Category Archives: Islam and Science

Explaining the Hadith Of the Sun’s Prostration Beneath the Throne

How do we understand the Hadith of the sun’s prostration beneath the Throne?

One of the things that is controversial is this case is as follows:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said to Abu Dhar (رضي الله عنه) when the sun set: “Do you know where it goes?” I said: Allah (ﷻ) and His Messenger (ﷺ) know best. He said: “It goes and prostrates beneath the Throne, then it asks for permission (to rise) and permission is given to it. Soon it will prostrate, but it will not be accepted from it, and it will ask for permission (to rise) but permission will not be given to it; it will be said to it: “Go back to where you came from.’ So it will rise from its place of setting, and that is what Allah (ﷻ), may He be glorified, refers to in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): [And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term (appointed). That is the Decree of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing] [Q.36:38]. [Sahih al-Bukhari (3199), and Sahih al-Muslim (250)]

The opponents claim that this saying of the Prophet (ﷺ) proves that the sun is what moves and sets, then it hides from the whole earth, and that the sun prostrates beneath the Throne, and waits for permission to come back again to rise which means that it stops moving at a point when it goes beneath the Throne which contradicts what has been proven by modern science that the sun is still and rotates on its own self.

If you follow the writings of the opponents, you will find that they jump with joy on this; a lot of them mention it and don’t get bored by repeating it continuously, and they find it as one of the strongest statements against Islam.

Before clarifying this case, we first have to know that this has been a controversial topic among Muslim scholars before the scientific era. [see: A’lam al-Hadith fi sharh sahih al-Bukhari, al-Khattabi (1893/3), al-bidaya wal-nihaya, Ibn Kathir (33/1) and ‘umda tul Qari, al-‘Aini (119/15), and fath al-bari, Ibn Hajr (299/6)]

Many scholars have spoken of it and tried to explain it and clarify its meanings to address the doubts surrounding it. They were not blind to this Hadith and it was a very interesting topic for them.

To make it clear, we would separate the objection and divide it into four main points:

The Hadith mentions that the sun sets while facts are contrary to it; the sun neither sets nor moves to any place and the earth’s rotation causes the sunset.

This contradiction is not correct since the Hadith only mentions the sunset without mentioning the cause; it is the same as the verses mentioned earlier which speak of what the people see. The Hadith mentions that the sun prostrates beneath the Throne which implies that the sun stops moving and this contradicts modern science. Before commenting on this matter, we have to clarify that the mentioned prostrating is a special prostrating and is not the absolute physical movement to Allah (ﷻ); thus the Hadith states a special prostration related only to the sun. Moreover, saying that the prostration implies a stop is inaccurate. Since the base of the claim is faulty, that the sun prostrates like humans do, the argument itself is faulty as well. The fact is that the sun’s prostration and asking for permission is unknown to us. We do not know about it nor how it happens. Read a specially dedicated piece on this argument here.

The same is true for the prostration of the trees and stones and their glorification of Allah (ﷻ); if they are close to us and around us yet we do not know the manner in which they prostrate, then how can we understand the sun’s prostration?

Allah (ﷻ) says about their prostration: [The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [Allah] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving]   [Qur’an 17:44].

If the manner of the sun’s prostration is unknown to us, we cannot claim that it contradicts science as applied science does not recognize unknowns and only deals with what is applicable to the experiment. If science hasn’t experimented on a case, we cannot negate that case by saying that since science does not know yet, it does not exist and if it does not exist now, it has never existed. Such logic would be rejected by science and to do the same with Islam would be incorrect.

It is clear that the opponents of the sun’s prostration claiming it to be against science don’t have clear evidence to prove it a contradiction, and they have said it themselves that if it is unknown to science, it does not exist.

Moreover, prostration of the sun does not contradict the human mind because proving the opposite of something is invalid except if we know it for a fact and understand its nature. The sun’s prostration is unknown to us and we don’t know its manner, then how can we judge it and say that it contradicts our mind?!

We do not deny that what the Hadith states is unfamiliar to the human mind; however, there is a big difference between what the mind does not understand and what the mind cannot comprehend. Sometimes what the prophets inform people are topics which the mind does not understand but they do not tell the people about that which is impossible and that which the mind cannot comprehend. The opponents confuse between these two matters; sometimes they say that if it is unknown to the mind, it is impossible after which, for them, Islam contradicts science and mind.

Therefore, if the sun’s prostration is an unknown thing, it is not correct to contradict it and say that it implies that sun stops because it is not correct to state something’s specifications except if we already know its facts.

Many scholars have discussed this subject. Al-Khattabi says:

And it’s prostrating every night is not contradictory to its movement in its orbit. [A’lam al-Hadith fi sharh sahih al-Bukhari, al-Khattabi (1893/3)]

Al-Bayhaqi says:

There’s nothing contradictory in its prostration beneath the Throne and its orbiting and purpose for what it has been created for. [Al-Asma’ wal-Sifaat (275/2)]

There are authentic Hadiths about the sun and its condition being unknown to the people such as this Hadith from Saheeh Muslim:

And it returns and emerges out from its rising place and it glides (in such a normal way) that the people do not discern anything.

This means that nobody understands its prostration or seeking permission. Thus they do not discern anything.

Somebody may argue that the Hadith says that the sun is still until it is said to it: Rise up and return to the place whence you came. They may argue that this implies that the sun has to stop moving. We answer that it is not like that; it means that it is still under prostration until permission from Allah (ﷻ) to rise again is received, thus the permission is related to the prostration and not the motion. We have already said that the prostration does not imply motion except if it was a familiar prostration to the humans; however, this is about the sun and we don’t know how its prostration looks like.

The Hadith mentions that the sun goes under the Throne and prostrates there but the fact is that the sun does not change its path or its orbit, then how can it go and come back?!

This alleged contradiction is inaccurate for two reasons:

The sun’s going is not known; thus it is the same as the prostration discussed above. The prostration of the sun, the manner of which we don’t know, is the same as its movement here and there. Al-Khattabi states:

It is unknown. We won’t deny it and we don’t ask or say how it is; moreover, our mind and science cannot understand or know anything about it. [A’lam al-Hadith fi sharh sahih al-Bukhari, al-Khattabi (1893/3); also see sharh al-mishkaat for al-Tibi (3450/11)]

The word for going in the Arabic language does not only mean the transformation from some place to another but may also mean the alignment; thus it would mean that the sun just aligns with/under the Throne, and what makes it more clear is that the Throne is much bigger than the sun and the skies and the whole earth. The Prophet (ﷺ) said:

‘The seven heavens in relation to the Kursi are like a ring thrown into a waterless desert. And the superiority of the ‘Arsh over the Kursi is like the superiority of the desert over that ring.’ [Sahih ibn Hibban (361), Ibn Abi Shayba in Kitab al-Arsh (58), al-Bayhaqi in al-Asma’ wal-Sifaat (862); silsilah al-saheeha for al-Albani (109)]

Ibn Kathir says about the Hadith:

This does not mean that it goes to the skies, but that it just sets out of our eyes even though it is still in its orbit. [Al-Bidaya wal-Nihaya (33/1)]

Al-Khattabi comments on this Hadith as follows:

The sun prostrating beneath the Throne is not a denial of the fact that it aligns with the Throne while it orbits. [A’lam al-Hadith fi sharh sahih al-Bukhari, al-Khattabi (1894/3)]

This style is known in the Arabic language; we say, for the one who went to pray, that he went to meet his God but the meaning here is not that he went above the heavens to meet Allah (ﷻ) there.

