Category Archives: Hajj/Umrah

The 3rd to 6th day of Hajj and its Conclusion

10th Dhul Hijjah – Yawmun-Nahr

The  third  day  of  Hajj  is  the  10th  day,  known  in  Arabic  as  Yawmun-Nahr (the day of sacrifice).

There are two opinions on the origin of this name:

1.  The  first  refers  to  incident  wherein  Allah  commanded  Ibraheem (alayhissalaam) to  sacrifice  his  son  Isma’eel (alayhissalaam).  This  act  itself  is  called  nahr (slaughter  or sacrifice). Some scholars  reported  this  incident  to have happened on this day of the year.

2.  The  second  refers  to  the  actual  practice  of  sacrificing  animals on  the  day  of  ‘Eid.  Because  the  sacrifice  takes  place  on  a massive scale, this day was named accordingly.  This  day—the  day  of  ‘Eid  al-Adha—is  the  most  blessed  and  virtuous day  in  the  entire  year.  The  Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu ‘alayhi  wasallam)  said,  “The  best  day  with  Allah  is  Yawmun-Nahr,  and  then Yawmul-Qarr (the  11th  day;  the  day  that  follows,  when  the  pilgrims reside in the camps of Mina for worship).” [Ahmad]

Allah  made  ‘Arafah  (9th  day)  an  introduction  to  the  Day  of  Nahr.  On the  Day  of  ‘Arafah,  pilgrims  stand  humbly,  earnestly  beseeching  Allah for  His  Expansive  and  Far-Reaching  Forgiveness,  and  to  accept  their repentance,  seeking  His  Eternal  Satisfaction.  And  thus,  the  obligatory tawaf  that  pilgrims  ideally  perform  on  the  10th  day  is  called  tawaf-uz-ziyarah  (the  visiting  circumbulation);  after  having  their  sins  forgiven on  the  Day  of  ‘Arafah,  Allah  grants  them  permission—rather  demands from  them—to  visit  His  House  on  the  Day  of  Nahr.  The  Day  of  ‘Arafah can  be  likened  to  a  purification  process,  a  preparation  for  the  Day  of Nahr.

What do the pilgrims do on the 10th day of Hajj?

In  the  early  hours  of  Yawmun-Nahr,  after  Fajr,  most  pilgrims  will  begin their  day  at  the  plains  of  Muzdalifah.  Once  they  complete  the  morning prayer,  they  remain  in  the  site/plains  of  Muzdalifah  until  close  to sunrise. They then march to Mina.
On this  day,  the  pilgrims  are  obliged  to  perform  four  specific  rites  of Ḥajj; these four do not have to be performed in any specific order:

1. To stone the major jamarah (‘aqabah) with seven stones. 

2.  To  offer  a  sacrificial  animal  whether  by  hand  which  is  the  most preferable  method  or  by  proxy.  This  rite  is  an  obligation  on those  who  perform  the  Hajj  in  the  form  of  tamattu‘  or  qiran  in which  the  pilgrims  perform  both  ‘Umrah  and  Hajj,  joined  or separate.  Anyone  who  performs  Hajj  as  a  single  ritual  without ‘Umrah is not required to offer this sacrifice.

3.  To  shave  the  head  and  to  clip  a  bit of the hair for women. 

4.  To  perform  tawaf  and  sa’i.  This  tawaf  is  known  as tawaf-ifadah or tawafuz-ziyaarah. It is compulsory.

The  pilgrim  remains  in  a  full  state  of  ihram  until  these  rites  are fulfilled.  He  is  in  a  partial  state  of  ihram  as  long  as  the  ṭawāf  remains incomplete.  Once  the  tawaf  is  complete,  the  pilgrim  is  permitted  to leave the state of ihram.

The  pilgrims  then  return  to  Mina  to  spend  the  night  (or  most  of  the night) in their camps.

11-13th Dhul Hijjah – Ayyamut-Tashriq

These  are  the  final  days  of  Hajj.  They  are  called  Ayyamut-Tashriq  (the days of Tashriq). 

Perhaps  the  strongest  opinion  on  their  name  is  because  in  the  past the  pilgrims  used  to  slice  the  meat  they  acquired  from  their  sacrificial animals,  season  it  with  salt  and  then  let  it  dry  in  the  sun.  The dehydration  of  the  meat  allowed  pilgrims  to  preserve  it  from  spoiling whilst  on  their  long  journeys  back.  This  was  prior  to  the  invention  of refrigeration.  This  process  is  called  Tashriq,  and  it  linguistically  has  a connection  to  sunrise  or  sunshine.  The  process  entails  the  exposure  of the meat to the sun for a long time.

The  days  of  Tashriq  are  considered  days  of  celebration  and  worship. It  is  recommended  to  enjoy  these  days  by  feasting.  The  Messenger  of Allah  (sallallaahu ‘alayhi  wasallam) said,  “The  days  of  Tashriq  are  days  of eating and drinking.” [Muslim]

What do the pilgrims do on these last few days?

1.  The  pilgrims  are  required  to  spend  most  of  the  night, preferably the entire night and day, in Mina. 

2.  During  these  days,  the  pilgrims  recite  the  takbir  until  the  end of  the  Hajj  season.  Since  these  are  the  last  days  of  a  blessed season,  and  as  pilgrims  complete  the  rituals  of  Hajj,  it  is recommended  for  pilgrims  and  others  to  end  this  season  with the remembrance of Allah.

In  fact,  this  is  a  common  tradition  legislated  after  the completion  of  acts  of  worship,  “And  when  you  have  completed the  prayer,  remember  Allah  standing,  sitting,  or  (lying)  on  your sides,”  [Qur’an4:103]  and  “And  when  the  prayer  has  concluded, disperse within  the  land  and  seek from  the  bounty  of Allāh, and remember  Allah  often  that  you  may  succeed,”  [Qur’an 62:10]  and “And  when  you  have  completed  your  rites,  remember  Allah like  your  (previous)  remembrance  of  your  fathers  or  with much greater remembrance.” [2: 200]

3.  The  most  important  practice  in  these  days  is  the  throwing  of stones at the jamaraat site.

The  timing  of  this  rite  is  critical.  The standard  opinion  is  that it  should  be  performed  after  the  time  of  zawaal  or  when  the time of Zuhr is already in until right before sunset. 

After  completing  the  throwing  of  stones  at  each  station,  the pilgrims  stand  on  the  side,  away  from  the  traffic,  facing Makkah  and  raise  their  hands  with  du’a  and  praise,  and  then move  on  to  the  next  station.  There  is  no  du’a  at  the  last  station (major). Thereafter, they return to Mina.

4.  The  fifth  day  of  Hajj  is  the  12th  of  Dhul  Hijjah.  Any  pilgrim  who desires  to  hasten  and  leave  early  can  end  his  Hajj  after performing  the  throwing  of  stones  on  that  day.  However,  the pilgrim  must  leave  Mina  before  sunset.  If  he  remains  in  the vicinity  beyond  sunset  then  he  is  required  to  stay  there  for  the extra  night,  the  13th,  which  is  the  last  and  final  day  of  Ayyamut-Tashriq.

5.  Once  the  pilgrims  have  completed  all  the  essentials  of  Hajj, making  sure  nothing  of  their  obligations  are  left  without  being fulfilled  or  compensated  for,  they  prepare  themselves  for  their departure  to  Makkah,  for  the  finale  rite.  The  sunnah  of  the Messenger  of  Allah  (sallallaahu ‘alayhi  wasallam  is  to  perform tawaful-wida‘  (farewell  tawaf)  right  before  leaving  Makkah.  It is considered obligatory for those who are able.

You  will  find,  as  the  Hajj  season  draws  to  a  close,  many  pilgrims depart  Makkah  with  a  mixture  of sadness  and  happiness. Nevertheless, they  all  leave  with  hope  that  their  Hajj  was  mabrur  or  faultless,  and that  Allah  has  accepted  their  offerings  during  these  days  of  great sacrifice.  They  all  leave  with  hope  that  this  experience  was  a  true redemption  from  sin  and emancipation  from  the  painful  snares  of  both worlds.

Conclusion of the Hajj Season

On  the  last  day  of  Hajj,  Mina—the  tent  city—which  came  to  life  during the  days  of  Hajj  is  now  suddenly  dormant  again  –  a  signal  to  the conclusion of the Hajj season.

The  pilgrims, who  stayed two  days  in  Mina or  chose to  stay  the extra day,  are  obliged  to  continue  the  same  rites  of  Ayyamut-Tashriq.  They are  required  to  throw  stones  at  the  three  posts  of  jamaraat,  seven pebbles each, before they leave Mina.

As  the  pilgrims  prepare  to  depart  the  tent  city,  they  begin  to  collect their  belongings,  fold  away  their  mats  and  tents  and  head  towards their hotels in Makkah.

The  sight  of  an  empty  Mina  is  saddening,  especially  after experiencing  the  most  grand  of  days, undertaking  the most  excellent  of actions  at  the  most  virtuous  of  sites.  Their  host  was  The  King  of  kings, and  a heavenly  audience of  Angels. Now  all  of  that  is  about  to  draw  to  a close.

During  their  final  stay  in  Makkah,  the  pilgrims  make  sure  nothing  of their  obligations  is  left  without  being  fulfilled  or  compensated  for.  So, if  there  was  any  violation  committed  during  their  ihram  or  stay  in Mina,  they  make  sure  to  amend  it  in  the  proper  manner.  In  some  cases, the  pilgrims  are  required  to  pay  expiation  for  some  of  these shortcomings.  The  expiation  can  be  paid  in  the  form  of  fasting,  feeding the poor or offering a sacrificial animal.

Before  leaving,  the  pilgrims  seek  permission  from  their  King  and Master.  They  entered  the  Sacred  Kingdom  in  a  state  of  istislam (surrendering  and  submitting  to  His  Commands)  and  remained  there in  a  state  of  istislam.  It  is  therefore  only  befitting  that  they  exit  the Kingdom in a state of istislam i.e. the farewell tawaf.

Before  departure,  the  able-bodied  pilgrim  is  obliged  to  perform  al-tawaf  al-wida‘  (farewell  tawaf).  In  case  of  a  woman  whose menstruating  period  had  already  started,  according  to  the  majority  of Muslim  jurists  she  is  not  obliged  to  perform  that  tawaf  nor  is  she obliged to have someone do it on her behalf.

The  best  scenario  for  the  pilgrims  is  to  take  care  of  their  last  minute shopping  before  they  do  their  tawaf,  for  it  is  better  and  more  befitting to  keep  the  last  moments  in  this  Sacred  Kingdom  around  the  K’abah instead of the market place.

In  this  final  tawaf,  as  the  pilgrims  encircle  the  House  of  their  King— glorifying,  praising,  and  extolling  Him—they  invoke  their  Generous and  Caring  Lord;  thank  Him  for  His  Hospitality  and  show  appreciation for  being  given  the  opportunity  to  mention  and  worship  Him  standing, sitting,  lying  down,  walking  and  running;  seeking  forgiveness  for  their shortcomings therein, and asking for His Acceptance. 

The  pilgrims  then  depart  with  hope  that  their  Hajj  was  mabrur (faultless  and  accepted),  and  that  Allah  has  accepted  their  offerings during  these  epic  days.  They  leave,  hoping  that  their  last  few  days  was a  true  redemption  from  sin  and  an  admittance  to  Jannah  as  the Prophet  (sallallaahu  ‘alayhi  wasallam  promised,  “Whoever  comes  to  this House  and  does  not  utter  any  obscene  speech  or  do  any  evil  deed,  will go  back  as  the  day  his  mother  gave  birth  to  him,”  and  “For  an  accepted Hajj, there is no reward except Paradise.” [Bukhari and Muslim]

An Explanation of the Talbiyah (i.e Labbayk…)

ﻟَﺒَّﻴْﮏَ  ﺍَﻟﻠّٰﻬُﻢَّ  ﻟَﺒَّﻴْﮏ ,َ ﻟَﺒَّﻴْﮏَ ﻟَﺎ ﺷَﺮِﻳْﮏَ ﻟَﮏَ ﻟَﺒَّﻴْﮏ َ  ﺇِﻥَّ ﺍﻟْﺤَﻤْﺪَ ﻭَﺍﻟﻨِّﻌْﻤَﺔَ  ﻟَﮏَ ﻭَﺍﻟْﻤُﻠْﮏَ  ﻟَﺎ ﺷَﺮِﻳْﮏَ ﻟَﮏَ

Just as the takbir is continually echoed throughout salah, so too is the talbiyah echoed throughout Hajj. It signifies a transfer from one state to another or one rite to the next just as the takbir in salah is an indication of change from one of its pillars to another.  
     
Subsequently, the sunnah is to repeat the talbiyah (upon entering ihraam) and then to stop as soon as one begins tawaaf. Thereafter, the pilgrim resumes the talbiyah until the standing at ‘Arafah, at which point he stops. When the standing comes to an end, he continues the talbiyah until arriving at Muzdalifah, where he stops. And like this he continues with the rest of his Hajj. The talbiyah is a distinguishing mark of Hajj, which is said when moving between rites. 

“Labbayk  Allahumma  labbayk”

This portion is often translated as ‘O Allah, here I am. Here I am.’ As is normally the case, much of its meanings and connotations are lost in translation.      

The word ‘labbayk’ has many uses and connotes several meanings. They include: 

1. A response. Labbayk is said to someone who calls or invites you. For this reason, its meaning can be translated as ‘I answer your call.’ It is incorrect, linguistically, to respond using this word to someone who did not call you.       

Therefore, the pilgrim says the talbiyah in answer to the call of Allah, “And proclaim to the people the Hajj (pilgrimage); they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass.” [Qur’an 22:27]

The  essence  of  the  talbiyah  transcends  beyond  the  call  of Ḥajj,  “O  you  who  have  believed,  respond  to  Allah  and  to  the Messenger  when  he  calls  you  to  that  which  gives  you  life.  And know  that  Allah  intervenes  between  a  man  and  his  heart  and that to Him you will be gathered.” [Qur’an 8:24]

2.  LoveLabbayk  is  only  said  to  someone  whom  you  love  or admire.  For  this  reason,  its  meaning  can  be  translated  as  ‘I answer  your  call  lovingly.’  Thus,  the  believer  responds  to  the call  lovingly  and  with  excitement  as  opposed  to  burden  and dislike.

3.  NearnessLabbayk  implies  drawing  close.  This  stems  from  the Arabic  construction  ilbab,  which  is  based  on  the  same  root letters  as  the  word  labbayk.  Consequently,  the  talbiyah  denotes an eagerness to ever draw closer to the Lord of the worlds.

4.  The  word  labbayk  connotes  meanings  of  sincerity, perseverance  and  humility.  All  of  these  meanings  stem  from different  Arabic  constructions  based  on  the  same  root  letters. Thus,  this  call  demands  sincerity  from  the  pilgrim  and adherence  to  the  commands  of  Allah  whilst  simultaneously acknowledging  His  majesty  and  recognising  ones shortcomings.

5.  The word  labbayk  is  constructed  in  the  dual  form.  This  implies a  reiteration  or  repetition  of  what  has  preceded  with  regards to  its  meanings.  It  is  like  saying,  “O  Allah!  I  answer  your  call, and  again  I  answer  it…”  In  this  case,  the  dual  form  connotes love  upon  love,  closeness  upon  closeness,  sincerity  upon sincerity… etc.

“Innal-hamda  wan-n’imata  laka wal-mulk”

This  portion  is  often  translated  as  ‘Verily  all  praise  and  bounties  are Yours, and all sovereignty.’ 

Hamd  means  praise.  But  what  does  it  mean  to  praise  someone?  A person  praises  someone  when  he  recognises  good  qualities  in  that being  for  which  he  should  be  praised.  Accordingly,  hamd  is  affirmed for  Allah  in  the  same  light.  The  pilgrim  praises  Allah,  particularly  for honouring  and  being  kind  to  him  by  calling  and  inviting  him  to  His House,  and  facilitating  that,  despite  his  shortcomings―only  so  that  He may forgive him.

Additionally,  the  Arabic  word  hamd  is  not  completely  equivalent  to the  English  word  praise.  Hamd  connotes  love  and  truthfulness  among other  qualities.  Therefore,  if  a  someone  is  praised  for  qualities  he  does not  possess,  or  a  slave  praises  his  master  without  admiration  or believing  in  the  reality  of  that  praise,  it  is  not  ḥamd.  This  is  like  a commoner  praising  a  tyrant  in  the  hope  of  ridding  himself  from  his tyranny. There is no love or admiration, just empty words.

N’imah  means  bounty.  In  this  case,  it  is  the  recognition  that  all favours and bounties are from Allah. It evokes a sense of gratitude. 

Mulk  means  dominion.  It  is  an  affirmation  that  to  Allah  alone belongs  the  kingdom,  and  no  true  sovereignty  belongs  to  anyone  other than  Him.  It  is  the  recognition  that  all  languages,  shapes,  colours…,  all times  (eternal  and  temporal)  and  all  places,  etc.  belong  to  Him  alone. Mulk  does  not  only  incorporate  land  but  it  includes  everything  other than  Allah  ‒  the  entire  creation  in  all  its  forms  and  qualities.  He  is Sovereign  over  it  all.  There  is  no  will  except  that  He  is  over  it sovereign.  There  is  no  means  except  that  He  is  over  it  sovereign  ‒  it  is all  from  His  mulk.  Fire  is  a  means  by  which  something  is  burnt  but Allah  is  sovereign  over  it,  and  that  is  why  the  fire  which  Ibraheem (alayhissalaam) was thrown  into  became  a  means  of  coolness  and  not  heat,  it  became  a means  of  refuge  and  not  pain.  His  rule  is  over  all  beings  and characteristics. 

The  words  hamdn’imah  and  mulk  are  preceded  by  ‘al’  which denotes every kind of praise, bounty and dominion. In  this  phrase,  the  pilgrim  is  simultaneously  affirming  dominion, bounty  and  praise  for  Rabb  al-‘Aalameen.  Combination  of  words  and phrases  are  another  manner  of  exalting  Allah,  and  differs  from mentioning lofty descriptions independently. 

This  phase  combines  dominion,  which  includes  power  and  ability; bounty  which  includes  immense  goodness,  kindness  and  mercy;  and praise  which  comprises  complete  magnificence  and  utmost  generosity, all of which lead to admiring and loving Allah, and appreciating Him. 

This  combination  indicates  to  the  flawless  majesty  that  is  befitting of  Allah  and  which  He  alone  deserves.  When  the  pilgrim  is  mindful  of Allah  in  such  a  manner  and  knows  Him  to  be  this  way,  it  fills  his  heart with  good  thoughts  about  Allah.  Thus,  he  turns  to  Allah  and  does everything  that  would  cause  Allah  to  love  him  and  this,  in  fact,  is  the objective and essence of submission and worship.

“La  sharika  laka”

This portion is often translated as “You have no partner.”

There  is  a  subtle  point  in  repeating  the  testimony  that  Allah  has  no partner.  It  is  said  once  after  answering  His  call  (labbayk),  and  it  is repeated  again  after  saying,  ‘innal-hamda  wan-n’imata  laka  wal-mulk’. The  latter  highlights  that  He  has  no  partner  in  hamdn’imah,  and  mulk, whilst  the  former  indicates  that  He  has  no  partner  as  it  relates  to answering  the  call.  This  echoes  the  statement  of  Jabir (radhiyallahu anhu),  “Then  he (Prophet) began to say the words of tawhid (talbiyah)

The  Prophet  (sallallaahu ‘alayhi  wasallam) said,  “The  best  thing  I  and the  other  Prophets  before  me  have  said  is,  ‘There  is  none  worthy  of worship  except  Allah  alone,  having  no  partner.  To  Him  belong  all dominion and praise, and He is able over all things.” [Tirmidhī]

The talbiyah is an embodiment of these meanings.

Hajjatul Wida’: The Farewell Hajj of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)

[By: Shaykh al Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhlawi (rahimahullah)]

All  the  ‘ulama  are  agreed  on  this  fact  that  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam)  only  performed  Hajj  once after  the  hijrat.  That  was  during  the  10th  year  Hijri,  which  incidentally  was  the  last  year  of  his  life.  On  this Hajj  journey  such  things  were  seen  from  him  as  is  normally  seen  from  someone  who  is  about  to  take  leave. Hence  this  Hajj  has  become  known  as  the  Hajjatul-Wida‘  (the  Farewell  Hajj).  It  was  as  if  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wassallam)  was  bidding  farewell  to  all  his  companions  present  there  with  him  before  his final departure to his Lord. 

When  initially  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  announced  his  intention  to  proceed  for  Hajj , thousands came  forward  with  the  same  intention  of  being  of  those  most  fortunate  ones  to  accompany  him.  And  whoever heard  of  it  expressed  the  desire  to  be  with  him.  A  large  number  of  them  had  gathered  in  Madinah  before  the departure  date.  Many  joined  on  the  way.  Some  awaited  him  in  Makkah  and  some  even  travelled  directly  to Arafaat  to  join  the  vast  host  of the Sahaabah  there.  According  to  Lam’aat  on  Abu  Dawud  their  total  number reached one hundred and twenty-four thousand. 

Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  performed  Zuhr  salaat  in  Madinah  on  the  24th  or  25  or  26  of  Zil-Qadah  and  said  ‘Asr  prayers  at  Zul  Hulaifa.  (According  to  the  historians  it  may  have  been  either  on  Thursday, Friday  or  Saturday.  Those  who  say  the  departure  was  on  a  Friday  seem  to  be  in  the  wrong  because  according to the  most  correct reports, they  performed  Zuhr  four rak’aats before  proceeding. So it  could not  have  been on a  Friday.  In  my  own  humble  opinion  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  and  his  companions  left  Madinah on Saturday the 25th of Zil-Qadah). 

At  Zul  Hulaifa  they  spent  the  night  and  here  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam)  consorted  with  all  his wives who were  present.  For  this reason the  ulama  say  it  is mustahab to have  sexual relations  with one’s  wife, if  she  accompanies  him,  before  putting  on  the  ihraam,  so  that  both  may  remain  chaste  during  the  period  in ihraam which often can be a long time. 

On  the  next  day  about  the  tie  of  Zuhr,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  performed  ghusl  for  the ihraam.  Then  he  donned  the  ihraam  clothes,  preformed  salaah  in  the  mosque  of  Zul Hulaifa  and  made  niyyat for  the  ihraam  of  a  Qaarin.  (The  ‘ulama  say  that  this  ihraam  as  from  the  outset  for  Qiraan).  Here  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  also  gave  the  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhum)  the  choice  of  putting  on  ihraam  for  QiraanTamattu’ or  Ifraad.  Hazrat  Jibra’il (alayhissalaam) came  to  him  at  night  and  said:  “This  valley  of  Aqeeq  is  a  blessed  one.  Perform salaah  here  and  put  on  ihraam  for  Hajj and  Umrah.”  Hence  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  chose  to be a Qaarin

Having  performed  salaah  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam)  came  from  the  mosque,  mounted  his  she-camel  and  loudly  recited  the  Labbaik (i.e Talbiyah). Many  thought  that  he  only  started  his  ihraam  at  this  moment.  This  is not  so  because  it  actually  started  in  the  mosque  and  there  only  those  near  to  him  heard  his  Talbiyah  (Labbaik). Sitting on the camel his voice reached further. 

From  Zul  Hulaifa  they  proceeded  and  climbed  the  mountain  of  Baida  near  Zul  Hulaifa.  As  we  know  it  is mustahab  for  the  Haji  in  ihraam  to  recite  the  Talbiyah  aloud  at  every  high  place,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  again  recited  it.  From  here  the  voice  reached  even  further.  Some  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhum)  were  under  the misunderstanding that the niyyat for ihraam was made here. 

The  procession  went  in  the  direction  of  Makkah.  Hadhrat  Jibra’il (alayhissalaam)  appeared  and  told  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  to  inform  the  companions  that  they  should  recite  the  Talbiyah  loudly.  This  they  did.  When they  reached  the  valley  of  Rowhaa  they  performed  salaah  there  and  he  said  to  them:  “Seventy  Nabis  have performed salaah here.” 

Rasulullah’s (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  luggage  and  Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr  (radhiyallahu anhu)  were  on  the  same  camel  which was  given  into  the  care  of  Hadhrat  Abu Bakr  (radhiyallahu anhu)’s  slave.  When  they  reached  they  valley  of  Araj  they  had  to wait  for  a  long  time  for  the  slave  to  arrive.  After  some  time  of  waiting  he  arrived  and  explained  that  the camel and  goods had been lost. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu)  was overtaken by  anger and beat the  slave. Seeing  this Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam)  smiled  and said:  “Look  at what  this muhrim is doing now.”  (See  what he  does  while  in  ihraam).  When  the  companions  came  to  know  that  Rasulullah’s  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam) goods had been lost, they quickly prepared food and brought it to him. He called Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu):  “Come, Allah has sent good food.

However, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) was still angered and Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhe Wasallam) said:  “O Abu Bakr, let your anger pass.” 

Thereafter  Hadhrat  Sa’d  and  Abu  Qais  (radhiyallahu anhum)  brought  their  camel  laden  with  goods  and  bid  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) to accept theirs but he replied:  “May Allah bless you, with Allah’s grace our camel and goods have been found.” 

At  the  valley  of  Asfaan  near  Makkah.  Hazrat  Suraaqah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  said  to  the  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam):  “O Rasulullah,  teach  us  the  way  to  perform  Hajj  as  if  we  were  born  this  day  (and  knew  nothing).”  The  Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) then told him what to do on entering Makkah. 

At  a  place  called  Sarif,  Aa’isha  (radhiyallahu anha)  started  her  menstruation.  As  a  result  of  this  she  was  greatly  troubled  and disappointed  and  started  weeping.  “Oh,  now  my  whole  journey  has  come  to  naught:  Hajj  is  near  and  I  have become  unclean.”  Rasulullah  (Sallaho  Alaihe  Wassallam)  consoled  her:  “No  Aa’isha,  this  is  indeed something  that  happens  to  every  woman.”  He  then  told  here  what  to  do  in  her  predicament.  Then  he  told those  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhum)  who  had  no  animals  to  slaughter  with  them  to  enter  Makkah,  perform  umrah  and  free themselves from the ihraam

Very  near to Makkah  at  the  valley  of  Azraq,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  said:  “I  see  before  me  now that  moment  when  Hadhrat  Musa (alayhissalaam) passed  this  way  for  Hajj,  fingers  in  the  ears,  loudly  calling  out  the Labbaik.” 

At  the  Zu-Tuwa  which  is  very  near to Makkah  they  spent  the  night.  Then  in  the  morning  he  performed  ghusl once  more  for  entrance  into  Makkah. Thereafter  at  the  time  of  Dhuhaa  on  Sunday  the  4th  of  Zil-Haj  he entered  Makkah.  (Most  historians  are  more  or  less  agreed  on  this  date.  In  my  opinion  Zil Qadah  had  29  days. Having left Madinah on a Saturday they entered Makkah on a Sunday, the 9th day of travel). 

They  went straight to  the  Masjidul  Haraam, kissed  the Hajarul  Aswad  and did tawaaf.  No Tahiyatul  Masjid salaah was performed. 

After  tawaaf  they  performed  two rak’ah  salaah  at  the  Maqaam-e-Ibrahim,  reciting  therein  Surah  Al  Kaafiroon and  Surah  Ikhlaas.  Kissing  the  Hajarul  Aswad  once  more,  they  mounted  the  hill  Safa’  until  they  could  see  the Ka’bah.  Standing  there,  they  prayed  for  a  long  while,  reciting  the  takbeer  and  tahmeed.  They  then  walked between  Safa’  and  Marwah  seven  times.  When  they  came  to  Marwah  in  the  end  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  commanded  those  without hadee (animals  for  slaughter)  to  free  themselves  from  the  ihraam. Then  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  (animals  for  slaughter)  to  free  themselves  from  the  ihraam. Then  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  went  to  his  residence  and  remained  in  Makkah  for  four  more days. 

