Category Archives: Khurasan/Afghanistan


By Major Danny Sjursen

The U.S. military has been at war in Afghanistan for more than 17 years. There’s a prevailing maxim, both inside the armed forces and around the Beltway, that goes something like this:

“The U.S. can never be militarily defeated in any war,” certainly not by some third world country. Heck, I used to believe that myself. That’s why, in regard to Afghanistan, we’ve been told that while America could lose the war due to political factors (such as the lack of grit among “soft” liberals or defeatists), the military could never and will never lose on the battlefield.

That entire maxim is about to be turned on its head. Get ready, because we’re about to lose this war militarily.

Consider this: the U.S. military has advised, assisted, battled, and bombed in Afghanistan for 17 plus years. Ground troop levelshave fluctuated from lows of some 10,000 to upwards of 100,000 servicemen and women. None of that has achieved more than a tie, a bloody stalemate. Now, in the 18th year of this conflict, the Kabul-Washington coalition’s military is outright losing.

Let’s begin with the broader measures. The Taliban controls or contests more districts — some 44 percent — than at any time since the 2001 invasion. Total combatant and civilian casualties are forecasted to top 20,000 this year—another dreadful broken record. What’s more, Afghan military casualties are franklyunsustainable: the Taliban are killing more than the government can recruit. The death rates are staggering, numbering 5,500 fatalities in 2015, 6,700 in 2016, and an estimate (the number is newly classified) of “about 10,000” in 2017. Well, some might ask, what about American airpower—can’t that help stem the Taliban tide? Hardly. In 2018, as security deteriorated and the Taliban made substantial gains, the U.S. actually dropped more bombs than in any other year of the war. It appears that nothing stands in the way of impending military defeat.

Then there are the very recent events on the ground—and these are telling. Insider attacks in which Afghan “allies” turn their guns on American advisors are back on the rise, most recently in an attack that wounded a U.S. Army general and threatened the top U.S. commander in the country. And while troop numbers are way down from the high in 2011,American troops deaths are rising. Over the Thanksgiving season alone, a U.S. Army Ranger was killed in a friendly fire incident and three other troopers died in a roadside bomb attack. And in what was perhaps only a (still disturbing) case of misunderstood optics, the top U.S. commander, General Miller, was filmed carrying his own M4 rifle around Afghanistan. That’s a long way from the days when then-General Petraeus (well protected by soldiers, of course) walked around the markets of Baghdad in a soft cap and without body armour.

More importantly, the Afghan army and police are getting hammered in larger and larger attacks and taking unsustainable casualties. Some 26 Afghan security forces were killed on Thanksgiving, 22 policemen died in an attack on Sunday, and on Tuesday 30 civilians were killed in Helmand province. And these were only the high-profile attacks, dwarfed by the countless other countrywide incidents. All this proves that no matter how hard the U.S. military worked, or how many years it committed to building an Afghan army in its own image, and no matter how much air and logistical support that army received, the Afghan Security Forces cannot win. The sooner Washington accepts this truth over the more comforting lie, the fewer of our adulated American soldiers will have to die. Who is honestly ready to be the last to die for a mistake, or at least a hopeless cause?

Now, admittedly, this author is asking for trouble—and fierce rebuttals—from both peers and superiors still serving on active duty. And that’s understandable. The old maxim of military in-vincibility soothes these men, mollifies their sense of personal loss, whether of personal friends or years away from home, in wars to which they’ve now dedi-cated their entire adult lives. Questioning whether there even is a military solution in Afghanistan, or, more specifically, predicting a military defeat, serves only to upend their mental framework surrounding the war. Still, sober strategy and basic honesty demands a true assess-ment of the military situation in America’s longest war. The Pentagon loves metrics, data, and stats. Well, as demonstrated daily on the ground in Afghanistan, all the security (read: military) metrics point towards impending defeat. At best, the Afghan army, with ample U.S. advisory detach-ments and air support, can hold on to the northernmost and west-ernmost provinces of the coun-try, while a Taliban coalition overruns the south and east. This will be messy, ugly, and discom-fiting for military and civilian leaders alike. But unless Wash-ington is prepared to redeploy 100,000 soldiers to Afghanistan (again) — and still only manage a tie, by the way — it is also all but inevitable.

The United States military did all it was asked during more than 17 years of warfare in Afghanistan. It raided, it bombed, it built, it surged, it advised, it…everything. Still, none of that was sufficient. Enough Afghans either support the Taliban or hate the occupation, and man-aged, through assorted conven-tional and unconventional opera-tions, to fight on the ground. And “on the ground” is all that really matters. This war may well have been ill-advised and unwinnable from the start.

There’s no shame in defeat. But there is shame, and perfidy, in avoiding or covering up the truth. It’s what the whole mili-tary-political establishment did after Vietnam, and, I fear, it’s what they’re doing again.

Maj. Danny Sjursen / The American Conservative Source : TruthDig – drilling beneath the headlines Published – 01 Dec 2018


By Firas al-Khateeb

Few regions in the Muslim world have seen as much warfare in modern times as Afghanistan. Foreign interventions and invasions have been an almost constant threat to the nation since the early 1800s. The Soviet Union in the 1980s and the United States in the 2000s experienced what it means to fight in Afghanistan’s unforgiving environment, but the first Western power to foray into the region was Britain. Back in the 1800s, when Britain was just solidifying its control over India, it looked to the northwest, to Afghanistan, to serve as a buffer to the growing Russian Empire. The result was the First Anglo-Afghan War, which lasted from 1839 to 1842.


Ethnic groups of Afghanistan. The Pashtuns dominate the South and East and have traditionally provided the bulk of support to Kabuli governments.

Throughout history, Afghanistan and the surrounding region has been marked by ethnic and tribal divisions. Pashtuns dominate the East and South of the country, the center is mostly Hazara, and the Turkmen, Uzbeks, and Tajiks can be found throughout the North. Each group has historically had their own identity, culture, language, and loyalties, and thus any kind of national unity among the numerous ethnic groups has been hard to come by. Furthermore, since the rise of the gunpowder empires in the sixteenth century, Afghanistan has served as a point of contention between Safavid Persia to the west and Mughal India to the east.

Despite the ethnic divisions and the almost constant state of imperial war, the first Afghan state began to take shape in the late 1700s under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani (r. 1747-1772), who established a kingdom based in Kandahar that managed to survive between the Mughal and Safavid realms. He relied mostly on the Pashtuns for support, but he also included the other ethnic groups of the region in his administration, thus preventing his kingdom from falling into ethnic civil war.

But the Afghan state founded by Ahmad Shah soon had to deal with the rise of the British and Russian Empires in the 1800s. The British East India Company had managed to use a combination of patronage, bribery, and outright warfare to bring large tracts of India under its control in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Meanwhile, the Russian Empire slowly annexed large portions of Central Asia’s Turkic khanates that bordered Afghanistan to the north.

To the British, the growth of Russia was a threat. They worried that if the Russians continued to expand southward, they could use Afghanistan as a base from which to attack British India. With the Himalaya Mountains providing a secure northern border to India, the only way for an overland invasion was through mountain passes high in the Afghan-controlled Hindu Kush Mountains. Indeed, this had been the main entry point for numerous invasions into India throughout history.

The British thus tried to use Afghanistan as a buffer against Russian expansion in the 1830s. The emir (equivalent to king) of Afghanistan at the time was Dost Mohammad Khan, who ruled from the city of Kabul in the east of Afghanistan, close to the passes that lead to India. If Dost Mohammad could keep the Russians from invading Afghanistan, the British would feel more secure in India, thus they hoped for peaceful relations between the Afghans and the Russians and no warfare.

Dost Mohammad’s diplomatic skills were lacking, however, and in the late 1830s, the Russians allied with the Persians against the Afghans under the pretext of regaining the city of Herat for Persia. At this point, the British decided that any hopes of diplomacy holding the Russians back were fading. Instead, they favored a new approach which involved a full scale invasion of Afghanistan, the overthrow of Dost Mohammad Khan, and the establishment of a new emir, Shah Shujah Durrani, who would be staunchly pro-British.

The Invasion

In late 1838, the British mobilized over 20,000 soldiers for the invasion of Afghanistan, most of them being Indians who served as sepoys in the British East India Company’s private army. The British army was a modern, disciplined, and well-trained force. The Afghans, however, did not have the latest technology on the battlefield, and did not conform to European modes of warfare. Instead of the neat and steady lines of infantry and musket volleys that European generals preferred, Afghan warriors operated as an irregular fighting force. And although Dost Mohammad had almost 40,000 cavalry at his disposal and could call up tens of thousands of Ghilzai warriors from the regions around Kabul, discipline and loyalty were rare among his soldiers. Furthermore, rivalries and competing interests between different tribes that made up the armed forces prevented the entire army from operating as a single unit. Despite this, the Ghilzais in particular had the potential to be a very effective fighting force based on their tenacity and ability to ambush. They were not full time soldiers and were thus very difficult to track and pursue in battle, since they could abandon the battle and blend in with the local population. Their ability in battle would later prove to be decisive after the initial invasion.

When the British invaded early in 1839, they came through the Bolan Pass, south of Afghanistan, instead of the expected invasion route that ran through the Khyber Pass. By the time Dost Mohammad realized it, it was too late for him to defend Kandahar, his southernmost city, which fell to the British in April of 1839. Dost Mohammad hoped that his entrenched forces at Ghazni, a fortress on the road to Kabul, would hold up the British long enough for him to mobilize his forces, especially the Ghilzais.

But Ghazni proved to be no obstacle for the British. Modern artillery coupled with their disciplined forces managed to rout the fortress. Between 500 and 1200 Afghans were killed while the British only lost 17 men in the siege. Dost Mohammad knew that the British would arrive in Kabul soon and attempted to make a final stand on the outskirts of his capital. But news of the British ability in war spread quick, and the emir had trouble rallying soldiers to defend the city. Only 3000 men offered their services. Most of his army disbanded and diffused into local villages and rural areas.

Dost Mohammad was thus forced to escape to Central Asia where he hoped to recruit an army in exile that would push the British out. The British, meanwhile, entered Kabul in August, where they helped Shah Shujah Durrani claim the throne as emir of Afghanistan. Shah Shujah was not a popular figure in the capital, and was widely seen as nothing more than an agent of the invaders. His administration was weak and had trouble managing Afghanistan, but the British achieved their goal of securing the northern approaches to India from a possible Russian invasion. It was mission accomplished.

