Category Archives: History

Brief History of the West’s Hate Propaganda of the Prophet ﷺ & Islam

History of Europe’s Islam hate writing and publishing material for distorting the image of Muhammed ﷺ and Islam.

It was Nicetas of Byzantium around 860 A.D who first wrote “Refutation of Quran” to mislead people to believe that Quran is made up book[1] ﻧَﻌُﻮْﺫُﺑِﺎﻟﻠﻪ He wrote it at the request of Michael III who was the Byzantine Emperor of Amorian dynasty
By this time Muslims have destroyed entire Persian Empire and took Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine), North Africa from Roman Empire, Spain was under the rule of Muslims and Muslims fought battle of Tours in Western France. Roman Empire was shaken by all of this conquest and feared that it’s days are numbered, so in all this hysteria “Refutation of Quran” was written to stop and belittle Muslims.

Then there was a long pause as Muslims were a dominant force on the horizon and masses were contend with Muslims rule and there was no Popular uprising in Islamic history with the exception to Ummayyad dynasty which was violently overthrown by the Abbasids [2]. Other than that Islamic history have not witnessed violent popular uprisings until after Colonialism.

But after the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 Muslims have reached the peak and downfall started from west with the Spanish inquisition. Muslims lost Spain. By now Printing technology was available and anything can be printed in Mass, so now in 1537 Venetian printers Paganino and Alessandro Paganini produced printed Blasphemous, misleading edition of Quran to distribute to Muslims under Ottomon Empire [3] and this was the reason why there was a ban in Ottomon Empire on printing anything in Arabic to prevent the above. Unlike the Secular Liberal westernized Muslims with deep inferiority complex who claim this Ottomon empire ban is the reason of our falling back in Technology and Science and our eventual downfall.[4][5] Under Ottomon Empire Printing was allowed for anything in non-Arabic. Books in Arabic were hand written under the supervision of learned scholars and Muslims with deep understanding of Islam. By 1727 even this Arabic ban was also lifted.

Anyway going back to the subject of Blasphemous publication by Europe. So after 1537 a series of Blasphemic material was published about Prophet Muhammed ﷺ and Islam and most notable is the Chronicles of Theophanes which was first written back in 817-818 A.D and was Printed centuries later and taught at universities in the west and Secular liberal misguided Muslims use it as a references for their “Research.” So in our time this whole Jyllands Posten and Geert Wilders Blasphemous cartoons are the continuation of that hate. But this Cancellation of Cartoons by Geert wilders in Netherland is the first retreat by the west.

References:

1) https://www.hse.ru/data/2012/07/02/1254237135/Ulbricht%20RP.pdf

2) https://layyin1137.wordpress.com/2014/02/19/collapse-and-continuity-in-the-umayyad-and-abbasid-regimes/

3) http://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=
405

4) http://icraa.org/ottomans-and-the-printing-press-answering-misconceptions/

5) https://www.dailysabah.com/feature/2015/06/08/myths-and-reality-about-the-printing-press-in-the-ottoman-empire

Tipu Sultan’s Contributions Towards Development of Unani Medicine

[By Mohd A. ALİ, Mohd A. BAKAR, Mohammad ASLAM, Mohd KHALID, Abdul A. FARIS, Hamiduddin]

INTRODUCTION
Tipu Sultan (1750–1799), also known as the  Tiger of Mysore[1], was a man of intelligence and courage, a man of strong belief, a great warrior, a great scholar, a great scientist, and a great planner[2]. He was one of the most powerful rulers of a well-administered kingdom[3]. According to Mohibbul Hasan (b. 1909), Tipu was an “enlightened and tolerant ruler.”[4] B. Sheik Ali (b. 1925) regarded Tipu Sultan as the “flair for modernization”[5] in the 18th century in India. He was a great man. Tipu often said that “it was far better to live like a lion for a day than to live like a jackal for hundred years.”[6,7].

He was born on November 10, 1750[8] in Devanahalli,[9] also known as Yusufabad, a village 33 km far from the city of Bengaluru in South India. His father Haidar Ali (1722–1782),[10] although an illiterate, appointed talented teachers to give Tipu the usual scholastic education along with military training. According to Mohibbul Hasan (b. 1909), Tipu showed interest in science, medicine, and engineering, but calligraphy, theology, and Sufism served his favorite subjects. Moreover, he was ambitious of being an author and wrote more than 45 books himself or translated from other languages under his supervision and patronage on the subjects of medicine, military science, Sufism, history, law, and Hadith[11].

He was a great patron of scholars and poets. Hence, after coming to the power (1782), he established a university in Srirangapatna named as Dar-ul-Umur, also called Jami-ul-Umur or Jami-ul-Uloom, serving to the cause of education and research[12]. He named this university Dar-ul-Umur for the purpose of advancement in arts, science, and technology.  Therefore, all subjects of arts and science were in the syllabus[13].

Tipu evinced keen interest in collecting books in various languages, including Arabic, Indian, Persian, and European. He had an excellent library consisting of 2000 manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu, and Hindi languages dealing with medicine, military science, Hadith, law, Sufism, history, philosophy, grammar, astrology, poetry, and mathematics and was regarded as the sign of excellence in the East [14]. A librarian was appointed for maintaining and managing the library. A descriptive catalogue of the oriental library of the late  Tipu Sultan of Mysore (SCRR ED80.29/9330) was published by Charles Stewart (1764–1837) in 1809, which contained 364 pages with a detailed description of the library of Tipu Sultan with its specifications[15]. Charles Stewart listed 1090 manuscripts in different languages, but he mentioned more than 2000 manuscripts, some of them gifted to the Oxford and Cambridge Universities and to the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Molvi Amjad Ali Ashhari, in his book Savaneh Tipu Sultan (A Biography on Tipu Sultan), mentioned a catalog of the library of Tipu Sultan consisting of 1889 rare books and manuscripts, which were bounded by gold and precious stones. Many of them were gifted to the treasury of library by several governments and Islamic scholars, of which 62  books were on the subject of medicine.

After the fall of the kingdom of  Tipu Sultan, the plunder and loot of his great library with literary treasures was the greatest loss to the nation. A person bought a manuscript for Rs. 5, which he sold later for Rs. 2000. Still, later it fetched £ 250, and the hand-written Quran by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (1618–1707 AD) valued at Rs. 90,000 finally found its way to the Windsor Palace. The entire Library of Tipu Sultan first was shifted to the Fort William College, Calcutta, in 1800, and subsequently to England.

CONSERVATION OF UNANI MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS

It shows the great interest and affection of Tipu Sultan toward Unani medicine that 62 books were related to medicine in his library. He also had good experience in treating various diseases, which is described in his personal letters and writings[16]. He was also a writer of repute and fame. He not only preserved Unani manuscripts and their principles but also wrote about 45 books by himself or translated from other languages under his supervision and patronage on various subjects,[17] such as Tuzak-i-Tipu, Zabarjad, and a treatise on the preparation of perfumes and the art of dyeing and cleaning.

Some books preserved in the library of Tipu Sultan on the subject of medicine are mentioned below:

1. Khulasat-ut-Tibb: a short treatise on medicine, art of dyeing, and paper making written by Muhammad bin Masood[18].

2. Asrar-e-Attiba: essays on the virtues of amulets, medicine, and charm for averting diseases authored by Shihab ad-Din.

3. Shifa ar-Rijal: a poetical treatise on medicine by Shihab ad-Din (11,18).

4. Bahr-ul-Manafe’: the book, written by Maulood Muhammad in 1794 on the order of Tipu Sultan and dedicated to him, discusses embryology, with a special focus on the birth and care of the child; the book also contains a chapter on hygiene.

5. Qanun-dar-Ilm-e-Tibb: A compendium (complete pharmacopeia of London Hospital) of reputed European physicians on medicine translated from English to Persian by order of Tipu Sultan.

6. Tarjuma Kitab-i-Farang: A translation of Dr. Cook Burn’s treatise on a twist of the intestines.

7. Mufradat dar-Ilm-e-Tibb: It is a book on medical science and natural history translated by  order of Tipu Sultan from French and English into Persian, in which various herbs and roots of plants of medicinal properties are described. It contains diagrams and pictures of plants, with the references from English and French sources. Charles Stewart adds a note that Tipu Sultan used English prisoners for translating and compiling this book.

8. Tibb-e-Darajan: This book was compiled by order of Tipu Sultan on the subject of medicine; one manuscript of the book is preserved in the Oriental Research Library, Mysore, with many signatures of Tipu Sultan on its initial pages.

9. Barqi wa Tibbi Tajurbat: The book discusses experiments on electricity and medical treatments; this book was translated from English to Persian under the patronage of Tipu, taken from “Cockburn’s  Twist of Intestines.”

10. Tohfa-e-Muhammadi: This book was written by Muhammad Naseer Ifshar Turk on behest of  Tipu Sultan on pharmacology dealing with different drugs with details of the treatments of various diseases, dedicated to the Sultan, arranged in Arabic alphabetical order.

11. Hukm Namah: This book was written under the patronage of Tipu Sultan on rules and regulations of the Kingdom; one chapter was especially for illustration of tobacco prohibition for public as well as military and description of its harmful effects on health[19].

Snake Bite:  1) Ankola roots [Alangium salviifolium (L. f.)] in powder form; one hawen (a unit of weight) to be taken orally with water and applied on the wound locally.

2) The extract of shaali (Oryza sativa L.) root (dry or wet) should be used orally [one Kaddah (a unit of volume)]; more than one Kaddah may be poisonous to the body.

3) Samandar phal (an Indian-origin drug such as chebulic myrobalan in square shape); one hawen (a unit of weight), ground and mixed with cold water, should be taken orally and applied on the wound topically.  

Dog Bite: Small black acacia, which bears beans and yellow flowers; the beans, bark, and root of this acacia should be ground in curd of cow milk and taken orally for 5 days in the morning. Moreover, this preparation may be served as a diet to the patient; only curd should be given to the patients for drinking instead of water.

Scorpion Bite: The three leaves of coffee senna (Kasondi, Cassia occidentalis Linn.) should be taken orally, and the same in the powdered form may be used topically on the affected site.

If someone is bitten by a rat, the  body develops nodules and pustules. It should be treated with one or two films of snake shedding along  with  jaggery four  times  a  day  internally. This prescription is also beneficial in other skin diseases.

According to Mahmud Bangalori (1887–1958 AD), this book indicates that the systems and regulations of the kingdom of  Tipu were well developed.

The book is in Persian language, and its Urdu translation was rendered by Dr. Mahmud Husain Khan (1907–1975) and published from Pakistan in 1950. A single Persian manuscript of this book (manuscript No. 1250) is also available in the Asiatic Society Bengal, Calcutta[20]. According to Maktoob-e-Sultani, some more  European books on pharmacopeia and colicky pain were translated by order of Tipu the King.

HEALTH SYSTEM IN THE KINGDOM OF TIPU (1782–1799)

Tipu Sultan was a capable ruler and administrator. He did much to  strengthen Mysore with contemporary science and  improve the conditions of the peasantry. He did not stick to the old regulations but introduced a new system through all his dominions[21]. A greatest contribution of Tipu Sultan was spreading awareness and consciousness among his people. His reforming zeal touched almost every strata of society.  The health care system in the kingdom of Tipu was well established, developed, and popular. Although  Tipu Sultan  propagated and promoted  Unani  (Greeco-Arabian) medicine on preferential ground in his territory, he was never unaware of the advancement of  Western medicine. Hence, one can always find a  Western physician or surgeon beside Unani Hakeems. All Hakeems (physicians) were grown on the concept of temperament and humors, the core philosophy of Unani medicine[22]. The kingdom of  Tipu had many hospitals. Groups of Hindu, Muslim, and French physicians and surgeons were appointed for treating patients and providing health care facilities[23]. The wound was washed three to four times a day with simple warm water by a boy attendant. The surgery was done by Jarrah (surgeon) if required.

In 1793, Tipu Sultan established Piadah Askar (foot soldiers) and Sawar Askar (Cavalry) in his army.  Twenty-seven Cushoon (a battalion of foot soldiers) were established, and for every Cushoon, one Hakeem (physician) and one surgeon were appointed. In Sawar Ashkar (rider soldiers), especially veterinary surgeons were appointed along with Hakeems (physicians) and surgeons. In all departments (revenue, military, and so forth), health-related quality facilities were available and a group of physicians and surgeons was  appointed. The salary of a Hakeem was five Pagodas (currency of Saltanat-e-Khudadad) per month, more than that of a surgeon who got three Pagodas per month.

According to the British assessment of Tipu Sultan’s Hill Fort, Chiltaldrug had more military and garrison buildings. It also had some hospitals; the two larger hospitals located in the town were designated for the sepoys. It measured 200 ft (61 m) in square and 12ft (3.6m) in height, having mud walls with a roof. The inventory adds the note that it  “was built in a square.”  Given its dimensions and roof type, it was likely a series of rooms built around an open courtyard. It too was judged to be in unserviceable condition. The survey report describes it as a 56 × 44 ft (17 × 13 m) mud-walled structure with a tiled roof[24]. It is assumed that these hospitals were well established with all facilities. A series of rooms consisted of special and general wards. Some rooms were allocated especially for outdoor patients, and some were for specific treatment. Male wards were separate from female wards. More attention was given to wounded patients, called as emergency medical services. Skilled physicians and surgeons, pharmacists, and other hospital staff were appointed for smooth functioning of the hospital. This hospital was also mentioned in the archeological report of Mysore for the year 1935[25].

According to Anwar Harun (b.1942), buildings of military magazine and the hospital were of main importance in Srirangapatnam[26].

Special rules and regulations were compiled for all departments including hospitals and health care officers for betterment of humanity and proper restoration of health. The book Hukm Namah, consisting of 14 volumes, was compiled under the immediate inspection of Tipu Sultan[27]. Once chicken pox broken out in the camps of rebels. Tipu Sultan immediately ordered Badruzzaman Khan Naita to transfer the rebels to a place suitable for their health. Tipu often said that “I have been born to soothe the wounds with ointment; hence I easily get horrified with murder and plunder of the mass.”

Tipu Sultan showed his concern for disabled subjects in his regulations of 1786. He proposed to employ the lame and blind “for blowing the Bellows of Iron  Works”  and the Amildar or Amil was ordered to give them  “something for their traveling expenses too.”

Tipu Sultan gave great attention toward health education in his territory. The Dar-ul-Umur University was quite renowned for all the prevalent subjects, but Unani Tibb got a dignified position among the other subjects under the supervision of renowned physician of his time Hakeem Mohammad Baig, who also served as the royal physician of Saltanat-e-Khudadad (kingdom of Tipu); another Hakeem was Ghulam Husain Munajjim Aasi. The university was equipped with a well-established pharmacy and chemical laboratory for preparation, analysis, and experimentation of Unani drugs. According to Mahmud Khan Bangalori (1887-1958), a famous chemical laboratory in Srirangapatna was established for analysis and experimentation of drugs and other chemicals.

According to Mir Hussain Ali Khan Kirmani (d.1864), Tipu Sultan established schools and colleges in his treaty for Islamic and technical knowledge along with health education[28].

Francis Buchanan-Hamilton (1762–1829), a traveler to Madras through Mysore, Canara, and Malabar in 1800 AD, mentioned in his book A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar about various colleges, hospitals, apothecary shops, physicians, surgeons, pharmacists, and cultivation and trading of medicinal plants, and awareness of people about health and many other facilities related to medicine. These indicated a well-established health care system in that time[29].

Tipu also appointed Saidalani (pharmacists) and established apothecary shops under his government supervision. He developed a prosperous health care system equipped with the facilities and technologies of his time.

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The kingdom of Tipu had a provision for balanced diet with special menu according to the need of the physical activities especially for military personnel. All the officers, including Hakeem (physician) and Jarrah (surgeon), had to eat together. The rations were to be served to all officers on a daily basis (Table 1). The rations provided to the Musqueteers (Navy commander) and gunners were distributed with some differences in their quantities, especially meat (Table 2).