Similarly, here’s a verse about Ibrahim (عليه السلام) where Allah (ﷻ) says: [I will go to my Lord! He will surely guide me!]  (Qur’an 37:99). This does not mean that he was going to meet Allah (ﷻ) above the seven heavens but that he was going to the place on earth where Allah (ﷻ) was being worshiped. [Tafsir ibn Jarir al-Tabari (71/21), and Tafsir al-Baghawi (46/7)]

It is correct to say: the man has gone to the desert to meet the moon and to lie down below it; the meaning is not that he is going to the moon in its orbit to meet it there.

The Hadith has specified the time of prostration, which is at the sunset, and mentioned that it does not prostrate at the time of sunrise; it is known that the sunrise and sunset are rational matters, since the sun is already rising and setting at the same time in different places, then it would be impossible to think that the sun prostrates and not prostrates all the time and having a single sunset at some moment on the whole earth contradicts applied science.

This matter is not right for two reasons:

The sun’s prostration is unknown as we have already mentioned and we cannot specify the criteria of/for unknown things. Thus, saying that it is mandatory that the sun prostrates all the time is based on our wrong understanding of the prostration, which is unknown to us.

For this, we find a similar matter elsewhere in Islamic texts and that is coming down of Allah (ﷻ) every night to the first sky in the last third of the night. Some have criticized this coming down claiming that there is always a last third at some point of the earth and hence this would mean that Allah (ﷻ) would be coming down all the time, every time.

This alleged contradiction is based on an incorrect idea that Allah (ﷻ)’s coming down is the same as the humans which is totally false. The same thing is with the sun, we do not know how the prostration looks like and hence, we cannot relate it to our understanding of the human prostration.

It might be correct that the sun has some point in its orbit where it will be typically adjacent to the Throne and this point is at the time of the sunset on the Arabian Peninsula where the Prophet (ﷺ) spoke the Hadith.

This would mean that the Hadith does not state that the sun, at the time of sunset, prostrates beneath the Throne, neither does it say that the sun prostrates every time the sun sets. Accordingly, the Hadith does not mention that the prostration takes place only at the time of sunset. The Prophet (ﷺ) did not say that (the sun was setting beneath the Throne) but he was speaking to those present at that time and at that time, the sun had set and prostrated and asked for permission from Allah (ﷻ). Therefore, this would mean that the Hadith is related to that point and that specific time.

Many scholars have spoken along similar lines. Al-Khattabi says:

This is not denying that it is adjacent to the Throne while it orbits [A’lam al-Hadith fi sharh sahih al-Bukhari, al-Khattabi (1894/3)].

Ibn Hajar says:

Actually his saying “beneath the Throne” means adjacent to it, and this does not contradict Allah (ﷻ)’s statement: [when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it [as if] setting in a spring of dark mud]; thus, the meaning is that it pertains to those who look at it, but the prostration is after the sunset. [Fath al-Bari (542/8)]

These opinions imply that the scholars did not understand that the sun prostrates when it has some sort of partial setting; thus, it does not prostrate all the time but just once when it is adjacent the Throne and that is when it sets from the Arabian Peninsula.

According to this, many of the opponents are now in trouble because they did not understand the actual meaning of the sayings and built a faulty understanding and wrong consequences and mixed up between the unknown and the impossible matters.

Source: https://qurananswers.me/2017/06/24/criticism-religion-western-thought/#_ftn39

What was Man Created from in The Qur’an?? [Refuting the Christian rant of so-called ‘Contradiction’]

Source: http://www.answering-christianity.com/quran/ma_man_created.htm

What was man created from? A blood clot [96:1-2], water [21:30, 24:45, 25:54], “sounding” (i.e. burned) clay [15:26], dust [3:59, 30:20, 35:11], nothing [19:67] and this is then denied in 52:35, earth [11:61], a drop of thickened fluid [16:4, 75:37] 

I wonder, if three bakers were to come visit the author of this list and one were to say: “Bread is made from flour,” the next were to say “bread is made from dough” and the third were to say: “Bread is made from wheat,” if he would consider this a “contradiction” too?

If two physicists now came along and one said “bread is made from atoms” and the other said “bread is made from molecules,” would this be an even further “contradiction”? 

The blood of all living creatures is composed of 55 percent plasma, which in turn is composed of more than 90 percent water. As opposed to 1400 centuries ago when the Qur’an was first revealed by God, today it is a well known fact that the major “ingredient” in the human body is water (a matter emphasized  ONLY in the Qur’an and not in the Bible). It is further very well known that mankind is made from “dust” (when you place his body in the grave and leave it for a number of years, and the water evaporates, what form does his body revert to? Further, what is “clay”? Is it not a special form of water and dust? It is equally obvious that if God created everything then there must have been a time when everything we see was “nothing,” including humans. 

However, our current author severely dislikes all Muslims and is bent on discovering “contradictions.” The irony of the matter is that although he has no formal knowledge of these matters but manages to brand all of these statements to be “contradictory,” in spite of that, when truly objective and unbiased Christian scholars who are world renown specialist in this field are presented with the very same verses and many more, and spend over three years studying them in detail, we find these world renown Christian scholars so totally amazed at their accuracy in matters which were only scientifically proven in the last twenty years that they found no recourse but to admit that it must have come from God and even to go so far as to suggest the total replacement of current scientific terminology with that used by God in the Qur’an. But they is saying this with regard to the Muslim Qur’an and not their own Christian Bible. Who are some of these men? Among them are Prof. Keith MooreProf. E. Marshall JohnsonProf. Joe Leigh SimpsonProf. T.V.N. Persaud Dr. Maurice Bucaille, and Dr. Tejatet Tejasen to name but a few. Let us learn a little more about these men and then hear what they have to say in this regard: 

Dr. Keith L. Moore is a Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. He is a world renowned scientist and a distinguished researcher in the fields of anatomy and embryology, he has published more than 150 research articles, chapters and books in this field. He is the author of several medical textbooks, such as the widely used and acclaimed “The Developing Human: Clinically oriented Embryology” (now in its fifth edition, translated into eight different languages, and the standard textbook on this science in many countries),“Before We Are Born” and “Clinically Oriented Anatomy.” He has also recently co-authored “Qur’an and Modern Science, Correlation Studies.” Dr. Moore is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including, in 1984, the J.C.B. Grant Award, which is the highest honor granted by the Canadian Association of Anatomists. He has served in many academic and administrative positions, including the President of the Canadian Association of Anatomists, 1968-1970. Let us see what Dr. Moore’s opinion is on the scientific statements regarding embryology to be found in the Qur’an:

Dr. Moore was contacted by a Muslim scholar by the name of Abdul-Majeed Azzindani. He was asked to participate in a three-year study of around twenty-five verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah (sayings of Muhammad, pbuh) which speak about embryology, and to determine the degree of their correspondence to modern scientific discoveries. Dr. Moore’s conclusion regarding this matter was:

“For the past three years, I have worked with the Embryology Committee of King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, helping them to interpret the many statements in the Qur’an and the Sunnah referring to human reproduction and prenatal development. At first I was astonished by the accuracy of the statements that were recorded in the seventh century AD, before the science of embryology was established. Although I was aware of the glorious history of Muslim scientists in the 10th century AD, and of some of their contributions to Medicine, I new nothing about the religious facts and beliefs contained in the Qur’an and Sunnah. It is important for Islamic and other students to understand the meaning of these Qur’anic statements about human development, based on current scientific knowledge. The interpretations of the “verses” in the Qur’an and the Sunnah, translated by Shaikh Azzindani, are to the best of my knowledge accurate.” 