On  the  morning  of  Zil-Hajj,  the  8th  at  the  time  of  Chasht  salaah  he  left  for  Mina.  All  the  companions  had  now put  on  ihraam  for  Hajj  and  accompanied  him  to  Mina  where  they  performed  five  salaahsSurah  Murslaat  was revealed  on  the  evening  of  this  day.  On  the  next  day  (Friday)  after  sunrise  they  proceeded  to  Arafaat,  where some  companions  had  erected  a  tent  for  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  at  the  Masjid  Nimrah. Rasulullah  (Sallaho  Alaihe  Wassallam)  stayed  in  it  for  a  short  while  and  then  mounted  his  camel  Qaswa  to go in the direction of the valley of Arafaat. There he delivered a long sermon. 
Among  the  things  he  said  were:  “O  people,  perhaps  you  shall  not  see  me  again  after  this.  After  this  we  shall not meet again at this place……..” 

After  the  sermon  Hadhrat  Bilaal  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  commanded  to  call  aloud  the  Adhan  and  they  performed  Zuhr  and ‘Asr  salaah  in  the  time  of  Zuhr.  After  salaah  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  went  onto  the  plain  of Arafaat  on  his  camel  and  from  then  until  maghrib  made  duaa  to  Allah.  During  this  period  Hazrat  Um  Fazl (radhiyallahu anha)  wanted  to  find  out  if  she  was  fasting  or  not.  She  sent  a  cup  of  milk  and  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam) drank it sitting on his camel so that all could see he was not fasting.

During  this  period  also  one  of  the  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  fell  from  his  camel  and  died.  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  commanded  that  he  be  wrapped  in  his  ihraam  clothes  for  burial  and  said  that  on  the  day  of Qiyaamah he shall be raised up still reciting the Talbiyah

During  this  period  a  group  from  Najd  arrived  and  one  of  them  asked  Rasulullah  (Sallaho  Alaihe  Wassallam): “What  is  Hajj?”  The  Rasul  (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam  Alayhi  Wassallam)  commanded  someone  to  proclaim  aloud  that  Hajj means  to  step  over  at  Arafaat  for  a  time,  “Whoever  arrives  here  before  day  break  on  the  10th  of  Zil  Hajj  had performed Hajj. [Abu Dawood] 

Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  prayed  until  the  time  of  Maghrib  for  the  forgiveness  of  his  ummat with  many  tears  with  much  humility.  Allah  promised  to  forgive  all  sins  except  injustice.  Then  he  again begged:  “O  Allah,  thou  can  forgive  that  too;  and  of  Thy  own  accord  can  Thou  right  the  wrongs  done  against the unjustly treated ones; and Thou can forgive unjust.” 

During this period was revealed the verse:  “Today have I perfected you religion for you and have completed my favor for you.” 

When  this  verse  was  revealed,  the  weight  of  revelation  became  so  great  that  the  camel  could  not  bear  it  and had to sit down. 

After  sunset  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  left  Arafaat  before  performing  Maghrib  salaah.  On  this part  of  the  journey  the  camel  moved  at  a  very  fast  pace  as  if  to  show  exceeding  happiness  and  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  had  to  hold  her  back.  Whenever  they  ascended  some  hill,  he  held  the  reins loosely  but  as  soon  as  level  ground  appeared  he  held  the  reins  tight.  At  times  he  held  the  reins  so  tight  that the cake  head was pulled  so much back that it  touched the canopy  over the  saddle.  

Hadhrat  Usaamah  bin  Zaid  (radhiyallahu anhu)  traveled  with  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  on  the  same  camel  on this  part  of  the  journey. Near  Muzdalifah  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  descended  from  his  camel in  order  to  urinate.  Afterwards  Hadhrat  Usaamah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  poured  the  water  for  him  to  perform  wudhu.  Later  it became  fixed  habit  for  Hadhrat  Ibn ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  that  whenever  he  reached  this  place  during  Hajj,  he  descended to  make  wudhu,  pointing  out  that  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  made  wudhu  there.  Having  made wudhu,  Hazrat  Usaamah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  reminded  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  about  Maghrib  salaah  but  he replied: “Let us proceed and say Maghrib prayers at Muzadalifah.” 

When  they  reached  Muzdalifah,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  once  more  performed  wudhu  and said  Maghrib  and  ‘Isha  prayers  together.  After  salaah  he  remained  busy  with  duaa.  According  to  some reports, Allah accepted his plea on behalf of the unjust ones here too.

On  this  same  night  he  sent  the  women,  children  and  the  aged  ones  ahead  to  Mina  because  he  feared  that  they would  find  great  difficulty  in  traveling  with  this  vast  crowd.  With  the  rest  of  the  companions  he  remained  till the  next  morning.  They  said  Fajr  salaah  and  left  Muzdalifah  for  Mina  before  the  sun  rose.  This  time  Hadhrat Usaamah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  had  taken  his  place  among  those  who  walked  and  Hadhrat  Fadhl  bin  Abbaas  (radhiyallahu anhu)  sat  with Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam)  on  the  camel.  Hadhrat  Fadhl  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  still  a  very  young  man.  On route  a  young  girl  came  to  ask  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  a  question  about  Hajj Badal  on  behalf of  her  father.  Hadhrat  Fadhl  (radhiyallahu anhu)  looked  at  the  girl  and  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  with his blessed hand turned his face away from her, so that he should not look at this ‘strange’ woman, and said: 

Today  is such  a  day, that whoever controls his  eyes, his ears and his  tongue  against  sin, shall  be  forgiven.”  Along  the  road  Hadhrat  Fadhl (radhiyallahu anhu)  picked  up  the  stones  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam) required. People  came  to ask  numerous  questions  which  were  answered.  One  person  asked:  “O  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wasallam)  my  mother  has  become  very  old  and  weak.  Even  if  we  should  tie  her  on  the  back  of  a camel,  we  fear  death  will  overtake  her.  Can  I  perform  Hajj  on  her  behalf?”  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied: “if your mother had an outstanding debt, would you carry the burden of settling it?” 

The  man  said:  “Certainly.”  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  then  went  on:  “So  also  should  you  take Hajj.”  Soon  the  procession  passed  Wadi-e-Muhassar.  This  was  the  place  Allah  destroyed  Abraha  and  his forces  who  came  with  a  mighty  and  elephants  to  destroy  the  Ka’bah.  As  they  passed  through  this  valley Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  drove  his  camel  through  it  with  haste,  so  as  to  pass  quickly  through  a place where the wrath of Allah had once descended. 

On  arrival  at  Mina  on  the  morning  of  the  10th  Zil  Haj  they  proceeded  straight  to  the  Jamaratul  Aqaba  and threw  stones  at  it.  The  Talbiyah  that  had  continued  up  to  this  moment  from  the  time  ihraam  was  put  on,  was now stopped. 

Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wasallam)  then  went  to  his  tent  (where  he  was  to  remain  for  the  following  two days)  and  gave  another  lengthy  sermon.  In  it  many  things  were  explained  such  things  were  said  as  is normally said at a time of farewell. 

Thereafter  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  went to the Man’har  where  animals are  slaughtered and for every  year  of  his  63  years  of  life  he  slaughtered  a  camel.  A  total  of  sixty-three  camels.  Of  these  six  or  seven came  forward  of  their  own  accord  as  if  eager  to  be  slaughtered  in  Allah’s  way.  Apart  from  these  Hadhrat  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) slaughtered the rest to complete one hundred camels.

Thereafter  an  announcement  was  made  that  whoever  desired  could  take  pieces  of  meat  to  eat.  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu  Alayhe  Wasallam)  then  commanded  Hadhrat  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu)  to  cut  a  piece  of  meat  from  each  of  the slaughtered  animals  and  boil  it  together  in  one  pot.  This  was  done  and  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  ate  from  this  gravy.  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wasallam)  also  slaughtered  a  cow  on  behalf  of the woman of his household. 

After  this  Hadhrat  Ma’mar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  or  Hadhrat  Kharash  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  called  to  cut  the  hair  of  Rasulullah.  The  head was  shaved,  nails  trimmed  and  the  hair  and  nails  distributed  among  the  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhuma)  It  is  said  that  the  hair of  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  which  are  still  in  the  possession  of  some  people  to  this  day  were received  here  at  Mina.  Having  cut  his  hair  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  took  off  his  ihraam clothes, applied scent to himself and put on his usual clothes.

Many people  came to ask  questions on Hajj. On this day  four  things are  to be done  viz. Throwing  stones at the Jamaratul  Uqba, Qurbani, cutting  of hair and tawaaf.  These  are  to be performed in the prescribed order. Some Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhuma)  made  mistakes  in  not  maintaining  the  correct  order.  They  came  to  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  and explained. And to almost all  of them he said that not  having  stuck to the  correct order was no sin. “Sin is to attack the honor and respect of a Muslim.” 

At  the  time  of  Zuhr  Salaah Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  left  with  his  procession  for  Makkah  to perform  Tawaafuz-Ziyaarah.  He  performed  Zuhr  salaah  in  Makkah  after  tawaaf  and  then  returned  to  Mina. He  also  visited  the  Bi’r-Zam-Zam  and  drank  to  his  fill  with  Zam-Zam.  According  to  some  reports  he  drew  the water himself and according to other reports he is said not to have drawn himself and to have said: 

Had  I  not feared that people will overcome  you in conquest,  I  would have  drawn water  myself to drink.”  

What  actually  could  have  taken  place  is  that  water  was  drawn  many  times.  At  some  time  when  he  was  alone Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  drew  it  up  by  himself  and  at  another  time  when  there  was  a  huge crowd  around,  he  had  it  drawn  for  him,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  drank  the  Zam-Zam  while standing. 

Then Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  performed saee’  between Safa’ and Marwah. Some reports deny  it: the Hanafi  accept it. Returning  to  Mina  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  remained  there  for  days  and  threw  stones  at  the Jamaraat  daily  after  Zawaal.  Some  reports  also  say  that  he  went  for  tawaaf  to  the  Baitullah  every  night.  Many sermons were delivered at Mina. Once again there appeared these kind of farewell words:  “Perhaps I shall not again meet you here in future.” 

Surah  Nasr  (Iza  Jaa’a  Nasrulllahi)  was  revealed.  Some  reports  say  it  was  already  revealed  in  Madinah  before this  time.  After  this  revelation  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  used  to  say  that  in  this  chapter  he  was given  news  of  his  coming  death,  which  was  near  at  hand.  On  the  Tuesday  13th  of  Zil  Hajj  after  having  thrown the  last  Jamaraat  they  left  Mina  for  Makkah.  Outside  Makkah  at  Mahaab  (also  called  Bathaa  or  Khaif  Bani Kinana)  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)’s  slave  Hadhrat  Abu  Raafi’  (radhiyallahu anhu)  had  erected  a  tent  and  here Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  stopped  to  spend  the  night.  Here  he  performed  Zuhr‘AsrMaghrib and  ‘Isha  salaahs.  Then  he  rested  for  a  while.  This  place  was  the  one  where  in  the  6th  year  of  Islam  the Infidels  of  Makkah  had  made  an  agreement  among  themselves  to  boycott  the  Muslims  and  Banu  Haashim and  to  have  no  dealings  with  them  whatsoever.  No  buying,  selling,  marriage,  meeting  etc.  until  such  a  time that  Banu  Haashim,  the  family  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam),  delivered  him  into  their  hands  to deal  with  him  as  they  saw  fit.  Their  intention  was  to  kill  him.  At  this  spot  that  agreement  was  written  and signed.  It  is  a  well-known  story  and  all  know  what  the  outcome  was.  Now  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam) was sitting at the same place as the conqueror. 

After  resting  for  a  while  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  led  his  companions  for  the  farewell  tawaaf. On  this  evening  too  he  sent  Hadhrat  Aa’isha  (radhiyallahu anha)  with  her  brother  Hadhrat  Abdur  Rahmaan  (radhiyallahu anhu)  for  an  umrah to  Tan’eem.  When  they  had  performed  that  and  returned  to  Muhasaab,  the  command  was  given  for  the  return to  Madinah.  

On  another  point  the  ulama  are  not  agreed.  Did  Rasululllah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  enter  the  Ka’bah  on this Hajj or not. We  know  definitely  that he  did  enter  but some  ulama  say  it  was at the  time of  the Conquest of Makkah.  Some  ulama  say  that  before  leaving  for  Madinah,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  performed Fajr  salaah in  Makkah,  wherein  he  recited  Surah  Toor  and  then  left  Makkah  on  the  morning  of  Wednesday 14th  Zil-Hajj  in  the  year  10  Hijri.  On  the  18th  Zil  Hajj  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  stopped  at Ghadeer-Khum,  near  Juhfa  and  there  ascended  a  lofty  place  to  deliver  a  sermon.  In  this  sermon  he  also extolled  the  virtues  of  Hadhrat  Sayyidina  ‘Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu).  This  is  the  moment  which  the  Raafidhis  (the  Shias)  have mistakenly  called “Eid” of  Ghadeer (We will be posting about this topic Next week. In Sha Allah). Hadhrat Sayyidina  ‘Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu)  used  to say:   “With  regard  (to  their  relationship)  to  me  two  groups  had  gone  astray  viz.  Those  who  exceed  all  bounds  in their love for me and those whose excessive hatred exceeded all bounds.”  [See: Tarikh al Khulafa as reported by Haakim; reference here is to the Shias and Kharijites]. 

The  procession  spent  the  night  at  Zul  Hulaifa.  After  performing  Fajr  salaah  they  entered  Madinah from  Maaras while reading  this duaa:   “We return, seeking repentance and worshipping Allah while we indeed praise our Lord.” 

In  the  year  1342  Hijri,  I  wrote  a  booklet  on  the  Hajjatul  Widaa.  (The  farewell  Hajj)  in  Arabic  wherein  I complied  all  the  different  reports  into  one  complete  continuous  report  of  the  Hajj  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam).  Therein  I  also  noted  the  source  of  each  incident,  discussed  the  fiqh  aspects  and  noted  the original  source  of  every  Hadith.  It  is  from  that  book  that  I  have  copied  this  portion  concerning  the  Hajjatul Wida’. [This book has now been printed both in Arabic and in Urdu-Translator] 

After  Hajj,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  lived  for  two  more  months  before  he  passed  away.  Hadhrat Abi Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) became the first Khalifa.  During  his  first  year  of  Khilaafat,  he  himself  did  not  go  for  Hajj  but  appointed  Hadhrat  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  the  leader of  pilgrims  (Ameerul-Hajj)  to  Makkah.  The  following  year  he  led  the  Muslims  himself  for  Hajj.  When  Hadhrat Abu  Bakr  (radhiyallahu anhu)  passed  away  he  was  followed  by  Hadhrat  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  the  second  Khalifah,  who  in  the  first year  sent  Hadhrat  ‘Abdur  Rahman  bin  ‘Awf  (radhiyallahu anhi)  himself  led  the  Hajis.  In  fact  during  the  last  year  of  his Khilaafat  he  went  out  of  his  way  to  take  the  women  folk  from  the  household  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  for  Hajj.  When  Hadhrat  ‘Uthman  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  chosen  as  the  third  Khalifah, he  also  did  not  go  for  Hajj  in the  first  year  i.e.  24  Hijri  and  appointed  Hadhrat  ‘Abdur  Rahman  bin ‘Awf  (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  Ameerul  Hajj.  Then  from  25 A.H.  to  34  A.H.  he  led  them  himself.  When  he  was  imprisoned  in  his  house,  Hadhrat  ‘Abdullah  bin  ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) was appointed Ameerul-Hajj.  Although  Hadhrat  Sayyidina  ‘Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu)  performed  Hajj  on  numerous  occasions  before  his  Khilaafat,  he  was  never able  to  perform  Hajj  afterwards  as  a  result  of  his  pre-occupation  with  wars,  e.g.  Battle  of  Jamal,  Battle  of Siffeen etc. 

Response to the Moronic claim that the Black Stone is an Idol & Pilgrimage a Pagan Rite

[By: Abdus-Samad Sharafuddin]

Let us examine closely the square-structured Ka’bah (The Holy House) at Makkah, in Arabia, wherein in its Eastern corner lies the Black Stone set up chest-high. Every pilgrim in Makkah tries to kiss and caress it fondly, the first thing upon arrival there.

This action marks the start of the act of Tawaaf. The word “Tawaaf” is an arabic infinitive noun which means to circle, compass or move around something.

A pilgrim has to circle the Ka’bah seven times, to complete Tawaaf. Each one of the seven rounds begins by kissing or caressing if possible, or by simply pointing at the Black Stone. The Black Stone thus, serves to mark the start of each round. Tawaaf is one of the integral parts of Pilgrimage (Hajj), which is also performed, as a separate act of worship at any time. Thus we find the Ka’bah continually being circled by people day and night.

THE REAL IMPORTANCE OF TAWAAF

Circumumbulating the Ka’bah and kissing the stone are in fact considered the Tawaaf’s outer aspects, apart from its inner significance. They resemble something like the standing, bowing, prostrating and sitting postures observed in the daily Islamic prayers. Yet, the prayer postures, as well as the circling around the Ka’bah coupled with kissing, both form the outward shell of the chaff, which preserves the grain. The grain of the Tawaaf lies in the lofty meanings of the Pilgrim’s recitation and prayers, in the soul-stirring emotions surging in his heart – such as his extreme love for Allah Ta’ala, his awe of Him, and his high hopes in Him. Examine, for instance, the words brimful of God’s oneness, which the pilgrim utters. It is his regular formula, at the start of each round of the Tawaf, as he kisses, caresses, or points at the Black Stone, declaring: “(I begin) in the Name of Allah who is Most Great. O Allah! (I perform) believing in thee, confirming Thy Book, fulfilling Thy Pledge, and following the Way of Thy Prophet, Muhammad – Blessing and peace upon him!”

As such, the Tawaaf around the Ka’bah is done solely in the Name of the One Supreme Allah, and that it is never done in the name of any other deity, nor for the Black Stone itself, as others allege. The operation of Tawaaf is in compliance with the Holy promise the pilgrim has committed with His Lord. He does it as a believer in the One God, not as an idolater, but as a conformer of Allah’s revealed Books, and as a follower of His Prophet [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam (i.e Peace be upon him)]. Far from worshipping the Stone, the Pilgrim is kissing it, or pointing at it, just as was done by the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) in his time.

GLORIFYING THE ONE GOD

Find out, how the pilgrim goes on glorifying Allah the most High, while performing the rounds, with these noble hymns:

“Glory be to Allah! All Praise be to Allah! There is no deity save God. Allah is Most Great! There is no handling, nor power, save by Allah’s Help.”

A Monotheist (One-God worshipper) holds these sublime prayers far more valuable than the earth’s entire riches. With these, he praises his One and Only Lord, as he circles a spot made Holy by the presence of His House. Is there any remotest trace of Polytheism (multi-god worship) or Idolatry in such an act??

A SELECT PRAYER

As he has left all his worldly affairs behind, the pilgrim, besides praising Allah, also goes on praying for his worldly betterment, in between. Here is his all-embracing prayer to Allah, the Benevolent:

“O Allah! make me content with my appointed lot, and bless me therein. And make good to me all, my losses and needs.”

THE TWO-WORLD PRAYER

Unlike unbelievers, the pilgrim has a living faith in the coming, eternal hereafter. He does not fail here, therefore, to say the best possible prayer man could ever ask. It is from the Qur’an itself, and combines both the good of this world and the world to come in his supplication as follows:

” O Lord! Bestow upon us the good in this world and the good in the hereafter. And save us from the torment of the fire” [Holy Qur’an 12:201].

COULD A STONE BE GOD??

Although so reverently kissed and caressed during the Tawaaf, the Black stone, in one of the corners of the Ka’bah, is no graven image for the pilgrims to worship. That is the last thing any One-God worshipper could ever imagine.

For a stone is just a mere stone after all. It has no power whatsoever to do good or inflict harm to any one, apart from Allah, the Sole Deity of mankind. That is a thing cherished either knowingly, ignorantly or figuratively – by those who take to stone-worship instead of God-worship, a belief and practice as unholy as it is senseless. This is why the Black Stone becomes a mystery to such people, and so, some out of ignorance openly charge that Prophet Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam (Peace be upon him)] did break every Idol in Islam except one – meaning the Ka’bah, or the Black Stone. Why, even unwitting Muslims get easily confused about the Black Stone. It was hence that  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu amhu) the second Caliph, did well to remove this hidden doubt from the mind. So when he came to kiss the Stone, he cried out publicly to it:

Narrated ‘Abis bin Rabi’a: ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) came near the Black Stone and kissed it and said, “No doubt, I know that you are a stone and can either harm anyone nor benefit anyone. Had I not seen Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) kissing you, I would not have kissed you. [Summarized Sahih Al-Bukhari, Al-Hajj, page 396 No. 808 on the Black Stone]

TRUE STORY OF THE BLACK STONE

More than five thousand years ago today, the father of the prophets, Prophet Ibraheem (Biblical Abraham) [alayhissalaam (i.e Peace be upon him)] the Upright (Haneef), had built the present structure of the Ka’bah under Allah’s own orders. He [Alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)] had built it along with his youthful son, Isma’eel (Ishmael) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)], forefather of the Arabs. This is how the Qur’an describes their building it together:

And (remember) when Ibraheem (Abraham) and (his son) Isma’eel (Ishmael) were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka’bah) at Makkah, (saying), ‘Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily! You are the All-Hearer, all Knower.’”  [Qur’an 2:127].

The father and the son, true Monotheists (Muslims), were thus raising the foundations with trembling hearts, for the Muslims are Allah’s most devoted servants, ever fearful of his displeasure. While building the Ka’bah, therefore, both of them were afraid that Allah may not accept their humble service, hence that prayer of theirs. How touching of such fidelity, how moving of such humility towards Allah the Creator and King of the Universe!, It is the essence of Monotheism, the ideal pattern of Faith and Actions, great and small for all Muslims to follow. When raised to a certain height, Ibraheem [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)] ordered his son to choose a piece of stone to mark the main corner-point. Even as the lad was searching for it, the Archangel Gabriel (Jibraeel Alayhissalaam) appeared with the Black Stone from Heaven. Prophet Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam (Peace be upon him)] said:

The Black stone descended from heaven, when it was whiter than Milk, but people’s sins have blackened it“. [Tirmidhi, Kitab Al-Hajj, the Black stone]

Ibraheem [Abraham (alayhissalaam) (Peace be upon him)] took it up and fitted it in, and there it stands up to this day. It is a heavenly stone, then, and not an earthly one. It was selected by Allah for His Holy House (the Ka’bah).

TEACHING THE PILGRIMAGE RITES

The building thus finished, this is how Ibraheem and Isma’eel [alayhimussalaam (i.e Peace be upon them)] went on further praying to Allah, in the next Verse;

Our Lord! And make us submissive unto you and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik (all the ceremonies of Pilgrimage – Hajj and Umrah etc.) and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.” [ Qur’an 2:128].

Thereupon Allah taught them through revelation the pilgrimage rites, which includes the Tawaaf.

IS KISSING THE BLACK STONE ESSENTIAL?

We have known the working procedure of the Tawaaf, it consists of circling around the Ka’bah seven times. Each circle begins by kissing the Black Stone, or by caressing it, which is its normal procedure. But Tawaaf is not a one-man business, hundreds, even thousands, are circling the Ka’bah at one and the same time. How could each person kiss the Black Stone separately?? Naturally, when so over-crowded, the kissing will have to be dispensed with by some or many of them. At such times it is quite enough therefore, to face the Black Stone from any distance, and only point at it by one’s right hand, at the start of each round. The pilgrim then recites his formula and proceeds on.

HISTORY UNFOLDS A RARE ASPECT

Assuming that the Black Stone is missing for one reason or another, does it render the Tawaaf and Pilgrimage invalid and void on such account?? Absolutely not. This is exactly what has already happened in the history of Islam.

The Karamathians (Arabic: al-Qaramitah), the most un-islamic sect in Islam, had removed the Black Stone during their mad merry-making in the year 317 AH/980 AD. They carried it away with them to their territory in Al-Ahsa (in the Arabian Gulf). After keeping it there for twenty years, they had returned it back to Makkah in the year 339 AH [see shorter Encyclopedia Leiden 1953, P. 219].

In such an event, the Shari’ah (Law) maintains that the pilgrim shall perform his Tawaaf without the Black stone. Instead of the Black Stone, the pilgrim shall touch its place at the corner of the Ka’bah, or point at its spot, and continue his Tawaaf. Thus the total absence of the Stone itself makes no difference in the validity of the Tawaaf and the Pilgrimage. This shows how tiny a part is being played by this stone. How ignorant of others and how childish, therefore, sounds the charge of Islam-haters that it is the “most Precious Idol preserved by Islam“!

DOES KISSING THE BLACK STONE MEAN WORSHIPPING IT??

Kissing a stone is not a sign of its worship at all. Kissing the Black Stone cannot be twisted into an idol worship, for the stone is no image, just as mere kissing is not worshipping by a mere imagination. Anyone might allege that Muslims do worship a certain ‘idol’. But the fact remains that they do not worship anything save God, the One. The idol and its worship simply do not exist.

The Bible is kissed in law-courts; does that mean then that it is worshipped?? Moreover, parents kiss their children lovingly, without any trace of worship in it at all.

A big question-mark that should come to one’s mind are the pre-Islamic Arab idolaters who had held the Ka’bah. With all their polytheism and idolatry, they too used to circle the Ka’bah and kiss the Black Stone. Had their kissing been an act of idol-worship, why then was there still a need for them-despite the presence of the “almighty” Black Stone-to install three hundred and sixty idols therein??

This proves beyond a shadow of doubt that it is one thing to kiss the Black Stone under Divine Orders, and quite another to worship a stone or an idol. Most notable, perhaps, is the fact that One-God worshippers do nothing beyond simply kissing the Black Stone. They neither venerate it with folded hands, nor kneel down, nor prostrate themselves, nor squat before it. For all these is done only by idol-worshippers before their idols.

IS THE PILGRIMAGE A PAGAN RITE??

Some non-Muslims out of hatred or other ill-intended motives, think or are made to believe that the Pilgrimage to Ka’bah is purely a pagan rite or one form of idol-worship. That it was being practiced by the Arab idolaters before Islam, and that Islam borrowed it from them. This assumption is further aided by the fact that the Ka’bah itself had been a temple housing no less than three hundred and sixty idols. Nevertheless, this is a pure conjecture belying facts and figures. For it was not the idolaters of Makkah, but Prophet Ibraheem [Abraham (Peace be upon him)], who had initiated and established the holy Pilgrimage thereof, ages ago.

On the contrary, it was these very idolaters, the degenerate descendants of Ibraheem (Abraham) and Isma’eel (Ishmael) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon them)], who had defiled Allah’s Holy Ka’bah into a huge pantheon. It was these rank idolaters who had injected pagan rites into the purely Islamic Pilgrimage laid down by Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)], one of the greatest worshippers of God. [we had posted an article related to this: How Idols found place in the Ka’aba during Pre-Islamic Era??]

All honour is due to prophet Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam (Peace be upon him)], the seal of the Prophets and the last of Ibraheem (Abraham’s) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)] line of Prophethood, who first swept clean the Holy Ka’bah from its heathen idols. It was he again who restored the original pilgrimage to its pristine purity.

The Muslims, are in fact the true followers of the Religion of prophet Ibraheem (Abraham) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)], the ancestral grand-father of Prophet Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam (Peace be upon him)], where pilgrimage to Makkah is a notable heritage as well as an important fixture of the religion. How different could these facts be from the Non-muslims’ random conjecture?

BUILDING THE HOUSE AND PROCLAIMING THE HAJJ

This is how Allah declared to Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)] regarding his Sacred House after showing him the site thereof:

And Remember when We showed Ibraheem (Abraham) the site of the Holy House (the Ka’bah) at Makkah saying : Associate not anything in worship with Me, [La Ilaha ill-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah – Islamic Monotheism], and sanctify My House for those who circumambulate it, and those who stand up for prayer, and those who bow and submit themselves with humility and obedience to Allah), and make prostration in prayer.” [Qur’an 22:26].

Ibraheem (Abraham) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)] is being himself ordained in this verse to keep perfectly away from idolatry. He is being told, as well, to sanctify the House of God from all kinds of impurities, especially from that of idol-worship.

Then follows the two-fold purpose for which that House was being built. First, is its being the center of Tawaaf for those who compass it round, and its being the prayer-place for those who pray therein their daily Prayersm Second, this is as much as to say that the Tawaaf and the Pilgrimage do depend upon the house of God, as much as do the prayers.