Tipu knew well about the harmful substances for health and society. So, he began to restrict and regulate the conduct of the shops for the sale of spirituous liquor, and finally and effectually abolished the whole in 1784 along with the sale of all intoxicating and destructive substances such as poppy flowers (Papaver somniferum Linn.), and the Bhang (hemp plant, Cannabis sativa Linn.) even in the private gardens (21,22). According to Lewin Bentham Bowring (1824–1910), “Tipu’s prohibition of intoxicating  drug is an act of reformer.”[30]

Tipu mentioned prohibition in the first chapter of the book Tuhfah tul-Mujahideen. He prohibited the cultivation of red pepper and vine due to cutaneous eruptions and alcohol intoxication in the maritime districts. The growth of pepper was permitted later for purposes of its medical regimen and trading with the Arab World. Some items such as tobacco, sandalwood, pepper, and precious metals were bought under state permit only. Colonel Mark Wilks FRS (1759–1831), writer of History of Mysore, stated “I could not determine whether the prohibition of growing red pepper or chili, was to be considered as a commercial regulation to increase the growth of black pepper or as a medical regimen or as a compound of both motives.”

Tipu propagated the production of silkworm and other agricultural products for medicinal and economical purposes[31]. In another letter, he spoke about the cultivation of saffron[32]. According to Mark Wilks (1759–1831), Jaiphal (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) is also imported from Travancore and cultivated in Lal Bagh for spices ad medicinal purpose. Now Mysore is a good exporter of nutmeg in India.

According to Francis Buchanan-Hamilton (1762–1829), the cultivation and production of medicinal plants and herbs were common in large scale. Especially sandalwood and cardamom were items of external commerce. The trade between the dominions mostly comprised salt, sulfur, tin, lead, zinc, copper, indigo, nutmeg, cloves, camphor, a hot root used in medicine, China root, and so forth. The cultivation of crops, medicinal herbs, and other plants was allowed in dry lands given at a fixed rent.

Whenever Tipu heard of something new, he wanted it for Mysore. He stood for a change. He had deep interest in a revolutionary change in every sector of life. He set up, within the span of few years, truly astonishing factories in Srirangapatna, Chiltaldrug, Bangalore, and Bendur for manufacturing items related to the health care system and other departments, such as scissors, scientific instruments, watches, cutlery, hour glasses, paper mill, glassware unit, and military-related equipment. Hundreds of foreign technicians were brought in, including Frenchmen, Germans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese, bringing with them their technical know-how and the vision of a modern world. 

Tipu Sultan had keen interest in trading of some mineral drugs used in Unani medicine, such as sulfur, lead, copper, and so forth, from Muscat. He established pearl industry, and training was done in several places for procurement. All types of oil extraction, medicinal and nonmedicinal, especially sandalwood oil, were common. Tipu Sultan also established a sugar factory at Channapatna in which white sugar was prepared in good quality that was assumed to be better for the health in that time. These examples indicated strong relation and great affection of Tipu Sultan toward Unani medicine. On the contrary, he had innovative ideas in medicine and war technology. He enriched Unani medicine with other systems of medicine such as French medicine, and for the same, he sent a delegation of physicians to France in 1787 to get acquainted with new experimental and observational research. Moreover, he invited a skillful physician, technicians, a dyer, and a pharmacologist thoroughly acquainted with, and capable of, preparing every kind of medicine known in Europe, and, lastly, an able surgeon from France, which set the best example of being a modernist at a time when his contemporary rulers were in slumber. He also sent Meer Ghulam Ali to Turkey for alliance and ordered to bring up two experts of sulfur mineralogy and some experts of gold and silver mineralogy.

Hence, when Tipu Sultan came to know about a newly invented instrument that could measure body temperature accurately, he wrote to Francis, governor of Pondicherry, to provide the instrument to him and also send an instruction book in Persian for its accurate utilization.

Two herbal gardens for experimental purpose at Srirangapatna and Bangalore, named as Lal Bagh, were established having nurseries in which seeds and saplings from different countries of the world were obtained and planted. A special plot was allotted for separate kind of fruits, trees, and herbs. The Lal Bagh of Srirangapatna disappeared with the fall of the kingdom of Tipu, but Lal Bagh of Bangalore is still present, which reflects great affection of Tipu toward advancement, development, research strategies in medicine, botany, and other sciences. The Lal Bagh was also used as bonsai. Therefore, numerous plants from all over the world were imported and experimented under different atmospheric conditions.

Tipu Sultan made special rules and regulations for health and hygiene. He ordered his officers for plantation in urban as well as rural areas that could consume polluted air. Occupations that caused pollution, for example laundry and dyeing, were transferred to outside the city.

Tipu Sultan established government orphanage in various places of the kingdom where the orphans availed all types of health care and other facilities for proper mental and educational development. A special health facility was available for prisoners also[33].

Tipu Sultan established animal husbandry named as Amrit Mahal. A group of talented veterinary doctors were appointed; in this department, cows, oxen, horses, mules, and elephants were hybridized and bred. Good resources were available for health care facilities for the animals.

He personally supervised every department of the Government. Colin Mackenzie (1754–1821) records that Tipu invigorated the whole system by principles of good government and an economic management of resources to which those of any neighboring power bore no comparison”. In the kingdom of  Tipu, the people were happy because everything was available including patient care facilities and social welfare[34]. It is said in Authentic Memoirs of Tippoo Sultan about the kingdom of Tipu “the men in general were healthy and robust; the women were more delicate, but strong and well made.”[35].

TIPU SULTAN AS A PHYSICIAN

The personal letters of Tipu Sultan show that he possessed the potential to make precise diagnosis and good prescriptions. On various occasions, he advised prescriptions along with preventive measures of the diseases. He strictly followed health care rules and also ordered his officers for the same. He used to wake up early in the morning and go for morning walk regularly. He usually took fruits and milk in breakfast. He had restricted himself to only two meals in a day whole life. Tipu Sultan was quite caring toward his officers. The letters that he wrote to them contained affectionate words; he was solicitous for their health, and in case of their illness, he himself used to prescribe medicines for them.

In a letter to Meer Qamruddeen and Burhanuddeen, he said “you should consult the physician for your ill health.”. In another letter to Mahommad Ghyas, he advised regimens for faster healing and gave valuable suggestions, which shows his affection toward his officers. These facts inferred that Tipu was bonded with Unani medicine through his sound knowledge on its principles such as Mizaj and Akhlat. He wrote in context of disease management that the first thing to be done was to draw all the Fasid Akhlat (morbific humors) by wet cupping, leading to faster improvement due to restoration of the normal Mizaj of the patient; the remnant morbific matter should be expelled out of the body with the judicious administration of drugs in view of the temperament of that patient.

In a special discourse with his military physician on a dog biting case, he directed the physician on duty to administer proper medicines without stopping the discharge from the lesion, and the wound to be kept open for 6 months. According to William James Kirkpatrick (1838–1921), the translator of Tipu Sultan’s letters, this was not the only letter in which the Sultan exhibited himself in the character of a physician; still more curious instances of the same kind would appear hereafter. It would be judicious to dedicate his active indulgence in such issues to the welfare of the patients. This attribute might, at least, be credited to his soul of humanity, but humanity or sympathy in the sufferings of others is not found among the virtues of other rulers.

Addressing his ambassador to Pune territory, he quotes “you have mentioned in your communications about the environmental changes there, in this particular case, the designated physician should at first evacuate the morbific matters out of the body through wet cupping as it helps in restoration of health to its normalcy.“

It should be taken as a clinical case as Tipu the King advised camphor oil for the treatment of sciatica (irqun-nasa), as Mr Gulam Ali Khan, a military designate, was suffering from the same. He also provided two bottles of pure camphor oil, which was heavily cultivated in his territory.

Tipu was highly experienced and skilled in Nuskha Navesi (method of prescription). According to William Kirkpatrick with reference to the letter number 346, Sultan sent one Nuskha (prescription) of Sanoon (tooth powder) to the head of the police station Toshak Khana of Shrangapatnam and ordered that this prescription should be prepared and sent to Mahal Sarai and also to him”. Tipu Sultan proposed many prescriptions from his own intelligence. The physicians of that time were amazed after experiencing that prescription.

Tipu Sultan prescribed the treatment of vesicle stone to Chisti Yaar Khan with details of its ingredients, doses, duration, dosage form, method of preparation, and route of administration. This prescription illustrated the intellectuality, proficiency, ability, and expertise of Tipu Sultan in the field of Unani medicine. Tipu also sent by post an emetic drug to be taken on the first day, followed by other medicines for the seven subsequent days.

He further mentioned that during the course of treatment, the patient should avoid eating black and red pepper, and other hot and flatulent edibles. The diet should be curry of radish and boiled rice, and drink should be a solution of muskmelon seeds, cucumber seeds, and dry thorn. The stone would be flushed out in this way.

In fact, after the fall of Srirangapatna, the valuable documents and important experimental records of  Tipu Palace on medicine, especially  Tajurbat-e-Sultani and Bustanul Aqaqeer, were lost. If these books were present today, they might have been helpful on the subject of medicine (12).  The letters of  Tipu Sultan are an important source of information on health care system in his era. William James Kirkpatrick (1838–1921), in-charge of the library of Tipu Sultan after the fall of his kingdom, published about 435 letters in 1811 AD from London, but these letters were far less than those made available by Prof. B. Sheik Ali (b.1925) from London to Vidhan Sudha Arcade, Bangalore, for preservation and research purposes.

CONCLUSION

It is a notable point that most historians have not mentioned health care system of the kingdom of  Tipu, whereas they have discussed other departments in elaborative and illustrative manners. It seems  quite bizarre that the health care  system was in dilapidated conditions where technological, warfare, and other developments were quite steady. On the contrary, the Madras Presidency under the British government had a highly developed health care system with medical education and laws. A great historical lacuna exists on the subject of health care system in Tipu’s era, which should be critically quested for. Tipu Sultan was instrumental in the development of Unani medicine by appointing Unani physicians and pharmacists and establishing apothecary shops and Unani pharmacy for the preparation of drugs. In brief, he dedicated his entire life serving his subjects with utmost sincerity by promoting indigenous health care system in his territory. His valuable services and patronage toward Unani medicine proved to be highly potential in its promotion and advancement.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Co-authors; Prof. B Sheik Ali, a legend historian and Founder Vice-Chancellor of two new universities, Mangalore and Goa; Dar-Ul-Umoor (Tipu Sultan Advanced Study & Research Center) Srirangapatna and its staff; National Institute of Unani medicine library staff; State Central Library, Cubbon Park; ad State Central Library, South Zone, Bangalore.

REFERENCES

1. Ali Sheik B. Tipu Sultan A Crusader for Change. Mysore:  http:// http://www.bsheikali.in: 182,404,407.

2. Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan: A Brief Profile. http://shodhganga. inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream.pdf. accessed on 23.06.2016. 

3. Majmudar RK, Srivastava AN. History of Karnataka. Delhi. SBD publisher’s distributers. 2006:27, 273-277.

4. Hasan M. A History of Tipu Sultan. 1st  ed. Calcutta Dacca: The Bibliophile LTD; 1951:9,10,341,374,379.

5. Kaveh Yazdani. Haidar ‘Ali and Tipu Sultan: Mysore’s Eighteenth-century Rulers in Transition. Itinerario, 38;2014:101-120.

6. Sampath Vikram. Splendours of Royal Mysore. Delhi. Rupa and company. 2008. P.334.

7. Anonymous. Narrative Sketches of the Conquest of the Mysore. 2nd ed. London; W. Justins, Pembeiton Row, Gough Squnre, Fleet Street, :1800.

8. Anonymous. Al-Mausua Al-Arabia Al-Aalamia from Kutub Al-Shamila. Al-Maktab Al-Ta’wuni Li Al-Da;wati Bi Al-Rauza: Mohammaed Abdulaziz Al-Rajhi Endowments.

9. Basavaraja KR. History and Culture of Karnataka. Chalukya publication Dharwad. 1984:279,545.

10. Chhabra GS. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India. Vol.I. Reprint 2nd ed. New Delhi; Strerling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.: 1984:300.

11. Nadvi MI. Seerat Tipu Sultan Shaheed. 1st ed. Lucknow: Majlise Tahqiqat wa Nashriyate Islam; Dec 1996:162,480,481,498,499.

12. Usmani MS. Tipu Sultan Ke Molajat Wa Tikniki Tajarbat. 1st ed. Delhi: Majlise Tahqiqate Tibbi;1976:27-52.

13. Bangalori Mahmood. Tarikh-e-Saltant-e-Khudadad. 2nd ed. Bangalore; Barqi Kausar Press Ma’skar: 1939:428, 436, 441, 443, 452, 459, 463, 507.

14. Ahmad KJ. Hundred Great Muslims. 1st ed. Des Plaines: Library of Islam;1923:418.

15. Stewart C. Descriptive Catalogue of the Oriental Library of the Late Tipu Sultan of Mysore. 1se ed. London: Sold by Logman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme; 1809) by Major Charles Stewart.

16. Tipu Sultan. Select Letters of Tippoo Sultan to Various Public Functionaries (arranged and Translated in english by William Kirkpatrick). 1st ed. London: Printed by Cox, Son, and Baylis, Great Queen Street, Lincoln’s-Inn-Fields.1811.

17. Nadwi M Ilyas. Tipu Sultan (A Life History), pp. 293-94.

18. Zakaria Virk. Science in India during the Muslim Rule. https:// http://www.alislam.org/egazette/articles/Science-in-India-duringthe-Muslim-Rule.pdf dated 23.06.2016.

19. Murthy Srinivasa HV. Aspect of Karnataka History and Culture. Cambridge publishing Pvt. Limited. 2001:153-58.

20. Mahmud Husain Khan. En.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmud_ Husain. Last edited on 27 June 2016, accessed on 13.07.2016.

21. Lewis RB. Mysore A Gazetter Compiled for Government. Vol.I. New Delhi. Madras: Asian Educational Services;2001:599.

22. Wilks M. Historical Sketches of the South India in the Attempt to trace the History of Mysore. Vol.II. New Delhi. Madras: Asian Educational Service. 1989:334.

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28. Kirmani HA. The History of the Reign of Tipu Sultan, Being A Continuation of The Neshani Hyduri. (translated by Colonel W. Miles). London; Printed by W.Nicot, Shakspeare Press, Pall Mall: http://books.google.com.

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35. Author unknown. Authentic Memoirs of Tippoo Sultan. Calcutta; Reprint The Mieror press:1819:21.