From the forward of “The Developing Human: Clinically oriented Embryology,” third edition, by Dr. Keith L. Moore. 

The author of this list and his friend Dr. Campbell have done their best to try and claim that the Qur’an contains scientifically incorrect information and to attempt to convince the reader that they know what they are talking about and should be considered authorities in this matter. They attempt to convince the reader that Al-Alaq (96):2 which mentions that one of the microscopic stages of development of the human embryo is in the form of “Alaq,” a clinging leech-like entity (4), is wrong.

Now it may indeed be possible that all of these world renown Christian scientists who are defending the Qur’an are all mistaken and that only the author of this list and his friend, Dr. Campbell, are able to see the truth. However, I shall leave it up to them to first convince these scholars of what is or is not “clearly” or “obviously” scientifically incorrect. With regard to this specific verse, it is suggested to them both to please read page 56 of the third edition of “The Developing Human” with its accompanying pictures and then to please contact Prof. Moore (or any of the other award winning, world renown, Christian Professors of embryology we shall be hearing from soon) and explain to him how they would like to show him how he is propagating such clearly incorrect and scientifically unsound information in his textbooks in his defense of the Islamic terminology and staging.

The reader is encouraged to study Fig. 4-3 of page 56 of Prof. Moore’s textbook which contains a microscopic representation of the human embryo in the stages from 15-21 days and notice the unmistakable physical similarity it bears with common leeches. Further, the reader is encouraged to note that this similarity is not only in appearance, rather it is also a similarity of function. Just as leeches attach themselves to a host organism and feed off of the blood supply of that host, so too does the human embryo mimic this exact same action. Were it not for the fact that the human embryo is many orders of magnitude smaller than a real leech and imperceptible by the naked eye, then both entities would be all but indistinguishable.

The Qur’an and the Sunnah of the prophet Muhammad (pbuh) provide a very detailed description of the microscopic development of the human embryo from a mere sperm drop up to the stage of a completely formed human being. It is well known that microscopes were not developed until the sixteenth century AD, and even at that were very crude in design. Zacharias Janssen is credited with having invented the compound microscope in about 1590. With it, remarkable scientific discoveries were made in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Dutch naturalist Anthony van Leeuwenhoek produced lenses powerful enough to prove that many tiny creatures are not spontaneously generated but come from eggs. 

Before this period, theories on human reproduction ran rampant. Some scientist believed that the menstrual blood itself developed into the fetus. Later on, a new theory was developed wherein the sperm drop was popularly believed to contain a completely developed miniature human (homunculus) which later grew to the size of a baby. The science of embryology as we know it today did not discover many of the detailed aspects of human development which are taken for granted today until only about twenty years ago, or 1972 to be precise.

Now we must ask the question: where did prophet Muhammad (pbuh) get such detailed knowledge of the microscopic development of the human embryo in the 6th century AD without a microscope, technical training, or a laboratory of any kind? The only logical conclusion is that it came from exactly where he claimed it did. From the one who created mankind, God Almighty! 

Prof. Moore has since given numerous lectures on the topic of embryology in the Qur’an. He is quoted in one of these lectures as saying:

“It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, or Allah, because most of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God, or Allah.” (As mentioned before, the one Christians refer to as “God the Father” is known in Islam as “Allah.”) 

Prof. Moore was so impressed with the Qur’anic classification of the stages of development of the human embryo, that he suggested the adoption of the Qur’anic system in place of the system currently in use by scientists today. Prof. Moore said: 

“Because the staging of the human embryo is complex owing to the continuous process of change during development. It is therefore suggested that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Qur’an and the Sunnah. The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge.”

When Dr. Moore first presented his findings in Toronto it caused quite a stir throughout Canada. It was on the front pages of some of the newspapers across Canada. One newspaper reporter asked Professor Moore, 

“Don’t you think That maybe the Arabs might have known about these things – the description of the embryo, its appearance and how it changes and grows? Maybe there were not scientists, but maybe they did some crude dissections on their own – carved up people and examined these things.” 

Professor Moore immediately pointed out to him, however, that he had missed a very important point. All of the slides of the embryo that Dr. Moore had based his study upon had come from pictures taken through a microscope. He said, 

“It does not matter if someone had tried to discover embryology fourteen centuries ago, they could not have seen it!.” Dr. Moore taunted, “Maybe fourteen centuries ago someone secretly had a microscope and did this research, making no mistakes anywhere. Then he somehow taught Muhammad and convinced him to put this information in his book. Then he destroyed his equipment and kept it a secret forever?. Do you believe that? You really should not unless you bring some proof because it is such a ridiculous theory.” 

When he was asked “How do you explain this information in the Qur’an?” Dr. Moore’s reply was, “It could only have been divinely revealed.”  

Prof. Keith Moore is not the only scholar who has been presented with such verses of the Qur’an. Many other scholars from all over the world have been presented with similar statements from the Qur’an in their field of expertise. Only a few of these people are: 

1) Dr. E. Marshall Johnson, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, and the Director of the Daniel Baugh Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, USA. Author of over 200 publications. Former President of the Teratology Society among other accomplishments. After studying the verses of the Qur’an he came to the following conclusion: 

“The Qur’an describes not only the development of external form but emphasizes also the internal stages – the stages inside the embryo of its creation and development, emphasizing major events recognized by contemporary science… If I was to transpose myself into that era, knowing what I do today and describing things, I could not describe the things that were described… I see no evidence to refute the concept that this individual Muhammad had to be developing this information from some place… so I see nothing in conflict with the concept that divine intervention was involved…” 

2) Dr. Joe Leigh Simpson. Professor and Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Baylor Collage of Medicine, Houston, Texas. He is the President of the American Fertility Society, and has served in many other professional, national, and international organizations. He has received numerous awards including Association of Professors of Obstetrics and Gynecology Public Recognition Award in 1992. He has published more than 400 chapters and articles in journals and books. He says: 

“… these Hadeeths (sayings of Muhammad) could not have been obtained on the basis of the scientific knowledge that was available at the time of the writer’… It follows that not only is there no conflict between genetics and religion (Islam) but in fact religion (Islam) may guide science by adding revelation to some of the traditional scientific approaches… There exist statements in the Qur’an shown centuries later to be valid which support knowledge in the Qur’an having been derived from God.”  

3) Dr. T.V.N. Persaud. Professor and Head of the Department of Anatomy, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health, and Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. He is the author and editor of 25 books, has contributed 31 chapters to publications, and has published over 180 scientific papers. In 1991 he received the most distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of Anatomists. He says: 

“Muhammad was a very ordinary man, he couldn’t read, didn’t know how to write, in fact he was an illiterate… were talking about 1400 years ago, you have some illiterate person making profound statements that are amazingly accurate, of a scientific nature… I personally can’t see how this could be mere chance, there are too many accuracies and like Dr. Moore, I have no difficulty in my mind reconciling that this is a divine inspiration or revelation which lead him to these statements.” 