The Insurgency

The eventual expulsion of British troops did not come from the exiled emir. Dost Mohammad’s attempt to invade Afghanistan in 1840 ended in failure as he surrendered and was exiled to Calcutta, India. Instead, popular opposition to the British came from the people living under the foreign occupation.

The British occupation, centered on Kabul, brought huge changes to the lives of ordinary Afghans. Based on their experiences in India, the British believed that in order to make their occupation of Afghanistan worthwhile, they had to reform the government and military of the country to resemble those of European nations. Thus, the traditional payments doled out by Kabul to tribal chiefs for their loyalty were cut, in some cases by 50%. This weakened the already low level of loyalty to Shah Shujah outside of Kabul, and hampered the ability of rural tribes to live in Afghanistan’s harsh environment due to lack of food and supplies.

Furthermore, inflation caused by the British occupation made life very difficult in the cities, particularly Kabul and Kandahar. As the British and their supporters settled in the cities, they brought huge amounts of currency with them, which reduced the value of money overall. The urban populations thus suffered as they saw their relative incomes and purchasing power go down, just as inflation and high demand drove the price of food up. The religious scholars, the ulema, in particular suffered, as they relied on fixed stipends which were now almost worthless. Furthermore, many of the charitable institutions they managed were seized by Shah Shujah’s government to provide more tax revenue, a move they saw as contrary to Islamic law.

It was in this environment of disaffection and frustration that the first big protest against the British occupation occurred in November of 1841. Angry demonstrators, led by tribal elders and the ulema, spread out throughout the city to protest signs of British influence in the capital. In the mayhem, a British official was killed. And when the British did nothing to avenge the death in the days after the protest, the Afghans took the opportunity to continue to build momentum.

Tribal elders and ulema fanned out into the surrounding countryside, rallying men to come to Kabul and expel the British. Around 15,000 responded and assembled in Kabul. It’s important to note that the irregular nature of Afghanistan’s warriors proved to be an advantage, as civilians could pick up weapons and fight when needed and then go back to the villages and disperse into civilian life when threatened. This fact prevented the British from being able to stop the growth of the resistance, which quickly spread throughout the country.

Since the British were based in numerous cities and fortresses throughout Afghanistan, groups of British soldiers could easily be surrounded and pinned down by Afghan warriors. Even in Kabul, the center of British control, the foreign troops were unable to do much outside of their own bases as Afghan warriors captured British supply stores. The commander of the British forces in Kabul, General William Elphinstone, recognized that his forces were outnumbered and outmatched, especially when Mohammad Akbar, the son of Dost Mohammad arrived in Kabul to command the resistance forces. Elphinstone thus managed to secure an agreement allowing for a British retreat to Jalalabad, about 150 kilometers to the east.

Elphinstone’s army of 4,500 along with around 12,000 camp followers thus left Kabul in January 1842 and began the march out of Afghanistan. As is bound to happen in a tribal society like Afghanistan, treaties and agreements made by the central government meant nothing to the Ghilzai tribes that lined the road to Jalalabad. Throughout the march, Elphinstone’s army was harassed by waves of Ghilzai warriors who would regularly rush out of the hills to ambush the British in narrow mountain passes. Adding to their problems, the winter climate of mountainous Afghanistan made the march even slower and more dangerous and hundreds of British and Indian troops died just from the environment.

After four days of marching, only about 150 soldiers and 4,000 camp followers were still alive and marching to Jalalabad. Within two more days, after continued Ghilzai attacks and harsh weather, about 20 were left. By the time Jalalabad was reached, there was just one lone survivor, Dr. William Brydon, an assistant surgeon. From a force of almost 20,000, only one man managed to avoid being killed or captured during the retreat from Afghanistan’s capital. Just as quickly as the British had invaded and captured Kabul, they had been defeated and forced out of Afghanistan’s heartland.


The complete destruction of Elphinstone’s army was a major victory for the Afghans. Despite tribal and ethnic disunity, they had managed to unite long enough to decisively defeat the world’s greatest superpower. The British puppet government in Kabul quickly collapsed and Shah Shujah was assassinated in April of 1842. Dost Mohammad Khan was released from captivity by the British and returned to Afghanistan to retake the position of emir later that year.

The defeat of the British helped foster a sense of national unity in Afghanistan, although tribal affiliations still generally meant more to the average Afghan. Throughout the country, an acute sense of xenophobia developed in response to the punishing British occupation. This would continue as Afghanistan was invaded by Britain again in the 1870s and 1910s and by the Soviets and Americans over 100 years later. From the British perspective, the defeat meant the absolute end of any possible friendly relations between the two nations. The Afghans were caricatured as barbaric, uncouth, and treacherous, and any attempt to engaged Afghanistan afterwards was colored by this mindset. More importantly, however, the defeat meant the loss of respect among Indians living under British rule in the subcontinent, which would play a role in the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 in India.

The First Anglo-Afghan War helped Afghanistan gain a reputation as the “graveyard of empires”. A mystique developed around the country that it was unconquerable and persists until today. And while these characterizations of Afghanistan may not be entirely true, they continue to play a major role in the national consciousness of Afghanistan, and the way it is viewed by outsiders.


Ewans, Martin. Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

Johnson, Robert. The Afghan Way of War: Culture and Pragmatism: A Critical History. London: Hurst &, 2011.

Afghanistan & Iran in light of the Hadith Prophecies

From Ink of Scholars Archives

The narrations of the Prophet (Sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) prophesy of a Muslim force from the East (“al-Mashriq”), possibly from the land of “Khorasan” (Ahmad, Tirmithi, etc, Hasan/Da`eef, ikhtilaaf) which is today Afghanistan, that will march towards the West conquering everything in site and will remain undefeated until they reach Jerusalem (termed “Eeliyaa'” in the Hadith). They and their Ameer will give bay`ah to the Mahdi. However, in the path of this force from the East lies a powerful behemoth called Iran from where the Prophet (Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said Dajjal will appear with a following of 70,000 Jews in Isfahaan (Abu Bakr, Radhi Allahu `anhu, said this would be in the direction of Khorasan in the city of Isfahan). Thus we can assume there will be a major war between the forces of the Sunnah in the East and the Iranians and their “70,000 Jews” (Sahih Muslim) who lie in the path of Jerusalem. While there remains difference of opinion regarding the authenticity of some of these narrations, they seem to be taking shape in spite of the ikhtilaf.

As is well known, Iran was the bastion of the Sunnah throughout much of Islam’s history since the Prophet (Sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). The Prophet (Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) had said that knowledge would be carried by the people of Salman al-Farisi, i.e. the Persians (Sahih al-Bukhari). This was fulfilled in the fact that our Sunnah was recorded and preserved by the greatest Imams of Hadith such as Imam al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam at-Tirmithi, Imam Abi Dawud, and others. This legacy continued until the tragic conquest of Iran in the 16th century by the Azeri heretics called the Safavids. Upon their conquest, Iran went from 90% Shaafi`ee to 90% Shi`i nearly overnight.

“The Shah is said to have threatened that death would be the penalty for any opposition to his wishes with respect to religion. If anyone had thought this an empty threat, they were soon to be disabused. As the Safawid forces marched across Persia, Shi’ism was imposed at the point of the sword. Sunnis who were reluctant to see the error of their ways were treated with great brutality. Many were executed.”

“But such opportunistic defectors from Sunnism, useful and indeed essential as they were, could not provide the theological and legal backbone for the new Shi’i establishment. No one in Persia could do this. Shah Isma’il Safavi had to look elsewhere….Many of the leading theologians and lawyers of the Safawid period were of ‘Amili origin, including the most influential religious figure of Isma’il’s own time, al-Karak. The religious brain drain to Persia long continued: it was not a merely temporary phenomenon.” [“Shah Isma`il and the Establishment of Shi`ism”, Medieval Persia: 1040-1797, pp. 112-123, David Morgan]

The population had the choice to die or become Shi`ah. The entirety of the `Ulama’ were slaughtered and heretics from Lebanon brought in to create a new breed of Shi`ism which had only been known by madmen in the hills of the Caucasus and Amili in Lebanon. Since this event, Iran which was a center of Islamic civilization turned into a chasm of darkness and doom for the past 400 years. Iran has been Shi`a for only last 3 centuries of its 12 centuries of its Islamic history. In this time the Safavids moved the capital to Isfahan, the place of Dajjal’s emergence. So successful were the Safavids in thwarting the Ottoman’s incursions into  Europe that the Austrians prayed for their victories in their churches and its diplomats remarked, “Had it not been for the (Safavid) Shah, we would be reading the Qur’an today like they do in Barbary (North Africa).”

However, in this period only one people were able to present interlude to this darkness. They were a tiny band of a few thousand Afghan tribesmen (mostly Ghilzai Pashtuns) who crushed the Safavids in a series of battles and marched towards their capital, Isfahan, and captured it in 1722. This small band of tribesmen with no formal training in warfare did what the Ottomans could never do, destroy the Safavid Empire. However, as has been the legacy of these fierce tribesmen, no one has ever been able to defeat them, nor have they ever been able to rule as statesmen. Thus, it was only shortly afterwards that they rescinded back into their now independent Afghanistan leaving Iranian rule to Nader Shah and a succession of short-lived dynasties overthrowing each other until the emergence of the Pahlavis from whom the Shah of Iran who reigned in the 70’s drew his authority.

In 1998 Iran protested the alleged murder of 10 of its diplomats who were serving as spies in Afghanistan, supporting the  Northern Alliance, during the fall of Mazar-e-Sharif. They lined up 200,000 Iranian soldiers along the border with Afghanistan to avenge the murder of their diplomats. The Taliban sent 15,000 soldiers to the border. The Iranians retreated and abandoned their plan to invade Afghanistan. They claimed they were only there to have a parade. Immediately afterwards a deal was struck to have the diplomats bodies flown to Iran. It was a huge loss of face for Iran, a shock to the world and a reverberating echo of history’s lesson not forgotten by Iran: the Afghans are their conquerors.

This threat has brought resounding international support for Iran and increased Russian interest in making Iran a nuclear power in the region. Former foes are now binding bonds of friendship with Iran in an attempt to thwart the dropping of a domino in a line that ends in the Mediterranean Sea. However, now a new threat exists for Iran. Increasing admiration for the Taliban and their style of rough “no-politics” style of rule. Recently, in Iran pulpits resounded in admiration for the Taliban during Friday Prayer.

“‘The Taliban, which we always curse, have managed to restore security for their people. Why cannot we do the same?’ Qorbanali Dorri Najafabadi said during Friday prayers in Tehran.”