ٹیپو سلطان – دین میں سختی خاندان رائے بریلی سے روحانی تعلق کا اثر

[مولانا الیاس ندوی]

دنیا کی مختلف زبانوں میں اب تک سلطان ٹیپو پر متعدد کتابیں مختلس انداز اور پہلووں سے لکھی گیئ ہیں ہندوستان کی تمام تاریخی شخصیات میں تنہا ٹیپو سلطان کی ذات ایسی ہے کہ اس کے متعلق لکھنے والوں کی اکثریت اس کی ہم مذہب نہیں ہے اس لی ذاتی زندگی و سیرت کا جائزہ لینے والے مصنفین و مؤرخین اس بات پر متفق پیں کہ سلطان اپنی غیر معمولی مذہبی رواداری کے باوجود اپنے مذہب سے بڑی عقیدت و محبت رکھتا تھا اور وہ اس کا ایک سچا و مخلص پیرو تھا اسلامہ تعلیمات پر عمل کے سلسلہ میں وہ اپنی ذات کے علاوہ عام مسلمانوں کے لئے بھی کسی رعایت تخفیف یا نرمی کا قائل نہیں تھا لیکن افسوس اس بات کا ہے کہ کسی بھی مصنف یا مؤرخ نے اب تک باقعدہ اس بات کا پتہ لگانے کی کوشش نہیں کی کہ سلطان ٹیبو کے اندر اس قدر دینداری و طقوی اسلام پسندی اور مذہبی سختی کہاں سے آئی کے اپنی رعایا کہ ایک بڑے طبقہ کی ناراضگی کے بوجود اس نے جاہلی خرافات و بدعات کے سلسلہ میں کسی چھوٹ سے ساف انکار کیا حالانکہ مذہب کہ معاملہ میں اس لے والد حیدر علی ذاتی طور پر زیادہ سخت نہیں تھے اس کا خاندان صحیح روایات کے متابق عرب کے قبیلہ قریش سے تعلق رکھنے کے بوجود سالوں سے ہندؤوں کے ساتھ اس ملک ہیں رہنے کی ہجہ سے کسی بڑے دینی مزاج یا اسلامی اسپرٹ کا حامل نہیں رہ گیا تھا خود اسکی جائے پیدائش دیون ہلی میں جہاں اس نے اپنا بچپن گزارا کوئی ایسا دینی ماحول یا اسلامی معاشرہ نہیں پایا جاتا تھا جس کی بناء پر ہم کہ سکیں کہ شاید اس ماحول کا اس پر اثر ہوا ہو تلاش بسیار کے بعد راقم الحروف کو مقدومی حضرت مولانا سید ابوالحسن علی ندوی دامت برکاتہم کے اشارہ پر کتب خانہ شبلی ندوةا لعماء لکھنو میں موجود رائے بریلی کے حسنی خاندان کے ذاتی خاندانی ذخیرہ کتب میں جس میں سر فہرست سید حیدر علی ٹونکی کا مخطوطہ وقائعاحمدی تھا اسکا سرا مل گیا اور وہ یہ کہ بر صغیر کی سبسے بڑی عظیم تحریک جہادو احیاء خلافت کے بانی امیر الؤ منین فی الہند حضرت سید احمد شہید کے حقیقی نانا شاہ ابو سعید صاحب اور انکے فرزند شاہ ابو اللیث صاحب سے ٹیپو کا روحانی تعلق قائم تھا اور ان دونوں بزرگوں کو اس خاندان میں روحانی مرشد و سرپرست  کی حیثیت حاصل تھی یہ پورہ خاندان سلسلہ نقشبندیہ میں شاہ ابو اللیث صاحب سے بعیت تھا اور اس خدار سیدہ خاندان کے روحانی اثرات اور انکی آرزوں و تمناؤں کی روح سلطان ٹیپو کے جسم و جان میں کام کر رہی تھی سلطنت میں محرم کی رسومات کے سلسلہ میں ٹیپو کی سختی تجارتی و روایتی پیری مریدی پر اسکی روک بھی ان ہی بزرگوں کی صحبت کئ اثر سے تھی جن کا پورا خاندان اس سلسلہ میں اس وقت پورے ملک ہیں شہرت رکھتا تھا ورنہ ملک کے اس زمانہ کے عام حالات اور مسلم عوام کے جاہلی رسومات و بدعات کی طرف گیر معمولی رحجان کو دیکھتے ہوئے ٹیپو کلیئے اسپر روک لگانا اتنا آسان نہیں تھا شاہ ابو سعید صاحب مع اپنے بیٹے شاہ ابو للیث صاحب کے تبلیغ و اصلاح کی نیت سے شمالی ہند سے ہزاروں میل کا فاصلہ طے کرکے جنوب مغرب میں نواب حیدر علی کے زمانہ میں سلطنت خداداد میسور تشریف لائے تھے جھاں  ان کے ہاتھوں ہزاروں مسلمانوں نے بعیت کی تھی شاہ ابو للیث صاحب جب فریضہ حج کی ادائیگی کے بعد اپنے وطن رائے بریلی تشریف لائے تو اس کے بعد انہوں نے مستقل سلطنت خداداد ہی میں قیام کیا اور وہیں رہ کر آپ نے سلطانی خاندان کی دینی و روحانی رہنمائی کی- آپ کا قیام مغربی ساہلی شہر منگلور میں تھا جس کا اس وقت نام کوڑیال بندر تھا وہیں 1208 ہجری مطابق 1793 عیسوی مہں سلطان کی شہادت سے چھ سال قبل آپ کی وفات بھی ہویئ البتہ شاہ ابو سعید کا انتقال 1193 ہجری میں اپنے وطن رائے بریلی میں ہی ہوا-

1822 عیسوی میں جب حضرت سید احمد شہید رحمااللہ یعنی شاہ ابو اللیث صاحب کے بھانجے مع اپنے قافلہ کے حج کے ارادہ سے مکہ جاتے ہوئے کلکتہ ہیں تین ماہ رکے وہ اس وقت کلکتہ کے ٹالیگنج محلہ میں مقیم سلطان ٹیپو کے جلا وطن شہزادوں اور انکی والدہ کو اس کی اطلاع ہوئی بیگم ٹیپو کو اسکا علم تھا کہ انکے شوہر ٹیپو اور خسر نواب حیدر علی کا رائے بریلی کے حسنی خاندان کے بزرگوں شاہ ابو سعید صاحب و شاہ ابو اللیث صاحب سے روحانی تعلق تھا اور یہ دونوں ان سے سلسلہ نقشبندیہ میں مرید تھے اس نے اپنے ایک آدمی محمد قاسم کو سید صاحب کی خدمت میں دریافت حال کیلئے بھیجا کہ وہ معلوم کرے کہ یہ سید صاحب کس کی اولاد میں سے ہیں اگر انکا شاہ ابو سعید صاحب و شاہ ابو اللیث صاحب کے خاندان ہی سے تعلق ہو تو ہم بھی اسے قدم بوسی کریں سید صاحب نے کہلوایا کہ حضرت شاہ ابو سعید صاحب تو ہمارے حقیقی نانا اور شاہ ابو اللیث صاحب ہمارے ماموں تھے اس کے پعد سید صاحب نے بیگم ٹیپو کی درخواست پر تمام شہزادوں سے بعیت لی خود بیگم ٹیپو اور سلطان لی ایک لوتی بیٹی بھی دیگر شاہی خواتین کے ساتھ بعیت لےنے والوں میں شامل تھیں بیگم ٹیپو بڑہ ہی ذاکرہ و متقیہ خاتون تھی سید صاحب کی توجہ و فیض سے اس کو مزید روحانی کمال حاصل ہو گیا تھا سلطان کے بعض شہزادوں کے عقائد میں ان کے ایک دہریہ استاذ مولوی عبد الرحیم کی صحبت سے بڑی تبدیلی پیدا ہوکئی تھی لیکن سید صاحب کے حکم سے بیگم ٹیپو نے شہزادوں کو آئندہ پڑھانے سے مولوی عبد الرحیم کو روک دیا تھا-   

Islamic Medical Science: 1,000 Years Ahead of its Times

From: Ink of Scholars

Within a century after the death of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) the Muslims not only conquered new lands, but also became scientific innovators with originality and productivity. They hit the source ball of knowledge over the fence to Europe. By the ninth century, Islamic medical practice had advanced from talisman and theology to hospitals with wards, doctors who had to pass tests, and the use of technical terminology. The then Baghdad General Hospital incorporated innovations which sound amazingly modern. The fountains cooled the air near the wards of those afflicted with fever; the insane were treated with gentleness; and at night the pain of the restless was soothed by soft music and storytelling. The prince and pauper received identical attention; the destitute upon discharge received five gold pieces to sustain them during convalescence. While Paris and London were places of mud streets and hovels, Baghdad, Cairo and Cardboard had hospitals open to both male and female patients; staffed by attendants of both sexes. These medical centers contained libraries pharmacies, the system of interns, externs, and nurses. There were mobile clinics to reach the totally disabled, the disadvantaged and those in remote areas. There were regulations to maintain quality control on drugs. Pharmacists became licensed professionals and were pledged to follow the physician’s prescriptions. Legal measures were taken to prevent doctors from owning or holding stock. in a pharmacy. The extent to which Islamic medicine advanced in the fields of medical education, hospitals, bacteriology, medicine, anesthesia, surgery, pharmacy, ophthalmology, psychotherapy and psychosomatic diseases are presented briefly.

INTRODUCTION 
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) who is ranked number one by Michael Hart, a Jewish scholar, in his book The 100: The Most Influential Persons in History, was able to unite the Arab tribes who had been torn by revenge, rivalry, and internal fights, and produced a strong nation acquired and ruled simultaneously, the two known empires at that time, namely the Persian and Byzantine Empires. The Islamic Empire extended from the Atlantic Ocean on the West to the borders of China on the East. Only 80 years after the death of their Prophet, the Muslims crossed to Europe to rule Spain for more than 700 years. The Muslims preserved the cultures of the conquered lands. However when the Islamic Empire became weak, most of the Islamic contributions in science were destroyed. The Mongols burnt Baghdad (1258 A.D.) out of barbarism, and the Spaniards demolished most of the Islamic heritage in Spain out of hatred.

The Islamic Empire for more than 1000 years remained the most advanced and civilized nation in the world. This is because Islam stressed the importance and respect of learning, forbade destruction, developed in Muslims the respect for authority and discipline, and tolerance for other religions. The Muslims recognized excellence and hungering intellectually, were avid for the wisdom of the world of Galen, Hippocrates, Rufus of Ephesus, Oribasius, Discorides and Paul of Aegina. By the tenth century their zeal and enthusiasm for learning resulted in all essential Greek medical writings being translated into Arabic in Damascus, Cairo, and Baghdad. Arabic became the International Language of learning and diplomacy. The center of scientific knowledge and activity shifted eastward, and Baghdad emerged as the capital of the scientific world. The Muslims became scientific innovators with originality and productivity. Islamic medicine is one of the most famous and best known facets of Islamic civilization, and in which the Muslims most excelled. The Muslims were the great torchbearers of international scientific research. They hit the source ball of knowledge over the fence to Europe. In the words of Campbell’ “The European medical system is Arabian not only in origin but also in its structure. The Arabs are the intellectual forebearers of the Europeans.”

The aim of this paper is to prove that the Islamic Medicine was 1,000 years ahead of its times. The paper covers areas such as medical education, hospitals, bacteriology, medicine, anesthesia, surgery, ophthalmology, pharmacy, and psychotherapy.

MEDICAL EDUCATION 
In 636 A.D., the Persian City of Jundi-Shapur, which originally meant beautiful garden, was conquered by the Muslims with its great university and hospital intact. Later the Islamic medical schools developed on the Jundi-Shapur pattern. Medical education was serious and systematic. Lectures and clinical sessions included in teaching were based on the apprentice system. The advice given by Ali ibnul-Abbas (Haly Abbas: -994 -A.D.) to medical students is as timely today as it was then’. “And of those things which were incumbent on the student of this art (medicine) are that he should constantly attend the hospitals and sick houses; pay unremitting attention to the conditions and circumstances of their intimates, in company with the most astute professors of medicine, and inquire frequently as to the state of the patients and symptoms apparent in them, bearing in mind what he has read about these variations, and what they indicate of good or evil.”

Razi (Rhazes: 841-926 A.D.) advised the medical students while they were seeing a patient to bear in mind the classic symptoms of a disease as given in text books and compare them with what they found.

The ablest physicians such as Razi (Al-Rhazes), Ibn-Sina (Avicenna: 980-1037 A.D.) and Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar: 116 A.D.) performed the duties of both hospital directors and deans of medical schools at the same time. They studied patients and prepared them for student presentation. Clinical reports of cases were written and preserved for teaching’. Registers were maintained.

Training in Basic Sciences 
Only Jundi-Shapur or Baghdad had separate schools for studying basic sciences. Candidates for medical study received basic preparation from private tutors through private lectures and self study. In Baghdad anatomy was taught by dissecting the apes, skeletal studies, and didactics. Other medical schools taught anatomy through lectures and illustrations. Alchemy was once of the pre-requisites for admission to medical school. The study of medicinal herbs and pharmacognosy rounded out the basic training. A number of hospitals maintained barbel gardens as a source of drugs for the patients and a means of instruction for the students.

Once the basic training was completed the candidate was admitted as an apprentice to a hospital where, at the beginning, he was assigned in a large group to a young physician for indoctrination, preliminary lectures, and familiarization with library procedures and uses. During this pre-clinical period, most of the lectures were on pharmacology and toxicology and the use of antidotes.

Clinical training: The next step was to give the student full clinical training. During this period students were assigned in small groups to famous physicians and experienced instructors, forward rounds, discussions, lectures, and reviews. Early in this period therapeutics and pathology were taught. There was a strong emphasis on clinical instruction and some Muslim physicians contributed brilliant observations that have stood the test of time. As the students progressed in their studies they were exposed more and more to the subjects of diagnosis and judgment. Clinical observation and physical examination were stressed. Students (clinical clerks) were asked to examine a patient and make a diagnosis of the ailment. Only after an had failed would the professor make the diagnosis himself. While performing physical examination, the students were asked to examine and report six major factors: the patients’ actions, excreta, the nature and location of pain, and swelling and effuvia of the body. Also noted was color and feel of the skin – whether hot, cool, moist, dry, flabby. Yellowness in the whites of the eye (jaundice) and whether or not the patient could bend his back (lung disease) was also considered important.

After a period of ward instructions, students, were assigned to outpatient areas. After examining the patients they reported their findings to the instructors. After discussion, treatment was decided on and prescribed. Patients who were too ill were admitted as inpatients. The keeping of records for every patient was the responsibility of the students.

Curriculum: There was a difference in the clinical curriculum of different medical schools in their courses; however the mainstay was usually internal medicine. Emphasis was placed on clarity and brevity in describing a disease and the separation of each entity. Until the time of Ibn Sina the description of meningitis was confused with acute infection accompanied by delirium. Ibn Sina described the symptoms of meningitis with such clarity and brevity that there is very little that can be added after 1,000 years. Surgery was also included in the curriculum. After completing courses, some students specialized under famous specialists. Some others specialized while in clinical training. According to Elgood many surgical procedures such as amputation, excision of varicose veins and hemorrhoids were required knowledge. Orthopedics was widely taught, and the use of plaster of Paris for casts after reduction of fractures was routinely shown to students. This method of treating fractures was re-discovered in the West in 1852. Although ophthalmology was practiced widely, it was not taught regularly in medical schools. Apprenticeship to an eye doctor was the preferred way of specializing in ophthalmology. Surgical treatment of cataract was very common. Obstetrics was left to midwives. Medical practitioners consulted among themselves and with specialists. Ibn Sina and Hazi both widely practiced and taught psychotherapy. After completing the training, the medical graduate was not ready to enter practice, until he passed the licensure examination. It is important to note that there existed a Scientific Association which had been formed in the hospital of Mayyafariqin to discuss the conditions and diseases of the patients.

Licensing of Physicians: In Baghdad in 931 A.D. Caliph Al-Muqtadir learned that a patient had died as the result of a physician’s error. There upon he ordered his chief physician, Sinan ibn Thabit bin Qurrah to examine all those who practiced the art of healing. In the first year of the decree more than 860 were examined in Baghdad alone. From that time on, licensing examinations were required and administered in various places. Licensing Boards were set up under a government official called Muhtasib or inspector general. The Muhtasib also inspected weights and measures of traders and pharmacists. Pharmacists were employed as inspectors to inspect drugs and maintain quality control of drugs sold in a pharmacy or apothecary. What the present Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing in America today was done in Islamic medicine 1,000 years ago. The chief physician gave oral and practical examinations, and if the young physician was successful, the Muhtasib administered the Hippocratic oath and issued a license. After 1,000 years licensing of physicians has been implemented in the West, particularly in America by the State Licensing Board in Medicine. For specialists we have American Board of Medical Specialties such as in Medicine, Surgery, Radiology, etc. European medical schools followed the pattern set by the Islamic medical schools and even in the early nineteenth century, students at the Sorbonne could not graduate without reading Ibn Sina’s Qanun (Cannon). According to Razi a physician had to satisfy two condition for selection: firstly, he was to be fully conversant with the new and the old medical literature and secondly, he must have worked in a hospital as house physician.