For this reason all those who pray all the world over do turn in the one direction of the Ka’bah at Makkah. After being ordained to build and sanctify God’s Ka’bah, 0rophet Ibraheem [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)] receives in the next verse the command to proclaim the Pilgrimage to the Ka’bah, in this manner:

And proclaim to mankind the Hajj. They will come to you on foot and on every lean camel, they will come from every deep and distant wide mountain highway to perform Hajj.” [Qur’an 22:27].

That definitely proves that it was Ibraheem (alayhissalaam) who built the Ka’bah, and that it was also he who proclaimed the Pilgrimage, facts that should equally refute the oft-repeated allegation put forth that pilgrimage was some pagan rite invented by the heathen idolaters, and retained by Islam.

HIGHLIGHT OF PILGRIMAGE

Initiated by Ibraheem (Abraham) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)], and reflected by the Seal of the Prophets (sallallaahu alayhi wasallan), Pilgrimage to the House of God is a unique experience to every true Muslim.

For a “Muslim” is essentially the one who shifts from the false to the true Religion – from disbelief to Belief in True God, and from multi-god to One-God worship. This trait made Abraham (Peace be upon him) a “Perfect” Muslim when he entered the Pantheon at Babylon, and smashed the idols therein to pieces. Allah entrusted him with building His House at Makkah, and tasked him to proclaim the Pilgrimage to it.

Henceforth, Pilgrimage to the House of God becomes the most predominant trait of being a Muslim. A haven of absolute freedom, and a sanctuary of perfect peace and security, this Holy Mosque is the only spot on Earth set up by Allah for one and all the people alike, without any distinction. It is the House of God wherein all men are equal, none being entitled to own it exclusively. This is told in these words of Allah:

“…and from Al-Masjid-al-Haram at Makkah which We have made open to all men, the dweller in it and the visitor from the country…. ”  [Qur’an 22:25]

The message of this Surah 22, verses 26-27 named “The Pilgrimage” itself, is describing the construction of the Ka’bah and its sanctification, it being the focal point of Tawaaf as well as the center of Prayers. Thus, the incumbency of Pilgrimage to this “first house of One-God worship”, etc. Verses 28-37, do contain the basic elements of the Monotheistic religion of Prophet Ibraheen (Abraham)  [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)], wherein one of the main objectives emphasized is the need to celebrate the Name of Allah Alone over the animal-whether ordinarily slaughtered, or offered as sacrifices to Allah, as against those offered to the idolaters’ idols, as evidenced particularly by verses 28, 30, 34, 36 and 37. “Avoiding the abomination of idols”, and “neglecting the word that is false” (telling and witnessing falsehood), these two cardinal sins, have been specially prohibited in Verse 30. But the crowning message of unparalleled importance is the commandment: “Hunafa’ Lillah (i.e. to worship none but Allah), not associating partners (in worship, etc.) unto Him…”, which is the soul and the heart of Monotheism (one-God worship), and the annihilator of all Polytheism (multi-god worship).

This last, but not the least message, is the essence of Pilgrimage, as also the top-most concern and happiness of every Muslim. The Makkan idolaters too, used to perform the Pilgrimage, calling themselves thereby as “Haneefs” (followers of Ibraheem alayhissalaam). And therefore, Muslims are being told to perform the Pilgrimage, and call themselves as “Haneefs” but with this difference: “Being true in faith to Allah, and never assigning partners to Him”.

Thus the sublime Truths, the essence of the creed: “There is no deity save God”, seem to be beyond the comprehension of idol-worshippers, all over the world, and in all ages.

THE FIVE-TIME PRAYERS

This performance of the Pilgrimage — a colossal feat of Monotheism, is closely knit around the Ka’bah and its surrounding environment. It occurs only once a year, but far more important and surpassing is the performance of prayers in Islam, which are equally connected with the Ka’bah.

Prayers are an obligatory duty upon every Muslim. This is why every Muslim anywhere around the world turns towards Allah, facing in the direction of the Ka’bah five times daily. Of course, the Ka’bah is for outward direction to face in one’s prayers, though inwardly, one faces his entire heart, to the Lord of the Worlds Himself. In this manner, Muslims are so intimately related to the Ka’bah through their Pilgrimage and Prayers, till the last moment of their lives. Not only this, but every Muslim is made to face the direction of the Ka’bah when breathing his last. Nay, even after death he is buried in his last resting place, i.e. in the grave, so that he faces the same direction of the Ka’bah.

PRAYERS AND SACRIFICE

Both the Pilgrimage and the Prayers are equally connected with the Ka’bah. And offering an animal and the Prayers are major Hajj ceremonies, where both the Prayer and sacrifice are special tokens of the single worship of Allah, with both being jointly dedicated to Him. It is a most sublime dedication the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was asked to offer in the following words:

Say [O Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him)]: ‘Verily, my Salaat (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists), He has no partner, And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.)” [Qur’an 162-163].

And this forms the only straight path, that is the religion of our father Ibraheem (Abraham) [Alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)], which is referred to in the preceding verse:

Say [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] “Truly, my Lord has guided me to a Straight path, a right religion, the religion of Ibrahim (Abraham). [Qur’an 6:161].

INTERNATIONAL GATHERING

On the whole, the Hajj is a unique annual gathering of its own kind. Herein, true Muslims from all over the world come together on the basis of one-God worship, that is pure Monotheism and true Islam. Forgetting their mutual differences of caste, color and social status, they assemble in this international city of Makkah to glorify the One Lord of all creation. Incidentally, they get a rare opportunity here to discuss together all sorts of communal, religious, economic, social and political problems on an all-world scale, after which no better or more beneficial gathering could be imagined. Such a high, all-embracing congregation has been held every year in the House of Allah for thousands of years now. All these manifold benefits are hinted at in the words:

……That they may witness things that are of benefit to them..” [Qur’an 22:28].

Pilgrimage, therefore, is never a pagan rite, but rather the fulfillment of an incumbent duty concerning One-God worship!

INVITATION TO NON-MUSLIMS

This is the legacy left behind by prophet Abraham (Ibraheem alayhissalaam Peace be upon him) for all posterity to accept and follow, and no people of any country or nation, are an exception to that posterity.

Instead of regarding the Pilgrimage duty as a pagan rite, people ought to reflect upon their own age-old idolatry, and accept and follow the religion of our father Ibraheem  (Abraham) [alayhissalaam (Peace be upon him)]. The hour has come for these very people to proclaim of their own accord: “There is no other god Worthy of worship except Allah!” 

May they perform the Pilgrimage to the House of God at Makkah! And may they offer their Prayers regularly facing towards that same House! Aameen…

Hajj Encyclopedia

INTRODUCTION

There  are  many  books,  elaborate  as  well  as  concise,  on  the  subject of  Hajj,  Masha-Allah!  Some  of  these  books  are  in  great  detail covering  all  questions  and  aspects  pertaining  to  Hajj.  However, some  friends  have  requested  for  a  book  of  average  degree  on  the subject  of  Hajj  –  a  book  which  is  neither  too  detailed  nor  too  brief –  so  that  the  masa-il  could  be  easily  learnt  and  remembered.  Thus, this  booklet  is  the  consequence  of  this  request  and  wish  of  friends. While  it  has  been  endeavoured  to  refrain  from  excessive  detail which  makes  remembering  difficult,  the  brevity  of  the  booklet  is not  such  which  excludes  even  the  details  which  occur  in abundance.  May  Allah  Ta’ala  in  His  Infinite  Grace  and  Kindness accept  this  humble  effort  and  may  He  confirm  it  a  benefit  for  the Ummah,  Ameen  thumma  Ameen.
MOHAMMED MASIHULLAH KHAN

FADHA-IL OF HAJJ

Before  proceeding  with  the  masa-il  (rules)  of  Hajj,  it  is  best  to narrate  some  of  the  fadha-il  (excellences  and  virtues)  of  Hajj. Knowledge  of  the  virtues  will  develop  in  one  the  understanding  of the  value  and  importance  of  Hajj,  creating  enthusiasm  and eagerness  which  in  turn  will  result  in  proper  fulfilment  of  the  laws, etiquette  and  requirements  of  Hajj. Allah  Ta’ala  says  in  the  Qur’aan  Shareef:

Hajj  of  the  Bait  is  obligatory  on  the  people  for  the  sake  of  only Allah on those who have the means towards it.”

This  gracious  ayat  mentions  two  things,  viz.,

1)  “for  the  sake  of  Allah”,  i.e.  ikhlas  or  sincerity.

2) Means and ability to perform the Hajj.

These  two  requirements  will,  Insha’Allah,  be  explained  further  on in  the  discussion  on  the  relevant  hadith.  Another  ayat  of  the  Qur’an Shareef says:

Thus,  for  the  one  who  has  resolved  to  make  Hajj  during  it  (the days  of  Hajj),  there  shall  be  no  lewd  talk,  no  transgression  and  no quarreling  in  Hajj.

Three  acts  are  prohibited  by  this  gracious  ayat.  These  are:

1)  Lewd  talk  which  consists  of  two  types.  One  kind  of  lewd talk  is  prohibited  at  all  times.  The  evil  and  prohibition  of such  haraam  talk  are  emphasised  during  Hajj.  The  second kind  of  lewd  talk  refers  to  sex  talk  with  one’s  wife.  Such lewd  talk  which  is  permissible  with  one’s  wife  at  other times  is  also  prohibited  during  Hajj.

2)  Transgression  which  also  consists  of  two  kinds.  One  type consists  of  all  such  sin  which  is  forbidden  at  all  times. Regarding  such  sin,  the  prohibition  is  of  a  greater  degree during  Hajj.  The  second  kind  of  transgression  refers  to  such acts  which  are  prohibited  on  the  special  occasion  of  Hajj, e.g.  the  application  of  perfume,  cutting  hair,  etc.  During Hajj  such  acts  previously  permissible,  become  prohibited.

3)  Quarrelling  in  general  is  evil.  However,  its  prohibition  is emphasised to a far greater degree during Hajj.

These  prohibitions  will  be  explained  further  in  the  discussion  of the  relevant  ahaadith.  The  greatest  attention  has  to  be  paid  to  these prohibitions.

Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  said  that  the  one  who performs  Hajj  with  sincerity  and  refrains  from  lewd  talk  and  sin, returns  home  purified  of  all  sin–  as  pure  as  he  was  the  day  he  was born.  In  this  hadith  three  things  regarding  Hajj  are  spoken  of.  The performer  of  Hajj  who  upholds  these  three  things  is  given  the  best of  glad  tidings.  According  to  this  hadith,  there  are  three  conditions for  the  attainment  of  the  great  bounty  spoken  of.  The  Haaji  who fulfils  these  three  requirements  will  be  the  recipient  of  the wonderful  bounty  mentioned  in  the  hadith.  He  emerges  totally purified  from  all  sin  –  major  and  minor.

The  first  and  foremost  condition  stated  in  the  hadith  shareef  is sincerity  of  intention,  i.e.  the  Hajj  has  to  be  for  the  sake  of  only Allah  Ta’ala.  The  Hajj  should  not  be  contaminated  by  the  slightest vestige  of  worldly  motive.  The  sincerity  of  intention  should  not  be despoiled  by  any  mundane  motives,  e.g.  trade,  touring,  pleasure, name,  pride,  show,  etc.

The  performer  of  Hajj  should  first  examine  thoroughly  his  heart for  any  ulterior  motives  which  usually  are  present  to  some  degree. The  hadith  Shareef  has  forewarned  us  of  the  danger  of  a contaminated  niyyat  (intention).  In  this  regard  Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

Near  to  Qiyamat,  the  wealthy  in  my  Ummah  will  undertake Hajj  for  the  sake  of  touring  and  pleasure;  the  middle  class  in  my Ummah  will  undertake  Hajj  for  the  sake  of  trade;  the  Ulama  will undertake  Hajj  for  the  sake  of  riya  (show)  and  the  poor  will undertake Hajj for the sake of begging.”

Those  who  go  on  Hajj-e-Badl  and  accept  payment  other  than the  expenses  the  Hajj  entails,  come  within  the  scope  of  those  who perform  Hajj  for  the  sake  of  trade.

Bearing  in  mind  the  aforementioned  hadith,  the  one  who intends  to  go  for  Hajj  should  cleanse  his  heart  from  all  vestiges  of ulterior  and  worldly  motives.  He  should  resolve  in  his  heart  to serve  only  Allah  Ta’ala  and  to  strive  for  the  attainment  of  His Pleasure  only.  He  should  strive  to  the  fullest  limit  of  his  ability  to inculcate  sincerity  of  niyyat  and  fix  his  gaze  on  Allah  Ta’ala.  In this  pursuit  he  should  ignore  all  diversions.  He  should  not  bother or  be  diverted  by  waswas  (shaitani  thoughts)  and  auham (suspicions).

The  second  condition  stated  in  the  hadith  shareef  is  abstention from  lewd  talk  even  if  it  be  such  talk  which  is  permissible  on  other occasions.  When  even  permissible  sex  talk  becomes  forbidden  on the  occasion  of  Hajj,  lewd  talk  which  is  normally  forbidden becomes  prohibited  in  greater  degree  of  emphasis  during  Hajj. Sexual  relationship,  sexual  talk,  sexual  acts  and  signs  are prohibited  even  with  one’s  wife  during  Hajj.  Such  lewd  talk  excites passion  which  impedes  the  process  of  spiritual  elevation  of  Hajj  by diverting one into nafsaniyat (lowly desires of the carnal self).

The  third  condition  appearing  in  the  hadith  shareef  is  abstention from  sin.  This  refers  to  two  kinds  of  sin,  viz.,  such  acts  which  are sinful  at  all  times  as  well  as  such  acts  which  have  become  sinful  on account  of  the  special  occasion  of  Hajj.  Sins  which  are  forbidden at  all  times  becomes  prohibited  to  a  greater  degree  because  of  Hajj, e.g.  abuse,  insult,  quarrelling,  fighting,  etc.  Even  adoption  of  an argumentive  attitude  without  actually  arguing  is  also  evil  during Hajj.  On  the  contrary,  the  adoption  of  virtue,  kind  disposition, tenderness  in  approach  and  speech  as  well  as  every  such  attitude and  act  which  dispel  hatred,  fear  and  anxiety  are  praiseworthy  and should be inculcated. Thus it appears in the hadith shareef:

The  beauty  of  Hajj  is  to  talk  tenderly  and  to  feed  (others according to one’s means).”

It  is  therefore  of  utmost  importance  to  maintain  one’s  control and  not  to  become  inflamed  by  any  act  or  statement  of  one’s companions,  which  may  be  displeasing  to  one.  Curb  anger  and exercise  great  patience.  Never  criticize  anyone  nor  scandal  or slander  about  any  person  even  if  his  behaviour  and  attitude  are unfriendly  to  you.  Treat  all  with  kindness,  tenderness  and  dignity. Be  humble  and  understanding.  To  harm  others  and  to  create inconveniences  for  them  are  haraam  at  all  times.  But,  during  Hajj these  prohibitions  are  graver.  A  virtuous  disposition  demands patience.  Bear  with  patience  the  difficulties  others  strew  in  your path  and  do  not  entertain  malice  and  avarice.  Restrain  your  tongue and  never  allow  a  harsh  word  to  slip  by.  In  short,  guard  your  baatin (heart  and  soul)  as  well  as  your  zaahir  (external  limbs).  Uphold meticulously  all  the  external  rules  and  etiquettes  of  Hajj  and  seek forgiveness  for  sins  committed  in  the  past.  During  Hajj  while consciously  and  actively  guarding  against  all  error  and  sin,  seek forgiveness constantly.

By  discharging  Hajj  in  this  careful  and  conscious  way,  one emerges  purified  from  all  sins.  Such  a  purified  person  being  a jannati  is  quite  evident.  This  is  stated  in  clear  terms  in  another hadith:

The reward of a Hajj filled with virtue is nothing but Jannat.”

Hajj  filled  with  virtue  is  a  Hajj  devoid  of  sin  and transgression;  a  Hajj  in  which  all  conditions,  rules,  prohibitions and  etiquettes  were  fully  observed;  a  Hajj  in  which  the  performer was fully imbued with humility.

Honour  and  shame  do  not  permit  the  sincere  performer  of  Hajj to  confront  anyone  with  bitterness  and  harshness.  He  is  not  so brazen  as  to  behave  in  an  uncultured  manner.  Tenderness  in speech,  salaam  in  abundance  feeding  and  caring  for  others  within one’s  means  are  imperative  requirements  for  a  virtuous  Hajj. Among  the  virtues  of  Hajj,  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) said:

He  who  dies  during  Hajj  will  be  fully  absolved.  There  will  be neither  reckoning  nor  punishment  for  him.”

The  performer  of  Hajj  and  Umrah  is  the  guest  of  Allah.  His dua is accepted. If he seeks forgiveness, it is granted.”

When  you  meet  one  who  has  performed  Hajj,  make  salaam  to him  and  musaafahah  (shake  hands).  Request  him  to  make  dua  of maghfirat  on  your  behalf  before  you  even  enter  his  house  because he  is  a  forgiven  person.”

Some  ahadith  pertaining  to  the  virtues  of  Baitullah  and  related matters  will  be  narrated  here  so  that  the  importance  of  Hajj  settles in  the  heart,  thereby  generating  enthusiasm  and  yearning  for  Hajj.

*  Gazing  at  the  Baitullah  is  also  ibadat  as  well  as  a  means  of protection  against  nifaq  (hypocrisy).

*  Those  who  make  tawaaf  of  the  Baitullah  are  like  those  who make tawaaf of the Arsh of Allah Ta’ala.

From  the  hadith  which  mentions  this,  we  can  gauge  the immense  importance  and  excellence  of  tawaaf.  Those  who  make tawaaf  of  Baitullah  have  been  compared  with  those  Malaaikah who  are  making  tawaaf  of  the  Arsh.

*  He  who  performs  two  raka’ts  Salaat  at  the  Baitullah,  emerges from  sin  as  pure  as  he  was  on  the  day  he  was  born.

*  He who enters  the  Baitullah  attains  safety  from  punishment.
*  He  who  sits  for  while  in  the  Baitullah  intending  thereby  to obtain  thawab  with  ikhlas  and  Iman,  or  gives  charity  while  in  the Baitullah,  is  forgiven  all  his  sins.  On  the  Day  of  Qiyamah  he  will rise  without  fear.

*  He  who  kisses  Hajrul  Aswad  is  purified  of  sin  and  becomes pure  like  the  day  he  was  born.

Hajrul  Aswad  is  like  the  Hand  of  Allah  Ta’ala  on  earth.  By means  of  it  Allah  makes  musaafahah  (shakes  hands)  with whomever  He  pleases.

*  All  sins  of  the  one  who  performs  two  raka’ts  at  Maqame Ibraheem  are  forgiven.

*  He who  performs  two  raka’ts  below  Mizabe  Rahmat  is  purified of  all  sin  and  emerges  as  pure  as  he  was  the  day  he  was  born.

*  The  place  between  Maqame  Ibraheem  and  Multazam  is  most loved  (by  Allah  Ta’ala.  Therefore,  the  one  who  is  present  there  will also  be  most  loved).  Every  virtuous  act  rendered  in  Makkah Mukarramah  is  multiplied  a  hundred  thousand  times.

*  On  the  Day  of  QiyamatHajrul  Aswad  and  Maqame  Ibraheem will  each  appear  as  Jabal  Abi  Qais.  Each  one  will  have  two  eyes, two  tongues  and  a  pair  of  lips.  Both  will  bear  evidence  on  behalf of  those  who  had  met  them.

By  this  is  meant  that  those  who  had  visited  them  at  Makkah Mukarramah  will  be  blessed  with  the  fortune  of  their  intercession which  will  be  made  for  forgiveness  and  salvation.

*  According  to  Hadhrat  Bin  Umar  (radhiyallahu  anhu),  Hajrul Aswad  and  Maqame  Ibraheem  are  two  yaqoot  (precious  stones) from  Jannat.  If  Allah  Ta’ala  had  not  removed  their  celestial  glitter (noor),  the  entire  universe  would  have  been  lit  up  with  their  glow.

*  On  the  surface  of  the  earth  is  no  city  besides  Makkah Mukarramah  in  which  there  is  the  drink  of  the  Abraar  and  the place  of  worship  of  the  Akhyaar.  (The  Abraar  and  Akhyaar  are  two classes  of  Auliya,  the  identities  of  whom  are  concealed).

When  Hadhrat  Abdullah  Bin  Abbas (radhiyallahu  anhu)  was asked  about  this,  he  said  that  the  musalla  of  the  Akhyar  is  below Mizabe  Rahmat  and  the  drink  of  the  Abraar  is  the  water  of  Zam Zam.

*  To look  inside  the  Well  of  Zam  Zam  is  also  an  act  of  ibaadat.

*  About  Jabal  Abu  Qais,  the  hadith  says  that  the  first  mountain  to be  created  on  earth  was  this  mountain.  Its  excellence  and  rank  are thus  well-established.  In  the  same  way,  the  lands  of  Makkah Mukarramah  enjoy  priority  and  superiority  over  all  other  lands since these lands of Makkah Mukarramah were created first.

From  the  aforementioned  ahadith  of  Nabi-e-Kareem  (sallallahu alayhi  wasallam)  the  excellence,  importance  and  loftiness  of  the ibaadat  of  Hajj  is  borne  out  well.  From  these  ahadith  we  can  gather how  great  and  wonderful  the  thawaab  for  this  ibaadat  of  Hajj  is. Those  who  present  excuses  to  escape  performance  of  Hajj  are  most unfortunate.  Those  who  evade  the  performance  of  Hajj  inspite  of  it being  fardh  on  them,  by  tendering  a  variety  of  excuses  and schemes,  are  indeed  depriving  themselves  from  wonderful  and tremendous  bounties.  They  suffer  great  deprivation  and  they  are severely  condemned  by  the  hadith  shareef.

WARNINGS FOR ABSTENTION FROM HAJJ

The  Hadith  Shareef  declares  that  a  person  who  inspite  of  having the  means  of  performing  Hajj  and  inspite  of  there  being  nothing  to prevent  him  from  so  doing,  but  refrains  from  Hajj,  may  die  a  Jew or a Christian. May Allah Ta’ala protect us from such a calamity.

A hadith  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  states  that  a person  who  abstains  from  Hajj  on  account  of  a  worldly  purpose will  see  the  Hujjaj  returning  before  he  has  realized  his  aim.  This means  that  either  his  motive  will  remain  unfulfilled  or  its realization  will  be  abnormally  delayed.  Postponing  Hajj  because  of some  worldly  occupation  or  expediency  is  a  deception  of  shaitaan and an excuse which is not valid.

The  hadith  also  says  that  the  man  who  refrains  from  performing Hajj  because  of  the  love  for  wealth,  will  squander  his  wealth  in vile  activities  of  sin  which  countenance  the  displeasure  of  Allah Ta’ala.  The  miscreant  should  therefore  reflect  and  realize  that  by abstaining  from  hajj,  wealth  is  not  protected  or  saved,  but  will necessarily  be  squandered  in  avenues  of  sin  and  in  return  the punishment  of  Allah  Ta’ala  will  be  purchased.  One  will  remain deprived  of  the  wonderful  bounties  of  Allah  Ta’ala  by  such destructive  and  thoughtless  disobedience.

FADHA’IL OF MAKKAH

On  the  occasion  of  Rasulullah’s  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) departure  from  Makkah  Mukarramah  on  the  Hijrat  (Migration) journey,  he  stood  at  Kharoorah  and  exclaimed:

By  Allah!  O  Makkah!  I  know  well  that  I  love  you  more  than other  cities  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  Most  certainly,  you  are  the  best  land on  the  surface  of  the  earth  and  Allah  Ta’ala  loves  you  more  than the  entire  surface  of  the  earth.  If  the  mushrikeen  did  not  expel  me, never would I have departed.”

According  to  the  hadith,  the  spread  of  the  ground  commenced from  Makkah  Mukarramah.  Out  of  the  ground  of  Makkah Mukarramah  was  created  the  whole  earth.  It  is  for  this  reason  that Makkah  Mukarramah  is  known  as  Ummul  Qura  (the  mother  of towns). 

The  first  beings  who  made  tawaaf  of  the  Ka’bah  were  those Malaikah  (Angels)  whom  Allah  Ta’ala  created  2,000  years  before Nabi Adam (alayhis salaam).

Any  Angel  whom  Allah  Ta’ala  despatches  to  execute  some function  or  duty  on  earth,  sets  off  on  his  journey  from  under  the Arsh of Allah Ta’ala where he dons ihram.

His  first  stop  is  the  Ka’bah  Shareef  where  he  performs  seven tawaaf.  He  then  performs  two  raka’ts  Salaat  at  Maqame  Ibraheem. Only  thereafter  does  he  depart  to  execute  whatever  duty  has  been imposed on him.

Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  said  that  besides Makkah  Mukarramah  there  is  no  other  place  on  the  surface  of  the earth  where rahmats  (mercies)  descend  daily.  Of  these,  60 mercies  enshroud  those  who  make  tawaaf  of  Baitullah;  40  mercies descend  upon  those  who  are  engaged  in  Salaat  and  20  mercies  are for  those  who  gaze  at  Baitullah  Shareef.

The  hadith  shareef  also  says  that  a  day’s  residence  in  the  sacred city  is  superior  to  a  lifetime’s  stay  elsewhere  and  nobler  than  a lifetime  of  fasting  and  of  greater  hope  in  obtaining  the  Rahmat  of Allah Ta’ala. Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  said  that  on  the  surface of  the  earth,  Makkah  Mukarramah  is  the  only  city  for  which  all  the Ambiya,  Mursaleen,  Malaikah  and  pious  among  man  and  jinn yearned.  The  one  who  enters  Makkah  Mukarramah  and  Madinah Tayyibah  is  purified  from  all  forms  of  impurities  in  the  same  way as  a  furnace  eliminates  impurities  from  steel.  In  one  hadith Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

On  the  Day  of  Qiyamah  there  will  be  no  city  from  which  there will  rise  such  vast  numbers  of  Ambiya,  Asfiya,  Atqiya,  Abdal, Siddiqeen,  Shuhada,  Saliheen,  Ulama,  Fuqaha,  Hukama,  Zuhhad, Abideen,  Hujjaj    Durwaish  and  pious  men  and  women  as  will  rise from  Makkah  Mukarramah.  They  will  rise  on  the  Day  of  Qiyamah from the earth of Makkah in total safety and without any fear.”

In another hadith, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

Besides  Makkah  Muazzamah  there  is  no  city  on  the  surface  of the  earth  where  Allah  Ta’ala  multiplies  one  virtue  by  100,000 times.”

The  following  statements  of  Nabi-e-Kareem  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam)  have  been  narrated  in  regard  to  the  manifold multiplication of thawaab.

*  He who says once Subhan Allah  in  Makkah,  will  obtain  from Allah  Ta’ala  the  thawaab  of Subhan Allah  said 100,000 times elsewhere.

*  A Qur’an  completed  in  Makkah  is  equal  in  thawab  to  a  100,000 Qur’ans  recited  elsewhere.

*  He who  performs  in  Makkah  Mukarramah  one  Salaat  will  have recorded  in  his  Record  of  Deeds  100,000  SalaatsSalaat  performed in  jamat  in  Makkah  Mukarramah  is  equal  to  2,500,000  Salaats.

*  Allah  Ta’ala  bestows  the  thawab  of  100,000  fasts  upon  the  one who  fasts  a  single  day  in  Makkah.

*  He  who  gives  in  charity  one  dirham  here  (in  Makkah)  will obtain  the  thawaab  of  having  given  100,000  dirhams.

*  A  person  who  performs  a  single  virtuous  act  in  Makkah Mukarramah  obtains  from  Allah  Ta’ala  the  thawaab  of  the  amount of virtuous deeds which he can render in 60 years.

Regarding  residence  in  the  sacred  city,  Rasulullah  (sallallahu alayhi  wasallam)  said:

*  Living  in  Makkah  Mukarramah  is  a  great  blessing.  Migrating from  Makkah  (without  valid  reason)  is  a  great  misfortune.  Remain there  and  be  not  frustrated  because  such  is  the  attitude  of  shaitaan, the  accursed.

