Category Archives: Hajj/Umrah

Hajj in the Bible

Biblical prophets and the bible commands piligrims to Makkah
Let us look at the word al-Hajj itself:
ﺍﻟﺤﺞّ (al-Hajj)

Typically, the entire Arabic vocabulary, like its sisters in the Semitic linguistic group, consists of words structured from triliteral triconsonantal roots. In this case the root is Hajaj (ﺣﺠﺞ).

According to the classical Arabic lexicon Lisān al-`Arab it is defined:

ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ . ﺣﺞ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺪﻡ

“Purpose. As in, ‘So-and-so did Hajj unto us,’ which means he presented himself before us.”

So the general lexical meaning of the word is “intended purpose”. In the context of the Hajj, the Ka`bah within the Meccan Sanctuary is the intended destination and purpose. To list usages of this word in an Islamic context would be, for most Muslims, an appeal to the very obvious as stories of its wonder and splendor that have been related to them since childhood. However, if we peer beyond the context of Islamic rites and deep into the past, do we find this word used in the previous traditions of the Old Testament?

The answer is in the affirmative. The book of Exodus contains the following verse in reference to a Hajj in the time of Moses:

והיה היום הזה לכם לזכרון וחגתם אתו חג ליהוה לדרתיכם חקת עולם תחגהו

wa-haya ha-yōm haza lakhem li-zikrōn wa-Khagōtem otō Khag li-Yehōwa li-dorotaychem khuqat `olam taKhaguhū

“And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.” (Exodus 12:14)

In this verse the King James translators rendered the uninflected noun Khag ( חג) as “feast”. This word Khag is wholly cognate to the Arabic Hajj ( ﺣﺞ). Elsewhere in the verse the word Khag is inflected as Khagotem and taKhaguhū. One must pay attention to the fact that the Hebrew phonetic “kh” (ח) is the pharyngeal fricative “h” (ﺡ ) in Arabic. Also, one must note that the phonetic “g” ( ג) is cognate to the Arabic “j” ( ﺝ). So for analytical purposes in this context the verse would be rendered:
“And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a Hajj to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a Hajj by an ordinance forever.”

Another verse using this root is the following:

ואחר באו משה ואהרן ויאמרו אל – פרעה כה – אמר יהוה אלהי ישראל שלח את – עמי ויחגו לי במדבר

wa-ākhar bā’u Mōshe wa-Aharōn wa-yomru el-Par`o koh-amar Yahweh Elohay Yishrael shalach et-`ami wa-yakhugū li ba-midbār

“And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go , that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness.” (Exodus 5:1)

The inflected word that the King James translators rendered “feast” is yakhuggū (יחגו ) which is cognate to the Arabic “yuhajjū” ( ﻳُﺤَﺠّﻮﺍ) so for analytical purposes the verse would be rendered in this context as:

“And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a Hajj unto me in the wilderness.”

This is not to suggest that Moses and Aaron went to Mecca and performed Hajj as Muslims know it today. It is merely to exemplify that a consecrated journey and pilgrimage unto God at His Temple did, indeed, precede the rise of Islam in the 7th Century CE.

An additional and astonishing dimension to this that makes the concept of lexical borrowing between the Old Testament and the Quran improbable, if not outright impossible, is found in an alternate form of the root in Hebrew, Khug ( חוג). Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (1846) defines this word:

“ חוג To describe a circle, to draw a circle, as with compasses. Job 26:10…m. a circle, sphere, used of the arch or vault of the sky, Pro. 8:27; Job 22:14; of the world, Isa. 40:22.”[2]

Let us look at the verses he has cited above:

“When he prepared the heavens, I was there: when he set a compass ( חוג) upon the face of the depth.” (Proverbs 8:27)

“Thick clouds are a covering to him, that he seeth not; and he walketh in the circuit of heaven ( וחוג שמים ).” (Job 22:14)

“It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth ( חוג הארץ ), and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.” (Isaiah 40:22)

Thus, this word not only means sacred pilgrimage and feast unto God in the Bible, it also means to encircle. To any Muslim this will be a striking discovery.
Semitic languages have been, since time immemorial, broad and deep systems of expression where one word’s many variant, but supplementary, meanings all coalesce to a greater understanding of that lexeme. So in this case we have a root which has a form meaning a feast, also meaning a pilgrimage, and in one form meaning to encircle! The Hajj pilgrimage, which is at its core an encircling of the Ka`bah called Tawāf, is concluded with none other than the Feast of the Sacrifice, Eid al-Adha, to commemorate Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son at God’s command. Borrowing all these meanings buried in lexica that did not even exist until hundreds of years after the life of the Prophet Muhammad would require no short of a Semitic linguist and Biblical scholar. It should be noted that the Bible itself would not be available until 200-300 years after the passing of the Prophet Muhammad[3]. Such lexical depth and lucidity is consistently found throughout the Quran as God has stated therein:

“And this Quran is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth), but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it [i.e. the Torah, and the Gospel, etc.], and a full explanation of the Book (i.e. laws and orders, etc, decreed for humankind) – wherein there is no doubt from the the Lord of the Worlds” (Quran 10:37)

Psalm 84 1-6
How lovely is your dwelling place, O Lord Almighty!
My soul yearns, even faints, for the courts of the Lord;
my heart and my flesh cry out for the living God.
Even the sparrow has found a home, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may have her young— a place near your altar,
O Lord Almighty, my King and my God.
Blessed are those who dwell in your house;
they are ever praising you. Selah
Blessed are those whose strength is in you,
who have set their hearts on “pilgrimage.”
As they pass through the Valley of Baca,
they make it a place of springs;
the autumn rains also cover it with pools.
Let See What we have here.
Place is a Valley, in this Valley there is a blessed Well
To this Valley pilgrims make their journey and there is a Sacred House of Worship in this Valley of Baka, this Place of worship where the sacred house is at there are COURT YARDS, There are alters
and Sparows and Swallows Lodge at this location and bare their young.