The Iranian people’s dissatisfaction for the darkness and lack of optimism inherent with Shi’ite philosophy, which focuses on the martyrdom of historical figures rather than faith, led them to rejoice in the secularism of the Shah. When the Shah’s regime produced increasing corruption and tyranny at the hands of the SAVAC secret police, the Iranian revolutionaries began rallying for support in Universities across Iran. They promised Islamic rule, freedom from corruption, and restoration of cultural morality and tradition. In over 20 years since the so-called “Islamic Revolution” this promise has proven a lie. Prostitution and drug abuse are higher now in Iran than they have ever been in its entire history, even during the Shah’s secularist rule.

“The report says there are up to two-million drug addicts, some of them school children, with an estimated five tonnes of narcotics consumed every day in the capital, Tehran.”

“‘Drug addiction is the rage among school children, prostitution has increased 635% among high school students and the (growth) rate of suicide in the country has exceeded the record by 109%,’ says the report.”

“Mr Zam says the average age of prostitutes has dropped from 27 to 20 years over the past few years, with a growing but unspecified number of women involved. Nearly all the young girls who run away from home end up as prostitutes, he said.” [
; BBC, July 2000]

This report was conducted by Mohammad Ali Zam, the head of Tehran’s cultural and artistic affairs. According to the report there are:

2,000,000 drug addicts 5 tons of opium used daily in Tehran alone (Iran’s capital) Drugs in schools and recreation centres Average age of prostitutes fell to 2090% (!) of schoolgirl run ways lured into prostitution Suicide growth rate doubles 12,000,000 people living in poverty. This conucopia of social ills which have been increasing in Iranian society at an alarming rate, coupled with the insistent denial of the current regime, have left the Iranian people and even much of its regional government and clergy to admire their Sunni eastern neighbours, the Taliban.

Afghanistan had similar social woes under the years of chaos which ensued following the expulsion of the Soviets under Ahmad Shah Masood, Rabbani and the others who make up the current “Northern Alliance” which has its stronghold in Badakhshan, the remaining 5-10% not ruled by the Taliban. In these years of constant war under the ousted  Northern Alliance, Afghan girls were kidnapped on their way to school and sold to wealthy land lords in neighbouring Pakistan.

Warlords, upon conquering a territory, albeit briefly, would frequent the homes in search of young girls to use as sex slaves, some far below the ages of puberty. Afghanistan was the world’s leading producer of Opium, with some 75% of the world’s supply coming from within its borders.

The Taliban eradicated crime in Afghanistan to nearly 0% overnight. They eliminated all opium production in  Afghanistan overnight, thereby, receiving lukewarm and reluctant praise from the United States for their elimination of 75% of the world’s opium supply. Upon my recent visit to Madinah I asked several Afghans visiting from Afghanistan about the situation. When I asked one Uzbek shop owner about the current situation in Afghanistan, he replied, “There is still fighting..” I asked him what he thought about the Taliban, being an Uzbek minority. He remarked, “Uzbek, Pashtoon, Tajik. This has nothing to do with it. What matters is that I can watch my daughter walk from one end of the street to the next and not worry. Whether I like them or not makes no difference.” I asked one nomad from Gardes, who was a Pashtun, in the Masjid an-Nabawi what he thought about the situation in Afghanistan.

He told me with great enthusiasm, “Its very good. We have the Taliban now and we feel safe.” I met one Shaykh in the Haram at Makkah and immediately recognized him as an Persian (Dari) speaking Afghan. When I asked him if he was Afghan he replied, “Tajik astum” (“I am a Tajik”). So I remarked, “I see. So you are from Tajikistan?” He replied tersely, “No, I am Tajik from Afghanistan”. His refusal to acknowledge himself as an Afghan struck me as odd. It turned out he was a Shaykh of Hanafi fiqh in the Haram at Makkah of incredible knowledge and a very excellent Muslim, MaSha Allah. He mentioned that he did not trust any of the parties involved in the fighting and that they must sit at the table and create a multi-ethnic broad based government. He continued, that it seems nobody wants this and that they simply want to kill each other. However, he concluded that Afghanistan is now completely rid of crime and this is something he can not ignore in spite of his differences with the Taliban.

Being someone with extensive personal experiences with the Afghans and constant interaction and contact with them, I find these frequent media reports of brutality under the Taliban as laughable at best, and maliciously false at worst. Anyone familiar with the Afghan languages of Dari and Pashto will note the dubious over-dubbed translations of the civilians’ words.

Likewise, recent photographs provided by RAWA (feminist group of former Communists, who openly reject Hijab) of alleged Hazara mass graves in a recent CNN special on Taliban “brutality” reveal corpses with Indo-European features common amongst the Tajiks and Pashtoons, whereas the Hazaras are an ethnic group descended from Mongol and Chinese mercenaries who are distinctly Oriental in appearance. One wonders that in spite of all this alleged Taliban “brutality” and supposed “suppression of media”, they allow these malicious journalists to wander the country filming completely unharmed. The equation doesn’t add up to any sum of logic other than journalistic fabrication and political propaganda which the world has been so familiar with since World War II in swaying political opinion towards government foreign policies.

The current world opinion against the Taliban is directly related to the threat they pose as an Islamic expansionist force in Central Asia. Unlike the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the Taliban’s ideology is spreading like wildfire all throughout Central Asia much to the chagrin of the Russians and former Communist bosses who rule the Central Asian Turkic republics. This popularity has forged many revolutionary groups who are serious threats to their ruling governments throughout the Turkic republics. It has even spread to the Xing Kiang  province of Northwest China with whom lie the origins of the Turkic peoples. Now that the Capitalist world has won its war against Communism, a new threat exists to their democracy”: Shari`ah. For the first time in 100 years this threat exists again to the Western World and their allies in Asia such as Russia, India and China. The re-emergence of this threat can be credited to none other than the Taliban. The Taliban’s uneasy relationship with its Northern neighbours of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan as well as its constant policy of hostility to its Western neighbor, Iran, fortell a cycle of events that could lead to the very end of the world according to the Prophet’s (Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) narrations. Afghanistan  emerging as the flowerbed of battles in the late 20th and now 21st centuries is no co-incidence at all. This makes Iran incredibly nervous.

“‘Such people who took the podium in Friday’s prayers suggesting envy for the Taliban have insulted the late imam (Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini), and their stance is unacceptable,’ the official IRNA news agency quoted Khatami as telling a news conference limited to Iranian journalists.”

They have indeed only begun to attack the legacy of the late Ayatollah Khomeini and his curses upon the Companions and Wives of the Prophet (Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam). The only choice for Iran to face this threat is to join hands with their enemy’s greatest foes, primarily the U.S, Europe, Russia and India. Thus, they have sealed their membership amongst the disbelieving world and inevitable partisanship of the False Messiah, ad-Dajjaal.

Then, of course, this scenario threatens the current puppet Arab regimes and has their despots quivering in fear. Naturally, an image of wild Afghans nearing their borders demanding bay`ah to a Messianic figure and adherence to Shari`ah would certainly bring a close to the trips to Las Vegas and the long yacht parties. Perhaps some members of the Saudi family might risk losing their majority shares in Euro-Disney. So their solution has been to utilize the most efficient weapon they have in fighting any revivalist movements in the Muslim world: their scholars. Saudi Arabia’s own home grown indigenous Muslim scholarship has successfully placed a sound muzzle upon the Muslim world convincing it that revolution is “fitnah”. Of course, they didn’t think it was fitnah when they revolted against the Ottoman Empire, thereby, robbing the Muslim world of its last dignified stronghold all at the behest of the British. Thus, utilizing this effective tool, the Saudi scholars have been working overtime to convince the Muslim world that all references to “black flags from the East” are fabrications. I did check into one of these Hadeeth and its “isnad” or chain of narration. The Hadith is as follows:

“Thawbaan reported that the Prophet (Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘Three will fight for the your treasure (of the Ka`bah), each of them the son of a ‘Khalifah’, it will be rendered to none of them. Then from the direction of the East will emerge black flags. Then they will fight you like they have fought none before.’ Then some words were spoken which I did not remember. He then said, ‘If you see him, give bay`ah to him even if you must crawl over ice. For, verily, he is the ‘Khalifah’ of Allah (Khalifatullaah), the Mahdi”. This Hadith is found in Ibn Maajah, Ahmad’s Musnad, al-Hakim’s Mustadrak and others. Now when analyzing the chain of narration found in Ibn Maajah’s Sunan I found the narrators to be the following:

1) Reported to Ibn Majah by both Muhammad bin Yahya and Ahmad bin Yusuf – Both reliable; Imam Muslim has said about Ahmad bin Yusuf, “He is reliable (thiqqah).” an-Nasaa’i has said, “There is no problem in him.” ad-Daraqutni has said, “Reliable and noble (thiqqah nabeel).”

2) `Abdur-Razzaq bin Hammaam as-San`aani – Reliable. Ahmad bin Hanbal was asked about him, “Have you seen anyone better in Hadith than `Abdur-Razzaaq?” He replied, “No”.

3) Sufyaan ath-Thawri – Too reputable to record his merits. Very reliable. Shu`bah, Sufyaan bin `Uyaynah, Abu `Aasim an-Nabeel and Yahya ibn Ma`een among others said: “Sufyaan is the ‘Ameer al-Mu’mineen” of Hadith”!

4) Khalid bin Mahraan al-Hathaa’ – Reliable. Ahmad bin Hanbal has said, “Trustworthy (thabt).” Ibn Ma`een and an-Nasaa’i have both said, “Reliable (thiqqah).”

5) Abi Qulaaba Abdullaah bin Zayd al-Harrani – Reliable. Muhammad bin Sa`d has said in his “at-Tabaqah ath-Thaaniyah min Ahl al-Basrah” about him, “He was reliable (thiqqah).”

6) Abu Asmaa’ `Amroo bin Marthad ar-Rahabi – Reliable. al-`Ijly has said about him, “Shami, Tabi`ee, Reliable (thiqqah).”

7) Thawbaan – Companion and servant of the Prophet (Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam).