4) After a study which lasted ten years, the famous French physician Dr. Maurice Bucaille addressed the French Academy of Medicine in 1976 and expressed the complete agreement of the Qur’an and established findings of modern science. He presented his study on the existence in the Qur’an of certain statements concerning physiology and reproduction. His reason for doing that was that 

“our knowledge of these disciplines is such, that it is impossible to explain how a text produced at the time of the Qur’an could have contained ideas that have only been discovered in modern times.”

Based upon his extensive study of these issues over many years, Dr. Bucaille later converted to Islam.

5) Dr. Tejatet Tejasen, Head of the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chiang Mai, Thailand. After his study on the Qur’an passages dealing with embryology: 

“From my studies and what I have learnt at this conference I believe that everything that has been recorded in the Qur’an 1400 years ago must be true. That can be proved the scientific way.” 

6) Dr. Arther J. Alison. head of the Department of Electronical and Electronics Engineering in a British University after researching the field of Parapsychology and spiritual treatment of man in the light of the Qur’an and current scientific knowledge was so completely amazed at the scientific accuracy of the statements he found in the Qur’an in this regard that he converted to Islam and is now named Abdullah Alison. He urges all Western scientists to get acquainted with Islam which “addresses both intellect and sentiments at the same time.” Dr. Alison worked for six years as the chairman of the British Parapsychology and Spiritual Studies Society. This position, led him to deeply study different religions and philosophies, including Islam. Dr. Alison placed special emphasis in his study on the relationship between death and sleep, and the conformance of scientific data to the claims he later found in the Qur’an were the reason for his final conversion. Dr. Alison exclaimed “my joy knew no bounds as the results of my study were so convincing and, thus I discovered Islam.” he added. He regretted that the West is totally ignorant about the scientific approach of Islam. “During our discussion at this conference (in Cairo) , we have arrived at conclusive evidence that Islam does not contradict science, and plan to do further research on parapsychology in the light of the Qur’an.”  

The list is constantly growing. Others such non-Muslim scientists include:

7) Dr. Gerald C. Goeringer. Professor and Coordinator of Medical Embryology in the Department of Cell Biology in the Georgetown University school of Medicine. Washington, D.C. He has published numerous articles dealing mainly with the study of teratogenesis.

8) Dr. Alfred Kroner, Professor of Geology, Germany. 

9) Dr. Yoshiodi Kozan, Director of the observatory of Tokyo, Japan.

10) Dr. William Hay, Professor of Oceanography, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

11) Dr. Pete Palmer, Professor of Geology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

12) Dr. Sayawida, Professor of Marine Geology, Japan.

13) Dr. Armstrong, Professor of Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

14) Dr. Draga Persaud Rauw, Professor of Marine Geology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

15) Dr. Schroeder, Professor of Oceanography, Germany.

The response of these scholars when presented with verses of the Qur’an in their field of specialization, varied. One thing however was always constant. They all confirmed the accuracy of the scientific statements made in the Qur’an, and they all could not explain how Muhammad (pbuh) could have known with such accuracy the scientific claims to be found in the Qur’an so many centuries before mankind discovered them to be scientific truths. 

So how have the apologists and the “Islam bashers” responded to such statements from so many leading world renown non-Muslim scientists? Well, to take one example, the very best that the authors of “Answering Islam” have managed to come up with is such revelations as: “..even if the Qur’an were proven to be scientifically accurate, it would not thereby make it divinely authoritative. All it would prove is that the Quran made no scientific blunders…” (p. 200)

Ahh, so here we have world renown Christian and other non-Muslim scholars publicly admitting that the words of God in the noble Qur’an are completely scientifically accurate in matters which were not found to be scientifically true until many centuries later. They go on to declare that this degree of accuracy is of such an unprecedented degree as to have been literally impossible to achieved by the people of that age even if they were the most learned specialists in these fields, since the very tools necessary of these discoveries would not be invented for many more centuries. They then go on to tell us that these descriptions are far too numerous and too detailed to have been arrived at by mere chance or stabs in the dark, especially by an unlettered Arab sheep-herder who was making these comments almost as secondary remarks in a book which was never meant to be taken as a scientific textbook. And finally, these scientists even go so far as to suggest the total replacement of current scientific terminology with the superior terminology provided by God in the Qur’an. After all of this the response is “… all it would prove is that the Qur’an made no scientific blunders.” … Problem solved. I suppose that by the same token these authors will then assert that the fact that Jesus (pbuh) raised the dead and cured diseases which to this day remain incurable, that in their words “even if this is true” then this does not prove that Jesus (pbuh) was sent by God, but it only proves that “Jesus made no errors in his medical prescriptions”? 

Allah Almighty tells us in the Qur’an:

“Allah did not create (all) that except in truth. He details the signs for people of knowledge.” The noble Qur’an, Yunus(10):5 

“And those who were given knowledge see that which was sent down upon you by your Lord is the truth and guides to the path of the ‘Exalted’ (in Might) the ‘worthy of all praise’.”  The noble Qur’an, Saba(34):6. 

“Had We sent down this Qur’an upon a mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and rending asunder for fear of Allah. Such are the parables We put forth for mankind that they may reflect.”  The noble Qur’an, Al-Hashr(59):21

“Verily! this Qur’an guides to that which is most upright, and gives glad tidings to the believers who work deeds of righteousness that theirs will be a great reward”  The noble Qur’an, Al-Isra(17):9

“And We have indeed simplified [the comprehension of] this Qur’an for remembrance, so is there any that will remember and be admonished?”  The noble Qur’an, Al-Qamar(54):17

So do the examples presented in this list really contain “contradictions” or could there possibly be some other reason why matters described by God in the Muslim’s Qur’an are recognized by world renown Christian specialists to be of such unparalleled accuracy as to leave them at a loss for words and only able to attribute it to God, these very same verses appear to the author of this list to be “obvious” contradictions and “clearly” scientifically incorrect? 

Al-Isra’ Wal Miraj, Time & Science

What is Theory of Relativity?

Einstein proved that Matter, Energy, Space and Time are interlinked by a special relation.He stated that the position of a body influences time. According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, time slows down under the effect of gravity. Accordingly, the passengers on a plane flying somewhere with lower gravity will age by a few extra nanoseconds on every trip. Stephen Hawking and many other scientists supported the theory of relativity of time.

Einstein and Hawking’s theory that time passes more slowly near centers of gravity has been proved by experiments conducted by American scientists. A rocket at high altitude and two separate sites with different gravitational fields were selected for the first experiment. Two very sensitive atomic clocks, capable of measuring atomic vibrations were installed in these two locations, which had different gravitational fields because of their different altitudes, and the relative nature of time was confirmed. The scope of the experiment has today been increased and relativity has been observed in daily life. Two atomic clocks hundreds of times more sensitive than the original ones were used for this experiment. But it was not the two sensitive atomic clocks that distinguished this experiment from the earlier one. The difference in elevation between the two clocks was a mere 33 cm.

According to the results of the experiment, published in the American magazine Science on 24 September, being 33 cm higher, in other words two steps higher, causes time to pass faster because pressure is slightly reduced, and someone standing above these two steps ages slightly faster. However, since Almighty Allah has not created this phenomenon in such a way as to eliminate the need for free will, the difference is only one 90 billionth of a second in a life span of 97 years, and is therefore imperceptible to anyone.