There is no place in Palestine that fits this description the only place that fits this description is BACA which all the Muslims know

“The most important shrine established for the people is the one in Baca; a blessed beacon for all the people. In it are clear signs: the station of Abraham. Anyone who enters it shall be granted safe passage. The people owe it to GOD that they shall observe Hajj (Pilgrimage) to this shrine, when they can afford it. As for those who disbelieve, GOD does not need anyone.” [3:96-97]

What Is Baca?

Baca (in Psalms) and Baca (in Quran) is another name for Mecca (Makkah, Saudi Arabia) where the first house of worship on earth which was built by Abraham and his first son Ishmael and it was appointed by God for human beings. This house is the Holy Kabah to which all Muslims face while praying and go for Hajj (pilgrimage).

Hajj (Pilgrimage):

Hajj!! There is no hajj in the Bible. someone might say. Let’s see what were the Biblical prophets were doing?

[Exodus 10:9] Moses is telling Pharaoh where he is taking the sons of Isreal :
Moses answered, “Everyone! We’ll be taking our young and old, our sons and daughters, our flocks and herds with us. For us it’s “a pilgrimage festival” in the LORD’s honor.”

According to BDB Theological Dictionary the most fundamental meaning of hagag which the name Haggai is derived from is to make a pilgrimage or keep a pilgrimage feast.

The Arabic equivalent means “to betake oneself to or towards an object of reverence,” and this verb returns in the prescribed pilgrimage to Makkah: the Hadj.
[www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Haggai.html ]

Marwah mountain:

Genesis 22:2 “He said, Take now your son, your only son, whome you love, Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah (Marwah), and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains which I will tell you.”

Marwah and Safa are two elevated places in Mecca where Hajar was going forth and back looking for water as the water they had finished and she was worried about the baby Ishmael from Dying due to lack of water. During and after few trips looking for water or people, Angel Gabriel hit a rock and a sprig of water flowed and then she was able to drink and to water her baby.

“Indeed, as-Safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah . So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs ‘umrah – there is no blame upon him for walking between them. And whoever volunteers good – then indeed, Allah is appreciative and Knowing.” Quran 2:158

The bible scholar are not sure where is this mountain located in the holy land and they are making assumptions. [ http://
bibleatlas.org/mount_moriah.htm ] sometimes they say it is in Jerusalem while there was not even Jerusalem at all this time sometimes they say it is in the south and so on.

The Maqam (Place) of Abraham:
Genesis 22:9
“When they arrived at the place (lit. Maqam) where God had told him to go, Abraham built an altar ….”

Now where is that Altar in Jerusalem ?? why they did not keep it as a Holy place??? this place exist only in Makkah

“In it (Baca) are clear signs [such as] the (Maqam) standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House “ (Quran 3:97)

Pilgrimage to Mecca in Isaiah 60:1-7
“Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord rises upon you.
See, darkness covers the earth and thick darkness is over the peoples, but the Lord rises upon you and his glory appears over you.
Nations will come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your dawn.
“Lift up your eyes and look about you: All assemble and come to you; your sons come from afar, and your daughters are carried on the hip.
Then you will look and be radiant, your heart will throb and swell with joy; the wealth on the seas will be brought to you, to you the riches of the nations will come.
Herds of camels will cover your land, young camels of Midian and Ephah. And all from Sheba will come, bearing gold and incense and proclaiming the praise of the Lord.
All Kedar’s flocks will be gathered to you, the rams of Nebaioth will serve you; they will be accepted as offerings on my altar, and I will adorn my glorious temple.

In [Isaiah 60:1] A prophecy about a Holy man (prophet) bringing the light of God to the world. This holy man would appear in a time of darkness filling the world and covering the earth, He would appear to eliminate the darkness and spread the light of God and his praises.

In [Isaiah 60:3] we read “And the Nations shall come to thy light “ and that means this Holy Prophet would arise among the nations and his Light would fill his place where the nations would come and visit.

In [Isaiah 60:4] we find the people would come from far, the sons and daughters, all would come together for the Light.
[Isaiah 60:5-6] it keeps telling us about the coming of the people from all over the world to the Light.
[Isaiah 60:7] is the clear meaning, it’s Kedar, Where its flocks and tribes would be gathered together under the light of God, “they would come up with acceptance on mine altar”. Muslims during the Hajj “pilgrimage” they slaughter the sacrifices as one of the ceremonies and Muslims all over the world share that from their places which is Eid Al Adha.