8) The Prophet (Sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam). [“Tahtheeb al-Kamaal” of al-Mizzi and “Tahtheeb at-Tahtheeb” of Ibn Hajar were referenced for verification of the Narrators]

In this chain of narrators, weakness is nowhere in sight. Thus, focus has been taken away from the chain of narration and placed upon the term “Khalifatullaah” for the Mahdi. They have said that Allah can’t have a Khalifah, since the word refers to a successor upon one’s death, wa`eeyaathu billaah. Of course Allah is the Everlasting who can never die. Though they are correct that many of the scholars of objected linguistically (such as al-Maawardi in “ahkam al-Sultaaniyah” while acknowledging a difference of opinion) remarking this is not a permissible term for the Pious Caliphs (citing Abu Bakr’s and `Umar’s objection to it), they have ignored the fact that the scholars of Tafseer have given this term legitimacy by exception. Imam al-Qurtubi states in his tafseer of the verse in which Allah’s says about the creation of Adam (`alayhis-salaam), “Inny jaa`ilun fi-l ard dhee khalifah..” (“verily, I will place in the earth a ‘khaleefah'”): “And Adam, `alayhis-salaam, is the ‘Khalifatullaah’ in the execution of his laws and orders. For verily he was the first of the Messengers. But there was none in the earth with him? It is said he was a Messenger to his progeny…” So hear Imam al-Qurtubi has found no fault in using the term Khalifatullaah” in reference to Adam (`alayhis-salaam) about whom Allah said himself, “Inny jaa`ilun fi-l ardhee khaleefah..” (al-Baqarah). In volume 6 of “Fath al-Baari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari”, Imaam ibn Hajar also uses the term in reference to the above mentioned verse about Adam (`alayhis-salaam) in the chapter, “Kitaab Ahadithi-l Ambiyaa’, Bab Khalqi Aadam”. So based on this Hadith’s impeccable chain of narration, and no concensus forbidding the use of “Khalifatullah” specifically for the coming Mahdi, it is plausible to conclude that there may exist a particular bias against the subject of this Hadeeth by certain scholars from a certain part of the world. Those who have studied Hadith know that more leeway has been given for far weaker narrations with more questionable content.


Little did the Russians know as they chose to occupy Afghanistan on their way to Pakistan’s warm water ports in Sindh that they were to spark perhaps the final Islamic revival the world would know before the descent of `Eesa ibn Maryam (`alayhis-salaam). For from that struggle, and from that battle, were to sprout the fruits of a global movement which would envelop the entire disbelieving world in awe. A challenge they had not felt since the Sultan’s soldiers besieged the walls of Vienna. The disbelievers have found a brief respite and relief in the imbicility of the Muslim world’s vocal modernist, occidentalist/occidentopheliac element which rushes to fight the movements for Islamic expansion at its every turn. However, the voices of the modernist movements are growing more and more faint as the disgruntled Muslims grow increasingly louder in their demand for freedom from the oppressive rulers that have been beleaguered at the behest of their American and European masters since the turn of the 20th century. Now at the turn  of the 21st century, for the first time in 100 years a country has, regardless of anyone’s question of sincerity, proclaimed its law the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (Sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) without any compromise. For the first time in over 100 years the Soldiers of Allah are fighting the Russians on Russian soil. For the first time in nearly 100 years, Kashgar is broiling with Islamic revival and demands for an independent Shari`ah based state. The Muslims from Morocco to  Afghanistan flooded into the Balkans and defeated the Eastern Orthodox Chrisitans within their own borders. All of this from one small rocky country in Central Asia, once called Khorasan, now called Afghanistan where the most noble and brave Muslims of the Arab group gathered to join their Afghan counterparts. A brotherhood destined to shake the Earth. The Afghans have always been insurmountable and unstoppable fighters, but never statesmen. The Arabs, when under the banner of Islam, have a grand history of diplomatic prowess. This combination will surely spell the end of Islam’s great sleep, and the beginning of a resounding globally concordant Athaan.

Say Insha’ Allah…

Wallahu A`lam…

Pukhtūnwalī in the light of the Qur’ān and Sunnah

Author:Abu Yusuf ʿUthmān Ibn Farooq al-Yūsufzaī

All praise is due to Allah, may peace and blessing be upon his servant and Messenger Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and on his household and all of his Companions.

What is Pakhtūnwalī or Pashtunwali??

Pukhtūnwalī (Also pronounced Pashtūnwalī) is an unwritten, democratic, socio-political culture, law and ideology of the Pakhtūn society inherited from their forefathers and carried on to the present generation. It is a dominant force of Pakhtūn culture and identity.

What is a Pakhtūn??

Pakhtūn (also pronounced Pashtūn) is a race of people who are ethnic Afghāns. According to the most correct opinion in order to qualify to be known as a Pakh tūn a person has to be an ethnic Afghān, speak Pukh to (also known as Pashto) , be Muslim and follow Pakhtūnwalī.

Executive Summary

The point of this article is to examine the primary concepts of Pakhtūnwalī in the light of the Qur’ān and Sunnah. There are many things done under the name of Pukhtūnwalī that are not Islāmic at all and should be rejected, we will not be discuss that here. In this article we will only examine the very basics of Pakhtūnwalī and how those rules hold up in the light of Islāmic sciences.

Why examine Pukhtūnwalī under the light of the Qur’ān and Sunnah?

This project was initiated because Pukhtāna (Pukhtūn or Pakhtun or Pashtūn People, who are also known as Afghān or Pathān) are well known around the world for strict adherence to Islāmic rules and regulations. They are very orthodox and conservative in their views and extremely observant of Islāmic rituals in their day to day life. Yet, they live by a code of conduct, called Pukhtūnwalī, that some call external to Islām, pre-Islāmic or even un-Islāmic. Hence we wanted to examine the base concepts of Pukhtūnwalī to see if it indeed is un-Islāmic or not.

Primary concepts in Pukhtūnwalī

The basic or primary divisions of Pukhtūnwalī are noted here in Afghān (Also known as Pukh to or Pashto). These Afghān words are common to ethnic Afghān and Pukhtūn society and language.

The following four form the major components of Pukhtūnwalī.

Melmastia (hospitality) – to show hospitality to all visitors, regardless of whom they are, their ethnic, social, religious, or national background, without hope of remuneration or favor.

Badal (justice/revenge) to seek justice for the one who has been wronged. This applies to injustices committed yesterday or 1000 years ago if the wrongdoer still exists.

Nanawatay (settlement) derived from the verb meaning to go in. This principle dictates that a Pukhtūn must provide safety and refuge to anyone who seeks protection in a Pukh tūn’s home. Hence a Pukh tūn will never turn anyone away who seeks refuge or justice. This is to help and protect the poor and weak, who are being persecuted and ask help of a Pukhtūn. This principle also contains the idea that if there is a feud and the vanquished party goes to the house or Hujra or the victor and concedes, the victor will accept their concession.

Nang (honor) – also known as Ghayrat, meaning a Pukhtūn must uphold and protect his honor, and that of his family, at all costs. This includes the defense of Zan, Zar and Zamīn. Zan: Defense of women (meaning his family), Zar: Wealth or Gold (meaning his monetary funds), and Zamīn: Land. Pukhtana are taught that death is preferable to a life without honor.

Now let us examine each of there in the light of the Qur’ān and Sunnah:

Melmastia (hospitality):

To show hospitality to all visitors, regardless of whom they are, their ethnic, social, religious, or national background, without hope of remuneration or favor.

This, I would say is strongly based in Islāmic thought. The reader will find the following verses from the Noble Qur’ān to emphasis this concept:

“Has the story reached you, of the honored guests [three angels; Jibrīl (Gabriel) along with another two] of Ibrahim
(Abraham) ? When they came in to him and said: `Salam (peace be upon you) ,’ He answered: `Salam (peace be upon you), ‘ and said: `You are a people unknown to me.’ Then he turned to his household, and brought out a roasted calf [as the property of Ibrahim (Abraham) was mainly cows] . And placed it before them, (saying): `Will you not eat?”’ [Reference: Qur’ān 51: 24-27]

“And his (Lūt’s) people came rushing towards him, and since aforetime they used to commit crimes (sodomy), he said: `O my people! Here are my daughters (i.e., the women of the nation) , they are purer for you (if you marry them lawfully). So fear Allah and disgrace me not with regard to my guests! Is there not among you a single right-minded man? ”’ [Reference: Qur’ān 11:78]

This concept is also heavily emphasized in the authentic Ahādīth of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) . As Abu Hurairah (Radhiallāhu Án) reported:

Rasulullah (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) said: “He who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him show hospitality to his guest; and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him maintain good relation with relatives; and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him speak good or remain silent.” [Reference: Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

This point was further emphasized by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) in the following Hadīth repoted by Abu Shuraih
Khuwailid bin `Amr al-Kh uza`i (Radhiallāhu Ánhu), who reported:

I heard Rasulullah (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) saying, “He who believes in Allah and the Last Day, should accommodate his guest according to his right.” He was asked: “What is his right, O Rasulullah (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) ?” He (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) replied: “It is (to accommodate him) for a day and a night, and hospitality extends for three days, and what is beyond that is charity.” [Reference: Sahīh al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

So we see from the proof quoted above that the Pukhtūnwalī concept of Melmastia (hospitality) is firmly based in the Shari’ah of Islām. Melmastia is clearly proven and emphasized by the Qur’ān and Sunnah.

Badal (justice/revenge)
To seek justice for the one who has been wronged. This applies to injustices committed yesterday or 1000 years ago if the wrongdoer still exists.

Although this concept is proven from Qur’ān and Sunnah but the way it is carried out by the Pukhtūn people is usually very un-Islāmic. Islām calls for justice yet always favors forgiveness and mercy, while the Pukhtūn usually go above and beyond justice while taking revenge.

Nevertheless the concept of Badal, can be proven from the following verses of the Qur’ān:

“And we prescribe for them therein the life for a life, the eye for the eye, the nose for the nose, the ear for the ear, the tooth for the tooth, and for wounds of retaliation. But whosoever forgives it, it shall be expiation for him. Whosoever judges not by that which God has revealed, such as wrongdoers.” [Reference: Qur’ān 5:45]

“Never should a believer kill a believer unless by mistake, and whoever kills a believer by mistake should free a believing slave and pay compensation to the family of the deceased, unless they remit it freely.” [Reference: Qur’ān 4:92]

Hence we see proof that one is wronged must be compensated by the one who committed the wrong. In regards to this there are rules and regulations in Islāmic law that must be followed. Islām always encourages forgiveness and mercy.

Nanawatay (settlement)

This principle dictates that a Pukhtūn must provide safety and refuge to anyone who seeks protection in a Pukhtūn’s home. Hence a Pukhtūn will never turn anyone away who seeks refuge or justice. This is to help and protect the poor and weak who are being persecuted and ask help of a Pukhtūn. This principle also contains the idea that if there is a feud and the vanquished party goes to the house or Hujra or the victor and concedes, the victor will accept their concession.