*  Residing  in  Makkah  Mukarramah  and  earning  only  two  halaal dirhams  for  one’s  livelihood  are  superior  to  earning  2,000  (halaal) dirhams  elsewhere.

*  Allah  Ta’ala  will  keep  at  a  distance  of  500  years  journey  the person  who  bore  the  heat  of  Makkah  Mukarramah  patiently  for even  a  single  day.  Allah  will  grant  him  His  Proximity.

*  Allah  will  decree  the  fire  of  Jahannum  prohibited  for  the  person who  was  ill  in  Makkah  for  even  a  single  day.

*  Allah  will  resurrect  on  the  Day  of  Qiyamah  in  peace  and  safety the  one  who  died  in  Makkah.  There  will  be  neither  reckoning  nor punishment  for  him.  In  peace  and  safety  will  he  enter  Jannat  and  I (i.e.  Rasulullah  –  sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  will  be  his intercessor.

*  There  will  be  no  fear  on  the  one  who  dies  while  on  Umrah  or Hajj.  No  reckoning  will  be  asked  of  him.  It  will  be  said  to  him: Enter  into  Jannat  in  peace  along  with  those  who  have  been  granted peace.

*  On  the  surface  of  the  earth  there  is  no  city  other  than  Makkah Mukarramah  for  which  the  Doors  of  Jannat  remain  always  open. Jannat  has  eight  portals  and  all  remain  open  for  Makkah Mukarramah.  One  of  these  Doors  opens  from  under  Mizabe Rahmat;  one  Door  opens  from  nearby  Rukne  Yamani;  the  third Door  opens  from  near  Rukne  Aswad;  the  fourth  from  near Maqame  Ibraheem;  the  fifth  from  near  Multazam;  the  sixth  from near Zam Zam and the seventh from above Mount Safa.

From  these  ahadith  the  lofty  and  honourable  status  of  Makkah Mukarramah  will  be  well  understood.  From  the  lofty  rank  of  the sacred  city  may  be  inferred  the  status  of  honour  of  the  inhabitants of  Makkah  Mukarramah.  In  regard  to  the  status  of  the  residents  of Makkah  Mukarramah,  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) said:

Hark! The inhabitants of Makkah are the family of Allah.”

On  the  Day  of  Qiyamah,  Allah  will  resurrect  the  inhabitants  of Makkah in peace and safety.”

In  view  of  the  high  rank  of  the  inhabitants  of  Makkah Mukarramah  explained  by  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam), it  is  incumbent  that  respect,  love,  honour  and  aid  be  offered  to them.

About  the  Holy  City,  Rasulullah  also  said  that  on  the  entire surface  of  the  earth  there  is  no  city  besides  Makkah  in  which  there is  an  object  which  purifies  one  from  sins  by  touching  it.  It  purifies one  so  thoroughly  of  sin  that  one  becomes  as  pure  as  one  was  on the  day  one  was  born.  That  object  is  Hajrul  Aswad  (the  Black Stone).

THE TYPES OF HAJJ

There  are  three  ways  in  which  Hajj  can  be  performed.  They  are: IFRAAD,  QIRAAN,  TAMATTU‘.

IFRAAD

This  form  of  Hajj  consists  of  entering  the  state  of  ihram  for  only Hajj.  In  IfraadHajj  is  performed  without  Umrah.

QIRAAN HAJJ

This  form  of  Hajj  consists  of  both  Umrah  and  Hajj.  A  single  ihram is  adopted  for  both  Umrah  and  Hajj.  Both  are  rendered  together.

TAMATTU

This  form  of  Hajj  also  consists  of  Umrah  and  Hajj.  However,  two different  ihrams  are  adopted  –  one  for  Umrah  and  one  for  Hajj. Umrah  is  performed  first  –  the  whole  Umrah  or  the  greater  part  of the  tawaaf  of  Umrah  during  the  Hajj  period.  After  this  the  ihram  is removed. 

If  the  performer  of  Hajj  did  not  bring  along  hadi (sacrificial  animal)  and  then  again  entering  the  state  of  ihram  for Hajj.

If  the  performer  of  Hajj  has  brought  along  hadi,  then  ihram  will not be removed after having performed the Umrah. The  Umrah  and  Hajj  of  the  Tamattu‘  kind  is  performed  in  a single  journey,  i.e.  after  the  Umrah  of  Tamattu‘  the  Haajji  will  not return home, but will wait until after Hajj has been executed.
According  to  the  Hanafi  Math-hab,  Qiraan  is  the  best  form  of Hajj  followed  by  Tamattu‘  then  by  Ifraad.

THE WAY OF MAKING HAJJ

When  you  have  decided  to  go  on  Hajj  then  in  all  sincerity  make taubah  (repent  for  your  sins)  and  seek  Allah’s  forgiveness. Discharge  all  huqooq  (rights)  of  others  and  pay  all  debts.  Obtain the  pardon  of  those  whom  you  have  wronged  and  also  obtain  the consent  of  your  parents.  If  for  some  reason  they  are  displeased with  you,  ensure  that  you  make  them  happy  and  pleased  with yourself.  Do  not  allow  takabbur  (pride)  and  riya  (show)  to  despoil your  intention.  Your  intention  in  making  Hajj  must  not  be  for  the obtainal  of  the  title  of  haajji.  Your  niyyat  must  be  to  only  please Allah  Ta’ala  and  not  pursuit  of  any  worldly  or  nafsani  design.  The expenses  for  your  Hajj  journey  must  be  from  only  halal  earnings because  Allah  Ta’ala  does  not  accept  a  Hajj  performed  with haraam  wealth.  Discharge  all  ibadat  obligations  for  which  you  are liable,  e.g.  Qadha  Salaat  and  Qadha  Saum  (fasting).

Perform  two  raka’ts  Salaat  with  the  intention  of  making  taubah. It  is  preferable  to  first  take  ghusl,  then  make  the  Salaatut  Taubah of  two  raka’ts.  After  the  two  raka’ts  recite  Durood  Shareef  and Istighfar

While  shedding  tears,  seek  the  forgiveness  of  Allah Ta’ala. When  setting  out  on  the  journey,  recite  the  following  dua:

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O  Allah!  We  seek  Your  protection  from  the  hardships  of  the journey,  from  a  sorrowful  return  and  evil  affliction  in  wealth, family and children.

When  mounting  the  vehicle  of  transport, recite:

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Glory  unto  Him  Who  has  made  subservient  for  us  this  vehicle.  It was  not  within  our  power  to  subdue  it.  Verily,  unto  our  Rabb  will we most certainly return.

When  reaching  any  place,  town  or  city,  recite:

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O Allah!  We  ask  you  for  the  good  of  this  town  and  the  goodness  of its  inhabitants  and  of  the  goodness  of  what  is  in  it.  We  seek  Your protection  from  the  evil  of  this  town,  of  its  inhabitants  and  of  what is in it.

When  seated  in  the  ship  or  plane,  recite:

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In  The  Name  of  Allah  is  its  motion  and  its  halting.  Verily,  my Rabb is Most Forgiving and Merciful.

When  stopping  over  at  some  place,  recite:

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I  seek  protection  by  means  of  the  perfect  words  of  Allah  from  the evil of everything He created.

Upon  arrival  at  the  Meeqat  have  a  hair-cut  and  remove  the  hairs from  under  the  arm-pits  and  from  below  the  navel.  At  this  stage sexual relationship with one’s wife is still permissible.

When  you  are  ready  to  enter  into  the  state  of  ihram,  take  ghusl (bath)  with  the  niyyat  of  ihram.  If  you  are  unable  to  take  ghusl, wudhu  will  suffice.  The  purpose  of  this  ghusl  is  purely  for  the purpose  of  cleanliness,  hence,  even  women  in  the  state  of  haidh and  nifas  as  well  as  children  should  take  ghusl  on  this  occasion. Tayammum will not suffice for this purpose on this occasion.

After  this  ghusl  do  not  wear  any  sewn  clothing.  Your  garments henceforth  in  the  state  of  ihram  will  be  two  sheets  of  unsewn  cloth. Wrap  one  sheet  around  the  lower  part  of  the  body  and  cast  the other  sheet  over  the  upper  half  of  the  body.  If  two  cloths  are  not available,  one  will  also  suffice.  It  is  mustahab  for  the  cloths  to  be white  and  new.  If  not  new  then  at  least  washed.  If  the  sheet  is  sewn in  the  middle,  it  will  be  valid  for  wearing  as  Ihram.  However,  it  is best  that  there  be  no  stitching  in  the  cloths.  Apply  perfume  to  the body  and  to  the  clothes.  Males  should  use  perfume  that  leaves  no colour  on  the  clothes  while  the  perfume  of  women  should  be without  fragrance,  but  with  colour.  The  perfume  should  not  be such  a  solid  substance  which  retains  its  solidity  even  after application.

Thereafter  perform  two  raka’ts.  Be  careful  that  it  is  not  a makrooh  time.  If  the  niyyat  for  ihram  is  made  even  after  Fardh Salaat,  it  will  be  valid.  In  the  first  raka’t  of  the  Ihram  Salaat,  recite Surah  Kafiroon  and  in  the  second  raka’t  recite  Qulhuwallaahu Ahad  (Surah  Ikhlas).  This  Salaat  is  performed  with  the  head covered  and  without  idhtiba.  (Meaning  of  idhtiba  appears  in  the glossary).  After  the  Salaam,  sit  facing  the  Qiblah  and  uncover  the head.

Now  in  your  heart  make  the  niyyat  of  ihram.  It  is  permissible  to make  the  niyyat  while  standing  as  well  as  while  seated  in  a vehicle.  Niyyat  or  intention  is  actually  a  condition  of  the  heart.  It  is not  compulsory  to  utter  words  for  the  niyyat.  However,  one  can also  recite  the  niyyat  verbally.  The  following  is  the  niyyat.

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O  Allah!  I  intend  to  make  Hajj.  Make  it  easy  for  me  and  accept  it from me.

After  having  made  the  niyyat,  recite  the  Talbiyah  as  follows:

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It  is  wajib  (compulsory)  to  recite  the  Talbiyah  once  and  Mustahab to  recite  it  thrice.  Men  should  recite  the  Talbiyah  audibly  while women  have  to  recite  it  silently.  Once  the  Talbiyah  has  been recited, one has entered into the state of ihram.

Henceforth  during  the  state  of  ihram,  recite  the  Talbiyah  in abundance,  especially  when  conditions,  occasions  and circumstances  change,  e.g.  while  mounting  a  vehicle,  while dismounting,  while  climbing  on  an  ascent,  while  descending,  in the  morning,  in  the  evening,  at  night,  when  the  eyes  open  from sleep, when meeting anyone, after every Salaat, etc.

During  the  state  of  ihram  particular  attention  should  be  paid  to the  prohibitions,  wajibat  (compulsory  acts)  and  mustahabbat (preferable  and  meritorious  acts)  of  ihram.  Besides  these,  there  are no other specific acts of ibadat until entry into the Haram.

For  those  approaching  from  Jiddah,  the  Haram  commences  at  a distance  of  10  miles  from  Makkah  Mukarramah.  At  this  distance two  white  pillars  mark  the  beginning  or  the  boundary  of  the Haram.  When  about  to  enter  the  precincts  of  the  Haram,  get  off from  the  vehicle  and  walk  bare-footed  into  the  Haram  as  far  as  you are  able  to.  Nowadays  entry  into  the  Haram  as  well  as  the  journey to  Makkah  Mukarramah  is  generally  by  means  of  motor  transport. The  vehicle-drivers  do  not  halt  at  all  places.  The  hujjaj  should therefore  not  be  perturbed  if  the  vehicle  in  which  they  are travelling  does  not  stop.  Furthermore,  the  vehicle  does  not  enter  by way  of  Baabul-Mualla.  It  is  therefore  best  to  make  ghusl,  etc.,  in Jiddah because of the difficulty along the route.

Enter  the  Haram  with  the  greatest  of  humility  and  reverence, reciting  TalbiyahThikr  and  Tahleel  in  abundance.  Before  entering Makkah  Mukarramah,  take  ghusl.  Enter  Makkah  Mukarramah  by the  way  of  the  Qabrustan  (cemetery)  via  Babul  Mualla  and  recite:

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O  Allah!  Grant  for  me  therein  an  abode  and  grant  me  therein  a halaal Rizq.”

Between  Musjidul  Haram  and  Makkah  Mukarramah  is  a  place called  Mad’a  where  dua  should  be  made.  Upon  entering  Makkah Mukarramah,  it  is  Mustahab  to  make  dua  at  Mad’a.  Thereafter,  if arrangements  have  already  been  made  about  your  luggage,  proceed directly  to  Musjidul  Haram.  If  such  arrangements  have  not  yet been  made  then  first  attend  to  your  luggage.  Enter  Musjidul  Haram by  the  entrance  known  as  Babus  Salam.  Enter  with  your  right  foot first  and  with  great  humility.  Recite  the  Talbiyah  as  you  enter  and the  following  dua:

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O Allah! Open for me the Doors of Your mercy.

As  your  gaze  falls  on  the  Baitullah  Shareef,  recite:

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Thereafter  make  the  following  Masnoon  dua:

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While  reciting  Talbiyah  approach  Hajr-e-Aswad  and  now perform  Tawaaf.  This  Tawaaf  is  called  Tawaaf  Qudoom  which consists  of  seven  shauts  or  circumambulations.  After  completing the  seven  rounds  (shauts)  of  the  Tawaaf,  kiss  Hajr-e-Aswad  (The Black Stone). Tawaaf Qudoom is now complete.

After  Tawaaf  Qudoom,  while  reciting  the  ayat

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proceed  to  Maqam-e-Ibraheem  which  is  in  the  eastern  side  of  the Baitullah  on  the  edge  of  the  MataafMataaf  is  that  area  where  the Tawaaf  is  made.  Perform  two  raka’ts  Salaat  in  such  a  way  that Maqame  Ibraheem  comes  in  between  you  and  the  Baitullah Shareef.  Recite  Surah  Kaafiroon  in  the  first  raka’t  after  Surah Faatihah.  In  the  second  raka’t  recite  Surah  Ikhlas  (Qulhuwallahu) after  Surah  Fatihah.  If  place  is  not  available  here  then  perform  the two  raka’ts  inside  Baitullah  Shareef  or  in  the  Hateem  or  wherever place is available. This Salaat is the Salaat of the Tawaaf.

After  the  Salaat  of  the  Tawaaf  go  to  the  Multazam  and  embrace it.  In  embracing  it,  place  at  times  the  right  cheek  on  it  and  at  times the  left  cheek.  Raise  both  hands  and  make  dua  with  great  fervour and feeling.

Now  go  to  the  Well  of  Zam  Zam.  Facing  the  Qiblah  drink  as much  of  its  water  as  you  are  able  to.  Drink  the  water  in  three draughts.  Also  pour  of  its  water  over  your  body  and  recite  the following  dua:

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Sa-ee  is  best  (afdhal)  after  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  for  those  who  are performing  only  Hajj.  However,  if  you  intend  to  perform  Sa-ee now,  then  after  having  drunk  of  the  water  of  Zam  Zam,  make Istilam  of  Hajr-e-Aswad.  Thereafter  emerge  from  Babus  Safa. Come  out  with  the  left  foot  first  and  recite  the  following  dua:

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When  you  are  near  to  Safa  recite  the  following:

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Climb  onto  Safa  only  so  high  that  you  are  able  to  see  the  Baitullah Shareef  through  Baab us  Safa.  Do  not  climb  higher.  Now  face  the Qiblah  and  raise  both  hands  until  the  shoulders  in  the  way  in which  hands  are  raised  while  making  dua.  Then  recite  the following  dua  silently  thrice:

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Recite  Durood  Shareef,  then  the  following  dua:

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You  are  not  restricted  to  these  duas.  You  may  make  any  dua  you wish.  If  you  have  not  memorized  the  above  dua,  ask  any  dua  in your  own  language.  Dua  is  in  actual fact  to  petition  and  ask  of Allah  Ta’ala.  Therefore,  do  so  from  the  bottom  of  your  heart  and ask  whatever  you  desire.  Every  now  and  again  recite  the  Talbiyah. Remain  here  engaged  in  dua  for  quite  a  long  time.  The  duration  of your  dua  at  this  place  should  be  about  the  time  it  will  take  to  recite twenty five ayat.

After  having  made  the  dua,  descend  from  Safa.  Walk  at  your normal  pace  and  engage  in  thikr  and  dua.  In  this  way  walk  towards Marwah.  Recite  the  following  dua  between  Safa  and  Marwah:

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O my Rabb!  Forgive  me  and  have  mercy.  You  are  the  Most Majestic, the Most Gracious.

Besides  this  dua,  make  any  dua  of  your  heart’s  desire.  Dua  is readily  accepted  on  this  occasion.  When  you  are  about  3  metres from  Sabz  Meel  (The  Green  Mile)  which  is  located  at  the  corner  of the  Musjid,  start  running  at  a  medium  pace.  After  passing  the  two Sabz  Meel  known  as  Meelain  Akhzarain,  walk  again  normally until you reach Marwah. Only men should run here.

On  the  first  or  second  step  of  Marwah  turn  slightly  towards  the right  and  stand  facing  the  direction  of  Baitullah.  Remain  standing so  for  a  while  and  engage  in  thikr  and  dua  in  a  similar  manner  as you  did  on  Safa.  This  too  is  an  occasion  on  which  dua  is  accepted readily.

The distance from Safa to Marwah is called one shaut or circuit.

On  the  way  back  from  Marwah  to  Safa,  again  run  a  bit  between Meelain  Akhzarain  (the  two  Sabz  Meel).  When  climbing  on  Safa again  make  dua  and  thikr  as  you  did  in  the  beginning.  The  second shaut  or  circuit  is  now  complete.  Complete  seven  shauts  (circuits) in  this  way.  The  seventh  circuit  will  end  on  Marwah.  In  every shaut  recite  tasbeehdua  and  any  form  of  thikr  you  are  aware  of. These  seven  circuits  consist  of  the  Sa-ee.  After  having  completed the  Sa-ee  go  to  the  edge  of  the  Mataaf  and  perform  two  raka’ts Nafl  Salaat.

The  Mufrid,  i.e.  the  one  who  is  making  only  Hajj  without Umrah,  has  to  remain  in  Makkah  Mukarramah  in  the  state  of  ihram after  he  has  made  Tawaaf  Qudoom  and  Sa-ee.  He  should  in  this period  engage  in  as  much  Nafl  Tawaaf  as  possible  and  abstain from the prohibitions of Ihram.

On the 7th Zil-Hajj, listen to the Imaam’s Khutbah.

On  the  8th  Zil-Hajj  after  sunrise,  leave  for  Mina  so  that  you may  perform  Zuhr  Salaat  there  in  the  Mustahab  time.  The  night will  be  spent  in  Mina.  Five  Salaat,  viz.,  Zuhr,  Asr,  Maghrib,  Isha and Fajr will be performed in Mina.

On  the  9th  Zil-Hajj  after  it  has  become  light,  depart  for  Arafat by  the  route  of  Mount  Dhabb.  Recite  Talbiyah  and  Takbeer  along the  way.  Mount  Dhabb  adjoins  Musjid  Khaif  in  Mina.  When  your gaze  falls  on  Jabal  Rahmat  in  Arafat,  make  dua  and  recite  Takbeer, Tasbeeh,  Tahleel  and  Istighfar.  Halt  at  Musjid  Namrah  which  is  at the  edge  of  Arafat  on  the  side  of  Makkah  Mukarramah.  Have  your meals  and  make  ghusl  before  zawal.  Now  go  and  sit  in  Musjid Namrah  and  listen  to  the  Khutbah  of  the  ImaamZuhr  and  Asr Salaat  will  be  combined  here.  These  two  Salaat  will  be  performed together during the time of Zuhr.

The  following  are  the  conditions  for  the  validity  of  performing these  two  Salaat  together.

1)  The  two  Salaat  have  to  be  performed  in  or  near  Arafat.

2)  It  must  be  the  9th  Zil-Hajj.

3)  The  Sultan  or  his  representative  has  to  be  present.

4)  lhram  of  Hajj  in  both  Salats.
5)  Zuhr  Salat  has  to  be  performed  before  the  Asr  Salat.
6)  Both  Salat  have  to  be  performed  in  jama’t

This  condition  will be fulfilled even if part of both Salat is obtained in jama’t. If  any  of  the  above  conditions  is  lacking,  it  will  not  be permissible  to  perform  these  two  Salat  together.  If  any  of  the conditions  is  not  fulfilled,  each  of  the  two  Salat  will  compulsorily be  performed  in  its  time.  Combination  of  the  two  Salat  will  then not be permissible.

After  having  completed  these  Salat  proceed  immediately  to your  place  in  Arafat.  If  it  is  possible  to  find  place  near  to  Jabal Rahmat  (where  the  ground  is  covered  with  black  stones)  then  stay over  there.  This  was  the  place  where  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam)  halted.  This  place  is  called  Musjid  Sakhrah.  A  low surrounding  wall  still  indicates  the  position.  If  place  is  not available  here,  stay  wherever  place  is  available.  The  nearer  to  Jabal Rahmat  the  better.  Do  not  climb  on  top  of  Jabal  Rahmat.  It  is  best to  stand  facing  the  Qiblah  in  your  mauqaf  (the  place  where  you have halted). It is permissible to also sit and lay down.

When  the  Imam  recites  the  Khutbah  listen  with  great  attention and  humility.  While  in  your  mauqaf  engage  in  dua  until  the evening.  Do  not  involve  yourself  in  futility,  amusement, nonsensical  talk,  etc.  Every  now  and  again  recite  the  Talbiyah, repent and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala in abundance.

Although  it  is  permissible  for  the  hujjaj  to  fast  on  the  day  of Arafat,  it  is  afdhal  (best)  not  to  fast.  At  the  same  time  do  not indulge in excessive eating and drinking.

At  sunset,  reciting  ‘Labbaik‘  and  making  dua,  set  off  with  the Imam  for  Muzdalifah  along  the  route  which  leads  between  the  two mountains.  Walk  peacefully  and  with  dignity  and  humility.  It  is not  permissible  to  depart  from  Arafat  before  sunset.  Leaving before  sunset  will  make  obligatory  the  Shar’i  penalty  known  as dum  (an  animal  to  be  sacrificed).  However,  if  one  returns  to  Arafat before  sunset  (i.e.  after  having  left  before  sunset),  the  penalty  falls away.  If  the  road  is  spacious,  walk  briskly  and  if  crowded,  walk slowly without inconveniencing anyone.

On  reaching  Muzdalifah,  make  ghusl  or  wudhu.  It  is  afdhal (best)  to  stop  over  near  to  Musjid-e-  Mash’are  Haraam  on  the  right hand  side  of  the  road.  Do  not  stop  in  the  road.  Besides  Wadi Muhassar,  you  may  stop  at  any  place  in  Muzdalifah.  It  is  not permissible  to  stop  in  Wadi  Muhassar.

Before  attending  to  your  luggage,  perform  Maghrib  and  Isha Salat  together  with  one  Athaan  and  one  Takbeer  (Iqaamah)  during the  time  of  Isha

The  conditions  for  the  validity  of  combining  these two  Salat  are  as  follows:

1)  The  ihram  of  Hajj.

2)  Wuqoof  (halting)  at  Arafat  must  first  be  made.

3)  To  be  at  Muzdalifah.

4)  To  be  the  time  of  Isha.

5)  To  be  the  night  of  10th  ZilHajj.

6)  To  perform  both  Salat  observing  tarteeb  (i.e.  first  Maghrib  then Isha).

If  any  of  the  above  conditions  is  lacking,  it  will  not  be  permissible to combine these two Salat.

It  is  not  permissible  to  perform  Maghrib  and  Isha  at  Arafat  or along  the  route.  If  this  was  done,  the  Salat  will  have  to  be  repeated. Should  you  arrive  at  Muzdalifah  before  Isha,  then  too  do  not perform Maghrib Salat.

At  Muzdalifah  pass  as  much  of  the  night  as  possible  in  ibadat because this night is superior to even the Night of Qadr.

In  the  morning,  after  Subh  Saadiq,  perform  Fajr  Salaat  as  early as  possible  while  it  is  yet  dark.  Perform  the  Salaat  with  jamaat. However,  if  for  some  reason  this  is  not  possible,  perform  it  alone. Thereafter,  stand  by  Mash’ar-e-Haraam,  face  the  Qiblah  and engage  in  reciting  Talbiyah,  Tasbih  and  Tahleel.  Raise  the  hands and make dua. About five minutes before sunrise, depart for Mina

On  reaching  Wadi  Muhassar,  run  through  it,  emerging  from  this valley  in  haste.  When  departing  from  Muzdalifah,  take  along  seven tiny  pebbles.  It  is  permissible  to  pick  up  these  pebbles  along  the route  or  from  somewhere  else.  These  pebbles  should  not  be  picked up from near the Jamraat

On  reaching  Mina,  go  to  Jamratul  Uqba.  Stand  in  the  lower area,  near  to  the  Jamrah.  Stand  in  such  a  way  that  Mina  is  on  your right  side  and  Makkah  on  your  left.  Hold  a  pebble  with  the  thumb and  the  forefinger.  Strike  the  Jamrah  with  it.  Stop  the  recitation  of the  Talbiyah  with  the  striking  of  the  first  pebble.  When  striking each  pebble  recite:  

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In  the  Name  of  Allah.  Allah  is  the  greatest!  (This  Act)  is  a  lament for Shaitan and a pleasure for Allah.”

When  striking  the  pebbles,  raise  the  hand  so  that  the  arm  is separated  from  the  armpit.  The  act  of  pelting  the  Jamraat  is  known as Rami.  After  having  completed  the  Rami,  do  not  remain  there.  Return to  your  place.  The  time  for  this  Rami  is  from  Subh  Saadiq  on  the 10th  until  Subh  Saadiq  on  the  11th.  However,  the  Masnoon (Sunnat)  time  for  the  Rami  is  from  sunrise  until  zawwaal (midday).  After  zawwaal  to  sunset,  the  time  for  Rami  is  Mubah (permissible) while the time from sunset to Fajr is Makrooh

The  next  thing  to  do  after  the  Rami  of  the  10th,  is  Qurbaani. There  is  greater  merit  in  doing  the  Qurbaani  with  your  own  hands, if  you  are  able  to  slaughter.  If  you  lack  the  ability  to  slaughter with  your  own  hands,  anyone  may  do  so  on  your  behalf.  It  is Mustahab  to  eat  a  bit  of  one’s  own  Qurbaani  meat.  Therefore,  if possible,  eat  some  of  it.  You  may  also  take  of  it  as  much  as  you wish and give the rest in SadqahQurbaani  is  Mustahab,  not  Waajib,  for  the  Mufrid  (the  one who  makes  only  HajjHajj  without  Umrah).  After  Qurbaani  has been  made  shave  or  clip  the  hair  on  the  head.  While  doing  this,  sit facing  the  Qiblah.  Shaving  the  head  is  afdhal  (best)  for  men.  It  is haraam  for  women  to  shave  their  heads.  When  shaving  the  head, begin from the left side. After the head is shaved, recite Takbir

Since  it  is  not  permissible  for  women  to  shave  their  heads,  they should  cut  slightly  more  than  one  inch  from  their  plaits.  It  is  not permissible  for  a  ghair  mahram  male  to  cut  their  hair.

After  having  shaved  or  clipped  the  hair,  clip  the  moustaches  and remove  the  hairs  from  under  the  arms  and  from  below  the  navel. Then cut the nails. Bury all the hairs and the nails. 

Now,  one  is  released  from  Ihraam.  All  the  prohibitions  of Ihraam  besides  sexual  relationship,  fall  away  after  the  hair  has been shaved or cut. 

Return  now  to  Makkah  to  make  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.  It  is  afdhal (best)  to  make  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  on  the  10th  Zil-Hijj,  and  it  is permissible  until  sunset  on  the  12th  Zil  Hijj.  If  Sa-ee  was  not  made at  the  time  when  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  was  made,  then  Raml  should also be made during Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat

If  on  the  occasion  of  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat,  one  had  already removed  the  Ihraam  garments  and  had  donned  sewn  clothing,  then do  not  make  Idhtibaa.  However,  if  you  still  have  the  Ihraam garments on, then make Idhtibaa in Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat

After  making  the  Tawaaf  Salaat  of  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat,  make Istilaam  of  Hajr-e-Aswad.  Now  emerge  from  Baabus  Safaa  and make Sa-ee.  If  Sa-ee  was  made  together  with  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom,  then  do not make Raml and Idhtibaa, in this Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.  After  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  return  to  Mina  and  spend  the  night there.  After  the  completion  of  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarah,  sexual  relations are permissible. 