“And I Will glorify the house of my glory” and it refers to the Ka’ba in Makkah, the Sacred House for God’s glory.

And proclaim among men the Pilgrimage: they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel, coming from every remote path” [Quran 22:27]

The Way of Holiness [Isaiah 35:8]

“And a highway will be there; it will be called the Way of Holiness. The unclean will not journey on it; it will be for those who walk in that Way; wicked fools will not go about on it.”

“O you who have believed, indeed the polytheists are unclean, so let them not approach al-Masjid al-Haram (the Sacred House) after this, their [final] year. And if you fear privation, Allah will enrich you from His bounty if He wills. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Wise.” (Quran 9:28)

The Azan (call of prayer):
Isaiah 40:3 and Mark 1:3

“A voice of one calling: “In the desert prepare the way for the LORD; make straight in the wilderness a highway for our God.”

The Arabian Peninsula was a deserted place. The “voice calling in the desert” here is clearly refering to the Azan.
Why Azan?

The whole verse reads “Make a path a highway for God”

The Azan (call of prayers) for Muslims is a call which tells Muslim that God is calling him. It is heard all around the world and five times a day. Moreover, hadith refer Azan as a way to Allah and to a submission to God.

 

TAWAAF WIDAA’- THE FAREWELL TAWAAF

Question: During Hajj, our group was instructed to make Tawaaf Widaa’ immediately after Tawaaf Ziyaarat even before the Sa-ee which we had to do after this Tawaaf. Was it correct to join Tawaaf Widaa’ with Tawaaf Ziyaarat even before the Sa-ee?

Answer (by Mujlisul Ulama):

No it was not correct. It is in conflict with the Sunnah, hence not proper without valid reason. Tawaaf Widaa’ is the last Tawwaf. It is the Waajib Farewell Tawaaf. Farewell is bid at the time of departing. It has to be the last act of Ibaadat in the Haram Shareef. But today, the Deen has been transformed into a hobby. Hit-and-run acts are presented to Allah Ta’ala as ‘ibaadat’ when in reality there is only an outer-facade of ibaadat, and even this outer-facade is a farce.

For the sake of convenience, the group leaders issued their haraam instruction. They were averse to returning for Masnoon acts and Masnoon methods of discharging the Ibaadaat. It is Sunnah to perform Tawaaf Widaa’ after everything else has been completed. On the way out of the Haraam for the last Tawaaf Widaa’, yet their pockets are lined with money extracted from the Hujjaaj. But Hajj has become a holiday excursion, hence the total disregard for the Masnoon acts and Masnoon methods of discharging the Ibaadaat.

It is Sunnah to perform Tawaaf Widaa’ after everything else has been completed. On the way out of the Haraam for the last Tawaaf Widaa’, yet their pockets are lined with money extracted from the Hujjaaj. But Hajj has become a holiday excursion, hence the total disregard for the time, Tawaaf Widaa’ should be performed. In fact, if after having done Tawaaf Widaa’, one continues staying in Makkah for some time, then it is Mustahab to repeat Tawaaf Widaa’.

The Etymology of Hajj

HAJJ:

Literally it means to aim for something and go for it, And from the same root (H-J-J) comes “Mahajjah”, the main path which people go upon to reach their aims. So “Hajj ul-Bait” as mentioned in the Qu’ran and several Ahadith means to aim for the house of Allah and travel to it to perform the prescribed rites.

And in the greater derivation called “al-Ishtiqaq al-Akbar” this root intersects with the root (H-W-J) from which comes “Hājat” i.e. a need or a requirement which a person aims to attain.

MINĀ:

The tent city was named from the root (M-N-Y). And there are several meanings of this root, and as such the scholars differed over which one of them was intended in the name. The most famous opinion is that the intended meaning of the root here is to spill, squirt, and pour out. And “Minā” was named as such because of all the blood that is spilt from the sacrifices offered by pilgrims on “Yaum Al-Nahr” and afterwards. And from the same root comes the word “Maniyy” (semen) and for obvious reasons.

YAUM AL-TARWIYAH:

The 8th of Dhil-Hijjah when Hujjaj move to the tent city of Mina is call Yaum al-Tarwiyah, lit. the day of supplying water. This was a preparatory day for Hajj. The pilgrims would set up their tents, gather water for the days ahead, and water their mounts for the jounrey to Arafah and back.

ARAFAH or ARAFĀT

Some lexicographers say that Arafah is the day while Arafāt is the name of the plain, but in narrations of Hadith, both have been used in place of each other.
Scholars have mentioned several theories for the etymology of the two words, most of which are based on Arafah being a cognate of Ma’rifah i.e. to recognize, get to know. The most far-fetched explanation is that the place was named as such because it is where Adam and Hawwa Ta’ārafā (i.e. recognized each other) after their descent to earth. More plausible is that it is the place where people from all over the world get to know each other, or where the pilgrims come close to their Lord and get to know him through prayer and supplication.
One theory suggests that it is derived from ‘Arf which means a pleasant fragrance, for this place has been made sublime, holy, and pure, as if it were metaphorically fragranced with God’s divine mercy, compassion, and forgiveness.