This is also well rooted in Islāmic Shari’ah and is clearly proven by the Qur’ān and Sunnah. Here is an example of a Hadīth that promotes such values, narrated ‘Abdullah bin Umar (Radhiallāhu Ánhu):

Rasulullah (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) said, “A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, so he should not oppress him, nor should he hand him over to an oppressor. Whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs; whoever brought his (Muslim) brother out of a discomfort, Allah will bring him out of the discomforts of the Day of Resurrection, and whoever screened a Muslim, Allah will screen him on the Day of Resurrection.” [Reference: Sahīh al-Bukhārī]

This is further clearly stated in an other authentic Hadīth from Sahīh al-Bukhārī, narrated Muawiya bin Suwald (Radhiallāhu Ánhu) I heard Al-Bara’ bin ‘Azib (Radhiallāhu Ánhu) saying:

“Rasulullah (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) orders us to do seven things and prohibited us from doing seven other things.” Then Al-Bara’ mentioned the following: To pay a visit to the sick
(inquiring about his health) , to follow funeral processions, to say to a sneezer, “May Allah be merciful to you” (if he says, “Praise be to Allah!”), to return greetings, to help the oppressed, to accept invitations, to help others to fulfill their oaths. [Reference: Sahīh al-Bukhārī]

We can further see this concept emphasized by Rasulullah
(sallallahu alyhi wasallam) when He (sallallahu alyhi wasallam) explained in the end of a longer Hadīth:

How shall Allah bless a nation that does not protect the weak against the strong?” [Reference: Sunan Ibn Mājah and Sunan al-Bayhaqī]

So deduce from the aforementioned authentic ahādīth that this principle is something established and encouraged in Islām.

Nang (honor)

The various points below that a tribesman must observe to ensure his honor, and that of his family, is upheld. This includes the defense of Zan, Zar and Zamīn: Defense of women/family, treasure, and property/land. Pukhtana are taught that death is preferable to a life without honor.

Ghayrat which is from the root word Ghira in Arabic is a very clearly established concept in Islām. We can find it being mentioned in the following authentic ahādīth from Sahīh al-Bukhārī: Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ūd (Radhiallāhu Ánhu):

Rasulullah (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) said, “There is none having a greater sense of Ghira than Allah. And for that He has forbidden the doing of evil actions (illegal sexual intercourse etc.) There is none who likes to be praised more than Allah does.” [Reference: Sahīh al-Bukhārī]

Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhiallāhu Ánhu):
Rasulullah (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) said: “Allah has a sense of Ghira, and Allah’s sense of Ghira is provoked when a believer does something which Allah has prohibited.” [Reference: Sahīh al-Bukhārī]

Narrated Al-Mughira (Radhiallāhu Ánhu) that Sa’d bin Ubada
(Radhiallāhu Ánhu) said:

“If I found a man with my wife, I would kill him with the sharp side of my sword.” When Rasulullah (sallAllahu alyhi wasallam) heard that he said, “Do you wonder at Sa’d’s sense of ghira? Verily, I have more sense of ghira than Sa’d, and Allah has more sense of ghira than I.” [Reference: Sahīh al-Bukhārī]

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah (Radhiallāhu Ánhu) :

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “I saw myself (in a dream) entering Paradise, and behold! I saw Ar-Rumaisa’, Abu Talha’s wife. I heard footsteps. I asked who is it? Somebody said, ‘It is Bilāl ‘ Then I saw a palace and a lady sitting in its courtyard. I asked, ‘For whom is this palace?’ Somebody replied, ‘It is for ‘Umar.’ I intended to enter it and see it, but I thought of your (‘Umar’s) Ghira (and gave up the attempt).” ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “Let my parents be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Messenger! How dare I think of my Ghira being offended by you? [Reference: Sahīh al-Bukhārī]

Hence we see the concept of Ghira (called Ghayrat) is well established in Islām. We cannot say that ever action carried our in the name of ghayrat or Pukhtūnwalī is approved in Islām , we are only discussing the concept here. All actions carried out under any of the concepts mentioned above must be examined in the light of Shari’ah.


In the light of the abovementioned evidences (dala’il) from the Holy Qur’ān and Noble Hadīth of Rasulullah (sallallahu alyhi wasallam), we can conclude that the core principles of Pukhtūnwalī are not contrary to Islāmic beliefs. Having said that, we must keep in mind the cautionary qualification that the method in which that these principles are carried out in must be inline with the Qur’ān and Sunnah as well.

And Allah knows best.

The Black Banners From Khurasan

The Bilad-e-Khurasan in Making

Research Paper by Bilal Khan, March 30th, 2008 

The Ancient Khurasan:

The ancient Khurasan was the last eastern province of the Persian Empire. Khurasan, in Persian, means the “land of the sunrise”, a natural synonym for East. The term was loosely applied to territories of Persia east and north east of Dasht-e-Kavir.
Emperor Babur wrote in his memoirs [1] that Indians used to call all non-Indians as Khurasanis. Regarding the boundary of Hindustan (India) and Khurasan, it is written: “On the road between Hindustan and Khurasan, there are two great marts: the one Kabul, the other Kandahar.

In modern day world the ancient Khurasan is divided into five central Asian countries i.e.

1. Iran
2. Afghanistan
3. Tajikistan
4. Turkmenistan
5. Uzbekistan


The largest part of the ancient Khurasan is in Afghanistan today.

The present day cities of these modern countries would give a better idea of the geographical map of the ancient Khurasan. These cities include:

1. Nishapur and Tus in Iran.
2. Herat, Balkh, Ghazni and Kabul in Afghanistan
3. Khujand and Panjakent in Tajikistan
4. Merv and Sanjan in Turkmenistan
5. Samarqand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan

Ghulam Mohammad Ghubar, an ethnic Tajik scholar and historian from Afghanistan, talks of Proper Khurasan and Improper Khurasan in his book titled “Khurasan”. According to him, Proper Khurasan contained regions lying between Balkh (in the East), Merv (in the North), Sijistan (in the South), Nishapur (in the West) and Herat, known as The Pearl of Khurasan, in the center. While Improper Khurasan’s boundaries extended to Kabul and Ghazni in the East, Balochistan and Zabulistan in the South, Transoxiana and Khwarezm in the North and Damaghan and Gurgan in the West.

Khurasan in Islamic Prophecies:

Khurasan plays an important role in the Islamic prophecies of end times, the wars before appearance of Dajjal and the second coming of Jesus Christ (‘Eesa alayhissalaam).

One must wonder why Afghanistan has been the centre stage of the world for more than three decades now. What is there in the barren land of rugged mountains of Afghanistan that attracted almost every super power in the course of history?

Every super power in the world, since the time of Alexander the Great till the United States, have turned to Afghanistan when it was their turn to fall from grace.

God has His own ways of making histories and turn fates.

We have already established that Afghanistan has the most land area of ancient Khurasan in it. The Islamic prophecies that speak of the appearance of Imam Mehdi also speak of an army of black flags from Khurasan that will come to help Imam Mehdi to establish his Caliphate in the Holy Ka’abah.

“ Narrated by Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood (radhiyallahu anhu) that Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: A Nation will come from the east with black flags and they will ask for some “Khair” (because of them being needy) but the people will not give them, then, they will fight and win over those people (who did not give them what they asked). Now the people will give them what they asked for but they will not accept it until they will hand it over to a person from my progeny who will fill this earth with justice just as it was previously filled with oppression and tyranny. So if anyone of you finds this nation (i.e. from the east with black flags) then you must join them even if you have to crawl over ice”  [2]

We have to keep in mind that the holy Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) lived most his life in Makkah and the last 10 years in Madinah in present day Saudi Arabia. Geographically there are only three Muslim countries, today, in exact east of Saudi Arabia i.e. Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. So it becomes easy for us to establish that whoever this army of black flags is, it belongs to one or more of these three countries.

Another Hadith says:

“Abu Huraira (radhiyallahu anhu) reported Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying: You have heard about a city; the one side of which is in the land and the other is in the sea (Constantinople). They said: Allah’s Messenger, Yes. There upon he said: The last hour would come unless seventy thousand persons from Bani Ishaq would attack it. When they would land there, they will neither fight with weapons nor would show arrows but would only say: There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest, that one side of it would fall. Thaur (one of the narrators) said: I think that he said: The part by the side of the ocean. Then they would say for the second time: There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest that the second side would also fall, and they would say: There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest, that the gates would be opened for them and they would enter therein and, they would be collecting spoils of war and distributing them amongst themselves that a noise would be heard and it would be said: Verily, Dajjal has come. And thus they would everything there and would turn to him.” [3]

Constantinople is present day Istanbul and this particular Hadith verifies that it would be either siding with Anti-Imam Mehdi forces or would be occupied by Non-Muslims in the time of Imam Mehdi. From other Ahadith we get clarified that this attack on Istanbul by seventy thousand people of Bani Ishaq or the descendants of Prophet Isaac (alayhissalaam) would be led by Imam Mehdi himself. In the language of Ahadith seventy thousand means a very large number, it may or may not be actually seventy thousand. The descendants of Prophet Isaac (alayhissalaam) have been referred with different names in religious scriptures and in different Ahadith i.e. Aal-e-Haroon, Nation of Liberated Slaves and Bani-Israel.

Israel is the alternate name of Prophet Ya’qub (alayhissalaam) (Biblical Jacob) who was the son of Prophet Ishaaq (alayhissalaam)(Biblical Isaac). Haroon (alayhissalaam) or Aaron was the brother of Musa (alayhissalaam) (Moses) and both of them were descendants of Ishaaq (alayhissalaam) and Ya’qub (alayhissalaam). So the army of Imam Mehdi will be from the descendants of Prophet Ishaq (alayhissalaam) and Ya’qub (alayhissalaam) or popularly Bani-Israel.

Now, the very term Israel itself hints of the present day Jewish nation-state of Israel and one would ask why Israel would help Imam Mehdi. No, they certainly will not. This army of Imam Mehdi that will come from the East, with black flags, will be from Bani-Israel who would already be Muslims.