On  the  11th,  after  zawaalRami  of  the  three  Jamraat  has  to  be made.  It  is  Sunnat  on  this  day  (11th)  to  first  pelt  Jamrah  Oola which  is  situated  near  to  Musjid-e-Khaif.  Then  make  Rami  of Jamrah  Wusta,  i.e.  the  Middle  Pillar,  and  lastly,  make  Rami  of Jamrah Ukhra (also known as Jamrah Uqba),i.e. the third Pillar. 

After  making  the  Rami  of  the  first  Jamrah,  step  a  bit  forward. Now face  the  Qiblah,  raise  the  hands  and  make  dua.  It  is  preferable to  spend  approximately  twenty  minutes  (or  the  time  taken  to  recite three  quarters  of  a  Juz)  here  in  DuaTasbeeh,  Takbir,  Tahleel, Istighfaar,  etc.  If  you  are  unable  to  stand  so  long,  then  stand  at least  as  long  as  it  would  take  you  to  recite  20  aayaat  of  the Qur’aan.  Make  similar  Dua  after  the  Rami  of  the  middle  Jamrah. Do  not  make  Dua  after  the  Rami  of  the  third  Jamrah.  Return  to your place of residence immediately after the Rami

On  the  12th,  repeat  the  Rami  in  the  same  way.  You  are  now  free to  leave  Makkah  Mukarramah.  However,  it  is  afdhal  (of  greater merit)  to  repeat  the  Rami  on  the  13th  as  well,  after  zawaal  and  to return to Makkah then. 

When  returning  to  Makkah  Mukarramah,  do  so  in  complete humility.  Along  the  route,  perform  Zuhr,  Asr,  Maghrib  and  Isha  in Wadi  Muhassab  which  is  located  on  the  road  of  Mina  near  to Makkah  Mukarramah.  Take  a  rest  before  proceeding  to  Makkah.  If you  are  unable  to  stay  over  here  for  a  while,  then  spend  at  least  a few  minutes  even  if  it  means  only  dismounting  from  the  vehicle for  a  few  moments.  The  Hajj  is  now  complete.  

THE STAY IN MAKKAH AFTER HAJJ

Now  remain  in  Makkah  Mukarramah  as  long  as  you  wish.  While here,  perform  Tawaaf  and  Umrah  in  abundance.  However,  render Urnrah  after  the  13th  Zil-Hijj.  When  you  decide  to  depart  Makkah Mukarramah,  perform  Tawaaf-e-Wida  (The  Farewell  Tawaaf). This  Tawaaf  is  Waajib.  Should  one  depart  without  having  made this  Tawaaf-e-Wida,  it  is  incumbent  (Waajib)  to  return  if  one  has not  yet  passed  beyond  the  confines  of  the  Meeqaat.  If  one  has already  passed  the  Meeqaat  without  having  made  Tawaaf-e-Wida, then  one  has  the  choice  of  either  paying  the  Dum  penalty  or donning  Ihraam.  Then,  Umrah  should  be  made  and  thereafter  the Tawaaf-e-Wida.  However,  if  after  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat,  a  Nafl Tawaaf  was  made,  then  this  Nafl  Tawaaf  will  suffice  in  lieu  of Tawaaf-e-Wida  even  if  no  niyyat  of  Tawaaf-e-Wida  was  made. But,  it  is  afdhal  to  make  Tawaaf-e-Wida  at  the  very  time  of departing and not before. 

After  Tawaaf-e-Wida  perform  two  raka’ts  Tawaaf  Salaat  near  to Maqam-e-Ibraheem.  Then  go  to  the  Well  of  Zam  Zam.  Face  the Qiblah  and  drink  of  its  water  as  much  as  you  can  in  three  draughts. On each drink, gaze at the Baitullah and recite: 

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At the last drink, recite: 

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O  Allah!  I  ask  you  for  beneficial  knowledge,  for  abundance  Rizq, and cure from all sicknesses.”

After  drinking  of  the  holy  water  of  Zam  Zam,  the  water remaining  in  the  container  should  be  poured  over  the  head,  face and  body.  Now  go  to  Multazam.  Place  your  breast  and  right  cheek against  the  wall  of  the  Ka’bah  and  raise  your  right  hand  towards the  Threshold  of  the  Ka’bah.  ln  this  state  of  humility,  clinging  to the  Cloth  of  the  Ka’bah,  seek  forgiveness  from  Allah  Ta’ala.  Shed tears,  repent,  recite  Tasbeeh,  Tahleel,  Dua  and  Durood  for  a  long while.  If  you  are  unable  to  shed  tears,  simulate  the  appearance  of  a crying  person.  Kiss  the  Threshold  and  make  dua.  Now  make Istilaam  of  Hajr-e-Aswad  and  cast  your  gaze  on  the  Ka’bah.  Depart now  with  a  heart  filled  with  sadness.  Walk  away  from  the  Ka’bah backwards—out  through  Baabul  Wida.  Give  Sadqah  to  the  poor and again make dua

A woman in  the  state  of  haidh  or  nifaas  is  not  permitted  to  make TawaafTawaaf-e-Wida  is  waived  for  her.  Although  there  is  no need  for  her  to  make  Tawaaf-e-Wida  because  of  her  state,  she should  stand  at  Baabul  Wida,  outside  the  Musjid,  and  engage  in dua.  In  the  condition  of  haidh  or  nifaas,  she  must  not  enter  the Musjid.  

QIRAAN HAJJ

Qiraan  is  the  performance  of  Hajj  and  Umrah  together  in  a  single Ihraam  from  the  Meeqaat.  The  one  who  performs  Hajj-e-Qiraan  is known as a Qaarin.

When  the  Qaarin  enters  Makkah  Muazzamah,  he  has  to  first perform  the  Tawaaf  of  Umrah  and  its  Sa-ee.  There  will  be  Raml and  Idhtiba‘  in  this  Tawaaf.  After  completing  the  Sa-ee,  the  Qaarin makes  a  second  Tawaaf.  This  second  Tawaaf  is  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom.  After  this  second  Tawaaf,  make  again  Sa-ee.  This  is  the Sa-ee  for  the  Hajj.  After  this,  the  Qaarin  will  render  all  acts  of  the Hajj as is done by the Mufrid (the one who performs only Hajj). 
Qurbaani  upon  the  Qaarin  is  Waajib.  The  Qaarin  has  to  make the  Qurbaani  on  the  Day  of  Nahr  (10th  Zil  Hijj)  after  the  Rami  of the  Jimaar,  but  before  shaving  the  head.  It  is  essential  that  the Qurbaani  be  made  in  the  Haram.  It  cannot  be  discharged elsewhere.  Qurbaani  has  to  be  made,  during  the  days  of  Nahr. Nevertheless,  if  the  Qurbaani  is  made  after  the  Days  of  Nahr,  it will  be  valid,  but  sinful.  When  slaughtering  the  animal,  the  niyyat should be that Qurbaani of Qiraan is being made. 

Should  one  lack  the  means  for  making  Qurbaani  of  a  goat  or sheep,  three  fasts  should  be  kept  in  lieu.  These  three  fasts  have  to be  kept  before  the  Day  of  Nahr.  A  further  seven  days  fasting should  be  kept  after  the  Hajj.  If  the  three  fasts  are  not  kept  before the Day of Nahr (10th), then Dum penalty will be Waajib

When  keeping  these  seven  fasts,  it  is  necessary  that  the  niyyat be made during the night. 

The  Qaarin  has  to  make  niyyat  (intention)  for  both  Hajj  and Umrah.  Recite  the  niyyat  as  follows:

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Then recite a second time: 

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THE CONDITIONS OF QIRAAN

1)  The  whole  Tawaaf  of  Umrah  or  at  least  four  Shauts  (circuits) have  to  be  made  during  the  months  of  Hajj.

2)  The  whole  Tawaaf  of  Umrah  or  at  least  four  Shauts  have  to  be made  before  Wuqoof  of  Arafah.

3)  Tying  the  Ihraam  of  Hajj  before  the  full  Umrah  Tawaaf  is  made or  before  the  greater  part  of  the  Tawaaf  is  made.

4)  Tying  the  Ihraam  of  Hajj  before  the  Umrah  is  invalidated.
5)  Not  nullifying  the  Hajj  or  Umrah  by  means  of  sexual relationship  or  irtidaad  (i.e.  becoming  a  renegade—  murtad).

TAMATTU

Tamattu‘  is  the  performance  of  Umrah  and  Hajj  in  a  single journey,  during  the  months  of  Hajj,  with  two  different  Ihraam.  One Ihraam for Umrah and one Ihraam for Hajj

Hajj-e-Tamattu‘  is  performed  only  by  an  Aafaaqee.  An Aafaaqee  is  one  who  lives  outside  the  Meeqaat  limits.  When  the Aafaaqee  who  wishes  to  perform  Tamattu‘,  reaches  the  Meeqaat, he  will  don  the  Ihraam  for  Umrah.  After  making  wudhu  or  ghusl, he  will  don  the  Ihraam  garb  and  perform  two  raka’ts  Nafl  Salaat. After  this  Salaat,  he  has  to  open  his  head  and  recite  the  niyyat  as follows: 

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He  then  recites  the  Talbiyah.  He  is  now  in  the  state  of  Ihraam.  He should  now  proceed  to  Makkah,  perform  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  and the  Sa-ee.  He  has  to  abstain  from  all  the  prohibitions  of  Ihraam. After  completing  the  Tawaaf  and  Sa-ee,  he  removes  the  Ihraam. He  emerges  from  the  state  of  Ihraam  by  either  shaving  his  head  or cutting  his  hair.  He  should  now  remain  in  Makkah  until  the  8th  of Zil Hijj. 

On  the  8th  of  Zil  Hijj  he  has  to  don  the  Ihraam  of  Hajj.  It  is better  to  don  the  Ihraam  for  Hajj  even  before  the  8th.  He  has  now to  remain  in  the  state  of  Ihraam  until  all  the  acts  of  Hajj  have  been discharged. The one who performs Tamattu‘ is called Mutamatti‘. 

It  is  Waajib  upon  the  Mutamatti‘  to  make  Qurbaani.  If  he  lacks the  means  of  making  Qurbaani,  then  he  has  to  fasts  ten  days  in  the same way as the Qaarin has to. 

The  Mutamatti‘  renders  all  the  acts  of  Hajj  as  the  Mufrid  does.  

CONDITIONS OF TAMATTU

1)  The  Mutamatti‘  must  be  an  Aafaaqee  (i.e.  one  who  lives  outside the  Meeqaat).  Those  who  live  in  Makkah  or  anywhere  within  the confines  of  the  Meeqaat  are  not  allowed  to  make  Tamattu.  

2)  The  whole  Umrah  or  the  greater  part  of  the  Umrah  Tawaaf  has to  be  made  during  the  months  of  Hajj  even  if  the  Ihraam  of  Umrah and  Hajj  was  donned  before  the  months  of  Hajj,  e.g.  before  sunset on  the  last  day  of  Ramadhaan  the  Ihraam  of  Umrah  was  adopted, and  after  two  or  three  Shauts  of  the  Tawaaf  were  made,  the  sun  set. Thus,  the  remaining  four  Shauts  of  the  Tawaaf  were  made  on  the 1st  night  of  Shawwaal.  In  this  case  the  Tamattu‘  is  valid.  However, if  the  sun  sets  after  four  or  more  Shauts  of  the  Tawaaf  were  made, the  Tamattu‘  will  not  be  valid  because  the  greater  part  of  the Tawaaf  was  made  during  Ramadhaan  which  is  not  among  the months  of  Hajj.  

3)  The  whole  or  the  greater  part  of  the  Umrah  Tawaaf  has  to  be made  before  the  Ihraam  of  Hajj.  If  this  was  not  done,  the  Tamattu‘ will  not  be  valid.  The  Hajj  will  in  this  case  become  Qiraan.  

4)  The  Hajj  and  Umrah  have  to  be  made  in  the  same  year.  If  the Tawaaf  of  Umrah  was  made  during  the  Hajj  months  of  one  year and  the  Hajj  was  made  in  the  following  year,  the  Tamattu‘  is  not valid  even  if  one  did  not  return  home  during  this  time.  

5)  Both  Hajj  and  Umrah  have  to  be  made  in  the  same  journey.  If after  having  made  Umrah  during  the  Hajj  months,  one  ends  the Ihraam,  returned  home  and  then  went  back  for  Hajj,  the  Tamattu‘  is not  valid.  This  will  then  not  be  known  as  Tamattu‘.  However,  if one  returned  home  before  or  after  the  Tawaaf  of  Umrah,  but  before shaving  the  head,  and  then  went  back  for  Hajj,  the  Tamattu‘  will  be valid.  Similarly,  if  after  shaving  the  head,  one  went  out  of  the precincts  of  the  Haram,  but  not  beyond  the  Meeqaat,  the  Tamattu‘ will  be  valid.  

6)  The  Umrah  should  not  be  invalidated.  If  the  Umrah  becomes invalid  the  Tamattu‘  will  be  nullified.

7)  The  Hajj  should  not  be  invalidated.  If  the  Hajj  becomes  invalid, the  Tamattu‘  is  nullified.

(8)  After  completing  the  Umrah  during  the  Hajj  months,  one should not take up permanent residence in Makkah. 

*        If the  Ihraam  for  the  Umrah  of  Tamattu‘  was  not  donned  at  the Meeqaat,  but  was  adopted  after  reaching  Makkah,  the  Tamattu‘  is valid.  However,  the  Dum  penalty  will  be  obligatory  since  it  is forbidden  to  go  beyond  the  Meeqaat  without  Ihraam.  

*        If the  Mutamatti‘  donned  the  Ihraam  of  Hajj  from  Hiel  or Arafaat,  the  Tamattu‘  will  be  valid,  but  the  Dum  penalty  will  be Waajib  since  the  Ihraam  was  supposed  to  have  been  donned  in  the Haram.  The  Dum  penalty  is  Waajib  or  alternatively,  one  has  to return  to  the  Meeqaat  which  in  this  case  is  the  Haram  where  the Mutamatti‘  dons  the  Ihraam  for  Hajj.  

*        For the validity  of  Tamattu‘  it  is  not  conditional  to  don  the Ihraam  of  Umrah  during  the  months  of  Hajj.  But,  it  is  a  condition for  the  validity  of  Tamattu‘  that  the  greater  part  of  the  Tawaaf  of Umrah  be  rendered  during  the  Hajj  months,  even  if  the  Ihraam  was donned  prior  to  the  Hajj  months.  

*        For the Tamattu‘  to  be  valid,  it  is  not  conditional  that  both  Hajj and  Umrah  are  executed  on  behalf  of  the  same  person.  If  one  act  is for  oneself  and  the  other  act  on  behalf  of  another  person,  the Tamattu‘  is  valid.  In  fact,  if  one  person  delegates  a  man  to  perform Umrah  on  his  behalf  while  another  person  appoints  the  same  man to  perform  Hajj  on  his  behalf,  and  both  consented  to  Tamattu‘,  then the  Tamattu‘  thus  performed  is  valid.  However,  the  Dum  of Tamattu,  will  be  the  obligation  of  the  Mutamatti‘.  He  has  to  pay  for the  Dum  himself.  If  he  is  not  by  the  means  to  afford  an  animal, then  he  should  fast  as  described  earlier.  

*        If Hajj  and  Umrah  were  executed  during  the  months  of  Hajj and  all  conditions  of  Tamattu‘  fulfilled  ,  the  Tamattu‘  will  be  valid even  if  no  niyyat  for  Tamattu‘  was  made.

THE FARAAIDH OF HAJJ

Hajj  has  THREE  fundamental  Fardh  (compulsory)  acts,  viz.,   (1)  Ihraam:  Making  Niyyat  with  the  heart  for  Hajj  and  reciting Talbiyah

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i.e.   Labbayk  Allahumma  labbayk.  Labbayka  laa  sharika  laka  labbayk. Innal  hamda  wan-ni’mata  laka  wal-mulk.  Laa  shareeka  lak.  

(2)  Wuqoof  at  Arafaat:  This  wuqoof  (stay-over)  at  Arafaat  is  on the  9th  Zil  Hijj  at  any  time  from  after  zawaal  until  Subh  Saadiq  of 10th  Zil  Hijj,  even  if  the  Wuqoof  is  for  just  a  moment.  

(3)  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat:  This  is  the  Tawaaf  which  is  made  at  any time  from  Subh  Saadiq  on  the  10th  Zil  Hijj  until  12th  Zil  Hijj  after the  head  is  shaved  or  the  hair  cut.   If  any  one  of  these  three  Fardh  acts  is  omitted,  the  Hajj  is  not valid.  Omission  of  any  of  these  acts  cannot  be  compensated  for  by means  of  sacrificing  an  animal,  etc.  Should  any  one  of  these  three Fardh  acts  be  omitted,  the  Hajj  becomes  qadhaa,  i.e.  it  will  have  to be  performed  again.  

THE WAAJIBAAT OF HAJJ 

Six acts are Waajib in Hajj

(1)  To  stop  over  at  Muzdalifah  at  the  time  of  Wuqoof,  i.e.  during the  night  of  the  10th  Zil  Hijj.  

(2)  To  make  Sa-ee  between  Safa  and  Marwah.  

(3)  Rami  of  the  Jimaar,  i.e.  to  strike  the  pebbles  at  the  Jamraat.  

(4)  Qurbaani,  if  the  Haajji  is  a  Qaarin  or  Mutamatti‘.

(5)  Halq  (shaving  the  head)  or  Qasr  (cutting  the  hair).  

(6)  Tawaaf-e-Widaa  (The  Farewell  Tawaaf)  for  those  living outside the Meeqaat.  If  a  Waajib  act  is  omitted,  the  Hajj  is  still  valid,  but  compensation has  to  be  offered  whether  the  omission  is  deliberately  or  by  error. Sometimes  the,  jaza  (i.e.  the  compensation)  is  Dum  (an  animal) and  sometimes  it  is  Sadqah.  However,  if  a  Waajib  act  is  omitted  on account  of  a  valid  reason,  then  jaza  (compensation)  is  not obligatory.  

THE SUNNATS OF HAJJ 

(1)  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  for  the  Mufrid  Aafaaqee  and  the  Qaarin.  

(2)  Raml  during  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom.  

(3) The Imaam has to deliver Khutbah at three places: 

      a.  On  the  7th  Zil  Hijj  at  Makkah  Mukarramah.  

      b.  On  the  9th  Zil  Hijj  at  Arafaat  in  Musjid  Namrah  before  the two Salaats are performed together. 

      c.  On  11th  Zil  Hijj  at  Mina.  
(4)  To  spend  the  9th  night  at  Mina.  

(5)  To  proceed  from  Mina  to  Arafaat  after  sunrise  on  the  9th  Zil Hijj.  

(6)  To  depart  from  Arafaat  with  the  departure  of  the  Imaam.  

(7)  To  spend  the  night  at  Muzdalifah  after  returning  from  Arafaat.  

(8)  To  take  ghusl  in  Arafaat.  

(9)  During  the  days  at  Mina,  to  spend  the  nights  also  at  Mina.  

(10)  To  halt  at  Muhassab  on  returning  from  Mina  even  if  just  for  a moment. 

Besides  the  above,  there  are  many  other  Sunnat  acts  of  the  Hajj.  

Deliberate  neglect  or  omission  of  any  Sunnat  is  sinful.  Rendering the  Sunnats  is  an  act  of  great  thawaab.  If  a  Sunnat  act  is  omitted, there  is  no  jaza  (compensation)  or  penalty  to  be  paid.  However, care  should  be  taken  not  to  omit  the  Sunnats  since  such  omission reduces  the  thawaab  of  the  Hajj.  

THE MUSTAHABBAAT OF HAJJ 

(1)  Men  have  to  recite  the  Talbiyah  audibly.

(2)  Reciting  the  Talbiyah  in  abundance.

(3)  Qurbaani  (sacrificing  an  animal)  by  the  Mufrid.

(4)  To  take  ghusl  at  the  time  of  entering  Makkah  Mukarramah.

(5)  To  stop  near  to  Jabal-e-Rahmat  in  Arafaat  if  there  is  no congestion.

(6)  To  perform  Zuhr  and  Asr  Salaat  together  in  Arafaat  with Jamaat.

(7)  During  the  duration  of  Wuqoof  at  Arafaat  to  recite  Talbiyah and  make  dua  in  abundance.

(8)  To  halt  at  Mash’ar-e-  Haraam  during  Fajr  (morning)  of  the  Day of  Arafaat.  

(9)  To  perform  Fajr  Salaat  at  Muzdalifah.

(10) To make Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat on 10th Zil Hijj.

Mustahab  is  an  act  which  is  highly  meritorious.  Its  thawaab  is great.  However,  omission  of  Mustahab  acts  is  not  sinful.  But,  this does  not  mean  that  one  should  be  neglectful  in  regard  to  the Mustahabbaat.

THE MAKRUHAAT OF HAJJ 

Makruh  acts  are  reprehensible  and  the  thawaab  of  the  Hajj  is reduced  by  the  perpetration  of  Makruh  acts.  The  Hajj  becomes defective  by  the  commission  of  Makruh  acts.  Deliberate perpetration  of  Makruh  acts  is  sinful.  However,  Makruh  acts  will not  invalidate  the  Hajj.  Among  the  prohibitions,  only  sexual intercourse  which  has  been  committed  prior  to  the  Wuqoof  of Arafaat

The  following  things  are  Makruh:  

(1)  The  Imaam  reciting  the  Khutbah  before  zawaal  on  the  Day  of Arafaat.

(2)  After  performing  both  Salaats  together  in  Musjid  Namrah,  to remain  long  outside  the  limits  of  Arafaat.

(3)  To  depart  from  Arafaat  before  or  after  the  Imaam.  

(4)  To  make  the  Rami  with  pebbles  obtained  from  near  to  the Jimaar  or  with  pebbles  of  the  Musjid  or  to  break  a  big  stone  into bits  and  use  the  pieces  for  pelting.  

(5)  When  terminating  the  Ihraam  of  Hajj  or  Umrah  to  shave  only one  quarter  of  the  head  or  to  cut  hair  from  only  a  quarter  of  the head.  

(6)  During  the  days  of  Mina,  to  spend  the  nights  in  Makkah.  

(7) To make Wuqoof of Muzdalifah in Wadi Muhassar.

PROHIBITIONS OF IHRAAM

The  following  acts  are  prohibited  during  the  state  of  Ihraam:  

(1)  Sexual  intercourse  as  well  as  all  sex-play  and  acts  and  talks  of romance.

(2)  Quarrelling  and  fighting.

(3)  Hunting  land  animals.

(4)  To  inform  a  hunter  of  the  whereabouts  of  an  animal.

(5)  To  aid  a  hunter  in  anyway  whatever.

(6)  To  chase  a  wild  animal.

(7)  To  break  an  egg  of  a  wild  bird.

(8)  To  injure  any  wild  animal,  even  removing  its  feathers.

(9)  To  sell  wild  animals.

(10)  To  purchase  wild  animals.

(11)  To  remove  the  milk  of  a  wild  animal.

(12)  To  cook  the  meat  of  eggs  of  wild  animals.

(13)  To  kill  lice.

(14)  To  throw  lice  in  the  heat  of  the  sun.

(15)  To  wash  clothing  with  the  intention  of  killing  lice.

(16)  To  instruct  another  person,  directly  or  indirectly,  to  kill  lice.

(17)  To  dye  one’s  hair.

(18)  To  use  gum  or  any  kind  of  hair  conditioner.

(19)  To  apply  perfume.

(20)  To  cut  hair  and  nails  or  to  ask  another  person  to  cut  one’s  hair and  nails

(21)  To  cover  the  face  or  any  part  of  the  face.

(22)  To  wear  sewn  garments,  e.g.  kurtah,  trousers,  topee,  etc.

(23)  To  wear  such  shoes  or  socks  which  conceal  the  raised  bone  in the  front  of  the  foot.

(24)  To  wear  garments  which  have  been  dyed  in  saffron,  kusum  or any  fragrant  substances.  However,  if  the  garments  so  dyed  have been  thoroughly  washed,  leaving  no  fragrance,  it  will  then  be permissible  to  wear  such  garments.

MAKRUHAAT OF IHRAAM 

The  following  acts  are  Makruh  during  the  state  of  Ihraam:  

(1)  To  comb  the  hair  or  beard.  
(2)  To  scratch  the  hair  in  such  a  way  that  hair  or  lice  falls  out.  

(3)  To  make  khilaal  in  the  beard.  

(4)  To  sew  the  two  ends  of  the  lower  Ihraam  garment  when  this  is not  occasioned  by  a  need  to  conceal  the  aurah.  

(5)  To  tie  knots  in  the  upper  garment  or  to  tie  it  with  pins,  needles, etc.  

(6)  To  smell  perfume.

(7)  To  touch  perfume.  

(8)  To  sit  in  the  shop  of  a  perfume-seller  so  as  to  inhale  the fragrance  of  the  perfume.  

(9)  To  unnecessarily  tie  a  bandage  on  the  body.  

(10)  To  touch  or  to  smell  fragrant  fruit  and  grass.  

(11)  To  stand  under  the  cloth  of  the  Ka’bah  in  such  a  way  that  the cloth  touches  the  head  or  face.  

(12)  To  lay  on  one’s  stomach  with  one’s  face  downwards  on  the pillow.  

(13)  To  eat  uncooked  fragrant  smelling  food.  

(14)  To  look  with  lust  at  the  satar  of  one’s  wife.  

(15)  To  throw  any  garment,  e.g.  coat,  over  the  shoulders.

THE IHRAAM OF A WOMAN

The  Ihraam  of  a  female  is  similar  to  that  of  a  male.  She  too  has  to abstain  from  all  the  prohibitions  and  makruhaat  of  the  state  of Ihraam.  However,  there  are  some  differences.  It  is  permissible  for a  woman  to  wear  sewn  clothing.  It  is  Waajib  for  her  to  keep  her head  covered.  When  concealing  her  face,  she  should  not  let  the covering  cloth  touch  her  face  since  this  is  not  permissible  in Ihraam.  The  cloth  covering  her  face  should  be  hung  over  a  special protuberance designed specifically for this occasion. 

It  is  permissible  for  women  to  wear  colorful  garments  provided there  is  no  emission  of  fragrance  from  the  garments.  Women should  recite  the  Talbiyah  silently, so  that  their  voices  are  not heard by men. 

During  Tawaaf  women  do  not  make  Idhtiba  and  Ramal  nor should they run between Meelain Akhzarain during the Sa-ee

When  there  are  crowds  of  people  and  congestion  prevails, women  should  not  touch  Hajr-e-Aswad  nor  kiss  it.  They  should not  make  the  two  raka’ts  Tawaaf  Salaat  atnMaqaam-e-  Ibraheem  – They  should  not  make  the  Rami  nor  climb  onto  Safa  and  Marwah.
These  obligations  are  waived  for  women  when  congestion  and jostling of crowds prevail. 

During  the  state  of  haidh  they  should  neither  make  Tawaaf  nor Sa-ee.  If  they  postpone  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  due  to  haidh  and perform it later than 12th Zil Hijj, Dum is not obligatory on them.

ERRORS IN HAJJ AND KAFFAARAH

Errors  which  happen  during  Hajj  are  called  Jinaayaat.  There  are two  types  of  jinaayaat:  

(1)  Omission  of  the  Waajib  acts  of  Hajj.  

(2) Commission of the Hajj prohibitions. 

The  prohibitions  of  Hajj  are  of  two  kinds:  

(1)  The  prohibitions  of  Ihraam.

(2)  The  prohibitions  of  the  Haram  Shareef  (the  Holy  Place).
Nine  errors  pertain  to  Ihraam  and  two  errors  to  Haram.    Thus, there  are  altogether  eleven  errors  regarding  the  prohibitions  of Hajj.  These  are  as  follows:  

(1)  To  apply  perfume.