HOSPITALS 
The development of efficient hospitals was an outstanding contribution of Islamic medicine. Hospitals served all citizens free without any regard to their color, religion, sex, age or social status. The hospitals were run by government and the directors of hospitals were physicians.

Hospitals had separate wards for male patients and female patients. Each ward was furnished with a nursing staff and porters of the sex of the patients to be treated therein. Different diseases such as fever, wounds, infections, mania, eye conditions, cold diseases, diarrhea, and female disorders were allocated different wards. Convalescents had separate sections within them. Hospitals provided patients with unlimited water supply and with bathing facilities. Only qualified and licensed physicians were allowed by law to practice medicine. The hospitals were teaching hospitals educating medical students. They had housing for students and house-staff. They contained pharmacies dispensing free drugs to patients. Hospitals had their own conference room and expensive libraries containing the most up-to-date books. According to Haddad, the library of the Tulum Hospital which was founded in Cairo in 872 A.D. (1,100 years ago) had 100,000 books. Universities, cities and hospitals acquired large libraries (Mustansiriyya University in Baghdad contained 80,000 volumes; the library of Cordova 600,000 volumes; that of Cairo 2,000,000 and that of Tripoli 3,000,000 books), physicians had their own extensive personal book collections, at a time when printing was unknown and book editing was done by skilled and specialized scribes putting in long hours of manual labour.

For the first time in history, these hospitals kept records of patients and their medical care.

From the point of view of treatment the hospital was divided into an out- patient department and an inpatient department. The system of the in-patient department differed only slightly from that of today. At Tulun hospital, on admission the patients were given special apparel while their clothes, money, and valuables were stored until the time of their discharge. On discharge, each patient – received five gold pieces to support himself until he could return to work.

The hospital and medical school at Damascus had elegant rooms and an extensive library. Healthy people are said to have feigned illness in order to enjoy its cuisine. There was a separate hospital in Damascus for lepers, while, in Europe, even six centuries later, condemned lepers were burned to death by royal decree.

The Qayrawan Hospital (built in 830 A.D. in Tunisia) was characterized by spacious separate wards, waiting rooms for visitors and patients, and female nurses from Sudan, an event representing the first use of nursing in Arabic history. The hospital also provided facilities for performing prayers.

The Al-Adudi hospital (built in 981 A.D. in Baghdad) was furnished with die best equipment and supplies known at the time. It had interns, residents, and 24 consultants attending its professional activities, An Abbasid minister, Ali ibn Isa, requested the court physician, Sinan ibn Thabit, to organize regular visiting of prisons by medical officers. At a time when paris and London were places of mud streets and hovels, Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordova had hospitals which incorporated innovations which sound amazingly modern. It was chiefly in the humaneness of patient care, however, that the hospitals of Islam excelled. Near the wards of those afflicted with fever, fountains cooled the air; the insane were treated with gentleness; and at night music and storytelling soothed the patients.

The Bimaristans (hospitals) were of two types – the fixed and the mobile. The mobile hospitals were transported upon beasts of burden and were erected from time to time as required. The physicians in the mobile clinics were of the same standing as those who served the fixed hospitals. Similar moving hospitals accompanied the armies in the field. The field hospitals were well equipped with medicaments, instruments, tents and a staff of doctors, nurses, and orderlies. The traveling clinics served the totally disabled, the disadvantaged and those in remote areas. These hospitals were also used by prisoners, and by the general public, particularly in times of epidemics.

BACTERIOLOGY 
Al-Razi was asked to choose a site for a new hospital when he came to Baghdad. First he deduced which was the most hygienic area by observing where the fresh pieces of meat he had hung in various parts of the city decomposed least quickly.

Ibn Sina stated explicitly that the bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly body before getting the infection. Ibn Khatima stated that man is surrounded by minute bodies which enter the human system and cause disease.

In the middle of the fourteenth century “black death” was ravaging Europe and before which Christians stood helpless, considering it an act of God.

At that time Ibn al Khatib of Granada composed a treatise in the defense of the theory of infection in the following way: To those who say, “How can we admit the possibility of infection while the religious law denies it?” We reply that the existence of contagion is established by experience, investigation, the evidence of the senses and trustworthy reports. These facts constitute a sound argument. The fact of infection becomes clear to the investigator who notices how he who establishes contact with the afflicted gets the disease, whereas he who is not in contact remains safe, and how transmission is effected through garments, vessels and earrings.

Al-Razi wrote the first medical description of smallpox and measles – two important infectious diseases. He described the clinical difference between the two diseases so vividly that nothing since has been added. Ibn Sina suggested the communicable nature of tuberculosis. He is said to have been the first to describe the preparation and properties of sulphuric acid and alcohol. His recommendation of wine as the best dressing for wounds was very popular in medieval practice. However Razi was the first to use silk sutures and alcohol for hemostatis. He was the first to use alcohol as an antiseptic.

ANESTHESIA 
Ibn Sina originated the idea of the use of oral anesthetics. He recognized opium as the most powerful mukhadir (an intoxicant or drug). Less powerful anesthetics known were mandragora, poppy, hemlock, hyoscyamus, deadly nightshade (belladonna), lettuce seed, and snow or ice cold water. The Arabs invented the soporific sponge which was the precursor of modem anesthesia. It was a sponge soaked with aromatics and narcotics and held to the patient’s nostrils.

The use of anesthesia was one of the reasons for the rise of surgery in the Islamic world to the level of an honourable speciality, while in Europe, surgery was belittled and practiced by barbers and quacks. The Council of Tours in 1163 A.D. declared Surgery is to be abandoned by the schools of medicine and by all decent physicians.” Burton stated that “anesthetics have been used in surgery throughout the East for centuries before ether and chloroform became the fashion in civilized West.”

SURGERY 
Al-Razi is attributed to be the first to use the seton in surgery and animal gut for sutures.

Abu al-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Al-Zahrawi (930-1013 A.D.) known to the West as Abulcasis, Bucasis or Alzahravius is considered to be the most famous surgeon in Islamic medicine. In his book Al-Tasrif, he described hemophilia for the first time in medical history. The book contains the description and illustration of about 200 surgical instruments many of which were devised by Zahrawi himself. In it Zahrawi stresses the importance of the study of Anatomy as a fundamental prerequisite to surgery. He advocates the re implantation of a fallen tooth and the use of dental prosthesis carved from cow’s bone, an improvement over the wooden dentures worn by the first President of America George Washington seven centuries later. Zahrawi appears to be the first surgeon in history to use cotton (Arabic word) in surgical dressings in the control of hemorrhage, as padding in the splinting of fractures, as a vaginal padding in fractures of the pubis and in dentistry. He introduced the method for the removal of kidney stones by cutting into the urinary bladder. He was the first to teach the lithotomy position for vaginal operations. He described tracheotomy, distinguished between goiter and cancer of the thyroid, and explained his invention of a cauterizing iron which he also used to control bleeding. His description of varicose veins stripping, even after ten centuries, is almost like modern surgery. In orthopedic surgery he introduced what is called today Kocher’s method of reduction of shoulder dislocation and patelectomy, 1,000 years before Brooke reintroduced it in 1937.

Ibn Sina’s description of the surgical treatment of cancer holds true even today after 1,000 years. He says the excision must be wide and bold; all veins running to the tumor must be included in the amputation. Even if this is not sufficient, then the area affected should be cauterized.

The surgeons of Islam practiced three types of surgery: vascular, general, and orthopedic, Ophthalmic surgery was a speciality which was quite distinct both from medicine and surgery. They freely opened the abdomen and drained the peritoneal cavity in the approved modern style. To an unnamed surgeon of Shiraz is attributed the first colostomy operation. Liver abscesses were treated by puncture and exploration.

Surgeons all over the world practice today unknowingly several surgical procedures that Zahrawi introduced 1,000 years ago .

MEDICINE 
The most brilliant contribution was made by Al-Razi who differentiated between smallpox and measles, two diseases that were hitherto thought to be one single disease. He is credited with many contributions, which include being the first to describe true distillation, glass retorts and luting, corrosive sublimate, arsenic, copper sulfate, iron sulphate, saltpeter, and borax in the treatment of disease . He introduced mercury compounds as purgatives (after testing them on monkeys); mercurial ointments and lead ointment.” His interest in urology focused on problems involving urination, venereal disease, renal abscess, and renal and vesical calculi. He described hay-fever or allergic rhinitis.

Some of the Arab contributions include the discovery of itch mite of scabies (Ibn Zuhr), anthrax, ankylostoma and the guinea worm by Ibn Sina and sleeping sickness by Qalqashandy. They described abscess of the mediastinum. They understood tuberculosis and pericarditis.

Al Ash’ath demonstrated gastric physiology by pouring water into the mouth of an anesthetized lion and showed the distensibility and movements of the stomach, preceding Beaumont by about 1,000 years” Abu Shal al- Masihi explained that the absorption of food takes place more through the intestines than the stomach. Ibn Zuhr introduced artificial feeding either by gastric tube or by nutrient enema. Using the stomach tube the Arab physicians performed gastric lavage in case of poisoning. Ibn Al-Nafis was the first to discover pulmonary circulation.

Ibn Sina in his masterpiece Al-Quanun (Canon), containing over a million words, described complete studies of physiology, patlhology and hygiene. He specifically discoursed upon breast cancer, poisons, diseases of the skin, rabies, insomnia, childbirth and the use of obstetrical forceps, meningitis, amnesia, stomach ulcers, tuberculosis as a contagious disease, facial tics, phlebotomy, tumors, kidney diseases and geriatric care. He defined love as a mental disease.

OPHTHALMOLOGY 
The doctors of Islam exhibited a high degree of proficiency and certainly were foremost in the treatment of eye diseases. Words such as retina and cataract are of Arabic origin. In ophthalmology and optics lbn al Haytham (965-1039 A.D.) known to the West as Alhazen wrote the Optical Thesaurus from which such worthies as Roger Bacon, Leonardo da Vinci and Johannes Kepler drew theories for their own writings. In his Thesaurus he showed that light falls on the retina in the same manner as it falls on a surface in a darkened room through a small aperture, thus conclusively proving that vision happens when light rays pass from objects towards the eye and not from the eye towards the objects as thought by the Greeks. He presents experiments for testing the angles of incidence and reflection, and a theoretical proposal for magnifying lens (made in Italy three centuries later). He also taught that the image made on the retina is conveyed along the optic nerve to the brain. Razi was the first to recognize the reaction of the pupil to light and Ibn Sina was the first to describe the exact number of extrinsic muscles of the eyeball, namely six. The greatest contribution of Islamic medicine in practical ophthalmology was in the matter of cataract. The most significant development in the extraction of cataract was developed by Ammar bin Ali of Mosul, who introduced a hollow metallic needle through the sclerotic and extracted the lens by suction. Europe rediscovered this in the nineteenth century.

PHARMACOLOGY 
Pharmacology took roots in Islam during the 9th century. Yuhanna bin Masawayh (777-857 A.D.) started scientific and systematic applications of therapeutics at the Abbasids capital. His students Hunayn bin Ishaq al-lbadi (809-874 A.D.) and his associates established solid foundations of Arabic medicine and therapeutics in the ninth century. In his book al-Masail Hunayn outlined methods for confirming the pharmacological effectiveness of drugs by experimenting with them on humans. He also explained the importance of prognosis and diagnosis of diseases for better and more effective treatment.

Pharmacy became an independent and separate profession from medicine and alchemy. With the wild sprouting of apothecary shops, regulations became necessary and imposed to maintain quality control.” The Arabian apothecary shops were regularly inspected by a syndic (Muhtasib) who threatened the merchants with humiliating corporal punishments if they adulterated drugs.” As early as the days of al-Mamun and al-Mutasim pharmacists had to pass examinations to become licensed professionals and were pledged to follow the physician’s prescriptions. Also by this decree, restrictive measures were legally placed upon doctors, preventing them from owning or holding stock in a pharmacy.

Methods of extracting and preparing medicines were brought to a high art, and their techniques of distillation, crystallization, solution, sublimation, reduction and calcination became the essential processes of pharmacy and chemistry. With the help of these techniques, the Saydalanis (pharmacists) introduced new drugs such as camphor, senna, sandalwood, rhubarb, musk, myrrh, cassia, tamarind, nutmeg, alum, aloes, cloves, coconut, nuxvomica, cubebs, aconite, ambergris and mercury. The important role of the Muslims in developing modern pharmacy and chemistry is memorialized in the significant number of current pharmaceutical and chemical terms derived from Arabic: drug, alkali, alcohol, aldehydes, alembic, and elixir among others, not to mention syrups and juleps. They invented flavorings extracts made of rose water, orange blossom water, orange and lemon peel, tragacanth and other attractive ingredients. Space does not permit me to list the contributions to pharmacology and therapeutics, made by Razi, Zahrawi, Biruni, Ibn Butlan, and Tamimi.

PSYCHOTHERAPY 
From freckle lotion to psychotherapy- such was the range of treatment practiced by the physicians of Islam. Though freckles continue to sprinkle the skin of 20th century man, in the realm of psychosomatic disorders both al-Razi and Ibn Sina achieved dramatic results, antedating Freud and Jung by a thousand years. When Razi was appointed physician-in-chief to the Baghdad Hospital, he made it the, first hospital to have a ward exclusively devoted to the mentally ill.”

Razi combined psychological methods and physiological explanations, and he used psychotherapy in a dynamic fashion, Razi was once called in to treat a famous caliph who had severe arthritis. He advised a hot bath, and while the caliph was bathing, Razi threatened him with a knife, proclaiming he was going to kill him. This deliberate provocation increased the natural caloric which thus gained sufficient strength to dissolve the already softened humours, as a result the caliph got up from is knees in the bath and ran after Razi. One woman who suffered from such severe cramps in her joints that she was unable to rise was cured by a physician who lifted her skirt, thus putting her to shame. “A flush of heat was produced within her which dissolved the rheumatic humour.”

The Arabs brought a refreshing spirit of dispassionate clarity into psychiatry. They were free from the demonological theories which swept over the Christian world and were therefore able to make clear cut clinical observations on the mentally ill.

Najab ud din Muhammad, a contemporary of Razi, left many excellent descriptions of various mental diseases. His carefully compiled observation on actual patients made up the most complete classification of mental diseases theretofore known.” Najab described agitated depression, obsessional types of neurosis, Nafkhae Malikholia (combined priapism and sexual impotence). Kutrib (a form of persecutory psychosis), Dual-Kulb (a form of mania) .

Ibn Sina recognized ‘physiological psychology’ in treating illnesses involving emotions. From the clinical perspective Ibn Sina developed a system for associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings which has been viewed as anticipating the word association test of Jung. He is said to have treated a terribly ill patient by feeling the patient’s pulse and reciting aloud to him the names of provinces, districts, towns, streets, and people. By noticing how the patient’s pulse quickened when names were mentioned Ibn Sina deduced that the patient was in love with a girl whose home Ibn Sina was able to locate by the digital examination. The man took Ibn Sina’s advice , married the girl , and recovered from his illness.

It is not surprising to know that at Fez, Morocco, an asylum for the mentally ill had been built early in the 8th century, and insane, asylums were built by the Arabs also in Baghdad in 705 A.D., in Cairo in 800 A.D., and in Damascus and Aleppo in 1270 A.D. In addition to baths, drugs, kind and benevolent treatment given to the mentally ill, musico-therapy and occupational therapy were also employed. These therapies were highly developed.

CONCLUSION 
1,000 years ago Islamic medicine was the most advanced in the world at that time. Even after ten centuries, the achievements of Islamic medicine look amazingly modern. 1,000 years ago the Muslims were the great torchbearers of international scientific research. Every student and professional from each country outside the Islamic Empire, aspired, yearned, a dreamed to go to the Islamic universities to learn, to work, to live and to lead a comfortable life in an affluent and most advanced and civilized society. Today, in this twentieth century, the United States of America has achieved such a position. The pendulum can swing back. Fortunately Allah has given a bounty to many Islamic countries – an income over 100 billion dollars per year. Hence Islamic countries have the opportunity and resources to make Islamic science and medicine number one in the world, once again. 