MUZDALIFAH

After returning from Arafah, pilgrims encamp at Muzdalifah for the night before entering Minā in the morning. Muzdalifah is from the root (Z-L-F) which means proximity and closeness. From it is the Zulfā (closeness) to God mentioned in several verses of the Qur’an. Muzdalifah is the active participle of the verb “izdalafa” (lit. to move closer, to advance) on the pattern of “ifta’ala” with an added Tā between Zāi and Lām, but this has changed to Dāl because of its proximity to Zāi phonetically, as is discussed in books of Ṣarf. It has been named as such because it the people staying the night there are very close to Minā.

Some have suggested that it is from Zulfah (pl. Zulaf) which means a part of the night. The word in plural has been used in the Qur’an (11: 114) to denote the early hours of the night in which Maghrib and Isha are prayed. In this case, the meaning would be that it is a place where people pilgrims spend the hours of the night before proceeding to Minā.
Muzdalifah, has another name too:

AL-MASH’AR AL-HARĀM

It is specifically the descriptive name of a hill in Muzdalifah called Quza’ in front of which there stands today a big Masjid called “Masjid al-Mash’ar al-Harām”. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ stood at its foot after Fajr prayer supplicating to Allah till the sky was lit but the sun had not risen yet. Since The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “I have stood here, and the whole of Muzdalifah is a place of standing”, Al-Mash’ar Al-Harām is used generally to refer to the whole of Muzdalifah. It is in this general sense that most scholars understand the verse, “And when you return from Arafāt, remember Allah at Al-Mash’ar Al-Harām” [Al-Baqarah: 198].

Al-Mash’ar means a place of worship where the rites of Hajj are performed; it is cognate of Sha’eerah (pl. Sha’āir) i.e. a religious rite. Al-Harām means sacrosanct and sacred, just like in the noun+adjective construction of “Al-Masjid al-Al-Harām”.

The hill specifically, and the whole of the Muzdalifah plain generally, is referred to as Al-Mash’ar Al-Harām (the sacrosanct place of worship) because it is located inside the boundary of the Haram, and thus has the same sacrosanctness and sacredness, as opposed to Arafah, which is located outside the Haram boundary and thus is “Al-Mash’ar Al-Halāl”. This descriptive name was probably coined by Quraysh who, being residents of the Haram, would not step out of the Haram boundary when performing Hajj, so the farthest they would go was Muzdalifah because it was “Al-Mash’ar Al-Harām”.

YAUM Al-NAḤR

It means ‘the day of slaughter’ and for obvious reasons. It is the 10th of Dhil Hijjah when pilgrims stone the Jamarāt, sacrifice their animals, shave their heads, and come out of Iḥrām. It is also called:

YAUM AL-ḤAJJ AL-AKBAR

It translates as ‘the day of the greater pilgrimage’, with Al-Akbar being an adjective of Al-Hajj and not of Yaum, i.e. it is wrong to translate it as “the greatest day of Hajj”.
It has been mentioned in the Qur’an (9:3) with reference to the declaration of disassociation from polytheists proclaimed on that day by ‘Ali (radhi Allahu ‘anh) in front of all the pilgrims gathered from all the various tribes, a year before the Prophet ﷺ went to perform pilgrimage.
Some commentators believe it refers to the day of Arafah, while some say that each one of the days of Hajj can be called “the day of greater pilgrimage” because “greater pilgrimage” refers to the rites of Hajj, as opposed to the “lesser pilgrimage” which refers to the rites of ‘Umrah. This is might be true lexically, but ‘the day of the greater pilgrimage’ mentioned in the Qur’an is one specific day, and that is the 10th of Dhil Hijjah, as understood by most of the commentators, because that was the day when ‘Ali made that declaration as commanded by the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.

AYYĀM AL-TASHREEQ:

It translates as “The days of sun-drying”. The root “Sh-R-Q” revolves around sunrise, sunlight, and brightness. “Tashreeq” means to put something under sunlight. In the olden days the pilgrims used to preserve their surplus sacrificial meat by sun-drying it in these days, hence the name.

SHARIAH’S STANCE ON BROADCASTING ARAFAH DUA’ ‘LIVE’

Question:

What is the Shariah’s view on live duas broadcast from Arafah? Is there a Shar’i basis for such a practice?

Answer (by Mujlisul Ulama): 

Far from there being a Shar’i basis, the basis for this new bid’ah can be found in the nafs. It is a shaitaani ploy to ruin Ibaadat with riya by the projection of an act having an ostensible outer facade of ‘ibaadat’ whilst in fact it is a display of shirk-e-sagheer (minor shirk) for which Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) expressed considerable fear.

The live, loud and public exhibition of dua in this manner is in violation of the Qur’aanic command: “Supplicate to (make dua to) your Rabb in humility and in silence. Verily, He does not love those who transgress the limits.” (Al-A’raaf, Aayat 55) The nusoos– Qur’aanic and Hadith – commanding silent dua with humility and in privacy are numerous. Loud dua and its vociferous proclamation by means of devices are transgression of the limits mentioned in this Aayat. The meaning of ‘Allah does not love’, is a statement of Allah’s Wrath on those who transgress the limits which He has prescribed.