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THE TWIN PARADOX

Einstein came up with an example to show the effects of time dilation that he called the “twin paradox.” 

Let’s try it out with a pair of pretend twins, Al and Bert, both of whom are 10 years old in their highly futuristic universe.

Al’s parents decide to send him to summer camp in the Alpha-3 star system, which is 25 light-years away (a light-year is the distance light travels in a year). Bert doesn’t want to go and stays home on Earth. So Al sets out on his own. Wanting him to get there as quickly as possible, his parents pay extra and send him at 99.99 percent the speed of light.

The trip to the star and back takes 50 years. What happens when Al returns? His twin brother is now 60 years old, but Al is only 10 and a half. How can this be? Al was away for 50 years but only aged by half a year. Has Al just discovered the fountain of youth?

Not at all. Al’s trip into space lasted only a half year for him, but on Earth 50 years passed. Does this mean that Al can live forever? Nope. He may have aged by only half a year in the time it took 50 years to pass on Earth, but he also only lived half a year. And since time can slow down but never goes backwards, there’s no way he could grow younger.

The renowned physicist Stephen Hawking describes this using the example of twins:

“Consider a pair of twins. Suppose that one twin goes to live on top of a mountain while the other stays at sea level. The first twin would age faster than the second. Thus, if they met again, one would be older than the other.” ► [Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time, p.54]

RELATIVITY OF TIME CONFIRMED IN THE QUR’AN

The conclusion from these scientific findings summarized very briefly here is that the fact that time is a perception has been confirmed. This fact was also revealed hundreds of years ago in the Qur’an. The relevant verses read:

“And they ask you to and Allah shall never fail in His promise, and undoubtedly, there is with your Lord such aday like a thousand years in your reckoning.  ► [Surat al-Hajj Chapter 22 : Verse 47]

He plans and executes (the Command and Control System) from the heavens to the earth. Then His Command ascends (and will ascend to completion) towards Him in one Day which measures one thousand years according to (the number) that you count.  ► [Surat as-Sajda Chapter 32 :Verse 5]

The angels and ar-Ruh al-Amin (the Spirit) rise towards His (Throne) in a day which measures fifty thousand years (according to the worldly scale). ► [Surat al-Ma’arij Chapter 70 : Verse 4]

The scientific experiments in question prove that we can never know how or even if time passes. That, in turn, shows that time has no absolute reality, that it is simply a perception. This fact, corroborated by modern science, that time is simply a psychological perception and that it can be perceived differently depending on events, location and prevailing conditions, is revealed thus in the Qur’an:

“On the Day He calls you, you will respond by praising Him and think that you have only tarried a very short time.”  ► [Surat al-Isra’ Chapter 17 : Verse 52]

AL-ISRA WAL MIRAJ AND THE TIME FACTOR 

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Almighty Allah states in the Qur’an:

Holy (free of any imperfection, weakness and insufficiency) is He Who took His (most beloved and intimate) Servant in a small portion of a night from the Sacred Mosque to the al-Aqsa Mosque, whose surroundings We have blessed, in order that We might show him (the Perfect Servant) Our Signs. Surely He is the One Who is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.  ► [Surah Al-Isra Chapter 17 : Verse 1]

As such, there is scholarly consensus (ijma) Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi wasallam) journeyed in body and soul the night of al-Isra’ from Masjid al-Haram in Makkah to Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem.

According to Special Theory of Relativity– if a body travels with the velocity of light then Time Dilation and Relativity of Simultaneously occurs. Time dilation is an actual difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from gravitational masses.

Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was riding on the Buraq, and the speed (velocity) of the Buraq was similar or more than the speed (velocity) of light. Therefore, now we can easily understand that Time Dilation occurred during the Event of Miraj:

Then a white animal which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me … The animal’s step (was so wide that it) reached the farthest point within the reach of the animal’s sight. [Sahih Bukhari]

Therefore, time seemed to stop or a very short duration of time passed as mentioned in the Qur’an.

Further Reading: The Qur’anic Philosophy on the Mystery of Time

Science Can Not Disprove GOD’s existence.

There is actually no scientific basis that can tell you that God does not exist. It is not science’s domain to test whether there is God or not. Science is simply a tool to test what is empirically true. Science operates on induction. The inductive method entails searching out things in the world and drawing generalized conclusions about those things based on observations. Scientists can only draw conclusions on what they find, not on what they can’t find. So how can Science disprove something which they can’t see and will never be able to. As GOD cannot be seen for sure. Because from Qur’an we know that GOD is unlike His creation [See Qur’an 42:11]. And, No vision can grasp Him  [see Qur’an 6:103]. Moreover, How can a Creator be a part of His Creation?

It is totally unreasonable for one to think in a scientific framework to put God as an extra element. Within scientific framework, it is true that an extra element is not needed, since we already made the assumption that everything is contained and confined within the universe and nothing can be lost. But this does not mean that science denies the existence of God. There is no reason to think that way. People has a distorted view of Science. Because some take the position that if science doesn’t give us reason to believe in something, then no good reason exists. As Freeman Dyson says and I quote, “The public has a distorted view of Science because Children are taught in schools that science is a collection of firmly established  truths. In fact, science is not a collection of truths. It is continuing exploration of mysteries.”

There is no reason to consider God’s actions in a scientific framework and in the same time, there is no reason to consider that God does not exist based on scientific deduction. Scientific theories only propose that which is falsifiable. That means the scientific method can’t answer any questions but only shows what is a false answer out of innumerable possibilities. We should not try to apply science outside of the fields for which it is meant. Some take the position that if science doesn’t give us reason to believe in something, then no good reason exists. That’s simply the false assumption scientism. However, it would be a mistake to expect it to be able to test everything. In this case, ”GOD’s existence”. There are many more intellectual tools available to us than just science, and as the old saying goes, when all you’ve got is a hammer, everything begins to look like a nail!  Science is not deficient in any way; but it’s just not the right way to find few particular kinds of truths. To try to do so would be like trying to ascertain whether a banana is tasty by sticking it in your ear and listening to it; it’s simply the wrong method!

I really do not understand why a scientist and let alone a non-scientist would have to throw away their religious identity over a scientific theory, which cannot be proven in a universal way. Of course if someone wants to become atheist it is their choice, but don’t ever think religious people are inferior. Religious people could be smarter than an atheist person, and religious people could cleverly manage their life so they can achieve many things without losing their religious identity.

And one more thing I wanna say that if any non-scientist reading this article of mine I would like to advice them that, before you ever accept or even think about a scientific result, try to think like a scientist for a while, in the correct way, not in the way that the atheistic propaganda wants you to think. Then make your decision based on your own thought, not theirs. They are also human, so they can be wrong and so can I.

The Seven Heavens of Qur’an in the Light of Science

Dark Matter

The super-imposed heavens in the Quran are the extra spatial dimensions in modern physics.

Astronomers have just confirmed the existence of Dark Matter. This mysterious Dark Matter is invisible however it provides the bulk of gravity that holds galaxies (not the regular matter that forms stars and planets). This invisible Dark Matter has weird collision properties (collisionless). Simply put: we cannot see Dark Matter nor collide with it but we can detect its gravity.

In this image, two huge clusters of invisible Dark Matter (in blue) clashed with each other:

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With each cluster having a mass of 10,000 galaxies (each cluster a quadrillion times the mass of the Sun, 1015!!!)

