Category Archives: Muhammad al-Tijaani al-Raafidhi

Answering Al-Tijani’s Allegations against Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan (Radhiyallahu Anhu)

It is taken for granted that Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan (radhiyallahu anhu), was among the most prominent who fought Ali bin Abi Talib (radhiyallahu anhu), about the murder of Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu). Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) represented the leadership of the opposing party against Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) at the battle of Siffeen. Therefore, Al-Tijani had nothing more than pouring his anger on Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and accusing him of oppression and aberration. I will represent Al-Tijani’s libels against this companion and I will refute these allegations against Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) to defend the writer of the revelation whom the Prophet ﷺ: “O’ Allah, make him guided, a guider, and guide people through him.” [Sunan Al-Tirmidhi, Book of “Virtues,” Chapter of “Virtues of Mu’awiyah,” #3842, see also Saheeh Al-Tirmidhi #3018]

Al-Tijani says: “Umar bin al-Khattab, who was well known for his strictness towards his governors whom used to dismiss them on mere suspicions, was quite gentle towards Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan and never disciplined him. Mu’awiyah was appointed by Abu Bakr and confirmed by Umar throughout his life, who never even rebuked him or blamed him, despite the fact that many people complained about Mu’awiyah and reported him for wearing silk and gold, which was prohibited to men by the Messenger of Allah. Umar used to answer these complaints by saying, “Let him be, he is the Kisra (king) of the Arabs.” Mu’awiyah continued in the governship for more than twenty years without being touched or criticized, and when Uthman succeeded to the caliphate of the Muslims, he added to his authority further districts and regions, which enabled him to amass great wealth from the Islamic nation and to raise armies to rebel against the Imam (Leader) of the nation and subsequently take the full power by force and intimidation. Thus he became the sole ruler of all Muslims, and later forced them to vote for his corrupt and alcohol drinking son Yazeed, as his heir and successor. This is a long story so I will not go into its details in this book.” [“Then I was Guided” p.93-94]

Response:

1. It seems that Al-Tijani, in his representations, cannot forsake some of his prominent characteristics that he enjoys; ignorance is one of these characteristics! Al-Tijani claims that Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) gave the governship of Al-Sham to Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) confirmed it all of his life! It is widely known for anyone who read the biography of the four caliphs that Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) gave the governship of Al-Sham to Yazeed bin Abi Sufyan (radhiyallahu anhu), and at the caliphate of Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), Yazeed (radhiyallahu anhu, not to be confused with Yazeed bin Mu’awiyah) was still the governor of Al-Sham and Umar confirmed him. When Yazeed (radhiyallahu anhu) died, Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) gave Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan (radhiyallahu anhu), Yazeed’s brother, the governship of Al-Sham.

2) What does prove that Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was lenient with Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu), and never put Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) accountable for anything? And from where does Al-Tijani get his allegations? Are not there any references he can guide us to? Otherwise, I would tell him as the poet said: If you did not prove your claims, then the owner of these claims is a claimant! But the fact is contrary to that. Ibn Al-Katheer says in Al-Bidayah: (Once, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) entered upon Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) and Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was wearing a green garment. The Companions looked at this garment. When Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) saw that, he jumped to Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) with a stick beating him. It made Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) saying: “O’ Commander of the faithful! Fear Allah for my sake!” Then Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) returned to his sitting. The people asked Umar (radhiyallahu anhu): “Why did you beat him O’ Commander of the Faithful? And there is no one like him among your people?” He answered: “By Allah, I saw nothing but goodness from him, and I was told nothing about him but goodness. If I was told something other than that, then you would see something different to you (Mu’awiyah), but I saw him – he pointed by his hand – and wanted to put down what has gone up in himself.”) [Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah, vol.8 p.128]

Al-Tijani says: Despite the fact that many people complained about Mu’awiyah and reported him for wearing silk and gold, which was prohibited to men by the Messenger of Allah. Umar used to answer these complaints by saying, “Let him be, he is the Kisra (king) of the Arabs.”

Response:

a. Reality and history belie Tijani’s saying that many people complained about Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu). Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) ruled Al-Sham for forty years, and his relationship with Al-Sham’s people was a relationship of love and loyalty to a degree that the people of Al-Sham agreed strongly with him when Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) wanted to avenge Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu)’s murder.

b. I please the author to direct us to the reference he got the lie that Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was the Kisra of the Arabs when Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) knew that Mu’awiyah wore gold and silk! It is so strange that Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) beats Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) just because he wore a lawful green garment, but says nothing when Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) wears the forbidden gold and silk?

c. The story about Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) is the one that is narrated by Ibn Abi al-Dunya from Abi Abdulrahman Al-Madani who says: (If Umar bin Al-Khattab (radhiyallahu anhu) sees Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) he used to say: “This is the Kisra of the Arabs.”) [Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah vol.8 p.128]

Then Al-Tijani says: “Mu’awiyah continued in the governship for more than twenty years without being touched or criticized, and when Uthman succeeded to the caliphate of the Muslims, he added to his authority further districts and regions, which enabled him to amass great wealth from the Islamic nation,”