This ‘live’, canned dua is an expression of ostentation and in total conflict with the spirit and teaching of the Shariah. Dua is a silent and private conversation which the bandah (slave) has with his Rabb. It is a secret between the slave and his Master. It is not a slogan for vociferous acquittal in the public domain.

Ibaadat is only what has been handed to the Ummah reliably from the Salafus Saaliheen of the Khairul Quroon era. There is no basis in the Sunnah for such ostentatious projection of dua as this newfangled ‘live’ dua. In fact it is not a dua.

THE QUTB ABU BAKR AS-SHIBLI’S COUNSEL ON PILGRIMAGE

By Shaykh Muhammad Shareef bin Farid

Hajj has a truth (HAQEEQA) that transcends physical exertion and rituals, it comprises every known act of worship and means of drawing near to Allah ta`ala.

The Qutb, Shaykh Abu Bakr as-Shibli al-Maliki once encountered a disciple who had made the Hajj and had returned to Baghdad. The Shaykh immediately began to question the disciple about the realities of all the outer rituals of Hajj in order to impress upon him the deeper and more profound realities of this final act of worship.

The lessons in this dialogue between the Shaykh and his disciple illuminate the outer and inner aspects of Hajj that are both indispensable. Each of us should reflect upon these questions and answers in order to measure our own Hajj. The disciple recounts this insightful exchange.

“As-Shibli said to me: ‘Did you make the covenant (`aqad) to make the Hajj?’ I said: ‘Yes’. He then said to me: ‘By means of this covenant did you then revoke every other covenant that you made from the time that you were created, that contradicted this covenant?’ I replied: ‘No’. He then said: ‘In that case you did not make the covenant of Hajj.’

He then asked: ‘Did you get rid of your clothing?’ I said: ‘Yes’. He then responded: ‘At that time, did you eliminate from yourself everything other than Allah?’ I replied: ‘No’. He then responded: ‘Then you did not really remove your clothing.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you then purify your body.’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then said: ‘Did you then eradicate every error and fault by means of your bodily purification?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you have not really purified yourself.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you make the talbiyya?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you find the Divine answer to your talbiyya like it at the time you made it?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘You did not really make the talbiyya.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you then enter the ihram?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked: ‘Did you believe when you were entering the ihram (consecrated state) that you were leaving every prohibition (muharram)?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you have not really entered the ihram.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you show honor (sharafta) to Mecca?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then said to me: ‘Did the Lord of Truth ennoble you with a spiritual state (ashrafu `alayka haal) at your showing honor to Mecca?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really show honor to Mecca.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you enter the sacred masjid?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you also enter His nearness from a direction that you knew?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not enter the sacred masjid.’

He then asked me: ‘ Did you gaze at the Ka`aba?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘When you saw it, did you also see your Objective in it?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really gaze at the Ka`aba.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you trot three times (ramalta thalaathan) and walked four times (mashayta arba`an)?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you also flee from this world’s life, fleeing in way that you knew that you were cutting yourself off and alienating yourself from it, and discovered by your walking four times protection from what you fled, which then increased you in gratitude to Allah for that?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you have not really trotted.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you greet the Stone (safahta’l-hajr) and kiss it (qabaltahu)?’ I said: ‘Yes, there was a great convulsion there.’ He then said to me: ‘Woe to you! It has been said – whoever greets the Black Stone has greeted the Lord of Truth, sub’hanahu wa ta`ala, and whoever greets the Lord of Truth, sub’hanahu wa ta`ala, is in the state of Divine protection (mahal’l-amnun). Has there manifested upon you the traces of this Divine protection?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really greet the black Stone.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you stop in front of Allah ta`ala behind the station of Ibrahim and prayed two raka`ats?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked: ‘At this station, did you stop at your spiritual place (makaanataka) with your Lord and then saw your spiritual goal?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘You have not really prayed.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you then go out to Safa and stopped there?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked: ‘What did you do?’ I responded: ‘I made the takbir seven times, and I mentioned the pilgrimage and asked Allah for its acceptance.’ He then asked: ‘Did you make the takbir with the takbir of the Angels and found the spiritual reality of your takbir in that place?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really extol Allah properly.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you descend from Safa?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Do you also remove every fault from yourself (zaalta kulla `illat `anka) until you were completely purified (hata safayta)?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really ascend or descend Safa.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you then run in the valley?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you flee to Him and became safe from what you fled (your corrupt self) and arrived at your true existence?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really run in the valley.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you reach Marwa?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you realize the Divine tranquility that descends upon Marwa and take it, or did it descend upon you?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really arrive at Marwa.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you go out to Mina?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you then desire from Allah a spiritual state that was different from the one in which you were disobedient to Him?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really go out to Mina.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you enter the Masjid’l-Kheef?’ He said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you fear Allah during your entering and leaving the masjid and discovered a level of fear of Allah that you would never have found elsewhere?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really enter the Masjid’l-Kheef.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you depart to `Arafat?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you then realize (`arafta) the spiritual state for which you were originally created, and the spiritual state that you have desired and the spiritual state that was fashioned for you? Did you realize (`arafta) the direct experiential knowledge (al-ma`arrif) that is for you in these spiritual states? Did you see the spiritual station which was indicated in the Qur’an, which is the station for which all competing souls compete in every condition?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really stop at `Arafat.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you disperse to Muzdalifa?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you see the al-Mash`ar’l-Haraam (the pilgrimage station east of Mecca)?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you make remembrance of Allah with a remembrance that made you forget everything other than Him and became preoccupied with Him?’ I replied: ‘No.’ he then responded: ‘Then you did not really stop at Muzdalifa.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you re-enter Mina?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you make the sacrifice?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you sacrifice your soul?’ I said: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really make the sacrifice.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you stone?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you throw your ignorance away from you by the increase of knowledge that manifested to you?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘Then you did not really stone.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you shave your head?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you diminish your false hope from yourself?’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘You did not really shave?’