In order to explain why this invisible Dark Matter neither collides with each other, nor does it collide with us but still we detect its gravity, physicists and cosmologists are working on theories with extra dimensions. Traditionally scientists thought that we live in a four dimensional universe: Time and the usual three spatial dimensions of length, width and height (x,y,z). However today there is evidence forsix extra spatial dimensions. So we cannot see nor collide with this Dark Matter because it is mass in the remaining six extra dimensions.

Video Link: Dark Matter 3D Map

According to the Quran, we cannot see nor collide with Jinn but they have weight:

[Quran 55.31] We [Allah] will settle your affair, both you of weight (man and jinn)

Thukl ثقل in Arabic means weight. Thakalain ثقلين means weight for two (binary mode). The Jinn have weight means that we can detect their gravity and they can detect our gravity. So according to the Quran we cannot see the Jinn nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity. 

Just as the Jinn are of different type that we cannot see nor collide with but we can detect their gravity, there are six other Heavens that we cannot see nor collide with either but we can detect their gravity, superimposed above the visible one:

[Quran 41.12] So [Allah] decreed them as seven heavens (one above the other) in two days and revealed to each heaven its orders. And We [Allah] adorned the lowest heaven with lights, and protection. Such is the decree of the Exalted; the Knowledgeable.

According to the Quran, only the lowest heaven has visible light. This means that this Dark Matter exists in the six Heavens superimposed above the lowest one. Also according to the Quran, each of these remaining six Heavens is of a different type and each has its own planets like Earth:

[Quran 65.12] Allah is the one who created seven Heavens and from Earth like them (of corresponding type); [Allah’s] command descends among them so that you may know that Allah is capable of anything and that Allah knows everything.

Earth is not a unique planet in Islam. Other planets like Earth do exist throughout the other six Heavens. It is just that we cannot see them nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity.

General relativity predicted gravitational lensing, that is, the gravitational field generated by a galaxy causes the light passing through it to bend (change direction). Dark Matter does not emit any light but we can still map its location by using gravitational lensing, that is, by detecting where light is bending in places where it shouldn’t. In the above image and video light gets bent by invisible Dark Matter in places where it shouldn’t. Moslems say that this is how God challenges nonbelievers to detect the remaining six superimposed Heavens:

[Quran 67.3-4] [Allah] is the one who created seven superimposed Heavens “سبع سموات طباق”. You do not see variations in the formations of the Compassionate, so redirect your sight, do you see any creation (Futtur in Arabic فطور)? Then redirect your sight again, your vision returns to you in defeat and regret.

Futtur in Arabic فُطور is a noun meaning creation out of nothing (it does not mean “rip”). Its verb in past tense is Fattara فَطَرَ and is found in Quran 6.79 meaning “created” (The verb that does mean “ripped” or “destroyed” is its opposite: Tafattara تَفَطّرَ as in Quran 19:90. Its noun is Tafattur تفطُّر).  So the question in the Quran is “Do you see any creation out of nothing?”. Your initial answer should be NO. But in the second verse, when you are supposed to redirect your sight your answer will change to YES, with defeat. Why should you redirect your sight when you observe Dark Matter? Why should you look to another direction and then back? Well the gravity of a massive object makes you see the background stars in another direction:

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This is how we detect Dark Matter today, the background images are lensed at a certain angle. Since Dark Matter does not emit any light then we have to trace the light from the background galaxies. From the distances and the angle of lensing we estimate the mass of the Dark Matter. So when detecting the superimposed seven heavens you have to look away and then back in order to measure the angle. No angle no Dark Matter.

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years have known that light could change direction? How could he have known about Dark Matter and Gravitational Lensing?

The Quran insists on seven superimposed heavens. We are in the lowest heaven, Angels on your shoulders are in the seventh heaven, and Satan (Jinn) passing through you are in one heaven in-between. However all seven heavens are superimposed. We cannot see nor collide with Angels and Jinn but we can detect their gravity, however these are the exact same properties of Dark Matter, we cannot see them nor collide with them but we can detect their gravity. String Theory explains what they are: They are mass in other dimensions.

Traditionally physicists thought that the smallest particles in atoms were point like, that is, they looked like points. However recently discovered evidence suggest that the smallest particle is not point like, as previously thought, but rather a vibrating string of energy. But physicists also discovered that these strings need more than three spatial dimensions to vibrate in. Particularly they need six extra spatial dimensions. In all versions of String Theory there are 10 dimensions: “Time” plus the usual three spatial dimensions x,y,z (4 dimensions, our observable universe) plus six extra spatial dimensions making a total of ten dimensions (1 time + 9 spatial = 10 dimensions).

Video: The Model of M-theory

In this animation (In the video of the above link) the strings with different colors are actually vibrating in different dimensions. They do not interact with each other except gravitationally. The two dimensional membrane that they are attached to in this animation is the three dimensions that we are used to projected on 2D (for this presentation). Photons only travel on this 2D plane (again for this presentation), and this is why we cannot see them. We can only detect the strings’ gravitational shadow on the 2D plane. Other competing theories like M-Theory has one extra spatial dimension (making the total 11 dimensions), however this extra spatial dimension is for the description of strings themselves (whether a string is a one-dimensional object like a thread, or whether a string is a rolled up two-dimensional membrane like a tube). If the strings have thickness (or variable thickness as in this animation) then we need this 11th dimension in order to describe them (to describe the tube). However if the strings have no thickness (always unity) then there is no need for the 11th dimension. In any case, in all currently competing theories, this Dark Matter is strings vibrating in six extra spatial dimensions. And in all those theories gravity is a force carried by gravitons (just like magnetism is carried by photons). Gravitons are emitted from strings and are then absorbed by other strings even those vibrating in other dimensions (different colors in this presentation). The place where gravitons travel is called the bulk (different than the 2D plane where light travels in this presentation).

[Quran 20.6] To Him belongs what is in the Heavens and what is on Earthand what is between them and what is under the soil.

Not only does the superimposed heavens (extra dimensions) belong to Allah but also what’s between them (برزخ, the bulk where gravitons travel). The bulk is a location just like under the soil is a location.

From a physics point of view, we are not living in a “Universe” but rather in a “Multiverse”; several universes superimposed above each other. Gravity is the only thing shared between these parallel universes:

Video Link: From Universe to Multiverse

The invisible Dark Matter is simply mass in other dimensions.

You might ask what do those six extra spatial dimensions look like:

Video Link: String Theory

Extra dimensions are tiny and curled up at each point in space. To envision a single extra dimension imagine the ant in the above video shrinking billions of times. Then this ant becomes small enough for transition to the extra circular dimension (like a roller coaster):

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However instead of one extra circular dimension there are six dimensions and not necessarily circular; but they are all curled up at each point in space. The ant would encounter multiple routes like this:

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As long as the ant remains in any of those extra dimensions we would not be able to see the ant nor collide with it but we would still detect its gravity. Dark Mater is not only mass in other dimensions but they are in parallel universes (where the laws of physics might not be the same as ours). The only thing shared among those superimposed parallel universes is gravity. Add our universe to those parallel universes you get the Multiverse.

On the other hand God swears by the heaven that has weaves

[Quran 51.7] And the heaven that has weaves (Hubuk in Arabic).