Dr. Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph.D is Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 and President, Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc, 7102 W. Shefford Lane, Louisville, KY 40242-6462

by Ibrahim B. Syed. Edited by Shahid Athar, M. D. 

Shahid Athar M.D. is Clinical Associate Professor of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis, Indiana, and a writer on Islam.

اصلی گریٹ کون ہیں؟؟ – ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨڈر یا ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ؟؟

ﻣﻘﺪﻭﻧﯿﮧ ﮐﺎ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﯾﺎ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ﺍﺳﻼﻡ ﮐﮯ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﯾﮧ ﻭﮦ ﺳﻮﺍﻝ ﮨﮯ، ﺟﺲ ﮐﺎ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺩﯾﻨﺎ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﺑﮭﺮ ﮐﮯ ﻣﻮﺭﺧﯿﻦ ﭘﺮ ﻓﺮﺽ ﮨﮯ۔ ﺍٓﺝ ﺍﯾﺲ ﺍﯾﻢ ﺍﯾﺲ ﮐﺎ ﺩﻭﺭ ﮨﮯ، ﻣﻮﺑﺎﺋﻞ ﮐﺎ ﻣﯿﺴﺠﻨﮓ ﺳﺴﭩﻢ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﯿﮑﻨﮉ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺧﯿﺎﻻﺕ ﮐﻮ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﮯ ﺩﻭﺳﺮﮮ ﮐﻮﻧﮯ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﮩﻨﭽﺎ ﺩﯾﺘﺎ ﮨﮯ۔ ﺟﺪﯾﺪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﮐﯽ ﺍﺱ ﺳﮩﻮﻟﺖ ﺳﮯ ﺍﺏ ﻗﺎﺭﺋﯿﻦ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻧﺎﻇﺮﯾﻦ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺑﮭﺮﭘﻮﺭ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﮦ ﺍﭨﮭﺎﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔ ﮔﺰﺷﺘﮧ ﺭﻭﺯ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻧﮯ ﭘﯿﻐﺎﻡ ﺑﮭﺠﻮﺍﯾﺎ ’’ﮐﺎﺵ ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﭘﺮ ﺑﮭﯽ ﮐﭽﮫ ﻟﮑﮭﺎ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ۔‘‘ ﭘﯿﻐﺎﻡ ﭘﮍﮬﻨﮯ ﮐﮯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺳﻮﭺ ﺭﮨﺎ ﮨﻮﮞ ﮐﮧ ﻣﻘﺪﻭﻧﯿﮧ ﮐﺎ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﺳﮑﻨﺪﺭ ﺍﻋﻈﻢ ﺗﮭﺎ ﯾﺎ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ)۔

ﮨﻢ ﻧﮯ ﺑﭽﭙﻦ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﮍﮬﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﻭﻧﯿﮧ ﮐﺎ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ 20 ﺳﺎﻝ ﮐﯽ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺑﺎﺩﺷﺎﮦ ﺑﻨﺎ۔ 23 ﺳﺎﻝ ﮐﯽ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻣﻘﺪﻭﻧﯿﮧ ﺳﮯ ﻧﮑﻼ، ﺍﺱ ﻧﮯ ﺳﺐ ﺳﮯ ﭘﮩﻠﮯ ﭘﻮﺭﺍ ﯾﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﻓﺘﺢ ﮐﯿﺎ، ﺍﺱ ﮐﮯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﮦ ﺗﺮﮐﯽ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﮨﻮﺍ، ﭘﮭﺮ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﮐﮯ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﮐﻮ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﺩﯼ، ﭘﮭﺮ ﻭﮦ ﺷﺎﻡ ﭘﮩﻨﭽﺎ، ﭘﮭﺮ ﺍﺱ ﻧﮯ ﯾﺮﻭﺷﻠﻢ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻞ ﮐﺎ ﺭﺥ ﮐﯿﺎ، ﭘﮭﺮ ﻭﮦ ﻣﺼﺮ ﭘﮩﻨﭽﺎ، ﭘﮭﺮ ﻭﮦ ﮨﻨﺪﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺍٓﯾﺎ، ﮨﻨﺪﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﺱ ﻧﮯ ﭘﻮﺭﺱ ﺳﮯ ﺟﻨﮓ ﻟﮍﯼ، ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﻋﺰﯾﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺎﻥ ﮔﮭﻮﮌﮮ ﮐﯽ ﯾﺎﺩ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﮭﺎﻟﯿﮧ ﺷﮩﺮ ﺍٓﺑﺎﺩ ﮐﯿﺎ، ﻣﮑﺮﺍﻥ ﺳﮯ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﮨﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﭘﺴﯽ ﮐﺎ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﯿﺎ، ﺭﺍﺳﺘﮯ ﻣﯿﮞ ﭨﺎﺋﯿﻔﺎﺋﯿﮉ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻣﺒﺘﻼ ﮨﻮﺍ ﺍﻭﺭ 323 ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺴﯿﺢ ﻣﯿﮟ 33 ﺳﺎﻝ ﮐﯽ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺑﺨﺖ ﻧﺼﺮ ﮐﮯ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﮐﺮ ﮔﯿﺎ، ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﻮ ﺍٓﺝ ﺗﮏ ﺑﺘﺎﯾﺎ ﮔﯿﺎ، ﻭﮦ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﯽ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ﮐﺎ ﻋﻈﯿﻢ ﺟﺮﻧﯿﻞ، ﻓﺎﺗﺢ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺩﺷﺎﮦ ﺗﮭﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ﻧﮯ ﺍﺱ ﮐﮯ ﮐﺎﺭﻧﺎﻣﻮﮞ ﮐﯽ ﻭﺟﮧ ﺳﮯ ﺍﺳﮯ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﺩﯼ ﮔﺮﯾﭧ ﮐﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺩﯾﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﮨﻢ ﻧﮯ ﺍﺳﮯ ﺳﮑﻨﺪﺭ ﺍﻋﻈﻢ ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ﺑﺎﺩﺷﺎﮨﻮﮞ ﮐﺎ ﺑﺎﺩﺷﺎﮦ ﺑﻨﺎﺩﯾﺎ، ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﺍٓﺝ ﺍﮐﯿﺴﻮﯾﮟ ﺻﺪﯼ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﻮﺭﯼ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﮯ ﻣﻮﺭﺧﯿﻦ ﮐﮯ ﺳﺎﻣﻨﮯ ﯾﮧ ﺳﻮﺍﻝ ﺭﮐﮭﺘﺎ ﮨﻮﮞ ﮐﯿﺎ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﮐﮯ ﮨﻮﺗﮯ ﮨﻮﺋﮯ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﮐﻮ ﺳﮑﻨﺪﺭﺍﻋﻈﻢ ﮐﮩﻼﻧﮯ ﮐﺎ ﺣﻖ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮨﮯ؟ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﺑﮭﺮ ﮐﮯ ﻣﻮﺭﺧﯿﻦ ﮐﻮ ﺳﮑﻨﺪﺭ ﺍﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﮐﯽ ﻓﺘﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻭﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﻧﺎﻣﻮﮞ ﮐﮯ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻧﮯ ﮐﯽ ﺩﻋﻮﺕ ﺩﯾﺘﺎ ﮨﻮﮞ، ﺍٓﭖ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺳﻮﭼﺌﮯ-

ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﺑﺎﺩﺷﺎﮦ ﮐﺎ ﺑﯿﭩﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ، ﺍﺳﮯ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﮯ ﺑﮩﺘﺮﯾﻦ ﻟﻮﮔﻮﮞ ﻧﮯ ﮔﮭﮍ ﺳﻮﺍﺭﯼ ﺳﮑﮭﺎﺋﯽ، ﺍﺳﮯ ﺍﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺟﯿﺴﮯ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺩﻭﮞ ﮐﯽ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻣﻠﯽ ﺗﮭﯽ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺟﺐ ﻭﮦ ﺑﯿﺲ ‏(۲۰‏) ﺳﺎﻝ ﮐﺎ ﮨﻮﮔﯿﺎ ﺗﻮ ﺍﺳﮯ ﺗﺨﺖ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺗﺎﺝ ﭘﯿﺶ ﮐﺮﺩﯾﺎ ﮔﯿﺎ، ﺟﺐ ﮐﮧ ﺍﺱ ﮐﮯ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﮯ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﮐﯽ 7 ﭘﺸﺘﻮﮞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﺑﺎﺩﺷﺎﮦ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﮔﺰﺭﺍ ﺗﮭﺎ، ﺍٓﭖ ﺑﮭﯿﮍ ﺑﮑﺮﯾﺎﮞ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﻭﻧﭧ ﭼﺮﺍﺗﮯ ﭼﺮﺍﺗﮯ ﺑﮍﮮ ﮨﻮﺋﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺗﻠﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﯼ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺗﯿﺮﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﯼ ﺑﮭﯽ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺍﮐﯿﮉﻣﯽ ﺳﮯ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﺳﯿﮑﮭﯽ ﺗﮭﯽ-

ﺳﮑﻨﺪﺭ ﺍﻋﻈﻢ ﻧﮯ ﺍٓﺭﮔﻨﺎﺋﺰﮈ ﺍٓﺭﻣﯽ ﮐﮯ ﺳﺎﺗﮫ 10 ﺑﺮﺳﻮﮞ ﻣﯿﮟ 17 ﻻﮐﮫ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻣﯿﻞ ﮐﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﮧ ﻓﺘﺢ ﮐﯿﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ، ﺟﺐ ﮐﮧ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ ‏) ﻧﮯ 10 ﺑﺮﺳﻮﮞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍٓﺭﮔﻨﺎﺋﺰﮈ ﺍٓﺭﻣﯽ ﮐﮯ ﺑﻐﯿﺮ 22 ﻻﮐﮫ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻣﯿﻞ ﮐﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﮧ ﻓﺘﺢ ﮐﯿﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﺱ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺭﻭﻡ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﯾﺮﺍﻥ ﮐﯽ ﺩﻭ ﺳﭙﺮ ﭘﺎﻭﺭ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﮭﯿﮟ-

ﺍٓﺝ ﮐﮯ ﺳﯿﭩﻼﺋﭧ، ﻣﯿﺰﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍٓﺑﺪﻭﺯﻭﮞ ﮐﮯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﮯ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺣﮑﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﮐﮯ ﭘﺎﺱ ﺍﺗﻨﯽ ﺑﮍﯼ ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺖ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﺟﻮ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﻧﮯ ﻧﮧ ﺻﺮﻑ ﮔﮭﻮﮌﻭﮞ ﮐﯽ ﭘﯿﭩﮫ ﭘﺮ ﻓﺘﺢ ﮐﺮﺍﺋﯽ ﺗﮭﯽ، ﺑﻠﮑﮧ ﺍﺱ ﮐﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺼﺮﺍﻡ ﺑﮭﯽ ﭼﻼﯾﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ، ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﻧﮯ ﻓﺘﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﮐﮯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﺑﮯ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﺟﺮﻧﯿﻞ ﻗﺘﻞ ﮐﺮﺍﺋﮯ، ﺑﮯ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﺟﺮﻧﯿﻠﻮﮞ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻮﮞ ﻧﮯ ﺍﺱ ﮐﺎ ﺳﺎﺗﮫ ﭼﮭﻮﮌﺍ، ﺍﺱ ﮐﮯ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺑﻐﺎﻭﺗﯿﮟ ﺑﮭﯽ ﮨﻮﺋﯿﮟ ﺍﻭﺭ ﮨﻨﺪﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﺱ ﮐﯽ ﻓﻮﺝ ﻧﮯ ﺍٓﮔﮯ ﺑﮍﮬﻨﮯ ﺳﮯ ﺍﻧﮑﺎﺭ ﺑﮭﯽ ﮐﺮﺩﯾﺎ، ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ ﮐﮯ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺳﺎﺗﮭﯽ ﮐﻮ ﺍﻥ ﮐﮯ ﺣﮑﻢ ﺳﮯ ﺳﺮﺗﺎﺑﯽ ﮐﯽ ﺟﺮﺍٔﺕ ﻧﮧ ﮨﻮﺋﯽ. ﻭﮦ ﺍﯾﺴﮯ ﮐﻤﺎﻧﮉﺭ ﺗﮭﮯ ﮐﮧ ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﻋﯿﻦ ﻣﯿﺪﺍﻥ ﺟﻨﮓ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﺳﻼﻡ ﮐﮯ ﺳﺐ ﺳﮯ ﺑﮍﮮ ﺳﭙﮧ ﺳﺎﻻﺭ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻭﻟﯿﺪ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﮐﻮ ﻣﻌﺰﻭﻝ ﮐﺮﺩﯾﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﮐﺴﯽ ﮐﻮ ﯾﮧ ﺣﮑﻢ ﭨﺎﻟﻨﮯ ﮐﯽ ﺟﺮﺍٔﺕ ﻧﮧ ﮨﻮﺋﯽ۔ ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺍﺑﯽ ﻭﻗﺎﺹ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﮐﻮ ﮐﻮﻓﮯ ﮐﯽ ﮔﻮﺭﻧﺮﯼ ﺳﮯ ﮨﭩﺎ ﺩﯾﺎ۔ ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﺣﺎﺭﺙ ﺑﻦ ﮐﻌﺐ ‏( ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ ‏) ﺳﮯ ﮔﻮﺭﻧﺮﯼ ﻭﺍﭘﺲ ﻟﮯ ﻟﯽ۔ ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ‏( ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ ‏) ﮐﺎ ﻣﺎﻝ ﺿﺒﻂ ﮐﺮﻟﯿﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺣﻤﺺ ﮐﮯ ﮔﻮﺭﻧﺮ ﮐﻮ ﻭﺍﭘﺲ ﺑﻼ ﮐﺮ ﺍﻭﻧﭧ ﭼﺮﺍﻧﮯ ﭘﺮ ﻟﮕﺎ ﺩﯾﺎ، ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﮐﺴﯽ ﮐﻮ ﺣﮑﻢ ﻋﺪﻭﻟﯽ ﮐﯽ ﺟﺮﺍٔﺕ ﻧﮧ ﮨﻮﺋﯽ۔

ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﻧﮯ 17 ﻻﮐﮫ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻣﯿﻞ ﮐﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﮧ ﻓﺘﺢ ﮐﯿﺎ، ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﻮ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ، ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﺳﺴﭩﻢ ﻧﮧ ﺩﮮ ﺳﮑﺎ، ﺟﺐ ﮐﮧ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﻧﮯ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﻮ ﺍﯾﺴﮯ ﺳﺴﭩﻢ ﺩﯾﮯ ﺟﻮ ﺍٓﺝ ﺗﮏ ﭘﻮﺭﯼ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺭﺍﺋﺞ ﮨﯿﮟ.