He then asked me: ‘Did you make the visitation?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Were you unveiled to anything from the Divine realities (al-haqaa’iq), or did you see an increase in spiritual nobility (al-karaamaat) upon by your visitation? For verily the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace has said:

(( ﺍﻟْﺤُﺠَّﺎﺝُ ﻭَﺍﻟْﻌُﻤَّﺎﺭُ ﺯَﻭَّﺍﺭُ ﺍﻟﻠﻪِ ﻭَﺣَﻖُّ ﻋَﻠَﻰ ﺍﻟْﻤَﺰُﻭﺭِ ﺃَﻥْ ﻳُﻜْﺮِﻡَ ﺯُﻭَّﺍﺭَﻩُ ))

‘The hajji and the one making the lesser pilgrimage is the visitor of Allah and it is the right of the One being visited to honor His visitor.’ I replied: ‘No.’ He then responded: ‘You did not really make the visitation.’

He then asked me: ‘Did you unfasten the ihraam (ahlalta)?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He then asked me: ‘Did you resolve to eat only that which is permissible (al-halaal)?’ I replied: ‘No.’ he then responded: ‘Then you did not really unfasten the ihraam.’ He then asked me:

‘Did you bid farewell (wadda`ata) to the House?’ I said: ‘Yes.’
He then asked me: ‘Did you withdraw completely from your soul (nafs) and your spirit (ruuh)?’ I replied: ‘No.’ he then responded: ‘Then you did not really bid farewell to the House. It is incumbent upon you to return and repeat your Hajj.

You should examine closely how you make the pilgrimage after this, then you will have realization of the Hajj. When you have made the pilgrimage, then make strenuous effort (ijtahidu) in being the way I delineated to you.’

This dialogue between our master Shaykh Abu Bakr as-Shibli, may Allah be merciful to him and his disciple regarding the realities of Hajj is insightful in its indications to the outer and inner realities of acts of worship and drawing near to Allah ta`ala.
This reality is what each of the hujjaaj should be concerned with in all their pilgrimage ceremonies and rites. This should also be the spiritual state of those who are unable to make the hajj. They too should try their best to realize these spiritual states described so well by Shaykh Abu Bakr as-Shibli, may Allah be pleased with him.

سفر حج کے لیے شرعی شرائط

ماخوذ از مکتوب کتاب ‘ٹورزم اينڈ اسلام’ مجلس العلماء جنوبی افریقہ

ہر مسلمان جانتا ہے کہ حج اسلام کے پانچ اراکین میں سے ایک اہم رکن ہے۔  یہ ہر اس مسلمان پر زندگی میں ایک مرتبہ فرض ہے جو مکہ مکرمہ شریعت کے طے شدہ کچھ شرائط کے ساتھ پہنچ سکے۔ اس قدر اہم ومطلوب بنیادی رکن عبادت ہو نے کے باوجود حج کا سفر طے کرنا جائز نہ ہوگا اگر اس میں کوئی گناہ کا ارتکاب ہو, مثلا نماز چھوٹ جائے یا اس سے غفلت ہو یا کوئی ناجائز فعل میں مبتلا ہونا پڑے۔ اس معاملہ میں فقہاء کا قول یہ ہے،

“المدخل میں یہ ارشاد ہے : ہمارے علماء کہتے ہیں :جب مکلف شخص جانتا ہے کہ اگر وہ حج کے سفر پر چلا جائے گا تو اس کی ایک بھی نماز چھوٹ جائے گی تو یقینا حج ساقط ہوگا۔ ایک اور جگہ ارشاد ہے : حج کا ادا کرنا  اس طرح پر کہ اس میں  نماز کو اس کے اپنے وقت پر پڑھ نہ سکنے ( قضاء کرنے) یا اس جیسا (کوئی اور فعل یعنی گناہ) کرنے کے بغیر  ممکن ہی نہ ہو تو پھر حج ساقط ہو گا۔” (یعنی نماز کو قضا کئے بغیر اور اُس طرح کے گناہ سے بچے بغیر سفرِ حج ممکن نہ ہو تو ایسے حالات میں حج کا فریضہ اس کے ذمہ نہیں رہتا، وہ ان حالات میں حج نہ کرے۔)

البرزلی نے المازری سے نقل کرتے ہوئے فرمایا,

“حج کے سفر کے دوران اگر وہ (مسافر) نماز سے اس قدر غفلت برتے کہ نماز کا وقت چلا جائے یا کہ اسے متبادل طریقہ پر ادا کرے (یعنی بیٹھ کر ادا کرے) تو پھر یقینا یہ سفر جائز نہیں ہے اور اس سے حج کی فرضیت ساقط ہو گی۔”