One of the Ahadith further elaborate:

“Narrated by Abdur Rehman Al-Jarshi that I heard companion of Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), Hazrat Amr Bin Marra Al-Jamli (radhiyallahu anhu) that Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: Surely Black Flags will appear from the Khurasan until the people (under the leadership of this flag) will tie their horses with the Olive Trees between Bait-e-Lahya and Harasta. We asked are there any Olive trees between these places: He said, “If there isn’t then soon it will grow so that those people (of Khurasan) will come and tie their horses there.” (4)

Another of the Ahadith says:

“Abu Huraira (radhiyallahu anhu) says that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: (Armies carrying) black flags will come from Khurasan, no power will be able to stop them and they will finally reach Eela (Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem) where they will erect their flags” (5)

Interestingly, another Hadith says:

“Anas ibn Malik narrated that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: The Dajjal would be followed by seventy thousand Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls.” (6)

Now, from the above three Ahadith we can establish that the army of Mehdi will consist of Muslims from Bani-Israel from Khurasan holding black flags. No power in the world will be able to stop them till they reach Jerusalem and erect their flags where there is Aqsa Mosque standing today.

Dajjal will also have an army of Bani-Israel. Both Muslim and Christian sources (other than evangelical Christians) establish that the Anti-Christ will be a Jewish Leader. The Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) clears that the Dajjal will have an army of Persian Jews from Isfahan. Interestingly, Iran supports the largest Jewish population in the Muslim world of approximately 40,000 mainly in Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz. [7] It has already been said that in Hadith language 70 thousands mean a very large number that may or may not be actually 70 thousand.

This leaves us with the judgment that Imam Mehdi will lead an army of Muslim Bani-Israel from Khurasan and Dajjal will lead an army of Jew Bani-Israel from Isfahan.

Israel and the Lost Tribes:

In order to find out who these Muslims Bani-Israel from Khurasan are, it would be important to critically examine the history of Israelites.

Prophet Jacob or Hazrat Ya’qoob (alayhissalaam) in Arabic, was the son of Prophet Isaac or Ishaq (alayhissalaam) in Urdu and grandson of Prophet Abraham (Qur’anic Ibraheem alayhissalaam). He was popularly known by his alternate name “Israel”. All of his children were subsequently called Bani-Israel or Israelites i.e. the descendants of Israel (Jacob).

Prophet Jacob (Ya’qub alayhissalaam) had twelve sons, one of which was Prophet Joseph  or Hazrat Yousuf (alayhissalaam) in Arabic and Prophet Joseph (Yousuf alayhissalaam) had two sons. The Bani-Israel, consequently, are divided into thirteen tribes i.e. eleven from Prophet Jacob (Ya’qub alayhissalaam) and two from Prophet Joseph (Yousuf alayhissalaam). The names of these sons of Jacob (Ya’qub alayhissalaam) and Joseph (Yousuf alayhissalaam), which are in turn the names of the tribes of Bani-Israel, are:

1. Reuben
2. Simeon
3. Judah
4. Issachar
5. Zebulun
6. Dan
7. Naphtali
8. Gad
9. Asher
10. Levi
11. Benjamin
12. Ephraim (son of Joseph)
13. Manasseh (son of Joseph)

According to Bible, the descendants of Jacob (AS) united to form the first united Monarchy or Kingdom of Israel in approximately 1050 BCE. King David, or known as Prophet David  or Hazrat Dawood (alayhissalaam) to Muslims, was the second King of this Kingdom and also the father of the famous King Solomon or Hazrat Suleiman (alayhissalaam) for Muslims. David (Dawood alayhissalaam) and his son Solomon (Suleiman alayhissalaam) constructed the Temple Mount of the Jews on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. This temple is also known as the First Temple. The temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon in 597 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar II not only destroyed the temple and conquered Jerusalem but also took the Jewish people along with him as slaves to Babylon where they stayed until Cyrus the Great (the founder of ancient Persian Empire) destroyed Babylon. The Persians allowed the Jews to return to the Holy Land where they constructed the Temple Mount again in 516 BCE known as Second Temple until the Temple was destroyed again by the Romans in 70 CE.

Interestingly, in 722 BCE the Assyrians under Shalmaneser V and then under Sargon II conquered the northern Kingdom of Israel, destroyed its capital Samaria and sent the Israelites into exile and captivity in Khurasan.

In Jewish popular culture, the ten tribes disappeared from history, leaving only the tribes of Benjamin, Judah and Levi to become the ancestors of modern day Jews.

Today, many ethnic groups claim descent from the lost tribes of Israel. Let us see who among them is located in the geographical Khurasan and are Muslims as well (to keep our track to find the army of Imam Mehdi).

1. Bene-Ephraim in Southern India – are Jews.
2. Bnei-Menashe in Northeast India – are Jews.
3. Beta Israel in Ethiopia – are Jews.
4. Persian and Bukharan Jews in Isfahan, Iran – are Jews.
5. Igbo of Nigeria – are Jews.
7. Samaritans in Israel – are Jews
8. The Lemba tribe in South Africa – religious practice similar to Jews.
9. House of Israel in Ghana – are Jews
10. Pashtuns or Pathans in Afghanistan/Pakistan – are Muslims
11. Kashmiris in Indo-Pakistan – are Muslims
12. Jews of Kaifeng – are Jews

In all these ethnic groups, there are only two groups that are Muslims and only one group that is geographically present in Khurasan i.e. the Pathans of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The only group that is warlike, undefeated and untamed throughout the course of history, staunch in religious fervor, filled with honor and pride and is unforgiving of its enemy; one that will fight its enemy until one of them is dead.

One now starts to understand why Afghanistan is the center of the world and why Pakistan became Independent of United India?
God has His own ways of making histories and turn fates.

Israeli History of Pashtuns

The Pashtuns or Pathans are the world’s largest patriarchal ethnic group in existence with an estimated population of around 40 Million distributed in present day countries of Pakistan, Afghanistan, UAE, Iran, UK, USA and India with the largest population in Pakistan that is approximately 28 Million.

A lot of research has been done on the origin of Pashtuns. Taaqati-Nasiri, a book that records historical traces of Pashtuns, states that in the 7th century a people called the Bani Israel settled in Ghor, southeast of Herat, Afghanistan, and then migrated south and east. These Bani Israel references are in line with the commonly held view by Pashtuns that when the twelve tribes of Israel were dispersed the tribe of Joseph, among other Hebrew tribes, settled in the region. [8] Hence the largest tribe of Pashtuns i.e. Yousuf Zai in Pashtu translates to the ‘sons of Joseph’. A similar story is told by the Iranian historian Ferishta. [9]

The Pashtuns have been living in the Afghanistan area for over 2,000 years. Their language Pashtu/Pakhto borrows widely from the Arab-ized Persian of their neighbors (now Iran), yet it was a purely spoken dialect. There was no Pakhto/Pashtu written script whatsoever, the first Pashtu book appearing about the 1500s. Hence the traditions, customs, tribal genealogy and law orally transferred from father to son. The first book on Pashtun genealogy, the Makhzan-al-Afghani was written in 1613, and contained for the first time a printed table of descent from Abraham to the Pashtun tribes, through the tribe of Binyamin or Benjamin. While the book was not accepted initially by British historians, modern historians consider it the most accurate account as compared to the other theories proposed by classical historians.

Interestingly, the word “Zionist” is created from the mountains of Jerusalem which are called “Zion”. Similarly the language of the Pathan tribesmen is called Pashtu, and its speakers call themselves Pashtun, from the Persian word “Pasht” which means “back of the mountain” so in reality Pashtun is a person who lives in the mountains. The mountains the Pathan’s have been living in after exile are called the Suleiman (Solomon) mountains. The Jews/Bani Israel from Russia also claim to be Mountain Jews and are said to be from the same exile.

The word Pathan is a Pashto written form of the original word Pithon, the great grandson of King Saul. [10]

Kashmir was under direct control of the Durrani Afghan Empire in the 1800s, and the majority of the population there were the Yousuf Zai Pashtuns who had moved eastward from Peshawar. They were living in Kashmir in great numbers, about 600,000 families who were later forcibly subdued for about 40 years by the Sikhs. [11]

Dr. Bernier, A French traveler in the frontier villages of Kashmir around the 1880’s remarked on the striking physical similarity of the locals with Jews. [12] He noted that their expressions and manners were distinguishable from the other people in this land. He finally adds that “You are not to ascribe what I say to mere fancy, the Jewish appearance of these villagers having been remarked by our Father, the Jesuit, and some other Europeans long before I visited Kashmir”.

The Jesuit Dr. Bernier points to is Dr. Joseph Wolff who says “I was wonderfully struck with the resemblance of the Youssoufszye (sons of Joseph) and the Khyberi, two of their tribes, to the Jews”. [13] Moorcroft also says of Khyberis “They are tall, and of singularly Jewish cast of features… they have been named by themselves Beni Israel, children of Israel from time immemorial.”

Bernier was also referring to George Forster who wrote in 1808 “On first seeing the Kashmirians in their own country I imagined from their garb, the cast of their countenance which was long and of a grave aspect, and the forms of their beard, that I had come among a nation of Jews”. [14]

Colonel G. Malleson of the British Army did not believe that the Afghans were Beni Israel, but commented on the issue of physical features “This no doubt has its weight”. [15]

A British army officer summed up the emotional behavior of a Pashtun:

“Even when he leaves his native heath behind he takes his manner with him. He will come down, a stalwart manly looking ruffian with frank and open manners, rather Jewish feature… He is certain to be filthy and he may be ragged, but he will saunter into a viceregal durbar (Royal court) as proud as Lucifer and with the air and manner a diplomatist might envy. Not in the least like any Indian subject.” [16]

Pashtuns follow peculiar customs like:

1. “Passover Practice” of sacrificing an animal and smearing the doorway to avert death and calamity

2. Placing the sins of the people upon a heifer or goat which is driven out in the wilderness in the manner of the biblical scapegoat

3. Stoning to death of blasphemers

4. Periodical distribution of land by lot [17]

5. The rites of circumcision and purification

These were all given in the Book of Leviticus of the Bani Israel, and modern Muslim historians like Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan accept them as indicators, if not proof of their Israelite heritage. [18] They are the only tribes in the area to practice all of these customs, as the ancient Bani Israel did 2,300 years ago.