ﺳﻦ ﮨﺠﺮﯼ ﮐﺎ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﮐﯿﺎ۔
ﺟﯿﻞ ﮐﺎ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺩﯾﺎ۔
ﻣﻮٔﺫﻧﻮﮞ ﮐﯽ ﺗﻨﺨﻮﺍﮨﯿﮟ ﻣﻘﺮﺭ ﮐﯿﮟ۔
ﻣﺴﺠﺪﻭﮞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﯽ ﮐﺎ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺴﺖ ﮐﺮﺍﯾﺎ۔
ﭘﻮﻟﺲ ﮐﺎ ﻣﺤﮑﻤﮧ ﺑﻨﺎﯾﺎ۔
ﺍﯾﮏ ﻣﮑﻤﻞ ﻋﺪﺍﻟﺘﯽ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﮐﯽ ﺑﻨﯿﺎﺩ ﺭﮐﮭﯽ۔
ﺍٓﺏ ﭘﺎﺷﯽ ﮐﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﮐﺮﺍﯾﺎ۔
ﻓﻮﺟﯽ ﭼﮭﺎﻭٔﻧﯿﺎﮞ ﺑﻨﻮﺍﺋﯿﮟ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻓﻮﺝ ﮐﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﺎﻋﺪﮦ ﻣﺤﮑﻤﮧ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﮐﯿﺎ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﮩﻠﯽ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﺩﮪ ﭘﯿﺘﮯ ﺑﭽﻮﮞ، ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭﻭﮞ، ﺑﯿﻮﺍﻭٔﮞ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺑﮯ ﺍٓﺳﺮﺍﻭٔﮞ ﮐﮯ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻣﻘﺮﺭ ﮐﯿﮯ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﮩﻠﯽ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺣﮑﻤﺮﺍﻧﻮﮞ، ﺳﺮﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻋﮩﺪﯾﺪﺍﺭﻭﮞ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﯿﻮﮞ ﮐﮯ ﺍﺛﺎﺛﮯ ﮈﮐﻠﯿﺌﺮ ﮐﺮﻧﮯ ﮐﺎﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺩﯾﺎ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺑﮯﺍﻧﺼﺎﻓﯽ ﮐﺮﻧﮯ ﻭﺍﻟﮯ ﺟﺠﻮﮞ ﮐﻮ ﺳﺰﺍ ﺩﯾﻨﮯ ﮐﺎ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﮧ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﯿﺎ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﻧﮯ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﮩﻠﯽ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺣﮑﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﮐﻼﺱ ﮐﯽ ﺍﮐﺎﻭٔﻧﭩﺒﻠﭩﯽ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﯽ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﺭﺍﺗﻮﮞ ﮐﻮ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺗﯽ ﻗﺎﻓﻠﻮﮞ ﮐﯽ ﭼﻮﮐﯿﺪﺍﺭﯼ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﯾﺎ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺟﻮ ﺣﮑﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﺪﻝ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ، ﻭﮦ ﺭﺍﺗﻮﮞ ﮐﻮ ﺑﮯ ﺧﻮﻑ ﺳﻮﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﺎ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﮭﺎ ’’ﻗﻮﻡ ﮐﺎ ﺳﺮﺩﺍﺭ ﻗﻮﻡ ﮐﺎ ﺳﭽﺎ ﺧﺎﺩﻡ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﮨﮯ۔‘‘
ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﯽ ﻣﮩﺮ ﭘﺮ ﻟﮑﮭﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ
’’ﻋﻤﺮ ! ﻧﺼﯿﺤﺖ ﮐﮯ ﻟﯿﮯ ﻣﻮﺕ ﮨﯽ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﮨﮯ‘‘ ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﮯ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﭘﺮ ﮐﺒﮭﯽ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﺭﮐﮭﮯ ﮔﺌﮯ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﺯﻣﯿﻦ ﭘﺮ ﺳﺮ ﮐﮯ ﻧﯿﭽﮯ ﺍﯾﻨﭧ ﺭﮐﮫ ﮐﺮ ﺳﻮ ﺟﺎﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﺳﻔﺮ ﮐﮯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺟﮩﺎﮞ ﻧﯿﻨﺪ ﺍٓﺟﺎﺗﯽ ﺗﮭﯽ، ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺩﺭﺧﺖ ﭘﺮ ﭼﺎﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﻥ ﮐﺮ ﺳﺎﯾﮧ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺳﻮ ﺟﺎﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺭﺍﺕ ﮐﻮ ﻧﻨﮕﯽ ﺯﻣﯿﻦ ﭘﺮ ﺩﺭﺍﺯ ﮨﻮﺟﺎﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﮯ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﭘﺮ 14 ﭘﯿﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﻥ ﭘﯿﻮﻧﺪﻭﮞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﯾﮏ ﺳﺮﺥ ﭼﻤﮍﮮ ﮐﺎ ﭘﯿﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺗﮭﺎ۔ ﺍٓﭖ ﻣﻮﭨﺎ ﮐﮭﺮﺩﺭﺍ ﮐﭙﮍﺍ ﭘﮩﻨﺘﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ۔ ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﻮ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﯾﮏ ﮐﭙﮍﮮ ﺳﮯ ﻧﻔﺮﺕ ﺗﮭﯽ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﺴﯽ ﮐﻮ ﺟﺐ ﺳﺮﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻋﮩﺪﮮ ﭘﺮ ﻓﺎﺋﺰ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺗﻮ ﺍﺱ ﮐﮯ ﺍﺛﺎﺛﻮﮞ ﮐﺎ ﺗﺨﻤﯿﻨﮧ ﻟﮕﻮﺍ ﮐﺮ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﭘﺎﺱ ﺭﮐﮫ ﻟﯿﺘﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺳﺮﮐﺎﺭﯼ ﻋﮩﺪﮮ ﮐﮯ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﺱ ﮐﮯ ﺍﺛﺎﺛﻮﮞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﮧ ﮨﻮ ﺟﺎﺗﺎ ﺗﻮ ﺍٓﭖ ﺍﺱ ﮐﯽ ﺍﮐﺎﻭٔﻧﭩﺒﻠﭩﯽ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﺟﺐ ﮐﺴﯽ ﮐﻮ ﮔﻮﺭﻧﺮ ﺑﻨﺎﺗﮯ ﺗﻮ ﺍﺳﮯ ﻧﺼﯿﺤﺖ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ “ﮐﺒﮭﯽ ﺗﺮﮐﯽ ﮔﮭﻮﮌﮮ ﭘﺮ ﻧﮧ ﺑﯿﭩﮭﻨﺎ، ﺑﺎﺭﯾﮏ ﮐﭙﮍﮮ ﻧﮧ ﭘﮩﻨﻨﺎ، ﭼﮭﻨﺎ ﮨﻮﺍ ﺍٓﭨﺎ ﻧﮧ ﮐﮭﺎﻧﺎ، ﺩﺭﺑﺎﻥ ﻧﮧ ﺭﮐﮭﻨﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﮐﺴﯽ ﻓﺮﯾﺎﺩﯼ ﭘﺮ ﺩﺭﻭﺍﺯﮦ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻧﮧ ﮐﺮﻧﺎ۔
ﺍٓﭖ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﻇﺎﻟﻢ ﮐﻮ ﻣﻌﺎﻑ ﮐﺮﺩﯾﻨﺎ ﻣﻈﻠﻮﻣﻮﮞ ﭘﺮ ﻇﻠﻢ ﮨﮯ .
ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﺎ ﯾﮧ ﻓﻘﺮﮦ ﺍٓﺝ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﯽ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﮐﮯ ﭼﺎﺭﭨﺮ ﮐﯽ ﺣﯿﺜﯿﺖ ﺭﮐﮭﺘﺎ ﮨﮯ۔ ” ﻣﺎﺋﯿﮟ ﺑﭽﻮﮞ ﮐﻮ ﺍٓﺯﺍﺩ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮐﺮﺗﯽ ﮨﯿﮟ، ﺗﻢ ﻧﮯ ﺍﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﮐﺐ ﺳﮯ ﻏﻼﻡ ﺑﻨﺎﻟﯿﺎ۔ ”
ﻓﺮﻣﺎﯾﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﻮﭼﺘﺎ ﮨﻮﮞ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺣﯿﺮﺍﻥ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﮨﻮﮞ۔ ” ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﺪﻝ ﮐﯿﺴﮯ ﮔﯿﺎ۔ ‘‘
ﺍٓﭖ ﺍﺳﻼﻣﯽ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﮯ ﭘﮩﻠﮯ ﺧﻠﯿﻔﮧ ﺗﮭﮯ، ﺟﻨﮩﯿﮟ ’’ ﺍﻣﯿﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻣﻨﯿﻦ ‘‘ ﮐﺎ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺩﯾﺎ ﮔﯿﺎ۔
ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﮯ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﺬﺍﮨﺐ ﮐﯽ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﻧﮧ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯿﺖ ﮨﮯ ، * ﺍﺳﻼﻡ ﮐﯽ ﺳﺐ ﺳﮯ ﺑﮍﯼ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯿﺖ ﻋﺪﻝ ﮨﮯ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ ﻭﮦ ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺖ ﮨﯿﮟ ﺟﻮ ﺍﺱ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯿﺖ ﭘﺮ ﭘﻮﺭﺍ ﺍﺗﺮﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔ ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﮯ ﻋﺪﻝ ﮐﯽ ﻭﺟﮧ ﺳﮯ ﻋﺪﻝ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻋﺪﻝِ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻗﯽ ﮨﻮﮔﯿﺎ۔

ﺍٓﭖ ﺷﮩﺎﺩﺕ ﮐﮯ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﺽ ﺗﮭﮯ، ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﮧ ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﯽ ﻭﺻﯿﺖ ﮐﮯ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﯿﭻ ﮐﺮ ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﺎ ﻗﺮﺽ ﺍﺩﺍ ﮐﺮﺩﯾﺎ ﮔﯿﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍٓﭖ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﮯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺣﮑﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺟﻮ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﯾﺎ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﻣﯿﺮﮮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﺕ ﮐﮯ ﮐﻨﺎﺭﮮ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﮐﺘﺎ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺑﮭﻮﮎ ﺳﮯ ﻣﺮﮔﯿﺎ ﺗﻮ ﺍﺱ ﮐﯽ ﺳﺰﺍ ﻋﻤﺮ ‏(ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ ) ﮐﻮ ﺑﮭﮕﺘﻨﺎ ﮨﻮﮔﯽ۔

ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﮯ ﻋﺪﻝ ﮐﯽ ﯾﮧ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﮭﯽ۔ ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﮨﻮﺍ ﺗﻮ ﺍٓﭖ ﮐﯽ ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺖ ﮐﮯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﺯ ﻋﻼﻗﮯ ﮐﺎ ﺍﯾﮏ ﭼﺮﻭﺍﮨﺎ ﺑﮭﺎﮔﺘﺎ ﮨﻮﺍ ﺍٓﯾﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﭼﯿﺦ ﮐﺮ ﺑﻮﻻ ’’ﻟﻮﮔﻮ ! ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﮐﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﮨﻮﮔﯿﺎ۔‘‘

ﻟﻮﮔﻮﮞ ﻧﮯ ﺣﯿﺮﺕ ﺳﮯ ﭘﻮﭼﮭﺎ ’’ ﺗﻢ ﻣﺪﯾﻨﮧ ﺳﮯ ﮨﺰﺍﺭﻭﮞ ﻣﯿﻞ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺟﻨﮕﻞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﮨﻮ ﺗﻤﮩﯿﮟ ﺍﺱ ﺳﺎﻧﺤﮯ ﮐﯽ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﮐﺲ ﻧﮯ ﺩﯼ۔‘‘

ﭼﺮﻭﺍﮨﺎ ﺑﻮﻻ ’’ﺟﺐ ﺗﮏ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﺯﻧﺪﮦ ﺗﮭﮯ، ﻣﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﮭﯿﮍﯾﮟ ﺟﻨﮕﻞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺑﮯ ﺧﻮﻑ ﭘﮭﺮﺗﯽ ﺗﮭﯿﮟ ﺍﻭﺭ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﺩﺭﻧﺪﮦ ﺍﻥ ﮐﯽ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺍٓﻧﮑﮫ ﺍﭨﮭﺎ ﮐﺮ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﺩﯾﮑﮭﺘﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ، ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﺍٓﺝ ﭘﮩﻠﯽ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﯾﮏ ﺑﮭﯿﮍﯾﺎ ﻣﯿﺮﯼ ﺑﮭﯿﮍ ﮐﺎ ﺑﭽﮧ ﺍﭨﮭﺎ ﮐﺮ ﻟﮯ ﮔﯿﺎ۔ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻧﮯ ﺑﮭﯿﮍﯾﮯ ﮐﯽ ﺟﺮﺍٔﺕ ﺳﮯ ﺟﺎﻥ ﻟﯿﺎ ﮐﮧ ﺍٓﺝ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ) ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﮨﯿﮟ۔ ‘‘

ﻣﯿﮟ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﺑﮭﺮ ﮐﮯ ﻣﻮﺭﺧﯿﻦ ﮐﻮ ﺩﻋﻮﺕ ﺩﯾﺘﺎ ﮨﻮﮞ، ﻭﮦ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﮐﻮ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ) ﮐﮯ ﺳﺎﻣﻨﮯ ﺭﮐﮫ ﮐﺮ ﺩﯾﮑﮭﯿﮟ ﺍﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﮐﮯ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﭘﮩﺎﮌ ﮐﮯ ﺳﺎﻣﻨﮯ ﮐﻨﮑﺮ ﺩﮐﮭﺎﺋﯽ ﺩﮮ ﮔﺎ، ﮐﯿﻮﻧﮑﮧ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﮐﯽ ﺑﻨﺎﺋﯽ ﺳﻠﻄﻨﺖ ﺍﺱ ﮐﯽ ﻭﻓﺎﺕ ﮐﮯ 5 ﺳﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺧﺘﻢ ﮨﻮﮔﺌﯽ *، ﺟﺐ ﮐﮧ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ‏ (ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ) ﻧﮯ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺟﺲ ﺟﺲ ﺧﻄﮯ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﺳﻼﻡ ﮐﺎ ﺟﮭﻨﮉﺍ ﺑﮭﺠﻮﺍﯾﺎ، ﻭﮨﺎﮞ ﺳﮯ ﺍٓﺝ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﺍﮐﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﺍﮐﺒﺮ ﮐﯽ ﺻﺪﺍﺋﯿﮟ ﺍٓﺗﯽ ﮨﯿﮟ، ﻭﮨﺎﮞ ﺍٓﺝ ﺑﮭﯽ ﻟﻮﮒ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﮐﮯ ﺳﺎﻣﻨﮯ ﺳﺠﺪﮦ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔

ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﻟﯿﮕﺰﯾﻨﮉﺭ ﮐﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺻﺮﻑ ﮐﺘﺎﺑﻮﮞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺳﻤﭧ ﮐﺮ ﺭﮦ ﮔﯿﺎ ﮨﮯ، ﺟﺐ ﮐﮧ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ) ﮐﮯ ﺑﻨﺎﺋﮯ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﮐﮯ 245 ﻣﻤﺎﻟﮏ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍٓﺝ ﺑﮭﯽ ﮐﺴﯽ ﻧﮧ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﮨﯿﮟ۔

ﺍٓﺝ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺟﺐ ﮐﺴﯽ ﮈﺍﮎ ﺧﺎﻧﮯ ﺳﮯ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﺧﻂ ﻧﮑﻠﺘﺎ ﮨﮯ، ﭘﻮﻟﺲ ﮐﺎ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﺳﭙﺎﮨﯽ ﻭﺭﺩﯼ ﭘﮩﻨﺘﺎ ﮨﮯ، ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﻓﻮﺟﯽ ﺟﻮﺍﻥ 6 ﻣﺎﮦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﭼﮭﭩﯽ ﭘﺮ ﺟﺎﺗﺎ ﮨﮯ ﯾﺎ ﭘﮭﺮ ﺣﮑﻮﻣﺖ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺑﭽﮯ، ﻣﻌﺬﻭﺭ، ﺑﯿﻮﮦ ﯾﺎ ﺑﮯ ﺍٓﺳﺮﺍ ﺷﺨﺺ ﮐﻮ ﻭﻇﯿﻔﮧ ﺩﯾﺘﯽ ﮨﮯ ﺗﻮ ﻭﮦ ﻣﻌﺎﺷﺮﮦ، ﻭﮦ ﺳﻮﺳﺎﺋﭩﯽ، ﺑﮯ ﺍﺧﺘﯿﺎﺭ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﮐﻮ ﻋﻈﯿﻢ ﺗﺴﻠﯿﻢ ﮐﺮﺗﯽ ﮨﮯ، ﻭﮦ ﺍﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ﮐﺎ ﺳﺐ ﺳﮯ ﺑﮍﺍ ﺳﮑﻨﺪﺭ ﻣﺎﻥ ﻟﯿﺘﯽ ﮨﮯ، ﻣﺎﺳﻮﺍﺋﮯ ﺍﻥ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎﻧﻮﮞ ﮐﮯ ﺟﻮ ﺍٓﺝ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﮐﻤﺘﺮﯼ ﮐﮯ ﺷﺪﯾﺪ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻣﯿﮟ ﮐﻠﻤﮧ ﺗﮏ ﭘﮍﮬﻨﮯ ﺳﮯ ﭘﮩﻠﮯ ﺩﺍﺋﯿﮟ ﺑﺎﺋﯿﮟ ﺩﯾﮑﮭﺘﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔

ﻻﮨﻮﺭ ﮐﮯ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎﻧﻮﮞ ﻧﮯ ﺍﯾﮏ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﮕﺮﯾﺰ ﺳﺮﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﻮ ﺩﮬﻤﮑﯽ ﺩﯼ ﺗﮭﯽ ’’ﺍﮔﺮ ﮨﻢ ﮔﮭﺮﻭﮞ ﺳﮯ ﻧﮑﻞ ﭘﮍﮮ ﺗﻮ ﺗﻤﮩﯿﮟ ﭼﻨﮕﯿﺰ ﺧﺎﻥ ﯾﺎﺩ ﺍٓﺟﺎﺋﮯ ﮔﺎ۔‘‘

ﺍﺱ ﭘﺮ ﺟﻮﺍﮨﺮ ﻻﻝ ﻧﮩﺮﻭ ﻧﮯ ﻣﺴﮑﺮﺍ ﮐﺮ ﮐﮩﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ ’’ﺍﻓﺴﻮﺱ ﺍٓﺝ ﭼﻨﮕﯿﺰ ﺧﺎﻥ ﮐﯽ ﺩﮬﻤﮑﯽ ﺩﯾﻨﮯ ﻭﺍﻟﮯ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﯾﮧ ﺑﮭﻮﻝ ﮔﺌﮯ، ﺍﻥ ﮐﯽ ﺗﺎﺭﯾﺦ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﯾﮏ ‏(ﺣﻀﺮﺕ) ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ‏(ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﻋﻨﮧ‏) ﺑﮭﯽ تھے۔‘‘
ﺟﻦ ﮐﮯ ﺑﺎﺭﮮ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻣﺴﺘﺸﺮﻗﯿﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﻑ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ ﮐﮧ “ﺍﺳﻼﻡ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﯾﮏ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻭﺭ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﺗﻮ ﺁﺝ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﺳﻼﻡ ﮨﯽ ﺩﯾﻦ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ”.

ﮨﻢ ﺍٓﺝ ﺑﮭﯽ ﯾﮧ ﺑﮭﻮﻟﮯ ﮨﻮﺋﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ ﮐﮧ ﮨﻢ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﯾﮏ ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺗﮭﮯ، ﺟﻦ ﮐﮯ ﺑﺎﺭﮮ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﺻﻠﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ ﻋﻠﯿﮧ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻧﮯ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﯾﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ، ’’ﻣﯿﺮﮮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﮐﻮﺋﯽ ﻧﺒﯽ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﺗﻮ ﻭﮦ
ﺣﻀﺮﺕ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ‏(ﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻞ ﻋﻨﮩﮧ) ﮨﻮﺗﮯ –

سرسید احمد خان قومی رہنما یا انگریز کا زر خرید ایجنٹ؟؟

سرسید احمد خان  ہمارے ملک کے بہت سے لوگوں کے لیےانتہائی محترم ہیں جبکہ کچھ کے نزدیک وہ دنیا کی ایک مخصوص “برادری” کے متحرک فرد تھے،  خود  ہمارے سامنے سکولوں کالجوں میں سرسید احمدخان کو ایک عظیم قائدکے طور پر پیش کیا گیا، آج بھی  انکی تصویر ہر سکول کالج میں لٹکی نظر آتی ہے، جسے ہماری قوم کا ہر بچہ آتے جاتے دیکھتا ہے اور صبح شام ان کی عظمت کا قائل ہوتا جاتا ہے ۔کئی دفعہ ان کی معتبر شخصیت اور تاریخی کارناموں  پر لکھنے کا ارادہ کیا  لیکن توفیق نہ ہوسکی ۔ چند دن پہلے خان صاحب کی ایک کتاب پڑھنے کو ملی جس میں خود خان صاحب نے اپنا نظریہ، اپنے خیالات و افکار نہایت خوبی سے بیان فرمائے ہیں۔ اس کتاب کی مدد سے ان پر کچھ لکھنے کا ارادہ اس لیے پختہ ہوتا گیا کہ ایک متنازع شخصیت کے متعلق فیصلہ کرنا عام طور پر کافی مشکل ہوتا ہے لیکن یہاں انکی اپنی تحریر جو بدست خود بقلم خود تھی ’ہاتھ آگئی تھی۔ آئیے دیکھتے ہیں خود وہ اپنی تحریروں کے بین السطور میں اپنا تعارف کس انداز میں کرواتے ہیں۔ جناب کی تحریر کردہ کتاب “مقالات سرسید” کے مندرجات اس مخمصے سے نکلنے میں یقینا ہماری مدد کریں گے۔

1857 کی جنگ آزادی مسلمانان برصغیر کی طرف سے فرنگی سامراج کے خلاف جہاد کی شاندار تاریخ ہے۔ مسلمانان برصغیر اس پر جتنا فخر کریں کم ہے کہ انہوں نے بے سروسامانی کے عالم میں دنیا کے سب سے مضبوط ترین اور ظالم ترین استعمار سے ٹکر لی اور اسے ہلا کررکھ دیا۔ ایسی  قربانیوں کے تسلسل سے ہی ہم نے آزادی کا سورج طلوع ہوتے دیکھا، لیکن سرسید صاحب اس جدوجہد پر خاصے ناراض اور برہم ہوتے دکھائی دیتے ہیں۔ فرماتے ہیں

” جن مسلمانوں نے ہماری سرکار کی نمک حرامی اور بدخواہی کی، میں ان کا طرف دار نہیں۔ میں ان سے بہت ذیادہ ناراض ہوں اور حد سے ذیادہ برا جانتا ہوں، کیونکہ یہ ہنگامہ ایسا تھا کہ مسلمانوں کو اپنے مذہب کے بموجب عیسائیوں کے ساتھ رہنا تھا، جو اہل کتاب اور ہمارے مذہبی بھائی بند ہیں، نبیوں پر ایمان لائے ہوں ہیں ، خدا کے دیے ہوئے احکام اور خدا کی دی ہوئی کتاب اپنے  پاس رکھتے ہیں، جس کا تصدیق کرنا اور جس پر ایمان لانا ہمارا عین ایمان ہے۔ پھر اس ہنگامے میں جہاں عیسائیوں کا خون گرتا، وہیں  مسلمانوں کا خون گرنا چاہیے تھا۔ پھر جس نے ایسا نہیں کیا، اس نے علاوہ نمک حرامی اور گورنمنٹ کی ناشکری جو کہ ہر ایک رعیت پر واجب ہے ’کی ، اپنے مذہب کے بھی خلاف کیا۔ پھر بلاشبہ وہ اس لائق ہیں کہ ذیادہ تر ان سے ناراض ہواجائے: ۔(مقالات سرسید، صفحہ 41

انگریز سرکار کے متعلق  lسرسید صاحب کے دلی خیالات خود انکی زبانی سنتے ہیں :۔

” میرا ارادہ تھا کہ میں اپنا حال اس کتاب میں کچھ نہ لکھوں کیونکہ میں اپنی ناچیز اور مسکین خدمتوں کو اس لائق نہیں جانتا کہ ان کو گورنامنٹ  (فرنگی)کی خیر خواہی میں پیش کروں۔ علاوہ اس کے جو گورنامنٹ نے میرے ساتھ سلوک کیا وہ درحقیقت میری مسکین خدمت کے مقابل میں بہت ذیادہ ہے اور جب میں اپنی گورنمنٹ کے انعام و اکرام کو دیکھتا ہوں اور پھر اپنی ناچیز خدمتوں پر خیال کرتا ہوں تو نہایت شرمندہ ہوتا ہوں اور کہتا ہوں کہ ہماری گورنمنٹ نے مجھ پر اسے سے ذیاہ احسان کیا ہے جس لائق میں تھا، مگر  مجبوری ہے کہ اس کتاب کے مصنف کو ضرور ہے کہ اپنا حال اور اپنے خیالات کو لوگون پر ظاہر کرے ، تاکہ سب لوگ جانیں کہ اس کتاب کے مصنف کا کیا حال ہے ؟ اور اس نےاس ہنگامے میں کس طرح اپنی دلی محبت گورنمنٹ کی خیر خواہی میں صرف کی ہے ؟” ۔

(مقالات سرسید، صفحہ 44)

اس کے عوض میں جناب کو کیا ملا، پڑھیے

” جب غدر ہوا، میں بجنور میں صدر امین تھا کہ دفعتا سرکشی میرٹھ  کی خبر  بخنور میں پہنچی۔ اول تو ہم نے جھوٹ جانا، مگر یقین ہو اتو اسی وقت سے میں نے گورنمنٹ کی خیر خواہی اور سرکار کی وفاداری پر چست کمر باندھی ۔ ہر حال اور ہر امر میں مسٹر الیگزینڈر شیکسپیئر کلکٹر و مجسٹریٹ بجنور کے شریک رہا۔ یہاں تک کہ ہم نے اپنے مکان پر رہنا موقوف کردیا”۔

سبحان اللہ ! یہ تو تھا جذبہ جاں سپاری۔  اس سے بھی آگے بڑھ کر حال یہ تھا کہ خاں صاحب اپنی جان کو اتنا ہلکا اور  گوری چمڑی والے گماشتے فرنگیوں کو اتنا قیمتی سمجھتے تھے کہ خود کو ان پر بے دریغ نچھاور کرنے کے لیے تیار تھے۔ ارشاد فرماتے ہیں :

” جب دفعتا 29 نمبر کی کمپنی سہارن پور سے بجنور میں آگئی ۔ میں اس وقت ممدوح کے پاس نہ تھا۔ دفعتا  میں نے سنا کہ باغی فوج آگئی اور صاحب کے بنگلہ پر چڑھ گئی۔ میں نے یقین جان لیا کہ سب صاحبوں کا کام تمام ہوگیا۔ مگر میں نے نہایت بری بات سمجھی کہ میں اس حادثہ سے الگ رہوں۔ میں ہتھیار سنبھال کر روانہ ہوا اور میرے ساتھ جو لڑکا صغیر سن تھا ، میں نے اپنے آدمی کو وصیت کی : ” میں  تو مرنے جاتا ہوں۔، مگر جب تو میرے مرنے کی خبر سن لے تب اس لڑکے کو کسی امن کی جگہ پہنچا دینا”۔ مگر ہماری خوش نصیبی اور نیک نیتی کا یہ پھل ہوا کہ اس آفت سے ہم بھی اور ہمارے حکام بھی سب محفوظ رہے ، مگر مجھ کو ان کے ساتھ اپنی جان دینے میں کچھ دریغ نہ تھا” ۔

(مقالات سرسید، صفحہ 47)

انگریز حکام کی طرف سے خاں صاحب  پر یہ کرم نوازیاں محض وقتی نہ تھیں، انہیں باقاعدہ پنشن کا مستحق سمجھا گیا اور یوں وہ ریٹائرڈ ہونے کے بعد بھی خدمت اور خیر خواہی کا صلہ دشمنان  ملت سے پاتے رہے۔ ثبوت حاضر ہیں:

” دفعہ پنجم رپورٹ میں ہم لکھ چکے ہیں کہ ایام غدر میں کارگذاری سید احمد خان صاحب صدر امین کی بہت عمدہ ہوئی، لہذا ہم نے ان کے واسطے دوسو روپیہ ماہواری کی پنشن کی تجویز کی ہے۔ اگرچہ یہ رقم ان کی نصف تنخواہ سے ذیادہ ہے، مگر ہمارے نزدیک اس قدر روپیہ ان کے استحقاق سے ذیادہ نہیں ہے اور ہم چاہتے ہیں کہ آپ بھی ہماری تجویز کو مسلم رکھیں۔ اس واسطے کہ یہ افسر بہت لائق اور قابل نظر عنایت ہے۔ دستخط شیکسپیئر صاحب، مجسٹریٹ کلکٹر” ۔(مقالات سرسید، صفحہ 54

ہماری روشن خیال” برادری” کے ہم خیال افراد  کی ایک بڑی علامت جہاد کا انکار ہے۔ کیونکہ جہاد یا اس سے متعلق کوئی چیز انگریز سرکار کو کسی قیمت گوارہ نہیں۔ خان صاحب اسی مشن پر  اس فریضہ عادلہ کی تردید میں اپنے ہم عصر کذاب اکبر مرزا قادیانی کو بھی پیچھے چھوڑ گئے۔ فرماتے ہیں :۔

” ایک بڑا الزام جو ان لوگوں نے مسلمانوں کی طرف نہایت بے جا لگایا، وہ مسئلہ جہاد کا ہے حالانکہ کجا جہاد اور کجا بغاوت۔ میں نہیں دیکھتا کہ اس تمام ہنگامہ میں کوئی خدا پرست آدمی یا کوئی سچ مچ کا مولوی شریک ہوا ہو۔ بجز ایک شخص کے۔ اور میں نہیں جانتا کہ اس پر کیا آفت پڑی ؟  شاید اس کی سمجھ میں غلطی پڑی کیونکہ خطا ہونا انسان سے کچھ بعید نہیں۔ جہاد کا مسئلہ مسلمانوں میں دغا اور بے ایمانی اور غدر اور بے رحمی نہیں ہے۔ جیسے کہ اس ہنگامہ میں ہوا۔ کوئی شخص بھی اس ہنگامہ مفسدی اور بے ایمانی اور بے رحمی اور خدا کے رسول کے احکام کی نافرمانی کو جہاد نہیں کہہ سکتا”۔

(مقالات سرسید، صفحہ 93، 94)

جہاد اور مجاہدین کے خلاف دل کی بھڑاس نکالنے، جہاد آزادی میں علمائے کرام اور مجاہدعوام کی قربانیوں کی نفی کرنے اور جہاد کے فلسفے کو داغدار کرنے کے بعد وہ مسلمانان ہند کو انگریز کی وفاداری کا دم بھرنے کی تلقین کرتے   ہیں۔ فرماتے ہیں :۔

” ہماری گورنمنٹ انگلشیہ نے تمام ہندوستان پر دو طرح حکومت پائی ۔ یا یہ سبب غلبہ اور فتح یابموجب عہدوپیمان تمام مسلمان ہندوستان کے ان کی رعیت ہوئے۔ ہماری گورنمنٹ نے انکو امن دیا اور تمام مسلمان ہماری گورنمنٹ کے امن میں آئے۔ تمام مسلمان ہماری گورنمنٹ سے اور ہماری گورنمنٹ بھی تمام مسلمانوں سے مطمئن ہوئی کہ وہ ہماری رعیت اور تابعدار ہوکر رہتے ہیں۔ پھر کس طرح مذہب کے بموجب ہندوستان مسلمان گورنمنٹ انگلشیہ کے ساتھ غدر اور بغاوت کرسکتے تھے کیونکہ شرائط جہاد میں سے پہلی ہی شرط ہے کہ جن لوگوں پر جہاد کیا جائے ان میں اور جہاد کرنے والوں میں امن اور کوئی عہد نہ ہو ”   (مقالات سرسید، صفحہ 94