التادلی نے المازری سے نقل کرتے ہوئے فرمایا,

“دراصل استطاعت (حج کرنے کی استعداد کے شرائط میں)  یہ ہے کہ بیت (کعبہ شریف) بغیر کسی مشقت کے اور اپنی جان و مال کی حفاظت کے ساتھ پہنچا جائے اور اس سفر میں دیگر  فرائض کو ادا کرنے کی بھی  استعداد ہو, غلو سے بچا جائے اور گناہوں کو چھوڑ دیا جائے۔”

ابن منیر نے اپنے منسک میں تذکرہ کیا ہے،

“جان لو کہ ایک نماز کو بھی ختم کرنا (یعنی وقت پر ادا نہ کرنا) بہت بڑا گناہ ہے، حج کی فضیلت اس گناہ کی تلافی نہیں کر سکتی- در حقیقت، یہ (نماز) اس سے افضل ہے، (یعنی حج سے افضل ہے) کیونکہ نماز کی زیادہ اہمیت ہے۔ لہذا اگر سمندر یا زمین پر مسافروں کو چکر آنے کا معمول ہو اگر چہ ایک نماز کے لئے بھی (یعنی اس بیماری کی وجہ سے وہ ایک نماز سے بھی محروم ہوجائے گا) تو اس کے لئے حج حرام ہے۔ (یعنی اگر وہ نماز کو ضائع کر کے ہی مکہ مکرمہ پہنچ سکتا ہے تو اس کے لئے یہ سفر جائز نہیں)……

“جو شخص یہ جانتا ہے کہ اگر وہ کسی سمندری سفر پر (یہاں تک کہ ہوائی یا زمینی سفر پر) جاتا ہے تو وہ سر چکرانے یا کسی بھی دوسری بیماری سے متاثر ہوگا جو اسے ذہنی طور پر نقصان پہنچائے گی یا بے ہوشی کا باعث بنائے گی، جس کی وجہ سے وہ نماز سے غفلت کرے گا یا مکمل طور پر نماز ترک کردے گا۔ پھر اس میں (فقہا کے درمیان) کوئی اختلاف نہیں ہے کہ اس کے لئے سفر(حج) کرنا جائز نہیں ہے۔ اس نوعیت کے فرد کا سفر صرف نفسانی خواہش ہے۔ در حقیقت، یہ شیطان کا ایک وسوسہ ہے۔

البرزلی نے کہا – “ہمارے شیخ ابو محمد الشبیبي نے طالب سے روایت کیا اور انہوں نے کہا:

“مشرق اور مغرب کے شیاطین ایک جھگڑے میں الجھ گئے اس بات میں کہ ان میں سے کون سب سے بڑا دھوکہ باز (لوگوں کو گمراہ کرنے والے) ہے..؟

مشرق کے شیاطین نے مغرب کے شیاطین سے کہا :‘ہم دھوکا دینے مین تم سے آگے ہیں کیونکہ ہم ایک شخص کو گناہ کرنے کے لئے ابھارتے ہیں اور انبیاء کے مقامات (مقدس مقامات میں) میں ممنوعات کا مرتکب کراتے ہیں۔’

مغرب کے شیاطین نے جواب دیا : ‘ہم (دھوکہ دہی کے فن میں) اس سے آکے ہیں۔ ہمیں ایک شخص اپنی بیوی اور بچوں کے ساتھ فرض نماز و زکوٰۃ ادا کرتے اور دیگر نیک اعمال (مشقت کے ساتھ) کرتے ہوئے ملتا ہے۔ وہ آرام کی حالت میں ہوتا ہے اور اس کے فرشتے بھی اس کے ساتھ ہوتے ہیں۔

اس کے بعد (حج/عمرہ) ایجنٹ (ٹریول ایجنسیاں جیسے سہوق، خدمت العوام) لوگوں کو حجاز کی سرزمین کا (حج اور عمرہ کے لئے) سفر کرنے کے لئے آمادہ کرتا ہے تو ہم (مغرب کے شیاطین) اس میں دلچسپی لے اس میں کود پڑتے ہیں اور ایک ایک کو باہر نکل آنے پر آمادہ کرتے ہیں (یعنی سفر شروع کرنے پر)، ہم انہیں گُدگُدی کرتے ہیں (شیطان کے جال میں پھانسنے کے لئے مثالی محاورہ)، یہاں تک کہ وہ لوگ (عمرہ جانے کے لئے) تڑپ اٹھتے ہیں اور وہ سفر کے لئے نکل پڑتے ہیں، سفر کے لئے جس دن سے وہ (اپنا گھر) چھوڑتے ہیں، اس دن سے ہم انہیں فرائض کو نظرانداز کرنے اور (شریعت کی) ممانعت کی خلاف ورزی پر آمادہ کرتے ہیں، ان کی روانگی کے دن سے لے کر اپنے اہل خانہ میں واپسی کے دن تک، اس طرح وہ مشرق اور مغرب میں اپنے دین و ایمان اور اپنی جان و مال کے لحاظ سے سب سے زیادہ نقصان میں مبتلا ہو جاتے ہیں۔