Hubuk is plural of Habka which means a knot or a weave. Doesn’t the route that this ant needs to take look like a weave? Of course. Actually those Seven Heavens (Multiverse) are parallel universes woven together (literally).

God also swears that someday we will travel to one of those extra dimensions:

[Quran 84.16-18] I swear by the afterglow of sunset… You will ride one layer from another layer.(لتركبن طبقا عن طبق)

Here “Tabak طبق” is a noun meaning “a layer”. The adjective “Tibak طباق” means “super-imposed” and is used in describing the seven heavens “سبع سموات طباق”. The superimposed heavens in the Quran are the extra spatial dimensions in modern physics.  

Today we are sure that we are not living in a “Universe” but rather in a “Multiverse”.

Moslems ask how could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years have known that we are living in a Multiverse?

[Quran 40.57] The creation of the heavens and earth is greater than the creation of mankind, but most of the people do not know.

(No physicist today believes that we are living in the three-dimensional universe of the Christian Bible where not even time is a dimension!)

Earth Is a Sphere In The Qur’an

The Quran says that when the night and the day overlap, they make a ball (sphere):

[Quran 39.5] [Allah] Created the heavens and the Earth in truth. He overlaps [Yukawer in Arabic يُكَوِّرُ] the night over the day and overlaps [Yukawer يُكَوِّرُ] the day over the night, and enslaved the sun and the moon. ALL MOVE (Kullon Yajree كل يجري) to a prerecorded destiny. Is He not the Exalted, the Forgiver?

The Arabic word “Kura” means ball; its verb “Yukawer يُكَوِّرُ” means to make into a ball. The Qur’an says that the overlapping of the night and the day makes a ball (sphere). Here also the Quran is referring to ALL MOVING, not only the sun and moon but also Earth. In Arabic grammar there is difference between the singular (one), binary (two) and plural (three or more). The reference to binary is “Kulahuma Yajreean كلاهما يجريان” however the Quran said “Kullon yajree كل يجري” referring to the plural (three or more). Since the sun and moon are just two but the Quran refers to three or more then according to the Quran all the three move: sun, moon and Earth.

The Qur’an says that Earth has a diameter (diameter is simply twice the radius).

[Quran 55,33] O company of Jinn and man, escape the diameters (Aktar in Arabic اقطار) of the Heavens and the Earth if you can, You won’t escape without authority.

Diameter in Arabic is Kutr قطر.  Its plural is Aktar اقطار. Radii and diameters are properties of circles or spheres only. This conforms with the previus verse, to make into a ball [Yukawer يُكَوِّرُ].

The rotation of Earth is slowing down, that is, days are getting longer. The Quran says that Allah persistently asks more of the day and more of the night, that is, for the day to get longer:

[Quran 7.54] And your Lord, Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days and then settled on the Throne. [Allah] Covers the night with the day, asks for it persistently; and the sun and the moon and the stars enslaved by His orders. Is this not His creation and His command? Blessed be Allah the Lord of all the worlds.

If God asks more of the day and more of the night then this means the days are getting longer. Physics wise this means that the rotation of Earth should be slowing down. However this is what it really turned out to be: The rotation of Earth is indeed slowing down.

[Quran 50.7] And the earth We have spread it out (والارض مددناها), and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced therein every kind of lovely pairs (of plants).

The Quran says that God spread out the Earth ‘والارض مددناها’ meaning increase in surface area during formation. ‘Madda’ in Arabic means ‘spread out’, however it was mistranslated to ‘flat’. Flat in Arabic is “musattah مسطح” and its verb (to make flat) is “sataha سطح” however neither were used in the entire Quran. The Quran says that God spread out Earth, that is, increased the surface area. Our solar system is 4.57 billion years old. Earth started accreting concurrently with the sun and our neighbouring planets 4.57 bln years ago. However during the accretion process the radius of Earth was not spontaneously 6400 km; but rather started a few kilometers long and progressively increased. But the surface area is a function of the radius, that is, as the radius increases the surface area increases (surface area = 4πR2). So the Quran correctly described the surface area as increasing. (This is contrary to the Christian Bible where the creation of Earth was spontaneous.)

(The Christian Bible says that Earth is a 2 dimensional flat disk and the heaven is like a canopy: Isaiah 40:22. And since Earth is flat then Jesus could see the entire Earth from a single high location Matthew 4:8)

Negation of the flawed “Scientific Explanation” provided to the Mu’jizah of Surah al Feel

[Majlisul Ulama]

The aforementioned article is typical of the thinking of westernized Muslims. The obsession with ‘modern science’ (as the author states) is such that the most ludicrous arguments are produced to substantiate Quranic teachings which seem to be in conflict with the creature. Modern science, No matter how absurd an argument may be, it will be cited in substantiation of Islamic injunctions as long as it (the argument) has a ‘scientific’ tinge to titillate the minds of people awed by ‘modern science’.

SOUND

In endeavouring to sound ‘scientific’ and in a futile attempt to attribute the hue of modern science to Quranic verses, the author of the article alleges that the incident of the destruction of Abraha’s army by way of the flocks of birds with little pebbles is in conformity with `modern science’. He drags in the law of gravity to place the Qur’anic Surah, Al-Feel. on a ‘scientific footing’. The arguments of the force of gravity in relationship with the incident of the birds and Abraha is manifestly un­Islamic as well as ‘unscientific’, viz. in conflict with even ‘modern science’ which the author has cited in support of the incident described in the Qur’an Shareef.

Why the Author’s Argument is Un-Islamic

In his hypothesis the author claims that the pebbles released by the birds onto Abraha’s army were released at such a height that due to the force of gravity the pebbles attained the speed of a bullet, viz.1200 metres per second when they struck the army. The author postulated that the birds flew at such a height that the time taken for the pebbles to reach the army of Abraha was two minutes. It was necessary to suppose ‘two minutes’ since the pebble will only attain the speed of a bullet if dropped at a ‘two-minute height’ because the acceleration of a freely falling object towards the earth is approximately 10 metres per second after each second. Hence, if it was supposed that the pebbles were released at a one-minute height, then in terms of ‘modern science’ they would not be able to kill a man since the speed of an object falling for one minute would be 600 metres per second in the final second when it strikes the earth. This speed will, therefore, not enjoy the force of a bullet. Hence, in order to assign some validity to the argument it is necessary that the two-minute height be postulated as a fact. In the absence of the ‘two-minute’ height postulate, the author’s hypothesis will not be in conformity with ‘modern science. It is now essential for the author to answer the following questions:

BIRDS

What is the Shari justification for the claim that the birds did IN FACT fly at a two-minute height? The Qur’an Shareef as well as the Hadith do not confirm this. No authority of Islam has claimed that the birds were flying at such a height. Mr Hashmi, the author. himself knows fully well that the supposition of ‘two-minutes’ is a -mere figment of his imagination, hence he says: “If the birds were flying at such a height that the stones took, say. about two minutes or 120 seconds to reach the earth …”

He is constrained to say: ‘If the birds‘ for lack of Islamic proof. What if the birds were flying at one-minute height or at half a minute-height? What Islamic proof is there to disclaim that the birds were in fact flying at a very low level? In fact according to Rasulullah’s (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) tafseer of the Surah in question, the birds were flying at a very low level. The Tafseer Kitabs clearly state that the birds settled low overhead the army of Abraha.