(2)  For  men  to  wear  sewn  clothes.

(3)  To  cover  the  head  and  face.
(4)  To  remove  lice  from  one’s  body.

(5)  To  kill  lice.

(6)  To  remove  hair  from  the  body.

(7)  To  cut  nails.

(8)  To  indulge  in  sexual  relationship.

(9)  To  hunt  or  molest  game  (wild  animals  on  land).

(10)  To  hunt  in  the  Holy  Precincts.

(11)  To  cut  the  grass  or  trees  of  the  Haram.

PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ERRORS 

There  are  several  principles  governing  the  errors  committed.  These will  now  be  explained  to  facilitate  better  understanding  of  the errors. 

FIRST  PRINCIPLE:  There  are  four  ways  in  which  the prohibitions  of  Hajj  are  committed:

(1)  The  prohibition  is  committed  fully  but  because  of  a  valid reason.

(2)  The  prohibition  is  committed  partially  but  because  of  a  valid reason.

(3)  The  prohibition  is  committed  fully  but  without  valid  reason.

(4) The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.

The  Hukm  (effect  and  rule)  of  each  of  these  four  ways  of commission  is  different.  The  ruling  applicable  to  each  one  is  as follows:  

(a)  If  the  prohibition  was  committed  fully,  but  because  of  a  valid reason,  Dum  or  Fasting  or  Sadqah  becomes  Waajib.

(b)  If  the  prohibition  was  committed  partially,  but  because  of  a valid  reason,  either  Fasting  or  Sadqah  is  Waajib.  

(c)  If  the  prohibition  was  committed  fully,  but  without  valid reason,  only  Dum  is  Waajib.  In  this  case  there  is  no  choice.  

(d)  If  the  prohibition  was  committed  partially,  but  without  valid reason,  only  Sadqah  is  Waajib.  Again,  here  is  no  choice.  

SECOND  PRINCIPLEDum  is  one  goat  or  one  sheep  or  a seventh  share  of  a  cow  or  camel.  

THIRD  PRINCIPLE:  A  whole  cow  or  a  whole  camel  is incumbent  on  only  two  occasions,  as  follows:  

(1)  Making  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  in  the  state  of  Hadth-e-Akbar,  i.e. the  greater  impurity  or  janaabat.  

(2)  To  indulge  in  sexual  intercourse  after  Wuqoof-e-Arafaat,  but before  shaving  the  head.  

FOURTH  PRINCIPLE:  All  conditions  and  requirements applicable  to  Qurbaani  animals  apply  to  the  Dum  animals  as  well.  

FIFTH  PRINCIPLE:  Sadqah  in  this  context  is  half  a  Saa‘ (approximately  2.5  kg.)  of  wheat  or  the  amount  which  is  usually paid  as  Fitrah.

SIXTH  PRINCIPLE:  The  Qaarin  who  commits  jinaayaat  in Ihraam  before  making  Umrah  is  liable  for  two  penalties  since  he  is in  two  states  of  Ihraam.  The  Mufrid  is  liable  for  one  penalty  since he  is  in  the  state  of  one  Ihraam.  However,  if  the  Qaarin  entered  the Meeqaat  limits  without  Ihraam,  only  one  Dum  will  be  Waajib  on him.  

SEVENTH  PRINCIPLE:  Regarding  the  jinaayaat  of  the  Haram and  in  the  penalty  pertaining  to  game  on  land,  there  is  a  choice  of three  ways  of  discharging  the  penalty.  These  are:

(1)  The  wild  animal  is  to  be  valued  and  if  a  sacrificial  animal (Dum)  is  available  for  this  value  or  price,  an  animal  will  be purchased  and  slaughtered.  

(2)  This  amount  may  be  given  in  charity.  

(3) One may fast instead.  Any  one  of  these  three  penalties  will  suffice.  If  the  option  of fasting  is  chosen,  one  should  consult  an  Alim  for  ascertaining  the method  of  calculating  the  number  of  fasts  to  be  kept.  This  number differs.
EIGHTH  PRINCIPLE:  Kaffaarah  (penalty  or  compensation)  is obligatory  even  if  a  prohibition  of  Ihraam  is  committed  on  account of  a  valid  reason.  

NINTH  PRINCIPLE:  If  any  act  among  the  Waajibaat  of  Hajj  is omitted  without  valid  reason,  penalty  is  incumbent.  

TENTH  PRINCIPLE:  If  any  act  among  the  Waajibaat  of  Hajj  is omitted  on  account  of  valid  reason,  penalty  is  not  obligatory.  

ELEVENTH  PRINCIPLE:  penalty  is  not  incumbent  on  a  minor nor  on  an  insane  person.  However,  if  one  became  insane  after having  entered  the  state  of  Ihraam  and  later  regained  sanity,  then penalty  is  obligatory  for  any  omission  of  Waajib  acts  which  had occurred.  

TWELFTH  PRINCIPLE:  If  one  is  unable  to  discharge  the penalty  immediately,  payment  at  a  later  date  will  be  valid.  

*  Deliberate  commission  of  jinaayaat  is  a  grave  and  major sin.  

Hajj is  not  accepted  if  jinaayaat  are  committed  deliberately.  

*  Discharging  the  penalty  of  Jinaayaat  does  not  set  one  free from  the  sin.  After  payment  of  the  penalty  it  is  essential  to make  taubah  (repent)  and  seek  forgiveness  from  Allah Ta’ala.

THE RULES OF JINAAYAT 

Some  explanation  and  examples  regarding  the  errors  occurring during  Hajj  will  now  be  given  for  better  understanding.  

(1)  If  one  enters  the  precincts  of  the  Meeqaat  without  IhraamDum is  Waajib.  If  the  Ihraam  is  adopted  after  entering  the  Meeqaat,  one Dum  is  Waajib.  However,  if  one  returns  to  the  Meeqaat  and  dons Ihraam  there,  then  the  Dum  penalty  falls  away.  

(2)  One  who  enters  the  Meeqaat  without  Ihraam,  may  return  to  the Meeqaat  as  long  as  one  has  not  entered  Makkah  Mukarramah  and commenced  the  acts  of  Hajj.  Until  such  time  that  one  Shaut  of Tawaaf  has  not  been  rendered,  one  may  return  to  the  Meeqaat  and recite  the  Talbiyah  there.  In  this  case  the  Dum  penalty  falls  away.  

(3)  The  penalty  of  a  camel  or  Sadqah  does  not  apply  for  the omission  of  any  Waajib  act  of  Umrah.  In  this  case  only  a  sheep  or goat  is  obligatory.  However,  since  the  Ihraam  of  Umrah  and  the Ihraam  of  Hajj  are  the  same,  commission  of  the  prohibitions  of Ihraam  will  make  Sadqah  incumbent.  

(4)  If  the  Tawaaf  of  Umrah,  the  whole  of  it  or  part  of  it,  even  if  it is  just  one  Shaut,  was  performed  in  the  state  of  either  Hadth-e-Akbar  (janaabat)  or  Hadth-e-Asghar  (without  wudhu),  then  Dum  is Waajib.  

(5)  If  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom,  Nafl  Tawaaf  or  Tawaaf-e-Wida’  were performed  without  wudhu,  the  Sadqah  penalty  is  half  Saa‘  wheat (the  amount  of  Sadaqatul  Fitr)  for  every  Shaut  of  the  Tawaaf rendered  without  wudhu.  If  the  amount  or  value  of  the  Sadqah  for all  the  Shauts  is  equal  to  the  price  of  a  Dum,  then  slightly  less  than the  price  of  a  Dum  should  be  given  as  Sadqah.  This  same  rule applies  to  less  than  half  of  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  made  without wudhu.  

(6)  If  the  whole  or  the  greater  part  of  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  is  made in  the  state  of  Hadth-e-Akbar  (janaabat),  the  penalty  is  a  camel  or  a cow.  

(7)  If  less  than  half  of  Tawaaf  -e-Ziyaarat  or  the  whole  of  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  or  Tawaaf-e-Wida’  or  Tawaaf-e-Nafl  is  made  in  the state  of  Hadth-e-Akbar,  the  penalty  of  one  goat  is  Waajib.  

(8)  If  Tawaaf  Ziyaarat  was  made  in  the  state  of  janaabat  and Tawaaf  Wida’  was  made  in  the  state  of  tahaarat  (purity)  during  the days  of  Nahr  (10th,  11th,  12th),  then  this  Tawaaf  Wida  will  be considered  to  be  Tawaaf  ZiyaaratTawaaf  Wida’  will  have  to  be repeated.  If  it  is  not  repeated,  Dum  is  Waajib.  

(9)  If  after  making  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  in  the  state  of  janaabat, Tawaaf-e-Wida’  is  made  after  the  days  of  Nahr,  then  too,  this Tawaaf  will  be  considered  to  be  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.  However,  in this  case  two  Dum  will  be  Waajib—one  being  for  the  delay  of Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  and  one  being  for  the  omission  of  Tawaaf-e-Wida’.  If  however,  Tawaaf-e-Wida‘  is  repeated,  one  Dum  falls away.  

(10)  If  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  was  made  without  wudhu  during  the days  of  Nahr,  but  thereafter,  Tawaaf-e-Wida‘  was  made  also  during the  days  of  Nahr,  then  this  Tawaaf-e-Wida  will  be  considered  to  be Tawaaf-e-Ziyarat.  

(11)  A  Tawaaf  performed  in  the  state  of  Hadth-e-Akbar  (janaabat) has  to  be  compulsorily  repeated.  If  it  was  performed  without wudhu,  repeating  it  is  Mustahab.  However,  after  repeating  such  a Tawaaf,  the  Sa-ee  is  not  to  be  repeated.  

(12)  Omission  of  three,  two  or  even  one  Shaut  of  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  makes  Dum  Waajib.  However,  if  Tawaaf-e-Wida’  is  made during  the  days  of  Nahr,  the  spoilt  Shauts  of  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat will  be  compensated  for.  In  the  case  of  Tawaaf-e-Wida‘,  half  a  Saa‘ (the  amount  of  Fitrah)  has  to  be  given  in  Sadqah  for  every defective  Shaut.  

(13)  If  four  Shauts  or  more  of  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  were  omitted, the  Muhrim  will  remain  in  the  state  of  Ihraam  as  long  as  he  does not  return  and  complete  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat  Women  will  remain haraam  for  him  as  long  as  he  does  not  complete  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.  If  he  does  not  complete  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat,  he  remains in  the  state  of  Ihraam  in  relation  to  women.  Everytime  he  indulges in  sexual  intercourse,  one  Dum  becomes  obligatory.  The  only  way in  which  he  can  be  set  free  from  the  Ihraam  is  to  complete  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.  

(14)  If  one,  two  or  three  Shauts  of  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  or  Tawaaf-e-Wida’  were  omitted,  the  full  Sadqah  will  be  Waajib  for  every Shaut  missed.  If  four  or  more  Shauts  were  omitted,  Dum  is Waajib.  However,  if  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  was  not  performed  at  all, i.e.  one  did  not  even  begin  to  perform  it,  then  there  is  no  penalty. But,  omission  of  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  is  evil  and  sinful.

SA-EE  

(1)  If  the  whole  Sa-ee  or  the  greater  number  of  its  Shauts  were omitted  without  reason  or  the  Sa-ee  was  made  riding,  Without valid  reason,  the  Hajj  will  be  valid,  but  Dum  is  Waajib.  However, if  the  Sa-ee  is  repeated  on  foot,  the  Dum  penalty  falls  away.  

(2)  If  one,  two  or  three  Shauts  of  Sa-ee  were  omitted  without  valid reason  or  executed  while  riding  for  no  proper  reason,  Sadqah  is Waajib  for  every  Shaut.

WUQOOF AT ARAFAAT 

(1)  If  one  failed  to  reach  Arafaat  on  the  9th  Zil  Hijj  before  sunset, the  Hajj  is  not  valid.  Qadhaa  of  the  Hajj  is  now  obligatory.  The Hajj  has  to  be  repeated.  

(2)  It  is  essential  to  remain  in  Arafaat  until  sunset.  If  one  leaves Arafaat  before  sunset,  it  is  incumbent  to  return  there  before  sunset otherwise  Dum  becomes  Waajib.  

WUQOOF AT MUZDALIFAH

(1)  It  is  Waajib  to  observe  the  tarteeb  (consecutive  order)  of Maghrib  and  Isha  Salaat.  It  is  also  Waajib  to  perform  these  two Salaats  together  at  Muzdalifah.  If  the  tarteeb  was  not  observed  or if  the  two  Salaats  were  not  performed  together,  Dum  is  obligatory.  

(2)  If  the  Wuqoof  of  Muzdalifah  is  omitted  without  valid  reason, Dum  is  Waajib.  If  omitted  because  of  a  valid  reason,  Dum  is  not Waajib.  If  women  omit  this  Wuqoof  because  of  the  crowds  and congestion,  Dum  is  not  Waajib,  since  such  omission  is  on  valid grounds  in  relation  to  females.

RAMI 

(1)  In  the  following  cases  of  omission,  Dum  will  be  Waajib:  

*  If the  Rami  of  all  four  days  is  omitted.  

*  The whole Rami  of any one  day is  omitted.  

*  The  majority  of  the  pebbles  of  a  day  is  omitted,  e.g.  four pebbles  on  the  10th  Zil  Hijj  were  omitted  or  eleven  pebbles of any other day. 

(2)  In  the  following  cases  of  omission,  the  full  Sadqah  is  Waajib for  every  pebble  omitted:  

*  On the 10th Zil  Hijj,  three  or  less  pebbles  were  omitted.  

*  On  the  other  days  (11th,  12th,  13th),  ten  or  less  pebbles were  omitted.  

If  the  total  amount  of  the  Sadqah  for  all  the  pebbles  omitted  is equal  to  the  price  of  a  Dum,  then  Sadqah  slightly  less  than  the price  of  a  Dum  should  be  given.

HALQ,  QASR, & ZABAH IN MINA 

(1)  Shaving  the  head  for  the  termination  of  Ihraam  is  called  Halq. If  this  Halq  was  done  outside  the  precincts  of  the  Haram,  Dum  is Waajib.  

(2)  If  this  Halq  (i.e.  shaving  the  head  to  end  the  state  of  Ihraam) was  done  outside  the  Haram  and  after  the  days  of  Nahr,  then  two Dum are  Waajib.  

(3)  If  one  performed  Umrah  or  Hajj  and  left  the  Haram  without shaving  the  head,  but  returned  to  the  Haram  and  shaved  the  head, then  Dum  is  not  Waajib.  But,  if  he  returned  to  the  Haram  after  the days  of  Nahr  and  then  only  shaves  the  head,  Dum  is  Waajib.  

(4)  It  is  obligatory  for  the  Mufrid  to  observe  tarteeb  (sequence  and order)  between  Rami  and  Halq  (or  Qasr).  Rami  has  to  be  executed first  and  thereafter  Halq  or  Qasr  (cutting  the  hair  on  the  head).  If this  consecutive  order  or  sequence  is  not  observed,  Dum  is  Waajib.
  
(5)  It  is  not  permissible  for  the  Qaarin  and  Mutamatti‘  to  shave  the head  before  Thabah  (slaughtering  an  animal).  It  is  Waajib  for  the Qaarin  and  Mutamatti‘  to  observe  the  sequence  (tarteeb)  of  the  acts of  Rami,  Thabah  and  Halq  or  Qasr.  Non-observance  of  the  Tarteeb makes  Dum  Waajib.  

(6)  It  is  not  permissible  to  cut  the  nails  before  shaving  the  head since  the  state  of  Ihraam  lasts  until  the  shaving  or  cutting  of  the hair.  Thus,  if  all  the  nails  of  the  fingers  and  toes  were  cut  in  one session,  Dum  is  Waajib.  If  these  were  cut  in  four  different sessions,  then  four  Dum  will  be  Waajib.  If  less  than  five  nails  were cut, then for each finger-nail or toe- nail cut, Sadqah is Waajib.

THE AUSPICIOUS PLACES

MEEQAAT:  Meeqaat  are  those  sacred  places  beyond  which  the traveller  to  Makkah  Mukarramah  may  not  journey  without  Ihraam. Those  outside  the  Meeqaat,  wishing  to  enter  Makkah  Mukarramah, have  to  adopt  Ihraam.  It  is  not  permissible  to  pass  these  areas without being in the state of Ihraam

According  to  Imaam  Shaafi  (rahmatullah  alayh),  Ihraam  is adopted  for  Hajj.  Therefore,  it  is  not  permissible  to  go  into  the confines  of  the  Meeqaat  without  Ihraam.  However,  according  to Imaam  Abu  Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh),  Ihraam  is  not  conditional with  Hajj.  Whenever  one  wishes  to  enter  the  Haram  Shareef,  it  is necessary  to  be  in  Ihraam  irrespective  of  the  purpose  for  which  one enters  the  Haram.  The  following  are  the  names  of  the  various Meeqaat  limits:  

ZUL-HULAIFAH:  This  is  the  Meeqaat  for  those  who  wish  to enter  Makkah  Mukarramah  from  the  direction  of  Madinah Tayyibah.  

QARN:  This  place  is  along  the  road  of  Najd.  It  is  the  Meeqaat  for those  who  approach  Makkah  Mukarramah  from  this  way.  

YALAMLAM:  This  is  a  hill  along  the  coast  on  the  road  of Yemen.  This  hill  lies  between  Jiddah  and  Aden.  Those approaching  from  the  south  and  proceeding  to  Jiddah  via  Aden  can sight  this  hill  on  the  eastern  shore  between  Aden  and  Jiddah.  This is  the  Meeqaat  for  all  those  who  approach  from  the  south.  

ZAATUL  IRQ:  This  place  is  situated  about  32  miles  from Makkah  Mukarramah.  This  is  the  Meeqaat  for  the  people  of  Iraq and  all  those  who  approach  Makkah  Mukarramah  from  this direction.  

JUHFAH  is  a  place  about  48  miles  from  Makkah  near  to  Rabigh. It  is  the  Meeqaat  for  the  people  of  Shaam  and  those  approaching from  that  direction.  

THE HARAM

Haram  is  the  territory  of  several  miles  radius  around  Makkah Mukarramah.  The  Haram  is  apart  from  the  Meeqaat.  During  the time  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam),  sand-dunes indicated  the  boundaries  of  the  Haram.  After  the  time  of Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam),  Muslim  rulers  erected landmarks to mark the boundaries of the haram. 

On  the  road  to  Jiddah,  several  miles  from  Makkah  Mukarramah, a  huge  landmark  has  been  erected  to  indicate  the  boundary  of  the Haram  on  that  side.  On  the  road  to  Madinah  Munawwarah  at  a place  called  Tan’eem,  a  landmark  indicates  the  boundary  of  the Haram. 

These  precincts  or  boundaries  were  fixed  by  Rasulullah (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  on  Divine  instruction.  It  is  not  lawful to  hunt  within  the  limits  of  the  Holy  Precincts  (the  Haram)  nor  is  it permissible  to  execute  a  person  (even  for  valid  reason)  within  the Haram.  Similarly,  it  is  not  permissible  to  cut  trees  or  to  uproot grass  in  the  Haram.  

HIELL 

The  region  stretching  from  the  boundaries  of  the  Haram  to  the Meeqaat  is  called  Hiell.  The  above  mentioned  prohibitions  of  the Haram  are  permissible  in  Hiell.  

*  All  the  buildings  surrounding  the  Ka’bah  are  also  within  the Haram.  In  addition  to  the  above  mentioned  rules  of  the  Haram,  the rules  pertaining  to  Musjids  will  also  be  applicable  to  these buildings.  It  is,  therefore,  not  permissible  to  enter  these  adjacent buildings  in  the  state  of  janaabat  nor  is  it  permissible  to  make Tawaaf  of  the  Baitullah  in  the  state  of  impurity.  

HAJR-E-ASWAD:  Hajr-e-Aswad  or  the  Black  Stone  is  a  stone from  Jannat.  It  was  presented  to  Hadhrat  Nabi  Aadam  (alayhis salaam)  who  fixed  it  in  the  Ka’bah  Shareef.  This  sacred  stone  has  a circumference  of  approximately  30  inches.  Originally  it  was  a glittering  stone,  extremely  bright.  When  it  was  brought  from Jannat  its  colour  was  snow-white.  As  a  result  of  the  sins  of  man  it has  progressively  become  black.  This  Stone  is  fixed  in  the  southeastern  corner  of  the  Ka’bah  Shareef  on  the  outside  at  a  height  of about  a  meter.  For  some  reason  it  has  split  into  several  pieces, hence  it  is  enclosed  in  a  silver  capsule  which  holds  together  all  the pieces.  By  kissing  Hajr-e-Aswad,  Allah  Ta’  ala  forgives  sins  and increases  the  person  in  virtue.  

ZAM  ZAM  SHAREEF:  This  is  the  sacred  fountain  of  water which  Allah  Ta’ala  in  His  infinite  mercy  created  for  the  sake  of Hadhrat  Nabi  Ismaail  (alayhis  salaam).  A  very  deep  and magnificent  well  has  been  built  there  now.  A  dome  of  marble covers  it.  Entry  to  the  well  is  through  a  doorway.  Although  water is  drawn  from  this  well  night  and  day  ever  since  the  time  of Hadhrat  Nabi  Ismaail  (alayhis  salaam),  the  water-supply  never decreases.  Inspite  of  the  water  being  slightly  brackish,  it  has  a wonderful  taste  and  has  miraculous  curing  properties.  Its  water  is  a proven cure for all types of physical ailments. 

Annually  on  the  15th  Night  of  Sha’baan,  this  sacred  fountain becomes  ebullient  and  attains  its  full  force.  Those  who  witnessed this  event  bear  testimony  to  this  marvellous  and  miraculous phenomenon  which  is  beyond  description.  Both  body  and  soul  are enlivened  by  this  water.  As  a  mark  of  respect,  its  water  is  drunk standing.  Those  in  the  state  of  impurity  do  not  use  this  water  for wudhu  or  ghusl.  After  purifying  themselves  with  other  water,  they pour  this  water  over  them  to  gain  of  its  barkat.  A  dead  person  who is  wrapped  in  kafan  washed  with  this  sacred  water  is  indeed fortunate. 

There  are  other  wells  as  well  from  which  water  for  drinking  and general  use  is  obtained.  Brackish  water  from  the  other  wells  is used  for  washing  and  general  purposes  while  the  water  from  Nahre-Zubaidah  is  used  for  drinking  and  cooking.  Nahr-e-Zubaidah  is the  canal  constructed  by  Zubaidah  (rahmatullah  alayha),  the  wife Of  Khalifah  Haroon  Rashid  (rahmatullah  alayh).  This  canal  is among  the  wonders  of  the  world.  It  bears  testimony  to  the efficiency  and  competence  of  the  experts  who  planned  it  while  it  is clear  proof  of  Zubaidah’s  sincerity  and  of  the  fact  that  Allah  Ta’  ala has  accepted  her  effort.  At  places  this  canal  is  covered  while  at some  places  it  is  open.  A  wonderful  feature  of  this  canal  is  its presence  on  even  mountain  peaks  and  in  caves.  To  this  day  its source  has  not  been  established  nor  are  all  the  places  where  it  has been  led  to  known.  Very  few  people,  even  in  Arabia,  are  aware  of the  locations  and  courses  of  this  Canal.  

MAQAAM-E-IBRAHEEM: According to  the  majority  of  Ulama, Maqaam-e-Ibraheem  is  the  sacred  stone  on  which  Hadhrat Ibraheem  (alayhis  salaam)  mounted  when  he  was  building  the Ka’bah  Shareef.  The  footprints  of  Hadhrat  Ibraheem  (alayhis salaam)  are  visible  on  this  stone.  When  Hadhrat  Ibraheem  (alayhis salaam)  was  using  this  stone  to  stand  on  while  building  the  Ka’bah Shareef,  it  miraculously  increased  and  decreased  in  size  as  the occasion  warranted.  

According  to  some  authorities,  the  entire  Musjidul  Haraam  and every  place  of  the  sacred  Haram  are  equal  in  significance  to Maqaam-e-Ibraheem.  

SAFAA:  Adjoining  the  Sacred  Haram  on  the  south-eastern  side was  a  hill.  In  the  present  time  residences  have  been  built  on  top  of it  and  in  the  vicinity  surrounding  it.  A  number  of  steps  have  been made  here  for  those  who  perform  Tawaaf  and  Sa-ee.

MARWAH:  Opposite  Safaa  is  Marwah  which  also  was  a  hill  in the  north  western  side.  Here  too,  people  have  settled.  The  land  in between  these  two  hills  was  the  tract  along  which  Sayyidah Haajirah  (alayhas  salaam)  ran  several  times  to  and  fro,  in  great anxiety  and  worry,  searching  for  water  for  her  newborn  baby, Hadhrat  Ismaail  (alayhis  salaam).  A  magnificent  arcade  lined  with shops  exists  today  at  this  spot.  Two  green  pillars  are  erected  at  the spot  where  the  Hujjaaj  have  to  run  a  bit.  These  pillars  are  called Meelain  Akhdharain.  

MINA:  Makkah  Mukarramah  is  situated  in  a  valley,  between  two mountains.  The  mountain  range  stretches  far  towards  the  east  and north.  Three  miles  from  Makkah  Mukarramah  in  this  mountainous region  is  the  town  of  Mina.  This  is  the  place  where  Hadhrat Ibraaheem  (alayhis  salaam)  intended  to  sacrifice  his  son,  Hadhrat Ismaail  (alayhis  salaam)  at  the  Command  of  Allah  Ta’ala.  It  is  for this  reason  that  Hadhrat  Ismaail  (alayhis  salaam)  has  been  awarded the  title,  Thabeehullaah.  

JAMRAAT:  At  Mina,  on  the  occasion  when  Hadhrat  Ibraheem (alayhis  salaam)  was  taking  his  beloved  son,  Ismaail  (alayhis salaam)  for  sacrificing,  the  accursed  Shaitaan  appeared  in  human form  at  three  places.  Each  time  he  attempted  to  deter  Nabi Ibraaheem  (alayhis  salaam)  from  proceeding  on  his  holy  mission of  sacrifice.  Each  time  Hadhrat  Ibraheem  (alayhis  salaam)  pelted the  shaitaan  with  pebbles.  The  places  where  he  pelted  the  shaitaan are  marked  by  three  short  pillars  which  are  known  as  the  Jamraat. The  first  pillar  is  known  as  Jamrah  Ula; the  second,  Jamrah  Wusta and  the  last  one,  Jamrah  Uqba.  

MUZDALIFAH:  This  place  is  also  situated  in  the  same  plain  on the  north  eastern  side.  It  is  two  or  three  miles  further  than  Mina. This  is  a  vast  plain,  Muzdalifah  is  not  as  developed  as  Mina.  On the  return  from  Arafaat,  it  is  Sunnat  to  stay  here  overnight.  

ARAFAAT:  Two  or  three  miles  ahead  of  Muzdalifah  in  this  same mountain  range  is  a  vast  plain  surrounded  by  mountains.  This glorious  plain  is  known  as  Arafaat.  

On  the  9th  Zil  Hijj  all  the  Hujjaaj  (pilgrims)  gather  here  in  a mighty  concourse  and  remain  until  sunset.  It  is  Fardh  to  reach  here before  sunset.  Due  to  the  vast  multitude  of  tents,  one  has  to  be careful  when  leaving  one’s  own  tent  since  it  is  difficult  to  find one’s  way  back.  A  person  searching  for  a  lost  one  also  gets  lost here.  If  one  gets  lost  here,  the  only  place  to  link  up  again  with  ones companions  is  in  the  Haram  Shareef.

ARKAAN (THE CORNERS) OF BAITULLAAH

The  Baitullaah  Shareef  has  four  corners.  Each  corner  is  called  a Rukn.  At  the  north  eastern  corner  on  the  outside,  is  a  black  round stone  fixed  at  a  height  of  about  two  metres.  This  corner  is  called Rukn-e- Aswad and the scone is called Hajr-e-Aswad

In  the  south  western  corner  at  a  height  of  about  two  metres  a reddish  stone  is  fixed.  This  corner  is  called  Rukn-e-Yamaani because it is situated in the direction of Yemen. 