تب مشرق کے شیاطین نے فریب کاری کے فن میں مغرب کے شیاطین کی فوقیت کو تسلیم کر لیتے ہیں(کہ حج اور عمرہ کے مقدس ناموں سے ابھار کر  تم ان کو فرائض سے غافل اور ممنوعات کا مرتکب بنا دیتے ہو ،یہ تمہاری بڑی جسارت جرأت ہے، واقعی تم ہم سے بھی زیادہ دھوکہ باز اور گمراہ گروہ ہو)۔

البرزلی نے کہا : “بیشک میں نے اپنے حج کے سفر میں اس کا مشاہدہ کیا ہے۔ ہم اللہ سے حفاظت مانگتے ہیں۔ “(مواہب الجلیل)

شیاطین کے دونوں گروہوں کی اس بحث میں ان لوگوں کے لئے ایک اہم سبق ہے جو اس مقدس سفر کو سیر و سیاحت، جہاں گردی، گھومنا پھرنا بنا کر رکھ دے رہے ہیں۔ جس میں وہ خود اپنے نفس اور شیطان کے دھوکے میں رہتے ہیں۔

ارشاد الساری میں مندرجہ ذیل تذکرہ کیا گیا ہے – “فریضہ حج کی شرائط میں سے ایک یہ ہے کہ فرض نمازیں ادا کر نے کی استعداد ہو ، اور (وہ) قضا نہ کی جائیں۔”

اگر جماعت کے بغیر ایک بھی نماز پڑھی جائے تو یہ 700 بڑے (کبیره) گناہ کرنے کے مترادف ہے۔ حضرت ابو بکر ورّاق (رحمة اللہ علیہ) اپنے سفر حج کے پہلے ہی دن جماعت کے ساتھ ایک نماز پڑھنے سے قاصر رہے، ایک نماز کی جماعت چھوٹ گئی، اس کے بعد انہوں نے کہا کہ کاش وہ پیچھے رہ جاتے اور اس مقدس سفر پر نہ نکلتے  کیونکہ سفر کے پہلے ہی دن جماعت کی نماز چھوڑ دی اور 700 کبیرہ گناہ کا ارتکاب ہوا۔

اب جب کہ فرض عبادت حج کے اسفار کے لئے بھی یہ شرعی شرائط ہیں تو اگر دورانِ سفر نماز کا چھوٹنا یا حرام (فعل) کا ارتکاب لازم آتا ہو تو پھر اس سفر کا کرنا جائز نہیں ہوگا۔

اور پھر جب حج کے بارے میں شریعت کا یہ نظریہ ہے تو پھر مزے کے ٹور (tour) دھوکہ میں مبتلا نفل عمرے اور “تین حرم” کی خوش کُن سیاحت کے بارے میں کسی مؤمن کا ایمان اسے اندر سے کیا حکم دے گا..؟

فقہاءِ کرام نے واضح طور پر حکم بیان کیا ہے اور ایمانی سمجھ بھی یہی حکم کرتی ہے کہ حج کے لئے جانا جائز نہیں ہوگا اگر سفر میں ایک نماز بھی چھوٹ جائے یا قضا ہو جائے۔

اب آج کل کی صورتِ حال میں کیا کیا جائے گا..؟ کیا حکم دیا جائے گا جب لوگ ان مزاحیہ مزے دار تفریحی ٹور کو دینی القاب دے کے سفر کرتے ہیں۔؟

THE HAJJ OF THE HEART

ON HIS way to Makkah to perform Hajj, Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mubaarak (radhiyallah anhu) passed through Kufa. Passing by a dump he saw a woman defeathering a dead duck. It occurred to him that perhaps it was a dead duck. So he asked the woman: “Is this duck carrion or is it slaughtered?” She said: “It is carrion.” He said: “Allah Ta’ala has made carrion haraam and you in this city consume carrion.” She said: “Don’t worry about me.”

However, Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mbaarak, persisted to admonish her. Then she said: “I have little children. We have not ate a morsel for the past three days.” Greatly grieved, he went with his mule to the market place and purchased food and some clothes and delivered it to the home of the woman. He knocked at the door. The woman opened. Then he said: “This is food and clothes. Take it as well as the mule. It is for you.”

The Hajj caravan had left him. He remained in Kufa and missed Hajj. He waited for the return of the Hujjaaj. He returned to his hometown with the caravan. When the Hujjaaj reached their hometown, a large crowd had come to welcome them. They asked Hadhrat Ibn Mubaarak about the Hajj. He said: “I did not perform Hajj this year.” One of his companions said: “Subhaanallaah! Did I not leave my money with you (in Makkah), then I took it from you afterwards?” Another Hajee said: “Did you not give me water at a certain place (while performing Hajj)? A third one said: “Did you not purchase for me certain things?” (i.e. while at Makkah). Hadhrat Ibn Mubaarak said: “I don’t know what you are talking. I tell you that I did not perform Hajj this year.” That night in a dream someone said to him:

“O Abdallaah! Verily, Allah Ta’ala has accepted your Sadqah. Allah Ta’ala sent an Angel in your form to perform Hajj on your behalf.”

An Angel in the form of Ibn Mubaarak had accompanied the Hujjaaj, hence they believed that he had performed Hajj with them.