is disagreement regarding when the glorifications should begin and when they should end. It is said it should begin on the subh of the day of `Arafa. It also said that it should begin after the dhuhr of that same day. It is also said after its `asr. Others say that it should begin after the subh of the day of sacrifice, while others say after the dhuhr of the same day. It is said that it should end after the dhuhr of the day of sacrifice, while others say after its `asr.
Some say that it should end after the dhuhr on the second day of sacrifice, while some say that it should end after the subh on the last of the days of tashreeq. Others say after the dhuhr of the same day, while others say after its `asr. The soundest opinion, however, is what was narrated on the authority of the Companions: Ali and Ibn Mas`ud that it commences on the subh of the day of `Arafa until the last of the days of Mina, as ibn al-Mundhir related.
Among the best of the adhkaar is saying: “Subhaana Allah; al-Hamdulillahi; Laa ilaha illa Allah; Allahu Akbar; and Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa billahi.” O Allah accept our fasting, our abstinence, our vigils, our prayers, supplications and Qur’anic recitations. Give us good in this life and the Next and redeem us from the punishment of the Fire.