The  north  western  corner  is  called  Rukn-e-Shaami  because  it  is situated  in  the  direction  of  the  land  of  Shaam.  

The  corner  in  the  direction  of  Iraq  is  called  Rukn-e-Iraqi.  

MULTAZAM:  Multazam  is  the  area  between  the  Door  of Baitullah  Shareef  and  Hajr-e-Aswad.  It  is  Masnoon  to  lay  here  and make  dua.  

MUSJID  KHAIF:  This  is  the  name  of  the  great  Musjid  of  Mina. It  is  located  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  in  the  north  of  Mina.  

MUSJID NAMRAH: This is the Musjid  at  the  edge  of  Arafaat.  
WADI  MUHASSAR:  Wadi  Muhassar  is  a  plain  adjoining Muzdalifah.  When  passing  here,  one  has  to  run  and  emerge quickly.  The  Divine  Punishment  which  destroyed  the  Companions of  the  Elephant  who  came  to  destroy  the  Ka’bah  occurred  here.  

MAUQAF:  Mauqaf  is  the  place  where  the  Pilgrim  stops  over  for executing  acts  of  Hajj.  The  Plain  of  Arafaat  and  Muzdalifah  are Mauqaf.  The  Hujjaaj  have  to  stay  over  at  these  places.  

MATAAF:  This  is  the  area  around  the  Baitullah  Shareef  where Tawaaf  is  performed.  This  area  has  been  tiled  out  in  marble.  

HATEEM:  The  Hateem  is  part  of  the  Baitullah  Shareef. Approximately  six  Islamic  yards  of  the  original  Ka’bah  has  not been  included  in  the  Ka’bah  building.  This  adjoining  open  area  of the  Ka’bah  is  on  the  northern  side  of  the  Baitullaah  Shareef.  The Hateem  is  also  known  as  Hajr-e-Khateerah.

THE  BOUNDARIES  OF  THE  HARAM  OF MAKKAH MUKARRAMAH

The  area  of  the  Haram  surrounds  Makkah  Mukarramah  on  the outskirts.  Hunting,  cutting  grass  and  trees  are  not  permissible within  these  Holy  Precincts  (i.e.  the  Haram  of  Makkah).  If  a  wild animal  was  killed  accidentally  or  a  tree  was  cut,  Kaffaarah (compensation) is Waajib.  Pillars  as  landmarks  have  been  erected  at  the  limits  of  the Haram  Shareef.  A  pillar  marking  the  boundary  of  the  Haram  is located  on  the  road  to  Arafaat.  In  fact,  two  pillars  are  located  at this  boundary.  Pillars  marking the  boundaries  have  been  erected  at various distances around Makkah Mukarramah. 

The  eastern  wall  of  Makkah  Mukarramah  is  known  as  Soor Baabil  Muamalaat.  The  sacred  Qabrustaan  (cemetery)  and  Jannatul Mualla  are  on  that  side.  The  north  westerly  wall  facing  Madinah Munawwarah  is  called  Soor  Baabil  Shabeekah.  The  wall  facing Yemen is called Soor Baabil Yemen and Soor Baabil Maajin

Makkah  Mukarramah  is  surrounded  by  two  mountains  ranges. The  one  is  called  Jabal  Abu  Qubais  and  the  other,  Jabal  Qeeqa’an. These  two  mountains  together  are  called  Akhshabatain.  Jabal  Abu Qubais  is  known  as  Akhshab  Sharqi  and  Jabal  Qeeqa’an  is  called Akhshab Gharbi

Makkah  Mukarramah  is  in  the  land  of  Hijaaz.  Hijaaz  is surrounded  by  Egypt,  Shaam,  Yemen  and  Iraq

THE TERMS OF HAJJ

ISTILAAM  is  to  kiss  Hajr-e-Aswad  and  to  touch  it  with  the hands.  The  mere  touching  of  Hajr-e-Aswad  and  Rukn-e-Yamani  is also  Istilaam.  

IDHTIBA’  means  to  draw  the  upper  sheet  of  the  Ihraam  garment under  the  right  arm-pit  and,  casting  it  over  the  left  shoulder, leaving  the  right  shoulder  bare.  

AAFAAQEE  is  a  person  who  lives  outside  the  Meeqaat boundaries.  

MUFRID  is  a  person  who  performs  only  Hajj,  i.e.  Hajj  without Umrah.  

QAARIN  is  a  person  who  performs  Hajj  and  Umrah  together  with one  Ihraam.  

MUTAMATTI’  is  a  person  who  performs  Hajj  and  Umrah  in  the same  journey,  but  with  two  separate  Ihraams.

UMRAH  is  to  enter  into  Ihraam  from  Hiell  or  Meeqaat  and making  Tawaaf  of  Baitullah  and  Sa-ee  between  Safa  and  Marwah.

HIELL  is  the  region  between  the  Meeqaat  and  the  boundaries  of the  Haram  Shareef.

BATN  URNAH  is  a  veld  near  to  Arafaat.  Wuqoof  is  not permissible  here  since  it  is  outside  Arafaat.

WUQOOF is to halt  at  Arafaat  and  Muzdalifah.

RAMI is  to  pelt  the  Pillars  symbolizing  shaitaan.

JAMRAAT are the three  Pillars  which  are  pelted.

TALBIYAH is to  recite  the  formula  appeared above.

TAHLEEL is to  recite

HALQ is to  shave  the  head.  

QASR is  to  cut  the  hair.

RAML  is  to  walk  in  a  soldierly  style  in  the  first  three  Shauts  of Tawaaf.

SHAUT  is  one  circumbulation  of  the  Ka’bah.  Going  around  the Ka’bah  seven  times,  i.e.  seven  Shauts,  constitutes  a  Tawaaf.

SA-EE  is  to  make  seven  circuits  (Shauts)  between  Safa  and Marwah.

IFRAAD is  the  performance  of  Hajj  only.

QIRAAN  is  the  performance  of  Umrah  and  Hajj  together  in  one Ihraam.

TAMATTU‘  is  the  performance  of  Umrah  and  Hajj  together  in  a single  journey  with  two  Ihraam.

YAUM-E-TARWIYAH is the 8th  Zil  Hijj.

YAUM-E-ARAFAH is the 9th  Zil  Hijj.

YAUM-E-NAHR is the  10th  Zil  Hijj.

AYYAAM-E-NAHR are the 10th,  11th  and  12th  Zil  Hijj.

DUM  is  the  sacrificial  animal  which  is  stipulated  as  a  penalty  for violating  the  state  of  Ihraam  and  the  Haram.

SADQAH  is  also  a  penalty  for  violations  committed  during  the state  of  Ihraam.  Its  amount  is  the  amount  of  Sadaqatul  Fitr  (Fitrah).

JABAL QAZH is a mountain  in  Muzdalifah.

JABAL THABEER is a mountain  at  Mina.

JABAL RAHMAT is a mountain at  Arafaat.

JINAAYAT is an error committed during the state of Ihraam.

SUMMARY  OF  THE  COMPULSORY  ACTS  OF HAJJ

UMRAH
(1)  Ihraam

(2)  Tawaaf.  In  this  Tawaaf,  Raml  is  Sunnat.  

(3)  Sa-ee. 

(4)  Halq  or  Qasr.

IFRAAD
(1)  Ihraam.

(2)  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  which  is  Sunnat.

(3)  Wuqoof-e-Arafaat.

(4)  Wuqoof-e-Muzdalifah.

(5)  Rami  of  Jamrah  Uqba.

(6)  Qurbaani.

(7)  Halq  or  Qasr.

(8)  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.

(9)  Sa-ee.

(10)  Rami  of  the  Jimaar.

(11)  Tawaaf-e-Wida’.

QIRAAN
(1)  Ihraam  of  Hajj  and  Umrah.

(2)  Tawaaf  of  Umrah.  Raml  is  Sunnat  in  this  Tawaaf.

(3)  Sa-ee  of  Umrah.

(4)  Tawaaf-e-Qudoom  with  Raml.  This  Tawaaf  is  Sunnat.

(5)  Sa-ee.

(6)  Wuqoof-e-Arafaat.

(7)  Wuqoof-e-Muzdalifah.

(8)  Rami  of  Jamrah  Uqba.

(9)  Qurbaani.

(10)  Halq  or  Qasr.

(11)  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.

(12)  Rami  Jimaar.

(13)  Tawaaf-e-Wida’.

TAMATTU’ HAJJ
(1)  Ihraam  of  Umrah.

(2)  Tawaaf  of  Umrah  with  Ramal.  Ramal  is  Sunnat.

(3)  Sa-ee  of  Umrah.

(4)  Halq  or  Qasr.

(5)  Ihraam  of  Hajj  on  8th  Zil  Hijj.

(6)  Wuqoof-e-Arafaat.

(7)  Wuqoof-e-Muzdalifah.

(8)  Rami  Jamrah  Uqba.

(9)  Qurbaani.

(10)  Halq  or  Qasr.

(11)  Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.

(12)  Sa-ee.

(13)  Rami  Jimaar.

(14) Tawaaf-e-Wida.

There  are  two  types  of  Tamattu‘.  Here  we  have  explained  only the popular form of Tamattu‘.

THE  PLACES  WHERE  DUA  IS  ACCEPTED READILY

Dua  is  accepted  by  Allah  ‘Ta’ala  readily  at  the  following  places:  
(1)  Inside  the  Baitullah  Shareef.

(2)  Near  to  Hajr-e-Aswad.

(3)  Under  Meezaab-e-Rahmat.

(4)  Near  to  Rukn-e-Yamaani.

(5)  Near  to  Maqaam-e-Ibraheem.

(6)  Near  to  the  Jamraat.

(7)  Near  to  the  Multazam.

(8)  Near  to  the  Well  of  Zam  Zam.

(9)  On  Mount  Safa.

(10)  On  Mount  Marwah.

(11)  Between  Safa  and  Marwah.
(12)  Between  Rukn-e-Yamaani  and  Maqaame  Ibraheem.

(13)  At  Mina,  especially  in  Musjid  Khaif.

(14)  At  Arafaat.

(15)  At  Mash’arul  Haraam’.

(16)  Near  to  Mustajaar.

(17)  In  front  of  the  entrance  to  the  Ka’bah.

(18)  In  the  Hateem.

(19) From wherever the Ka’bah is visible.

My  honourable  Brethren!  Take  advantage  of  this  golden opportunity  and  engage  fervently  in  dua.  These  are  sacred  and auspicious  places  where  duas  are  quickly  heard  and  readily accepted.  Once  you  depart  from  the  Holy  Ka’bah  and  these  sacred places  of  Makkah  Mukarramah,  you  may  not  again  attain  this wonderful opportunity of securing such great blessings.

ON REACHING HOME

When  you  reach  your  hometown,  recite  the  following  dua:

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Translation:  O  Allah!  I  ask  you  for  its  goodness,  the  goodness  of its  inhabitants  and  the  goodness  in  it.  I  seek  your  protection  from its  evil,  the  evil  of  its  inhabitants  and  the  evil  of  what  is  in  it.  O Allah!  establish  us  in  it  and  grant  us  a  beautiful  sustenance.  

On  entering  your  hometown,  recite:

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As  far  as  is  possible  do  not  go  home  immediately  nor  arrive  at night.  Notify  your  family  of  your  arrival.  The  best  time  to  arrive back  home  is  the  time  of  Dhuhaa  (about  an  hour  or  two  after sunrise),  if  this  is  possible.  If  this  is  not  possible,  then  in  the  late afternoon  before  sunset.  Before  going  home,  proceed  to  the  Musjid and  perform  two  Raka’ts  Salaat  if  it  is  not  a  Makruh  time.  Make dua  and  express  your  thanks  and  gratefulness  (shukr)  to  Allah Ta’ala  for  your  safe  arrival  home.  Recite:

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Make  musafahah  (shake  hands)  with  whomever  (i.e.  Muslims)  you meet.  After  entering  your  home,  perform  two  raka’ts  Salaat.  Then recite  the  praises  of  Allah  Ta’ala  and  express  your  shukr  to  Him. When  people  meet  you,  be  humble  and  meet  them  happily  and make  dua.  Before  entering  the  city  make  special  dua.  The  dua  of the  Hajji  before  entering  the  city  is  readily  accepted  by  Allah Ta’ala. 

CONCLUSION

The  Rooh  (soul)  of  all  the  actions  and  rites  of  the  Hajj  is  the intention  to  renew  Taubah  (repentance)  after  returning  from  the auspicious  journey.  In  addition,  Taqwa  (piety)  has  to  be  cultivated.

On  returning  from  the  sacred  journey,  strive  in  acts  of  virtue  and piety. 

The  sign  of  Hajj-e-Mabroor  (Hajj  which  Allah  Ta’ala  has accepted)  is  an  improved  spiritual  condition.  The  sign  of  having achieved  such  improvement  is  eagerness  to  follow  the  Sunnah  of Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam),  love  and  attachment  for the  world  and  worldly  people  diminishing  and  love  for  the Aakhirah  and  the  people  of  Aakhirah  increasing.

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Ziyaarat of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)

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INTRODUCTION 

Ziyaarat or presenting yourself in the Sacred Court of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) at Madinah Munawwarah is indeed among the greatest blessings and fortunes. Whoever is blessed with the opportunity of making Ziyaarat of Nabi-e-Kareem (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) should have an understanding of the tremendous significance and the wonderful fortune of this Sacred Visit. A windfall of the greatest thawaab has come his way. He must, therefore, acquire the maximum benefit from this golden opportunity which Allah Ta’ala has bestowed on him. 

Many people, due to lack of knowledge, lack of proper understanding of the importance of the Ziyaarat or through negligence ruin this great chance of gaining the great and wonderful spiritual benefits and thawaab attendant to the Ziyaarat. It is for this reason that this article has become expedient. May Allah Ta’ala accept this small service and may He fill our hearts with the true love of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) – a love which will manifest itself in our practical life in the assertion and dominance of the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam).

Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said:

My shafaa’at (intercession) is waajib (obligatory) for the one who visits my grave.”

Verily,  he  who  made  Hajj  and  refrained  from  visiting  me  (i.e.  my Qabar),  has  rendered  me  an injustice.”

Ziyaarat  of  Rasulullah’s  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  holy  Qabar  (grave)  is  the  highest  of  Mustahab  acts. Therefore,  those  who  proceed  for  Hajj  should  consider  it  incumbent  upon  themselves  to  make  the  Ziyaarat.  In order  to  understand  the  importance  and  significance  of  the  journey  to  Madinah  Munawwarah,  it  is  necessary to  cite  some  Ahadith  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).  As  long  as  the  significance,    sanctity  and importance  of  Madinah  Munawwarah  are  not  embedded  in  the  heart,  the  visitor  will  not  be  in   the  position  to correctly discharge the rights of the Sacred Visit to the Holy City.

Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  said:

1.  “The  la’nat  (curse)  of  Allah,  of  the  Malaaikah  and  of  all  creation  descends  on  a  person  who  introduces  a bid’ah  (innovation)  in  Madinah  or  gives  refuge  to  a  bid’ati  (innovator)  in  Madinah.  Neither  the  Fardh  nor  Nafl (acts  of  Ibaadat)  of  such  a  person  is  accepted”.

2.  “I  will  be  the  intercessor  for  the  Mu’min  who  patiently  bears  the  hardships  and  hunger  (which  he  may encounter)  in  Madinah.”

3.  “I  was  commanded  to  make  Hijrat  (migrate)  to  a  city  which  overwhelms  all  cities.  Madinah  Munawwarah drives  away evil  people  like  a  furnace  purifies  steel.”

4.  “He  who deceives  the  people  of  Madinah  will  recede  into  insignificance  like  salt  is  dissolved  by water.”

5. “Among the lands of Islam, the very last city to be destroyed will be Madinah.”

Numerous  Ahadith  regarding  the  sanctity,  significance  and  excellence  of  Madinah  Tayyibah  have  been narrated.  In  the  Ahadith  it  has  been  said  that  in  the  sands  of  Madinah  Tayyibah  is  a  cure  for  every  disease. Hadhrat Shaikh  Abdul  Haqq  Muhaddith  Dehlwi  (Rahmatullah  alayh)  said: “When  I was  in  Madinah  Tayyibah  my feet  were  swollen. I  used  the  blessed  sand  as  treatment  (for  my ailment). Within a few days I was cured.”

In  view  of  the  sanctity  and  significance  of  Madinah  Tayyibah,  it  is  essential  to  respect  and  honour  the  people  of Madinah. Regarding  the  inhabitants  of  Madinah  Tayyibah,  Nabi-e-Kareem  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  said:

My  Ummah  should  protect  the  honour  and  dignity  of  my  neighbours.  My  Ummah  must  not  be  deficient  in fulfilling  their  rights.  Overlook  their  faults  as  long  as  they  abstain  from  major  sins.  He  who  protects  their honour, I shall be his witness on the Day of Qiyaamah.”

Those  who  disrespect  the  people  of  Madinah  or  quarrel  with  them,  should  digest  the  following  warning  of Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam):

He  who  dishonors  the  people  of  Madinah  will  be  given  to  drink  from  Teenatul  Khabal.”

Teenatul  Khabal is  a  pond  in  Jahannum  where  the  blood,  evil  fluids  and  impurities  of  the  inmates  of  the  Fire  will accumulate.

He  who  frightens  the  people  of  Madinah  is  like  a  person  who  frightens  me.  Neither  his  Fardh  nor  his  Nafl  if accepted.

From  the  few  statements  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam),  which  we  have  cited  above,  you  will  be able  to  understand  the  holiness  and  greatness  of  Madinah  Munawwarah  and  its  inhabitants.  You  have, therefore,  to  regard  your  opportunity  to  visit  the  sacred  city  and  the  Sacred  Raudhah  (Grave)  of  Rasulullah (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  as  a  great  fortune.  You  must,  therefore,  spend  every  moment  of  your  time  in Madinah  Tayyibah  constructively  so  as  to  obtain  maximum  benefit  and  Thawaab.  In  the  pursuit  of  the wonderful  rewards  of  the  Ziyaarat  it  is  imperative  that  you  diligently  guard  your  heart,  tongue  and  limbs. Abstain totally from all evil, futile and nonsensical acts and discussions. Speak only when necessary.

ZIYAARAT  OF  THE SACRED  QABAR

Although  it  is  permissible  to  render  the  Ziyaarat  before  or  after  Hajj,  the  following  course  is  best:

a.  If  the  Hajj  is  Fardh,  it  is  best  to  make  Ziyaarat  after  completing  the  Hajj.

b.  If  it  is  a  nafl  Hajj,  it  will  be  the  same  if  Ziyaarat  is  made  before  or  after  Hajj.

c.  Those  who  approach  Makkah  Mukarramah  from  the  direction  of  Madinah  Tayyibah,  should  render  the Ziyaarat before Hajj.

The  visitor  must  constantly  remind  himself  that  he  is  not  on  a  holiday  tour.  This  is  no  ordinary  visit.  He  is  on  a holy  journey  and  is,  therefore,  bound  to  observe  all  rules,  respects  and  etiquettes  of  the  sacred  visit.  He  must at  no  time  indulge  in  any  act  or  discussion  which  despoils  or  detracts  from  the  sacredness  and  thawaab  of  the holy visit.

THE NIYYAT

When  about  to  set  out  for  the  journey  to  Madinah  Tayyibah  make  niyyat  (that  is,  form  an  intention  of  Ziyaarat of Raudha-e-Aqdas (the Holiest Grave) as well as niyyat of Musjid-e-Nabawi. This form of niyyat is best.

EN  ROUTE TO MADINAH TAYYIBAH

Along  the  journey  to  Madinah  Tayyibah  recite  Durood  Shareef  in  abundance.  In  fact,  spend  all  available  time, other  than  the  time  engaged  in  Fardh  acts,  reciting  Durood  Shareef.  In  this  way  endeavor  to  imbue  eagerness and enthusiasm in your heart for the Ziyaarat.

On  your  way  to  Madinah  Tayyibah  visit  all  the  holy  places  which  you  pass  by.  Perform  Salaat  in  those  Musjids which  are  specifically related  to  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  and  the  Sahaabah  (Radhiallahu  anhum). Drink of the waters of the holy wells which you locate along the road to Madinah Tayyibah.

As  you  near  Madinah  Tayyibah,  increase  your  recitation  of  Durood  Shareef.  Endeavor  to  imbue  in  your  heart love  and  fervor  for  the  Ziyaarat.  If  you  are  unable  to  induce  such  feelings  physically  in  your  heart,  then  at  least attempt to create such a mental state. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) must be foremost in your mind.

When  your  gaze  first  falls  on  the  trees  and  buildings  of  Madinah  Tayyibah,  recite  Durood  Shareef  much  and make  dua.  It  is  best  to  dismount  from  the  vehicle  and  walk  on  foot,  if  this  is  possible.  It  is  best  to  proceed  barefooted and shedding tears.

When you reach the boundary of Madinah Tayyibah, recite Durood Shareef and the following dua:

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Transliteration: Allahumma Haadha Haramu Nabeeka faj’alahuli wa qaayata minanaar wa aamana munal adhaabi wa sawaa al hisaab.

If  possible,  take  ghusl  before  entering  the  City.  If  this  is  not  possible,  take  ghusl  after  having  entered  the  City.  If for  some  reason,  this  too  is  not  possible,  make  wudhu.  But,  ghusl  is  afdhal  (best)  Don  Clean  garments  and  if possible,  new garments.

As you enter the City Gates, recite:

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INSIDE  MADINAH TAYYIBAH

When  your  gaze  falls  on  the  sacred  Green  Dome,  contemplate  its  sanctity  and  nobility.  This  is  the  holiest  place. After  having  entered  the  City,  endeavor  to  firstly  enter  Musjid  Nabawi.  It  is  best  for  women  to  make  the Ziyaarat  during  the  night.

Enter  Musjid  Nabawi  with  your  right  foot  and  with  utmost  humility and  reverence.  As  you  enter,  recite: 

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You  may  enter  Musjid  Nabawi  from  any  entrance  you  wish.  However,  it  is  of  greater  merit  to  enter  through  the entrance known as Baabul Jibraeel.

Inside  the  Musjid  perform  two  raka’ts  Tahyatul  Musjid  in  the  area  known  as  Raudhah.  This  is  the  area  between the  Mimbar  and  the  Holy  Grave  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).  In  the  first  raka’t  recite  Surah  Qul Yaa  Ayyuhal  kaafiroon  after  Surah  Faatihah.  In  the  second  raka’t,  after  Surah  Faatihah,  recite  Surah  Qul Huwallahu  Ahad.  Speaking  on  the  significance  of  the  area  known  as  the  Raudhah,  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi Wasallam) said:

Between my home and my Mimbar is a Garden of the Gardens of Jannat.”

Although  it  is  afdhal  (best  and  of  greater  merit)  to  perform  the  two  raka’ts  Tahyatul  Musjid  in  the  Mihraab  of Nabi  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam),  you  may  perform  it  anywhere  in  the  Raudhah,  wherever  you  find  place. After this  Salaat,  engage  in  HamdThana  and  Shukr.  Thereafter,  make  dua  for  the  acceptance  of  your  Ziyaarat.  Then, again  perform  two  raka’ts  Saalatush  Shukr  which  is  Salaat  performed  in  gratitude  to  Allah  Ta’ala  for  having blessed you with the great favour of Ziyaarat.

If  at  the  time  of  entry  into  the  Musjid,  Jama’at  of  Fardh  Salaat  has  begun  or  there  is  fear  of  your  Salaat becoming  Qadha,  then  perform  the  Fardh  Salaat.  In  this  case  do  not  engage  in  Tahyatul  Musjid.  Your  Tahyatul Musjid  will  be  incorporated  into  the  Fardh  Salaat.  By  joining  in  the  Fardh  Salaat,  Tahyatul  Musjid  will  be rendered as well.

THE WAY OF RECITING SALAAM AT THE HOLY RAUDHAH (GRAVE)

After  Tahyatul  Musjid,  proceed  to  the  Sacred  Qabr  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  with  much reverence,  humility,  eagerness  and  respect.  Banish  all  affairs  and  thoughts  of  the  world  from  your  heart  and mind,  and  brace  yourself  for  your  presence  in  the  Court    of  the  Leader  of  mankind,  our  beloved  Rasulullah (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).

Stand  about  a  metre  from  the  pillar  which  is  located  at  the  corner  of  the  wall  at  the  head-side  of  the  Holy Qabar.  Stand  with  your  back  towards  the  Qiblah  an  move  slightly  to  the  left  so  that  you  directly  face  the  Holiest of  Faces.  Do  not  cast  your  gaze  all  over  the  show.  Adopt  an  attitude  of  utmost  respect  and  awe.  It  is  not respectful  to  cast  the  gaze  all  over.  Do  not  do  anything  disrespectful. Do  not  stand  very close  to  the  Holy  Qabar.

Do  not  touch  the  wire-mesh  enclosure.  Do  not  kiss  nor  make  Sajdah.  While  standing  there  picture  in  your  mind that  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  is  reclining,  facing  the  Qiblah  inside  the  Holy  Qabar  and  that  he  is listening to the Salaams which are being recited. Recite  your  Salaam  in  a  moderate  tone,  not  too  softly  nor  too  loudly. Recite  the  Salaam  in  the  following  way:

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After  the  Salaam  make  dua,  invoking  the  Waseelah  (agency)  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam),  i.e. make  your  dua  to  Allah  Ta’ala,  asking  Him  (Allah  Ta’ala)  to  accept  your  dua  through  the  Waseelah  of  Nabi-e-Kareem  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).  Make  a  request  for  the  Shafaa’at  (Intercession  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) in the following way:

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O  Rasulullah!  I  ask  you  for  Shafaa’t  (Intercession)  and  I  supplicate  Allah  Ta’ala  through  your  Waseelah  that  I die  as  a  Muslim,  steadfast  on  your  Millat  and  your  Sunnah.”

It  is  not  compulsory  to  recite  the  above  Salaam  formula.  You  may  recite  any  other  form  of  Salaam  as  you  wish. If  one  cannot  remember  any  long  form  of  Salaam,  recite  whatever  you  can  remember  of  it.  The  minimum requirement for Salaam is to say: 

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If  someone  had  requested  you  to  convey  their  Salaams  to  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam),  do  so.  After you  have  recited  your  own  Salaams,  convey  the  Salaams  of  the  one  who  had  requested  you,  in  the  followind way:

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Salaam  upon  you,  O Rasulullah!  From…..  (Menton  the  name  of  the  person). He  seeks  your  intercession  by  Your Rabb.

While  conveying  the  Salaams  of  the  person  who  had  requested  you,  recite  his  name  after  the  word (min) which appears in the Arabic Salaam, above.

If several people had asked you to convey their Salaams, do so in the following manner:

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Salaam upon you, O Rasulullah, from all those who had requested me to convey Salaams to you.

On  the  right  side  of  the  Holy  Qabar  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  is  the  Qabar  of  Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr Siddique  (radhiyallahu  anhu).  Move  slightly  to  the  right  and  while  standing  in  line  with  the  holy  face  of  Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu), recite Salaam on him in the following way:

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On  the  right  of  Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr’s (radhiyallahu anhu) grave  is  the  Qabar  of  Hadhrat  Umar  (radhiyallahu  anhu).  Stand  facing Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) and recite Salaam as follows:

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You are at liberty to recite lengthier or shorter formulae of Salaams. According  to  some  Ulama,  after  completing  the  Salaam  on  Hadhrat  Umar  (radhiyallahu  anhu),  one  should  move to  a  position  between  the  two  graves  of  these  two  Khulafa  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  and renew the Salaam as follows:

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Thereafter,  face  the  Holy  Qabar  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  and  once  again  renew  the  recitation of  Salaam  on  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).  Then  recite  Hamd  and  Thana;  then  Durood  Shareef  and make  dua  to  Allah  Ta’ala,  invoking  the  Waseelah  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).  Again  request  for Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)’s  Shafaa’at.  When  making  dua,  raise  both  hands.  Your  dua  should  be  for yourself,  parents, Mashaaikh,  family,  relatives,  friends  and  for  all  Muslims  in  general.  After  the  Salaam,  it  is  best to say as follows:

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After  having  made  the  Ziyaarat,  go  to  the  pillar  known  as  the  Pillar  of  Abi  Lubaabah.  Perform  two  raka’ts  Nafl Salaat  there  and  make  dua.  Then  come  into  the  area  known  as  Raudhah  and  perform  Nafl  Salaat  in  any quantity  you  wish.  However,  do  not  perform  any  Salaat  if  it  is  a  Makrooh  time.  Recite  Durood  Shareef  here  in abundance and make dua.