HEIGHT

The author’s ‘two-minute’ height assertion is, therefore, a baseless supposition. For the author’s un-Islamic theory to have some credibility in terms of ‘modern science’ it is absolutely necessary to present the supposition that the birds were flying at such a height that it took the stones two minutes to reach the army of Abraha. The logical conclusion of this supposition is that the Command of Allah Ta’ala to the birds to destroy the army of Abraha was circumscribed by the force of gravity. In other words, Allah Ta’ala was compelled (Na’audhu billah) by the force of gravity to order the birds to release their pebbles only at such a height which will ensure that the speed of a bullet is attained when the pebbles strike their targets. This is the baneful result of attempting to submit the Divine Commands to the god of materialsm, i.e ‘modern science’.

To bring about the destruction of the army of Abraha through the agency of the birds pelting pebbles, did Allah Ta’ala have to submit to the force of gravity? In terms of the author’s hypothesis of ‘modern science’, Allah Ta’ala had no alternative (Al-iyazi billah) but to obey the force of gravity, for the pebbles in terms of ‘modern science’ would not have served the destructive purpose if released by the birds at a distance below the ‘two-minute’ height. Does the author who claims to be a Muslim, believe the Qur’anic declaration, “Verily, Allah Ta’ala is powerful over all things.”? 

ABRAHA

If Allah Ta’ala is Qadir over all things (as He most assuredly is). then what was the need for Him to obey the force of gravity Which is His own creation, in order to bring about the destruction of Abraha’s army? It must be remembered that the whole incident of destroying Abraha’s army was a super­natural occurrence, an episode which defied all natural laws or which supersede the laws of ‘modern science’. A cursory glance at the facts of the incident will establish that almost every move in the occurrence was contrary to ‘modern science’. The Hadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) describes the birds as having ‘heads of beasts’. The bodies were those of birds, but the heads were those of animals. Does ‘modern science’ justify this? Each bird, according to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had three pebbles – one in its beak and one in either leg. Which law of ‘modern science’ did these birds follow in this action.

Which law of ‘modern sciences’ instilled it into their minds to airlift three pebbles each? And, which law of ‘modern science’ did these birds submit to when they settled over the army of Abraha? Why did they not release their ‘bullets’ over the Makkans as well? Both Abraha and the Makkans were kuffar. In fact, the Makkans at that stage were greater kuffar than Abraha since Abraha was a member of the ‘People of the Book’ whereas the Makkans were worshipping at that time hundreds of idols. Which law of ‘modern science’ put it in their minds to attack only the army of Abraha?

In certain Ahadith it appears that each pebble had the name of one of Abraha’s soldiers inscribed on it. Hence, each pebble was destined for a particular person. Every man was killed with a pebble bearing his name. Which law of ‘modern science’ explains this phenomenon?

PEBBLES

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) explained that the pebbles struck their victims with such tremendous force that a pebble striking a soldier’s head would penetrate his body, find its exit through the anus and then penetrate to a depth into the earth. What law of ‘modern science’ explains this? If the author wishes to explain this tremendous force also in terms of the force of gravity, he will have to relinquish his ‘two-minute’ height supposition and posit a far higher distance which will enable the pebbles to have such tremendous force at the point of striking. But, to do so would be not only Islamically wrong, but would be scientifically absurd just as the two-minute height theory is scientifically ‘absurd. In sha’Allah, it will be shown later that ‘modern science’ too does not support the author’s contention.

LEADER

According to the Ahadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), the leader of the elephants in Abraha’s army was a massive creature whose name was ‘Mahmood’. Outside the precincts of Makkah Muazzamah an Arab chieftain whispered into the elephant’s ear: This is the sacred land of Allah Ta’ala’. Upon hearing this the elephant sat down and refused to budge. No amount of whipping, etc. would make the elephant proceed in the direction of the Ka’abah. The elephants were specially brought to demolish the Ka’abah. When the face of the elephant was turned into a different direction (away from the Ka’abah) it would immediately rise and quickly move away into that direction. Repeatedly attempts were made to divert it towards the Ka’abah, but to no avail. Every time it was turned to the direction of Makkah, it sat down. What law of ‘modern science’ explains this perculiar behaviour of the elephant?

DESTROY

Indeed, if Allah Ta’ala desired to destroy the army of Abraha through the agency of `modern science’ or through some such way which could be explained in terms of the laws of nature then so would He have done. A storm, and incidentally one did accompany the invasion of the birds, or a deadly pestilence or a torrential downpour could have sufficed. What was the need to despatch flocks of birds so supernaturally and destroy the army of Abraha in this supernatural manner? Even the author, in the deepest recess of his heart will be constrained to confess that the arrival of large flocks of birds with pebbles to destroy a particular army is in deed a supernatural act which defies the laws of ‘modern science’.

This incident of the destruction of Abraha’s army described briefly in Surah Al-Feel is a demonstration of one of the numerous supernatural and miraculous act displaying the Power of Allah Ta’ala. These miraculous displays have no relationship. to ‘modern science’. They do not operate in submission to the laws of nature or ‘modern science’. They are a clear revelation of the Power of Allah Ta’ala. He, Who is the Creator of all natural laws which our apologetic bretheren term ‘modern science’, is not bound by these laws. He acts solely by His lraadah (Will), and none can encompass His Attributes.

MU’JIZAH

The futile and apologetic endeavours to strike a relationship between the Mu’jizah (Miracles of the Ambiya), Karamat (Miracles of the Auliya) and ‘modern science’ is fraught with serious consequences to one’s intellect. The puerile attempt to conform the Miraculous acts with the laws of ‘modern science’ culminates in the covert negation of the Power of Allah Ta’ala. Besides the incident of the birds and Abraha, there are many miraculous deeds and events which ‘modern science’ can never hope to explain. How will ‘modern science’ explain the shaq-qul qamr (splitting of the moon into two by the sign of the finger) act of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam)? In conformity with which law of ‘modern science’ did Nabi Musa (alayhis salam) enact the act of ‘yade baidha’ (the glittering hand which stunned all)? What was the law of modern science’ which enabled Musa (alayhis salam) to transform with the touch of his hand his staff into a monstrous serpent capable of swallowing the whole palace of Fir’awn?

And, which law of ‘modern science’ can explain the opening of the Red Sea which enabled Bani-Isra’eel to traverse safely across, but engulfed Fir’awn and his troops? Which law of ‘modern science’ explains the creation in Jannat of Aadam (alayhis salam)? In fact ‘modern science’ totally rejects the conception of man’s origin in the being of Aadam (alayhis salam). According to ‘modern science’ man’s origin is the ape. Must the Muslim then ape, ‘modern science’ in attempting to present an apologetic explanation to non-Muslims who cannot accept the eternal truths of the Qur’an? Which law of ‘modern science’ explains the creation of Hawwa’ (alayhis salam) from the rib of Aadam (alayhis salam)? Which law of ‘modern science’ explains the Mi’raj of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam)? Which law of ‘modern science’ explains Yunus’s (alayhis salam) three-day stay in the stomach of the fish? Does ‘modern science’ teach that a human being can remain alive three days inside the stomach of a fish? Which law of ‘modern science’ explains the Resurrection, Jannat, Jahannum, the Sirat and the innumerable other beliefs of Islam? These innumerable beliefs and practices of Islam have absolutely no truck with the laws of ‘modern science’. Many of the laws and theories of the so-called ‘modern science’ are clear-cut beliefs of kufr.