Likewise, if anyone travels in the local bus transport of the Pakistani Pashtun areas, he or she would see fascinating art works in their buses but strikingly all these art works have Israelite origin, these peculiar diagrams include:

1. Peacocks (Torah was written with peacock feathers)

2. The Symbolic ark

3. The Mogen David or the Star of the David – also found in the Israeli flag

4. Tree of Life of Kaballah

5. Fish of the Sabbat/Shabbos

6. The heart shape lamp of the Sabbat

7. Number of Leaf petals signifying Kaballah practices.

Similarly many Hebrew inspired names of people, tribes and places are commonly found in Pashtuns and Pashtun areas of Pakistan/Afghanistan. Some tribes with visible similarities with Hebrew names are:

1. Yousuf Zai – Sons of Joseph

2. Gadoon – Gad

3. Rabbani – Reuben

4. Abdali or Naftali – Naphtali

5. Shinwari – Simeon

6. Zamand – Zebulun

7. Levani – Levi

8. Afridi & Afandi – Ephraim

9. Pathan – Pithon

The popular places that trace their origin in Hebrew are [19]:

– Koh-e-Suleiman – Solomon Mountains

– Takht-e-Suleiman – Throne of Solomon (the highest peak in Solomon mountains)

– Afghanistan – Afghana (the grandson of King Saul)

– Kohat – a town in NWFP, Pakistan, means assembly in Hebrew and it is also the name of the second son of Levi and father of Amram.

– Zabul – A province in present day Afghanistan, in the days of Mahmood Ghaznavid the whole region of Afghanistan was known as Zabulistan – Zebulun was one of the sons of Prophet Jacob (AS).

– Khyber – A Jew Fort in Arab in the time of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and a place on Pakistan/Afghanistan border.

– Peshawar – The Capital of NWFP province of Pakistan – PESH means the Pass and HAWAR means City i.e. The City after the Pass. Peshawar is a short drive from Khyber Pass. A Place named Habor is mentioned in Torah as the place of the exile of the tribes.

– Gozan – The historical name of Amu River in Afghanistan, hence the Torah says: “The God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul King of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath Pilnesser King of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Ruebenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought to Halah, and Habor, and Hara and to the river of Gozan to this day.” (Kings II, 17 and 18; Chronicles 1:5)

– Kerak – A City in Jordan and another in NWFP, Pakistan

– Lugar – A province in Afghanistan and a Jewish family name; the famous wrestler Lex Lugar.

– Kabul – in Hebrew Cab means dirty and Bul means city hence a dirty city

– Herat – The pearl of Khurasan – a city in Afghanistan, Hara is one of the places of the exile along with Habor and Gozan i.e. Peshawar and Amu River.

– Kash/Kish – name of numerous personalities in Chronicles of Hebrew Bible – and there is a Dasht-e-Kash north of Helmund, a City of Kash mentioned in map of Afghanistan 1912 of the Library of Congress, USA. There is also a mountain range named Hindu-Kush in Afghanistan/Pakistan and Kash Rod in Nimroz Province of Afghanistan.

– Dasht-e-Yahoodi – or the Jewish Plain – a famous place in Mardan district of NWFP, Pakistan.
– Killa Yahoodi – or Jewish town – a place on Afghanistan border of Pakistan.

The Christian Belief of End Times:

The historical Christian view of End Times and that of Jews have been different of what we see today. It was not the Muslims but the Christians who persecuted Jews ever since Constantine the Great (the founder of Constantinople) converted to Christianity. Through out the centuries Jews have been disgraced, tortured, molested and wronged not by Muslims but by Christians. It was the Christians of the Nazi Germany that allegedly mass murdered Jews and today Arabs are forced to pay for the crimes of Nazi Germany.

Christians have always thought of Jews of not only as God’s chosen people but also as God’s most hated people because of their ill-treatment of Prophets. Christians have also, in similarity with Muslims, always believed that the Anti-Christ (or Dajjal for Muslims) would be a Jewish Leader.

Christians have also always believed on the Biblical prophecy that the Jews will return to Holy Land have been fulfilled long ago when Persians allowed them to go back to Jerusalem to build the second temple.

But the rise of Dispensationalist Christianity in North America and the subsequent publication of Reverend Scofield’s Reference Bible in 1909 changed the course of history and the mindset of a major Christian power that was destined to become the super power of the world; the USA.

Dispensationalists, or evangelical Christians, or more commonly known as born again Christians stressed that Jews are God’s chosen people and Christian powers must join hands with Jews in order to bring Jesus Christ back to the world. Dispensationalism changed how Book of Daniel and Book of Revelation of the Bible were seen by Christians; these books of Bible contain the prophecies of End of times.
Reverend Scofield’s Reference Bible stressed on three important events to take place in order to bring Jesus Christ back to the world.

1. The Return of Jews to the Holy Land

2. Creation of the Kingdom of Israel

3. Destruction of the Aqsa Mosque
Reverend Scofield essentially believed that Jews will go to the Holy land again and the prophecy has not yet been fulfilled. The Jewish settlements in Palestine after the World War I was seen in the USA as the fulfillment of first pre-requisite of Christ’s return to earth. The so-called Independence of Israel in 1948 was seen as the fulfillment of second requirement by the USA and ever since the USA have been an ardent and blind supporter of Israel, as the US politics has been over shadowed by born again Christians ever since the World War II. These political born again Christians are known as Neo-Conservatives. President Ronald Reagan is famously known for his statement, about Armageddon (or the last war), made in a visit to Israel 1981-82.

The destruction of the Aqsa Mosque is the final requirement of the return of Hadhrat ‘Eesa (alayhissalaqm) and the final war. Today many born again Christians, individuals and organizations, collect and donate funds to Israel for the destruction of the Aqsa Mosque. People like late Jerry Falwell and Billy Graham are popular faces of such evangelists. Events in Jerusalem disclose that there is a current Israeli excavation project going on at the foundations of Aqsa Mosque and a recent report tells that if the project goes on for a while more the Mosque will fall.

Imagine the consequences of such a madness to destroy Islam’s third holiest shrine – a shrine revered by almost 1.5 billion humans – where are their human rights??

Rise of Neo-Cons and US’s War on Terror:

The political evangelists are called Neo-Conservatives or just neo-cons. George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld are most recognizable Neo-cons for the rest of the world.

In 1997, William Kristol and Robert Kagan co-founded a neo-con think tank named The Project for New American Century. The think tank has extra-ordinary influence on George W. Bush’s Foreign and Military Politics especially the Iraq War.

The Project for New American Century or PNAC published a review in 1999 on how the USA must reposition its strategic dominance on the world in the 21st century. The Report called for a “New Pearl Harbor” to enforce America’s military and economic dominance over the world. The New Pearl Harbor emerged in the shape of 9/11 in 2001.

“Two years ago a project set up by the men who now surround George W. Bush said what America needed was a new Pearl Harbor. Its Published aims have, alarmingly, come true. [20]

Today, many born again Christians like George ask their priests “when would Christ return”. [21]

Not very surprisingly, if one identifies US or Allied bases in the Central Asian and Middle East region, one would realize that the Allied powers have shockingly circled Syria i.e. the host of the last war of the world.

The US’s War on Terror is a deceptive game and a mind boggling riddle. The term terrorism is itself vague and un-defined and built on repetitive lies upon lies as evident in the case of 9/11. It is almost always blindly used against Muslims. The unilateral, pre-emptive extra-judicial violence by the western powers is always named as wars of democracy and freedom.

But if one makes an unbiased examination of the term and the war itself then one would realize that all these terrorists demand is the right of self-determination and self-rule and their wars of insurgencies are nothing but wars of self-defense against foreign occupational forces and aggressors against their land, sovereignty and religion.

Important Players in Present Day Khurasan:

Now that we have analyzed what Khurasan is, what is its importance in Islamic prophecies, what is going around us and what lies behind the US’s political mentality?? Now it would be ideal to see what important Muslim players are present in the region that is historically known as Khurasan.

It is also imperative to understand that, unlike Ronald Reagan or evangelical Christians, no Muslim can be sure of End of times and the time of appearance of Imam Mehdi and second coming of Jesus Christ (‘Eesa alayhissalaam). We shall only look into these critical state or non-state players in the region considering the American and Jewish mentality of preparation of the last war, and to realize what important Muslim players are there who pose a vital threat to Western interests.

Pakistan: Pakistan is the only state player in our list of Muslims involved in the region. It is currently a frontline ally of the US in War on Terror. But the recent developments of the war, the reports of American exercises in 2006 to secure Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal, blueprint designs of possible assault by the US on Pakistani territory, an endless demand of US to do more and more, the growing uncertainty and desperation in the Pakistani masses, the political turmoil and the rebellions of Red Mosque in Islamabad, tribal Pashtuns as well as Baloch separatists may push Pakistan to re-think over its policies and shift according to its vital national interests.

Pakistan also possesses the largest Pashtun population in the world i.e. 28 Million. It is one of the world’s seven declared nuclear powers and is running a state of the art ballistic missile program with current declared capability of hitting as far as Tel Aviv, Israel. It also possesses GPS precision guided undetectable cruise missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads as far as 700 KM. It is considered militarily the strongest Islamic country with one of the most professional armies and intelligence services in the world – the fearsome ISI.

People like Gen (R) Hameed Gul (Ex-Director General of the ISI), Dr. Israr Ahmed of Tanzeem-e-Islami and Abid Ullah Jan, the writer of The Musharraf Factor: Leading Pakistan to Inevitable Demise, have, on different occasions, forecasted some sort of joint roles or alliance by Afghanistan and Pakistan in future.

Taliban: The Taliban were born from the dissent and displeasure found in Afghans on the Mujahideen Government formed after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan. They emerged from Kandahar in 1994 and occupied Kabul in 1996. By the late 1990s they were controlling more than 90 % of Afghanistan and their government was only recognized by Pakistan, UAE and Saudi Arabia.

The Taliban leadership can be described as the second tier of command of the Russian-Afghan Jihad of the 1980s. None of the now known Taliban leaders were known during the Afghan Jihad except the famous veteran Jalal-ud-Din Haqqani.

Taliban had studied in the Deobandi seminaries mostly run by Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam of Maulana Fazl-Ur-Rehman and Maulana Sami-ul-Haq before the two Maulanas created two separate factions of the JUI.

The Taliban are known for their non compromising application of the Deobandi doctrine of Sharia. They are famous for their fighting zeal, their religious fervor and their traditional Pashtun trait of hospitality that they chose a war and abandoned their government just to protect few guests.

The Taliban were blamed for, cooperating with and, harboring Osama Bin Laden and his comrades allegedly involved in 9/11. The Taliban had agreed to turn Osama Bin Laden to a neutral party if evidences were provided against him. But the evidences were never provided and so the Taliban chose for the War and abandoned Kabul to keep the war of insurgency go on. Ever since then the war of insurgency has spread in Afghanistan.