Thereafter  proceed  to  the  Mimbar;  place  your  hands  on  it;  recite  Durood  Shareef  and  make  dua.  Then  go  to  the pillar  known  as  the  Pillar  of  Hanaanah.  Make  dua  and  recite  Istighfaar.  Do  the  same  at  the  other  pillars.  After this, return to your place of residence.

Consider  the  time  you  have  available  in  Madinah  Tayyibah  as  a  golden  opportunity.  Spend  most  of  your  time  in Musjid  Nabawi.  When  in  the  Musjid,  make  niyyat  for  I’tikaafNafl  I’tikaaf  is  of  any  duration.  Even  one  minute Nafl  I’tikaaf  is  valid.  Therefore,  whenever  you  are  inside  the  Musjid  make  niyyat  of  I’tikaaf.  Endeavor  to  make khatm of the Qur’aan Shareef in the Musjid.

Give  Sadqah  to  the  poor  according  to  your  means.  Honour  and  respect  the  poor,  the  Caretakers  of  the  Holy Places  and  all  the  inhabitants  of  Madinah  Tayyibah.  Treat  them  with  respect.  Deal  with  them  with  love  and kindness.  In  honouring  them  you  are  honouring  and  pleasing  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).  Even  if they  are  perhaps  unjust  or  unkind  with  you,  bear  it  with  patience.  Do  not  quarrel  and  dispute.  When  buying and selling with them, make the niyyat of aiding them. Such a niyyat merits Thawaab.

Endeavor  to  be  present  at  Musjid  Nabawi  five  times  daily.  Ensure  that  your  back  is  not  towards  the  Holy  Grave, whether  you  are  performing  Salaat  or  not. Whenever  you  pass  by the  Holy  Qabar,  recite  Salaams, even  if  it  be  a short Salaam and even if you happen to be outside the Musjid.

OTHER PLACES  OF ZIYAARAT

It  is  Mustahab  to  also  visit  the  Qabrastaan  (cemetery)  known  as  Jannatul  Baqi  where  the  graves  of  the Sahaabah-e-Kiraam  and  of  members  of  Rasulullah’s  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  Family  are.  Make  a  point  of visiting the Qabar of Sayyudush Shuhada (The Leader of Martyrs, Hadhrat Hamzah (radhiyallahu anhu).

Visit Musjid Quba as well as other Musjids. Visit the holy wells and drink of their water.

YOUR DEPARTURE

After  you  have  completed  all  Ziyaarat  and  when  you  intend  to  depart,  do  so  from  Musjid  Nabawi  after performing  Salaam  and  making  dua.  If  possible,  perform  your  departing  Salaat  of  two  raka’ts  Nafl  on  or  near  to the  Musalla  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).  If  this  not  possible,  perform  it  wherever  place  is available  in  the  Musjid.  After  this  Salaat  proceed  to  the  Sacred  Raudhah  (Grave)  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi Wasallam).  Recite  Salaams  on  Rasulullah  (Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam).  After  Salaam,  make  dua  in  all earnestness.  Your  dua  should  cover  all  Deeni  as  well  as  worldly  needs  and  wishes.  Make  dua  for  yourself, family,  relatives  and  all  Muslims.  Make  dua  for  the  acceptance  of  your  Ibaadat  and  for  steadfastness  on  the Deen. Make dua for a death on Imaan and for a safe return home.

Among  the  signs  of  the  acceptance  of  one’s  efforts  and  Ibaadat  is  the  ready  flow  of  tears.  If  you  are  unable  to shed  tears,  recite  such  dua  which  induce  tenderness  in  the  heart  and  make  an  attempt  to  shed  some  tears. With  a  heart  stricken  with  grief  and  sorrow  at  the  impending  separation,  take  your  leave.  Do  not  move backwards  when  leaving  because  such  action  is  exclusive  for  the  Ka’bah. Depart  in  sadness  giving  Sadqah  to  the poor  of  Madinah  Tayyibah  liberally.  While  reciting  the  duas  of  safar  (journey)  walk  away.  Take  along  with  you some dates and water of the seven wells as tabarrukaat.

If  your  remember,  do  include  the us in  your  duas  at  the  Sacred  Places.

How to Perform Umrah

The rituals of performing Umrah explained in simple English

[By Shaykh Muhammad Saleem Dhorat]

INTRODUCTION

This brief but comprehensive book is presented to you to outline the rituals of Umrah. It is only through the Infinite Mercy of Allah ta‘ala that I have been able to contribute this humble work for the cause of Islam.

It was in 1987, when I was recovering from my chronic illness, that my brother, (Maulana) Haafiz Ismail, directed my attention towards the need for a short and comprehensive book on Umrah in English. He repeatedly reminded me of his desire and insisted that I proceed with it. Inspite of my weakness, both spiritual and physical, I also had the great desire to do so, thus I firmly resolved and commenced the work in the name of Allah ta‘ala.

This book contains all the necessary information regarding the method, rites and formalities of  Umrah, with diagrams and sketches where appropriate. Inshaa’allah, you will find in it answers to many of your questions.

May Allah ta‘ala through His Mercy and Kindness pardon me for any errors herein, and abundantly reward all for their effort in making this publication possible.

I earnestly request the readers to remember me, my teachers, family and friends and all those who have contributed in the publication of this book in their du‘aa

Muhammad Saleem Dhorat Leicester, England

IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS

1.      It must be stressed at the very outset that there should be a sincere intention to perform  Umrah, for all actions are judged by intentions. The Holy Prophet  (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

The reward of deeds depends on the intentions”.  _Bukhaari

The intention must be to please Allah ta‘ala exclusively, hopeful of earning rewards only from Allah ta‘ala, the Creator, believing in what has been promised by Allah ta‘ala through our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and performing the act according to the way shown by him. Hence, this must always be borne in our minds.

2.        Do not let the thought enter your mind that you are going on a trip or a holiday. No! You are going to fulfil one of the greatest  Sunnah  of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). You are going to Makkah where our beloved Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was born and to Madinah where he is resting. You are going to visit the house of Allah ta‘ala – Ka‘bah, which is surrounded by angels on all sides, and upon which continuously descend the Mercy and Blessings of Allah ta‘ala.

3.        As regards to your visit to the holy places, it must be borne in mind that Allah ta‘ala does not grant such blessed opportunities to all, and for those whom He has blessed with the opportunity, it will be very unfortunate to have spent time and wealth, and gain no benefit and reward. Generally, the loss and ruin is brought by Shaytaan  and  nafs  (base desires). Therefore, be conscious of their deception and wickedness.

4.        It is advisable to study this book prior to your departure for  Umrah, preferably with an  aalim  of your locality, seeking his explanations on what you do not understand.  Thus you will be able to follow the instructions laid down in this book with ease.

5.        If you have any queries concerning religious matters or concerning the  Umrah, consult an  aalim or a knowledgeable person and seek his advice.

Abdullah Ibn Mas‘ood (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Perform Hajj and Umrah one after the other for surely they (Hajj and Umrah) remove poverty and sins just as the furnace removes the dirt of iron, gold and silver.”  _Tirmizi, Nasa‘ee

UMRAH

Umrah is also known as the ‘minor Hajj’. It is a Sunnah and can be performed anytime during the year except for the five days of  Hajj, i.e. from 9th Zul Hijjah to 13th Zul Hijjah. In these five days, it is  makrooh tahreemi  to perform  Umrah.

Virtues of  Umrah

1. One  Umrah  is an expiation for the sins committed between it and another  Umrah. _Bukhaari, Muslim

2. To perform one Umrah in Ramadhan is equivalent to a  Hajj. In another narration, … equivalent to  Hajj with me (The Prophet). _Muslim

3. The performers of Hajj and Umrah are deputations of Allah ta‘ala. If they call Him, He answers them and if they seek His Forgiveness, He forgives them. _Ibne Maajah

Necessary acts of  Umrah

The  fardh  of  Umrah  are:

1. Ihraam  (i.e. special dressing,  niyyah  and  talbiyah).

2. Tawaaf  (with  niyyah).

The  waajib  of  Umrah  are:

Sa‘ee  between Safaa and Marwah.

2.  Halaq  or  Qasr.

DEPARTURE

1. Before departure, perform two  raka‘at  nafl  in your house. On completing the two  raka‘at, firstly  thank Allah ta‘ala for the favour which He has bestowed upon you by giving you the understanding and the blessed opportunity to go on this holy mission.

2. Thereafter, make  du‘aa  to Allah ta‘ala. Ask Him to make the journey easy for you and to make it full of  blessings and gains. Also that He safeguards you from the evil of Shaytaan and  nafs. Further that He gives you the opportunity to utilise your time in those actions which will bring His Pleasure and that He accepts your  Umrah.

3.  Now start your journey. Throughout your journey you must perform the daily five  fardh  Salaat regularly and punctually. You must not be a cause of harm to anyone. On the contrary, you should be of assistance to anyone who needs help. Do not waste your time. Engage  yourself in learning, teaching, preaching and  remembrance of Allah ta‘ala.

IHRAAM

1. On (or prior to) reaching  Meeqaat [(i.e It is the place which is fixed for putting on ihraam or in other words, it is the boundary beyond which a person intending to go to Makkah cannot go without  ihraam. (Jeddah is beyond this boundary, therefore one must put on  ihraam  before reaching Jeddah)], perform  ghusl  if possible, otherwise  wudhoo. Thereafter, put on the clothes of  ihraam, preferably of a white colour two sheets, one to cover the lower part of the body and the other for the upper part of the body. At this moment, men folk may apply  ‘itr  (perfume). The women should keep all their body covered in their normal clothing, except the face.

2.  Perform two raka‘at nafl with the intention of ihraam (with your head covered). Recite ‘Qul yaa ayyuhal kaafiroon’ in the first  raka‘at and ‘Qul huwallaahu ahad’  in the second  raka‘at. On completing the two  raka‘at, sitting bareheaded on the prayer mat, make the niyyah of Umrah  saying:

allaahumma innee ureedul umrata fayassirhaa lee wataqabbalhaa minnee

O Allah, I intend to perform Umrah. Make it easy for me and accept it from me”.

Then read the following  du‘aa  (known as  talbiyah) three times:

Labbayk, Allaahumma labbayk. Labbayka laa shareeka laka labbayk. Innal hamda  wanni‘mata laka wal mulk. Laa shareeka lak.

Here I am at Your Service, O Lord, here I am. Here I am, no partner do You have, here I am. Truly, the Praise and the Favour is Yours, and the Sovereignty. No partner do You have”.

Men should recite these words loudly, and the women silently. Now, read durood shareef and make du‘aa for as long as you can.
Ihraam  becomes complete on

(a) making  niyyah
(b) recitation of  talbiyah.

Now you must refrain from certain acts which become forbidden.

Things prohibited in ihraam

1.  It is strictly prohibited to indulge in sexual intercourse, to kiss, embrace or talk about sex in the presence of women.

2.   It is prohibited to indulge in those acts which Allah ta‘ala has made unlawful, e.g. obscenity, transgression, conflict, etc.

3.   It is prohibited to hunt animals or help or guide anyone in this act; even killing a lice is prohibited.

4.    Do not use scent, perfume, perfumed oil or anything that has a fragrance; whether on the body or on the clothes, or in food or drink.

5.    It is prohibited to shave or clip hair from any part of the body or to clip the nails.

6.     It is prohibited for men to use stitched clothes.

7.     It is prohibited for men to wear footwear of any kind that will cover the central bone of the upper part of the feet.

8.      Men must not cover their heads and faces.

9.      Women should not cover their faces. However, in the presence of men, the face will have to be covered in such a manner that the covering does not touch the face.

10.     Do not cause harm to any Muslim – be it verbal or physical.

Things permissible in ihraam

1.        It is permissible to use an umbrella or shadow of any object such as a car roof, as long as it does not touch the head.

2.        It is permissible to put on a ring, a pair of glasses, a hearing aid, a wrist watch and a belt or girdle which protects one’s money and documents.

3.        It is permissible to change one’s garments and to wash them as well as to wash one’s hair and body without removing dirt by the means of using soap.

4.        It does not matter if some hair come off by themselves during washing without you intending it.

5.        It is permissible to cover the body, including the feet with blanket, quilt, sleeping bag, etc.  Do not cover the head and the face.

6.        It is permissible to use  miswaak  to clean the teeth.

7.        There is no harm in carrying something on the head.

Sahl Ibne Sa‘d (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, “When a Muslim recites talbiyah, then verily every stone, tree and all the ground to his right and left recites the talbiyah with him to the end of the earth.” _Tirmizi

Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) relates from Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam that he said, “One hundred and twenty mercies from Allah descend upon the Ka‘bah every day and night; sixty for those performing tawaaf, forty for those who are engaged in Salaat and twenty for those who are merely looking at the Ka‘bah.” _Bayhaqi

IN MAKKAH MUKARRAMAH

After putting on ihraam, you should engage yourself in the remembrance of Allah ta‘ala, istighfaar and recite the  talbiyah as much as possible until you reach Makkah.

1.       Enter the sacred city of Makkah with utmost respect and humility reciting  talbiyah.

2.      Make your arrangements and immediately go to the sacred Masjid which is known as Al Masjidul Haraam. You must enter the Masjid with utmost humility and a sense of the Greatness of Allah ta‘ala and sacredness of the place.

3.      When entering the Masjid, put your right foot in the Masjid and say:

bismillaahi wassalaatu wassalaamu alaa rasoolillaah. Allaahummaftah lee abwaaba rahmatik

In the name of Allah. May the Peace and Salutations (of Allah) be upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah, open for me the doors of Your Mercies”.

4. When you see Ka‘bah, say three times:

allaahu akbar. Laa ilaaha illallaah

Allah is the greatest. There is no deity except Allah”.

Thereafter, read  durood shareef  and make  du‘aa while standing, facing Ka‘bah.

NOTE: This moment is very precious, for whatever du‘aa is made is most certainly accepted by Allah. Make du‘aa  as much as you can. One must not forget to make this  du‘aa:

O Allah, when you take me away from this world, take me in the state of  Imaan. O Allah, enter me into Jannah without any account. O Allah, accept all my du‘aa and keep me steadfast on  Deen”.

Do remember this humble writer in your  du‘aa  also.

Mas’alah: A woman in the state of haydh (menstruation) or  nifaas  (period after childbirth) must not enter the Masjid.

TAWAAF

Now you must perform  tawaaf  which is  fardh  in Umrah. During  tawaaf, engage yourself in  du‘aa  and remembrance of Allah ta‘ala. The recital of the holy Qur’an is also permissible. Be mindful that you do not raise your voice as this will cause disturbance to others performing  tawaaf.

1.        Proceed towards the corner of the Ka‘bah in which lies Al Hajarul Aswad.

2.       Looking from the Ka‘bah around the arched walls of Al Masjidul Haraam, you will see a green light directly opposite one of the four corners of Ka‘bah. In this corner (of Ka‘bah) lies Al Hajarul Aswad. Another clue for locating Al Hajarul Aswad is that at present it is located in the corner of Ka‘bah facing the corner with only one minaret; (the rest of the three corners have two minarets each).

3.        On (or prior to) reaching this corner, make idhtibaa and stand facing the Ka‘bah, such that the whole of Al Hajarul Aswad lies to the right of your right shoulder. (The floor is marked with a black/brown line which stretches from Al Hajarul Aswad).

4.       Stop reciting  talbiyah  and make  niyyah  (which is fardh) to perform  tawaaf.

5.       Move slightly to your right, keeping the face and chest towards Ka‘bah, and stand on the black line which indicates that you are directly in line with Al Hajarul Aswad.

6.        Raise your hands upto the ears (palms facing Al Hajarul Aswad) saying:

bismillaahi allaahu akbar walillaahil hamd

In the Name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest, and all Praise is for Allah”.

7.       Place both palms on Al Hajarul Aswad and kiss it gently without a smack. If kissing is not possible, then merely touch it with one hand or both hands or raise your hands (palms facing Al Hajarul Aswad) saying:

bismillaahi allaahu akbar

In the Name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest”. and kiss them. This is known as  istilaam. It should be performed at the end of every round standing on the black/brown line facing Al Hajarul Aswad.

8.       Now move towards the right, keeping the Ka‘bah on your left and walk around Ka‘bah (anticlockwise) until you return to Al Hajarul Aswad. Here, perform  istilaam. You have now completed one round. You must complete seven rounds in this manner to complete the  tawaaf.

8.       On completing the seventh round, perform istilaam and go to Maqaame Ibraaheem and offer two raka‘at waajib. It is  Sunnah  to recite ‘Qul yaa ayyuhal kaafiroon’ in the first  raka‘at and ‘Qul huwallaahu ahad’ in the second  raka‘at. Thereafter engage yourself in  du‘aa.   

NOTE: If  you cannot find a place at Maqaame Ibraaheem, it is sufficient to perform the two  raka‘at anywhere within the sacred Masjid.

10.      You should now proceed to the well of Zam-zam and facing the direction of Ka‘bah, drink its water as much as you are able to. Also pour it over the body.

11.         Returning from Zam-zam, go to Multazam and cling to the wall of Ka‘bah, with arms stretched above the head placing on it your right cheek and at times the left and engage in  du‘aa, for whatever you ask is certainly granted by Allah ta‘ala.

NOTE: If you wish, you can go to Multazam prior to going to the well of Zam-zam.

12.    Return to Al Hajarul Aswad once again and perform  istilaam. This  istilaam  before  sa‘ee  is mustahab.

Mas’alah: The kissing of Al Hajarul Aswad is a Sunnah, while safeguarding the dignity of Muslims is  fardh. A fardh  cannot be sacrificed for a  Sunnah, because Allah ta‘ala does not accept a Sunnah which violates a fardh. Some pilgrims ignore this fact when they harm others in their zeal to kiss Al Hajarul Aswad, which is merely a  Sunnah. To harm any believer in performing this Sunnah is haraam (prohibited). How is it possible to carry out a  Sunnah  observance while performing a  haraam deed? Therefore, when the area is crowded it is sufficient to raise the hands saying ‘Bismillaahi allaahu akbar’ and to continue to move into the flow of the people. In shaa’allah, Allah will grant you His Mercy and will increase your reward.

Mas’alah: There are no prescribed du‘aa for tawaaf. One should rather make du‘aa for the fulfilment of one’s needs of both – this world and the hereafter.

Mas’alah: Hateem is part of Ka‘bah. Therefore, one must go around the Hateem to complete the  tawaaf.

Mas’alah: It is  Sunnah for men to perform the first three rounds with  ramal.

Mas’alah: Idhtibaa is for men only, and it is Sunnah ONLY during tawaaf. Discontinue the idhtibaa after completing the seven rounds of  tawaaf.

Mas’alah: During  tawaaf  when you come to Al Ruknul Yamaani, merely touch it with both hands or the right hand. It is not  Sunnah  to kiss or raise hands at this corner.

Mas’alah: Between Al Ruknul Yamaani and Al Hajarul Aswad it is  Sunnah  to recite:

Rabbanaa aatinaa fid dunyaa hasanataw wafil aakhirati hasanataw waqinaa ‘azaaban naar

O Allah, grant us goodness in this world, and goodness in the hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the fire”.

Mas’alah: The Ka‘bah should at all times be on one’s left side during the  tawaaf. Do not keep your back, chest or right arm towards the Ka‘bah.

Ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that he heard Rasoolullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) say, “The touching (of Al Hajarul Aswad) removes sins and whoever performs the tawaaf properly (according to rule) the reward (is like) that of the freeing of a slave and one does not place one’s foot on the ground nor raises it (in tawaaf) except that Allah removes a sin (from his deeds) and orders for him one good deed.” _Tirmizi

Jaabir (radhiyallahu anhu) relates from Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) that, “The water of Zamzam is for that (intention) for which it is drunk (i.e., whatever intention one makes while drinking the water, one will achieve that intention, e.g. for thirst, food, medicine, etc.)” _Ibne Maajah

SA‘EE 

1.      After the  istilaam  proceed to Safaa – again in the direction of the green light on the wall.

2.      Climb Safaa until you reach the place from where Ka‘bah is visible between the pillars of Al Masjidul Haraam and make  niyyah  for  sa‘ee.

3.      Facing Ka‘bah, raise both hands up to the shoulders in the way in which hands are raised while making du‘aa. Then say three times:

allaahu akbar laa ilaaha illallaah

Allah is the Greatest, there is no deity except Allah”.

4.      Read  durood shareef  and make  du‘aa  for the fulfilment of your good wishes and others’ also. Remain engaged in  du‘aa  for quite a long time, for this is a place where  du‘aa  is accepted.

5.       You must now walk (at normal pace) towards Marwah (the other side). While walking between Safaa and Marwah you should engage yourself in remembrance of Allah ta‘ala and making  du‘aa.

6.       When you reach the green lights, you must quicken your pace and run slowly until you reach the other set of green lights. Thereafter, you should resume the normal speed of walking till you reach Marwah. Women, however, must walk at their normal pace between the green lights too.

7.       On Marwah too, you should go upto such a place from where the Ka‘bah is visible. The same actions must be performed as on Safaa. This is one round.

NOTE: Ka‘bah is not visible from Marwah, therefore climb Marwah and estimate the direction of Ka‘bah.

8.        From Marwah proceed towards Safaa in the same manner as described above. On reaching Safaa you have completed the second round.

9.        Complete seven rounds in this manner. The final round will end at Marwah.

10.      At this stage it is mustahab to perform two raka‘at inAl Masjidul Haraam.

Mas’alah: During sa‘ee you are not restricted to anyspecific du‘aa. You may make any du‘aa you wish.However, it is Sunnah to recite:

rabbighfir warham antal a‘azzul akram.

O my Lord, forgive and have mercy. You arethe most Majestic, the most Generous”.

The Mas‘aa

The two hills are separated by a distance of 394m/1247ft which is called Mas‘aa

HALAQ

After completing the sa‘ee, you must shave your head or trim the hair of the entire head in such a manner that you trim at least one inch of each hair. Shaving the head is more virtuous.

The women should trim slightly more than one inch from the end of their plait.

After shaving or trimming the hair, the rituals of Umrah  have ended and all restrictions imposed due to the  ihraam  will be lifted.

May Allah ta‘aalaa accept your  Umrah  and bestow you with its blessings.

Yahya Ibn Husayn reported on the authority of his grandfather that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) on the occasion of the Farewell Hajj made du‘aa thrice for those who shave their heads and once only for those who trim their hair. _Muslim

WHILE IN MAKKAH MUKARRAMAH 

1.      You should remain busy in  Salaatdu‘aa  and recitation of the holy Qur’an. You should complete the recitation of the holy Qur’an at least once.

2.       Perform each and every  fardh Salaat  with congregation in Al Masjidul Haraam. One such Salaat  is equal to two million and five hundred thousand  Salaat  performed elsewhere.

3.       Perform virtuous deeds as much as you can because every  virtuous act in Makkah is equivalent to one hundred thousand virtuous acts. The holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam)  said,

Besides Makkah there is no city on the surface of the earth where Allah multiplies one virtue by a hundred thousand times”.

4.       You should avoid all prohibited and execrable acts and things. Hadhrat ‘Umar and Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas  (radhiyallahu anhum)  said, “I would much rather prefer to commit seventy sins at Rukyah than to commit one  sin in Makkah”.

NOTE: Rukyah is a place outside Makkah.

5.       Perform as many  tawaaf  as much as possible because a  nafl tawaaf  is superior to a  nafl Salaat.

NOTE: The  offering of two raka‘at at Maqaame Ibraaheem  is essential even after  nafl tawaaf.

6.       Perform  Salaat  in the Hateem whenever you have the chance.

7.       Visit Jannatul Ma‘alaa (the graveyard of Makkah) and other sacred places of Makkah.

8.       Utilise your time in doing good.  Remember! You may not get this opportunity again.

When a person sets forth to perform Hajj or Umrah and passes away en route, he shall not be brought (before Allah) for judgement, nor will he have to give account. It shall be said to him: ‘Enter into Jannah.’ _Targheeb

Ibne Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) says that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) addressed Makkah, “What a beautiful town you are and most beloved to me. If my people did not expel me from you I would not have stayed elsewhere._Tirmizi

GLOSSARY

Al Hajarul Aswad: The stone set in the southeast corner of the Ka‘bah. It is set about 4.5 feet from the ground in a silver casing.

Al Masjidul Haraam: The sacred Masjid in Makkah.

Al Ruknul Yamaani: The corner of the Ka‘bah preceding the corner in which lies Al Hajarul Aswad

Baytullaah: See Ka‘bah (below).

Deen: The religion Islaam.

Du‘aa: Supplication, prayer.

Durood Shareef: Salutations upon the holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam.

Fardh: Obligatory.

Ghusl: Bath.

Halaq: To have the head shaved.

Haraam: Forbidden.

Hateem: The semi-circle outside Ka‘bah.

Idhtibaa: To put one end of your cloth (covering the top part of your body) on the left shoulder, and take the other end from below the right armpit, throwing it over the chest onto the left shoulder, thus leaving the right arm and shoulder entirely exposed.

Ihraam: To put on the special dress (i.e. two unsewn sheets of cloth, preferably new and of white colour). Thereafter, to make the niyyah of Umrah and recite talbiyah. It has been named ihraam because after performing these three actions, certain permissible acts become prohibited (haraam)

Women enter into the state of  ihraam  without putting on the special clothing. It is for men only.
Istighfaar: To ask forgiveness from Allah ta‘aalaa.

Ka‘bah: The Sacred House of Allah ta‘aalaa which stands in the centre of the sacred Mosque of Makkah.

Makrooh Tahreemi: Prohibited.

Maqaami Ibraaheem: A few meters away from the door of Ka‘bah stands a small kiosk (gold in colour) which contains a stone with a figurative indentation of a footprint of Prophet Ibraaheem  (alayhis salaam). This footprint was impressed into the stone during the building of Ka‘bah.

Marwah: See Safaa (below).

Mas‘aa: See Safaa and Marwah (below).

Meeqaat: It is the place which is fixed for putting on ihraam or in other words, it is the boundary beyond which a person intending to go to Makkah cannot go without  ihraam. (Jeddah is beyond this boundary, therefore one must put on  ihraam  before reaching Jeddah).

Miswaak: A stick used for cleaning teeth.

Multazam: It is the part of the Ka‘bah situated between Al Hajarul Aswad and the door of the Ka‘bah. It comes from the Arabic word meaning to become attached, and perhaps it is so called because this is the section of the Ka‘bah where a person should attach his body.

Mustahab: Desirable.

Nafl: Optional.

Niyyah: Intention.

Ramal: To walk with quick short steps; lifting the legs forcefully; chest out; and moving the shoulders simultaneously.

Sa‘ee: To walk between Safaa and Marwah seven times. It is performed walking, except for a portion in the middle, today marked by green lights, where the pace is quickened.

Safaa and Marwah: Two small hills, in Makkah. The remains of both hills are enclosed within the sacred Mosque. The two hills are separated by a distance of 394m/1247ft which is called Mas‘aa. This distance is walked, and in part run, seven  times by  those performing  Hajj  or  Umrah.

Sunnah: The way shown by the holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam)  – physically or verbally.

Talbiyah: Labbayk, Allaahumma labbayk. Labbayka laa shareeka laka labbayk. Innal hamda  wanni‘mata laka wal mulk. Laa shareeka lak.

Tawaaf: The ritual circumambulation of the Ka‘bah, starting from Al Hajarul Aswad. This is done anticlockwise with the Ka‘bah on the left hand side, seven times.

Umrah: To enter into  ihraam  from Meeqaat or (for those people already in Makkah) from Masjid Tan‘eem, perform tawaaf  of Ka‘bah, walk between Safaa and Marwah and shave the head. Its rituals take place entirely in Makkah.

Waajib: Incumbent, less than fardh.

Wudhoo: Ablution.

Zam-zam: The blessed water in Makkah.