آہستہ آہستہ وہ اپنی رو میں بہتے ہوئے اتنے آگے چلے جاتے ہیں کہ مفتی اور مصلح کا منصب سنبھال لیتے ہیں۔ تمام علما اور مجاہدین، تمام محب وطن ہندوستانی انگریز کے خلاف سردھڑ کی بازی لگائے ہوئے تھے، جان مال لٹا رہے تھے اور خان صاحب انہیں مبلغ اعظم اور مصلح وقت بن کر سمجھا رہے تھے:۔

اس کے بعد جنگ آزادی کے مجاہدین اور علمائے کرام پر  نام نہاد وفا اور خودساختہ عہد کی پاسداری  نہ کرنے کاغصہ نکالتے ہوئے فرماتے ہیں:۔

” اس ہنگامہ میں برابر بدعہدی ہوتی رہی۔ سپا نمک حرام عہد کر کر پھر گئی۔ بدمعاشوں نے عہد کرکر دغا سے توڑ ڈالا اور پھر ہمارے مہربان متکلمین اور مصنفین کتب بغاوت  فرماتے ہیں کہ مسلمانوں کے مذہب میں یوں ہی تھا۔

مقالات سرسید، صفحہ 99

خان صاحب نے اس یادواشت نما کتابچے میں اور بہت کچھ لکھا ہے کہاں تک پیش کیا جائے۔ اس ڈر سے کہ مضمون کی طوالت عموما قارئین میں بددلی پیدا کرتی ہے،آخری پیرگراف پیش کرتے ہیں، ملاحظہ فرمائیں سرسید مسلمانوں کو تہذیب سکھلا رہے ہیں:۔

” اور ایک بات سنو کہ یہ تمام بغاوت جو ہوئی وجہ اسکی کارتوس تھا۔ کارتوس میں کاٹنے سے  مسلمانوں کے مذہب کا کیا نقصان تھا ؟ہمارے مذہب میں اہل کتاب کاکھانا درست ہے، انکا ذبیحہ ہم پر حلال ہیں (چاہیں سور کھلادیں: راقم) ہم فرض کرتے ہیں کہ اس میں سور کی چری ہوگی۔ تو پھر بھی ہمارا کیا نقصان تھا۔ ہمارے ہاں شرع میں ثابت ہوچکا ہے کہ جس چیز کی حرمت اور ناپاکی معلوم نہ ہو، وہ چیز حلال اور پاک کا حکم رکھتی ہے( کارتوس میں تو معلوم تھی جناب: راقم) اگر یہ بھی فرض کرلیں کہ اس میں یقینا سور کی چربی تھی تو اس کے کاٹنے سے بھی مسلمانوں کا دین نہیں جاتا۔ صرف اتنی بات تھی کہ گناہ ہوتا، سو وہ گناہ شرعا بہت درجہ کم تھا، ان گناہوں سے جو اس غدر میں بدذات مفسدوں نے کیے”۔

(مقالات سرسید، صفحہ 105)

گویا سور جیسی ناپاک چیز کا استعمال اتنا ذیادہ گناہ نہیں جتنا انگریز جیسے غمخوار حاکم کے خلاف آواز اٹھانا ہے۔ اس قسم کی تحریروں سے خان صاحب کی تعلیمی تحریکوں کا ہدف اور اصلاحی تحریروں کا اصل مشن سامنے آجاتا ہے اور اس میں شک وشبہ نہیں رہتا کہ مسلمانان برصغیر کے دلوں سے جذبہ جہاد ختم کرنے کا ہدف اور انہیں جدید تعلیم کے نام پر انگریز کی لامذہب تہذیب میں رنگنے کا مشن انہوں نے کس لگن سے انجام دیا۔ انکی ” تحریک علی گڑھ” میں سائنس و ٹیکنالوجی کے فروغ کے نام پر یورپ کے فرسودہ اور ناکارہ نظریات ہندوستان کے آزادی پسندوں کو پڑھائے جاتے رہے۔یہی وجہ ہے کہ ہندوستان ہو یا پاکستان دونوں ممالک کے باشندے آج تک تعلیمی ترقی کے نام پر یورپ کا تعاقب کرتے کرتے نڈھال ہوچکے ہیں، لیکن ترقی ابھی تک سراب ہی ہے۔ یہ تو برصغیر کے باشندوں کی ذاتی ذہانت و قابلیت ہے کہ ان میں سے کچھ لوگوں نے غیر معمولی کامیابیاں حاصل کرلیں ورنہ   جدید تعلیم یافتہ حضرات تو  محض بابو گیری سیکھ کر یورپ کی نقالی تک محدود رہے۔اس جدید ترقی سے ہمیں بس اتنا حصہ ملا ہے کہ ہمارے ذہین دماغ اور قابل نوجوان امریکا و یورپ کی جامعات اور تحقیقی اداروں سے پڑھ کر مغربی زندگی کی چکا چوند کے سحر میں ایسے آئے کہ وہیں کے ہوکے رہ گئے۔

سرسید کی تعلیمی تحریک کے سیل رواں میں خس و خاشاک کی طرح مشرق کے باسیوں کے بہنے کے باوجود  انکے حصے میں وہی پرانا مٹکا آیا، بلوریں جام تو ان کی پہنچ سے دور ہی رہے۔ مغربی محققین کے لیے جو تعلیم وتحقیق فرسودہ ہوجاتی ہے تو وہ ڈسٹ بن میں پھینکنے سے بچانے کے لیے ہمارے ہاں بھجوادیتے ہیں اور اصل ٹیکنالوجی اور اس کے حصول کے ذرائع کی ہوا نہیں لگنے دیتے، لہذا ہمارے ہاں سائنس نے کبھی رواج پایا  نہ ہی ہمارے تعلیمی اداروں میں تحقیق کا مزاج بنا۔ البتہ ہماری نسل کی نسل  “ہمٹی ڈمٹی” ٹائپ کے نیم مشرقی نیم مغربی ہندوستانیوں میں تبدیل ہوگئی اور بابوؤں کی کھیپ کی کھیپ پیدا ہوکر شکل وصورت کے ہندوستانی اور فکرو طرز زندگی کے لحاظ سے انگلستانی بنتے گئے۔ اس  سارے کارنامہ کا کریڈٹ  خاں صاحب کو جاتا ہے جن کی دلی خواہش پوری ہوئی ان کے تعلیمی اداروں نے  انگریز کی حکومت کے لیے وفادار کلرک اور بابو  تیار کر کر کے فراہم کیے ، یہ وفادار ملازم انگریز کی غلامانہ اطاعت تو کرسکتے تھے، اس سے ٹکرانے کا سوچ بھی نہیں سکتے تھے۔

تحریکات سیاسی ہوں یا تعلیمی۔۔۔۔ ان کو ان شخصیات کے نظریات کے تناظر میں پرکھا جاتا ہے جنہوں نے انہیں برپا کیا اور کسی شخصیت کے نظریات کی  ترجمانی اس کی اپنی تحریرات سے ذیادہ بہتر کوئی نہیں کرسکتا۔ اسی اصول کو سامنے رکھ کر ہم نے خاں صاحب کی برپا کردہ تحریک کو اس مضمون میں جانچنے اور پرکھنے کی کوشش کی  ، شاید کہ ہماری قوم حقیقت اور سراب کا فرق سمجھ لے، جدید تعلیم کو جدید تہذیب سے الگ کرکے دیکھنا شروع کردے اور ترقی کی خواہش میں مغرب کی ایسی نقالی نہ کرے کہ اپنی چال بھول جائے۔

The Event of the Change of Qiblah

Changing the Qiblah or Religious Authority??

Muslims usually welcome the month of Shabaan with various religious activities. The Prophet ﷺ used to fast much during the month of Shabaan as narrated by A’isha (radhiyallahu anha).

However, a great event which can be regarded as a turning point in the history of Islam has taken place in this blessed month. Though this event might indicate many crucial things, and the surrounding conditions might attest to its deep impact, it did not draw full attention of Muslim historians and biographers.

Amid the events related by the great historian Ibn Hisham after the Prophet’s ﷺ emigration to Madinah, he says in no more than two lines in his outstanding book on the biography of the Prophet ﷺ:

“It is narrated that the qiblah was changed in Shabaan after 18 months of the Prophet’s ﷺ emigration to Madinah.”

However, using this phrase, “It is narrated”, indicates that the event did not draw much attention so that historians become keen on verifying its exact date.

Notwithstanding, the event was so inportant that the Jewish tribes in Madinah waged a psychological warfare against Islam and its first teacher. It is to be noted here that before this event takes place, there was a covenant between the Jews and the Prophet ﷺ which they did not even respect. In fact, though they realized the ramifications of the event well, they went astray in their reaction and opened fire against the true religion of Islam.

They realized that it is not only a matter of changing the qiblah in prayer from one direction to another. Rather, the Divine message and consequently the religious authority has completely shifted from the Children of Israel to those of Isma’il. Accordingly, their claims of religious glory, being the sole mediator between heaven and Earth, and being the only guided nation among an ocean of astray ones; all these allegations have ended.

Now, let us start the story from the beginning… 

The One Original Qiblah

The Prophet ﷺ dealt with the Jews who ised to live around Madinah in a distinguished manner. This stemmed from the fact that the Jews were closer to the divine revelation than any other nation at that time.

After Hijrah, a divine decree that the Prophet ﷺ as well as Muslims should direct their faces in prayer towards Jerusalem was revealed. Most scholars maintain the view that this decree was designed tp test Muslims’ response to the last message as well as its honourable Messenger. This is evidenced by the Qur’an as the Almighty says,

“….and We appointed the Qiblah to which thou wast used, only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels (from the faith). Indeed, it was a changed momentous, except to those guided by Allah.” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:143]

This divine ayah implies, a well-established fact that should be borne in the minds of all, that the Sacred House (i.e. Ka’bah) is the qiblah and there is no other qiblah whatsoever in the true faith but this one. Accordingly, facing Jerusalem in Prayer for about 18 months does not defy this fact and does not mean that Jerusalem has become the qiblah regardless of its sanctity. Though Jerusalem was a landing place for many divine revelations and the abode of many sent prophets, facing it in Prayer was a two-purpose test. First, it was designed to test Muslims’ readiness to desert all their personal or traditional attachments. Secondly, to test the Jews’ willingness to follow the true religion and the seal of all prophets without questioning or objecting to the divine decrees he brings with him.

To make sure that this fact – that the Ka’bah is the original qiblah – the Qur’an does skip it and thus asserts,

“The first house (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakkah; full of blessing and of guidance for all kinds of beings: In it are Signs manifest; (for example), the Station of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security; Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah, those who can afford the journey; but if they deny faith, Allah stands not in need of any of His creatures.”   [Surah Aal’ Imran 3:96-97]

Religious Glory Lost

After the Prophet ﷺ was commanded to direct his face in Prayer towards the Ka’bah, the Jews realized something which rigorously upset them; namely, the fading of their religious glory. As they, in the very beginning and due to the Prophet’s ﷺ special treatment to them, fancied he would pursue their very steps. However, after that Divine decree, it became apparent to them that this was nothing but mirage  and that the Prophet’s ﷺ message was a corrective one. Truly, it was revealed to correct and amend what they have falsified of the religion of Allah and the distortions and confusion they have attributed to it.

Th Jews’ self-deceit that they would be guardians of the Muslim faith and that Jerusalem should be the permanant qiblah, made them forget the fact that the Ka’bah is the sole qiblah as stated in the Qur’an and that there should be no qiblah other than this.

However, this intentionally forgotten fact as far as the Jews were concerned, did not escape the mind of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. As he yearned for the Ka’bah all the time and used to turn his face to the sky perhaps a divine decree comes soon taking him back to the qiblah he earnestly longs for with his guiding insight. In this regard, the Almighty says,

“We see the turning of thy face (for guidance) to the heavens. Now shall we turn thee. Turn then thy face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque: Wherever ye are, turn your faces in that direction. The People of the Book know well that, that is the truth from their Lord. Nor is Allah unmindful of what they do.” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:144]

Total Submission

Consequently, the Prophet ﷺ directed his face towards the Ka’bah and his heart was eased, while the Jews were dying out of malice and wrath. What they feared most in the past has become true especially when Muslims hastened to carry out the Divine ordinance such as the Bani Salim folk who did not even wait until they finish their ‘Asr prayer when they were informed of the news. Instead, they changed their direction towards the Ka’bah while in ruku’ (Arabic for bowing) as a sign of their unquestionable obedience to Allah and His Messenger ﷺ.

Psychological Warfare

As the Jews lost their last hope that they would continue as holders of the divine message, they waged a fierce psychological against Islam and Muslims. They started to circulate rumours and raise false questions such as why did Muhammad ﷺ change the qiblah of all past Prophets and Messengers though he claims to be pursuing their course?

To add fuel to the fire, they wondered, “Maybe he longs for the faith of his forefathers and that is why he turned to their qiblah!”  Given this, they missed the fact that it was prophets Ibrahim and Isma’il (alayhimussalaam) who built the Ka’bah. Moreover, the Qur’an attributes the Ka’bah to Allah Himself as Almighty says,

“….and We covenanted with Ibrahim and Isma’il that they should sanctify my house for those who circumambulate it, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (there in prayer).” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:125]

Explicitly, the Qur’an defies the rumours spread by the Jews, refutes their allegations, and even describes them as foolish. Almighty says,

“The fools among the people will say: “What hath turned them from the qiblah to which they were used?” Say: “To Allah belong east and west. He guideth whom He wills to Straight Way.” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:142]

Moreover, the Jews misinterpreted the concept of righteousness and twisted it to mean directing one’s face towards Jerusalem. Consequently, according to them, when Prophet Muhammad ﷺ directed his face away from Jerusalem and turned it towards the Ka’bah, he went astray and took a course far from righteousness and the ethics of the Divine message.

Facts vs Fallacies

Duly, the Divine inspiration kept moving the Prophet ﷺ with the Qur’anic aayahs (Arabic for: verses) that reveal the truth about the whole issue. Uninterruptedly, the ayahs were revealed to remove the pain caused by the rumours circulated by the Jews; to defy the psychological warfare they waged against Islam and its prophet, and to refute the false allegations they perpetrated to distort the image of Islam and discourage its followers.

In doing so, the Qur’an made a general statement about ownership of the whole universe and that it is only Allah Who decides to which side one should direct his face in prayer. Almighty says,

“And to Allah belongs the east and the west. So wherever you (might) turn, there is the Face of Allah. Indeed, Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing.”   [Surah al-Baqarah 2:115]

In the same vein, the Qur’an established the correct understanding of the concept of righteousness in a great ayah that is called Ayat al-Birr (Arabic for: the Righteousness Verse). The ayah reads,

“Righteousness is not that you turn your faces to the East and the West; but righteousness is that one believes in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Book and the Prophets, and gives wealth, despite its love, to relatives, and to orphans, the helpless, the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and (spends) in (freeing) slaves and observes the prayers and pays the Zakah; and those who fulfil their promise when they promise and, of course, the patient in hardships and sufferings and when in battle! Those are the ones who are true and those are the God-fearing.” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:177]

These Qur’anic ayahs and the like put to an end to the psychological warfare launched by the Jews against Islam and Muslims.

Conclusion

Losing the banner of the divine message, the Jews could not help divulging their hatred and grudges against Islam and Muslims. In fact, the Jews felt the fading of their religious glory upon the advent of Islam and it became a flagrant fact when the qiblah was changed through divine revelation from Jerusalem to Makkah. They knew then that the torch has irrevocably been passed over to the Children of Isma’il.

In this regard, the Almighty says,

“Quite a number of the People of the Book wish they could turn you (people) back to infidelity after ye have believed, from selfish envy, after the Truth hath become manifest unto them: But forgive and overlook, till Allah accomplish His purpose; for Allah hath power over all things.” [Surah al-Baqarah 2:109]