Very interestingly, the Taliban hail from the Pashtun ethnicity and have traditionally used two flags, a white flag with a black Shahada (Kalma) embossed for their government and diplomatic purposes and a reversal of this i.e. a black flag with a white Shahada embossed for their military. These types of black flags are also vividly seen across the tribal Pashtun areas that are now reportedly under the control of Pakistani Taliban.

The popular mainstream media presents a very horrible view of the Taliban whereas one alternate view is given by a “woman” journalist from Britain who was captured by the Taliban and later released on a mere promise that she will study Qur’an once she goes back home. That lady is named as Yvonne Ridley, a Muslim now, is outspoken political and journalistic personality, member of the RESPECT party and known for her unequivocal support for the freedom fights in Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan, Kashmir and elsewhere in Muslim world. Her book on Taliban “In the Hands of the Taliban: Her extra-ordinary story” is a must read for anyone who wants to see Taliban from eyes other than the western Dajjali Zionist media.

Al Qaeda: Al Qaeda is a mythical organization only known to the world of its existence through the western media. It may or may not actually exist. But has become an important player in the region since the 9/11. Every kind of explosion or sabotage activity is tirelessly blamed to Al Qaeda the next moment after it happens anywhere in the world – no investigations, no proofs nothing at all are ever needed.

Osama Bin Laden is the head of the Al Qaeda but merely a figure head now as, reportedly, his deputy Aiman al-Zawahiri is Incharge of operational affairs of Al Qaeda. A long strategic partner of the Taliban – they were actually guests of the Taliban and it was because of them that the Taliban opted for War and abandoned their government in Kabul.

Very interestingly, Al Qaeda has a black flag as well with a yellow/orange Shahada embossed on it. According to Syed Saleem Shehzad of Asia Times Online, Al Qaeda shares this belief with the Taliban that Afghanistan is the promised land of Bilad-e-Khurasan.

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan: Formed in 1998 by a Soviet paratrooper Juma Namangani and Tahir Yuldeshev, both ethnic Uzbeks. Its first objective was to overthrow the government of Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan and later on to expand to the whole of Central Asia under the banner of Islamic Movement of Central Asia.

Labeled as a militant terrorist outfit, the IMU was also a strategic partner and guests of the Taliban. And surprisingly enough, the IMU shares the identities of Black Flags and Black turbans with the Taliban.

Hizb-ut-Tahrir: Hizb-ut-Tahrir an International Sunni pan-Islamist political party whose goal is to unite all the Muslim countries to form a united Islamic state or Caliphate. Formed by Palestinian scholar named Taqiuddin Nabhani in 1953. It is active in many countries especially in the Central Asia (22). It is however viewed by an affiliate group of Al Qaeda as a moderate political party rather being strictly religious. However, interestingly, Hizb-ut-Tahrir also boasts a black flag with a white Shahada embossed on it. Though a non-military organization, it has a vast political following.

Tableeghi Jama’at: It is a Muslim missionary and revival movement. It was founded in the late 1920s by Maulana Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi (rahimahullah) in the Mewat province of India. It draws a large following from the South Asia i.e. Pakistan, India and Bangladesh but also from across the globe. The annual gathering of the followers of Tableeghi Jama’at known as Ijtimah pulls millions of Muslims from across the globe and it is confirmed to be the second largest human congregation of the world after the annual Muslim Hajj pilgrimage.

It is purely a non-political and non-violent loosely built organization with no formal structure but is known to have very high profile links and has influenced people of every walk of life from common man to popular celebrities. Former Presidents of Pakistan General Zia-ul-Haq and Rafiq Tarar, Ex-Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Ex-Director General of ISI Javed Nasir, famous pop singers Junaid Jamshed, Abrar ul Haq and Shehzad Roy, famous cricketers Inzamam ul Haq, Shahid Afridi, Saqlain Mushtaq, Mushtaq Ahmed, Saeed Anwar and Hashim Amla of South Africa are few popular names. It was also responsible for the convert of Yousuf Youhana to Muhammad Yousuf that raised eyebrows in Washington.

Tableeghi Jama’at has no direct or indirect relations with any militant outfit or insurgencies going around the Muslim world but yet it is one of the reasons of US’s suspicion on Pakistan. It has been cited as the ideological backyard of Al Qaeda [23] by various western think tanks in their attempt to get the Jama’at banned as well that has been unsuccessful so far.

The Lawyers Movement: All of Pakistan’s nearly 70 years of life, ever since independence, the lawmakers and law-enforcers have equally manipulated the law and constitution of the country for their personal adventures and benefits ignoring public rights and sentiments. There have been four Martial Laws in the country in this short span of life. Every new dictator suspended, abrogated and amended the constitution on his very will. The power, respect and fear, of the strong armed forces of the country has produced many opportunists, civil servants, technocrats and politicians alike who committed every possible sin against the law of the land just to please and prolong the rule of a general.

Whereas the constitution itself has a prescribed way for its amendment, it clearly identifies anyone who suspends or abrogates the constitution as a traitor worth a death penalty.

For close to seventy years the law and constitution was raped and, the civil society, the people silently watched this crime ruining their lives and their country over and over again until March 9th, 2007. Till date one man braved the generals who had cornered him in the Army house. First time in the history of Pakistan a bare handed Judge defied a Martial Law administrator; something changed in Pakistan that day. The year that ensued saw the occupied President and Martial Law administrator General on continuous humiliation, defeat and retreat. The whole nation either joined the lawyers or supported them. The civil society was re-born in Pakistan, lawyers, political workers, members and employees of NGOs, Media persons, and westernized Students of Pakistan who were earlier thought of as western wannabes who did not care about anything related to Pakistan fuelled the movement. The struggle grew until February 18th, 2008 the people of Pakistan gave a thrashing defeat to political allies of President Musharraf.

Ever since there is a voice demanding reversals of President Musharraf’s actions and policies including the Provisional Constitutional Order on November 3rd, 2007 and to restore the deposed 60 judges of the higher judiciary.

The United States of America has clearly opposed this to happen because they fear that the restored judiciary will reopen the cases of disappeared people, investigate the extra-judiciary violence on Jamia Hafsa (Red Mosque, Islamabad) and in Karachi on May 12th, 2007, the political imprisonments, military actions in the two provinces and the political killings of the likes of Nawab Akbar Bugti and Benazir Bhutto. This clearly means the defeat of American, lies, agenda in Pakistan as well as the end of the so called War on Terror which is filled with nothing but deceptive mantra of repetitive lies.

But the victors of February 18th elections have vowed their conviction to restore the judiciary regardless of American pressure. And to defy the American pressure strong and positive messages are being sent to Beijing as the new leadership clearly realizes that the key to the freedom from American traps lies with China’s support.

But the most interesting fact in the whole struggle of lawyers and the civil society is the symbolic presence of Black Flags and the deep aura of revolution within. It is imperative to compare the basic demand of the right wing strongholds in the country and the lawyer’s movement. The basic commonality between the two is the demand for justice and the rule of law and that clearly means freedom from American clutches that means asking for a confrontation. That reminds of the statement by President Musharraf during the Jamia Hafsa Saga that “the alliance of Black Veils and Black coats will not be allowed”.

Watch out for the Lawyer’s black flag, they are the force to reckon with in the political future of this country.

Concluding Remarks:

All these state or non-state players are, somehow or the other, on the hate list of the Western Powers due to their somewhat common interests, ideas and beliefs. These players also have a tendency to re-design their strategic partnership anytime in the future in face of a common enemy i.e. the imperialist design of the Western Powers especially the US. The solution to avoid destruction of unimaginable proportions does not lie in brute use of force against these players but to recognize their role and influence in this part of the world, to withdraw occupational forces and let them devise and evolve their own political systems. True democracy can only be evolved not enforced.

If the world does not realize this, we are all hopeless. We cannot stop the world from a head on collision. A war would be inevitable with destruction yet has never been witnessed by human kind – a war to extinct our own kind. The destruction of Aqsa Mosque will drive 1.5 billion Muslims to a dead-end street where they will be forced to fight their way back – and the world would see the Black Flags of Khurasan the day it happens.


1. W.M. Jr. Thackston, The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, Modern Library; Modern Library Pbk. Ed edition (September 10, 2002)

2. Al-Asha-ah, Page 240 also Page 108 of “Islam main Imam Mehdi Ka Tassawar” by Maulana Professor Muhammad Yousuf Khan, Jamia Ashrafia, Lahore, Pakistan

3. Book 041, Number 6979, Sahih Muslim

4. Page 215, Kitab-al-Fitan and Page 108 of “Islam main Imam Mehdi Ka Tassawar” by Maulana Professor Muhammad Yousuf Khan, Jamia Ashrafia, Lahore, Pakistan

5. Sahih Trimdhi

6. Book 041, Number 7034, Sahih Muslim

7. Persian Jews, Wikipedia,

8. Afghanistan The Virtual Jewish History Tour

9. Ferishta, History Of The Mohammedan Power In India, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation
10. Chronicles I, 8:35, Book of Samuel, Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.

11. William Jesse, History of the Afghans, (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2002) p. 8. And An English translation of the French Caravan Journeys by General J. P. Ferrier (1st Regiment of Chasseurs D’Afrique, 1845).

12. François Bernier “Travels in the Moghul Empire” (Constable, London, 1891, Pg. 930-932).

13. Rev. Joseph Wolff, D.D. LL.D, Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara in the years 1843-1845, (John W. Parker, London, 1845). Vol. 1 2nd Edition. P. 17.

14. George Forster, Letters on a journey from Bengal to England. (Faulder, London, 1808) (Vol. II, page 20).

15. History of Afghanistan by Colonel G. Malleson, C.S.I. (W.H. Allen & Co, London, at the India Office, 1878), p 39.

16. Oliver, Across the frontier, Pathan and Baluch (London: Champman and Hall Ltd., 1890) p 224

17. Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan, The Durand Line-it’s Geo Strategic Importance, (Islamabad: Area Study Centre, University of Peshawar, 2000) p. 34

18. Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan, The Durand Line-it’s Geo Strategic Importance, (Islamabad: Area Study Centre, University of Peshawar, 2000) p. 30

19. Army of Mahdi:

20. John Pilger, New Statesman, December 16, 2002

21. Grace Halsell, Forcing God’s Hand, Amana Publications (2002)

22. Noman Hanif, Pakistan’s Tableeghi Jamaat and Hizb-ut-Tahrir in Central Asia, ICSSA, July 24, 2007

23. , Tablighi Jamaat Under US Scanner, July 14, 2003