Answer:

a. Giving the governship of Al-Sham to Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) is not considered a slander against Umar or Uthman (radhiyallahu anhum). It is proven that the Prophet ﷺ gave the governship of Najran to his father, Abu Sufyan (radhiyallahu anhu) until the Prophet ﷺ left this world. Even more, a lot of the Prophet’s ﷺ governors were from the Ummayads:

“The Prophet ﷺ gave the governship of Makkah to Attab bin Asyad bin Abi Al-A’as bin Ummayyah (radhiyallahu anhu), gave the governship of San’a’a of Yemen to Khalid bin Sa’eed bin Al-A’as (radhiyallahu anhu) in addition to take care of Mudh’haj charities, and Khalid was the governor until the Prophet ﷺ  passed away. The Prophet ﷺ gave the governship of Tayma’a, Khaybar, and Qura Areenah to Amr bin Al-A’as (radhiyallahu anhu), and gave the governship of Al-Bahrain, land and sea, to Aban bin Sa’eed bin Al-A’as (radhiyallahu anhu) when the Prophet ﷺ dismissed Al-Ala’a bin al-Hadrami. Aban (radhiyallahu anhu) ruled Al-Bahrain until the Prophet ﷺ passed away, and before that the Prophet ﷺ sent him as a commander on some detachments, including a detachment to Najd” [Minhaj Al-Sunnah, vol.4 p.460]

b. When Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) took the governship of Al-Sham, his policy with his people was one of the best policies. His people loved him, and he loved them too: (Qubaysah bin Jabber said: “I never saw a person greater in clemency, more intelligent, far in patience, good in easy sayings, more known to do good deeds than Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu). Some said: “A man said to Mu’awiyah very bad words, then it was said to Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) to punish him. Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) answered: “I am ashamed from Allah that my patience would not include the bad deeds of my people.” In another version, a man said to him: “O’ Commander of the faithful! What a patience you have!” Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) answered: “I am ashamed to see the crime of any one of you greater than my patience.”) [Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah, vol.8 p.138]

Therefore, his people supported him when Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) wanted to take Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu)’s revenge. They gave him allegiance on that and promised him that they will spend their lives and money for the cause of Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu), take Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu)’s revenge, or Allah take their souls before that. [Ibid. p.131]

c. It is one of the biggest lies Al-Tijani’s claim that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) stole the Islamic nation, raised armies to rebel against the Imam (Leader) of the nation and subsequently took the full power by force and intimidation. Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not want to rule, nor refused the leadership of Ali bin Abi Talib (radhiyallahu anhu), but Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) requested from Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was to give in Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu)’s murderers, and only after that he would obey him Ali. Al-Thahabi narrated in “Siyar A’alam Al-Nubala’a” from Ya’ali bin Ubayd from his father who says: (Abu Muslim Al-Khulani and some others went to Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and asked him: “Do you dispute Ali or are you equal to him? Mu’awiyah answered: “By Allah no. I know he is better than I am, and he has the right to rule, but do not you know that Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu) was killed as an innocent? And I am his cousin and the seeker of his revenge? Therefore go to Ali and tell him to send me Uthman’s murderers then I will obey him.” They went to Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) and talked to him, but Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) refused to hand in Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu)’s murderers to Mu’awiyah.) [Siyar A’alam Al-Nubala’a, vol.3, p.140, the examiner of the book said that its narrators are trustworthy]

Many times Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) emphasized that by saying: “I did not fight Ali but in the matter of Uthman.” Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) also confirms this even from the Shia sources. Al-Shareef Al-Ridi narrated in Nahjul Balagha a speech delivered by Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) where Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) says:

“In the beginning of our matter, the people of Sham and us met. It is obvious that our God is one, our Prophet is one, and our call in Islam is one. We do not see ourselves more in faith in Allah or more in believing His messenger than them, nor they do. Our matter is one, except for our disagreement in Uthman’s blood, and we are innocent from his murder.” [Nahjul Balagha, vol.3, p.648]

Hence, Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) is confirming that the conflict between him and Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) is about the murder of Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu), not for the sake of leadership or to take control of the Muslims as Al-Tijani claims.

It is a plain lie when Al-Tijani says that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) forced the Muslims to vote for his impious and alcohol drinking son Yazeed. Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not force people to give allegiance to his son Yazeed, but he intended to make Yazeed as a crown prince, and he succeeded. People gave allegiance to Yazeed as a crown prince, and only Al-Hussain bin Ali and Abdullah bin Al-Zubair (radhiyallahu anhuma) refused. Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) passed away and he did not force the last two to give the allegiance to Yazeed. It is also a lie that Yazeed was an alcohol drinking person. We will let Muhammad bin Ali bin Abi Talib (rahimahullah) to answer this claim because Muhammad (rahimahullah) knew Yazeed the best because he lived with him for a while. Ibn Katheer says in Al-Bidayah:

When the people of Al-Madinah returned from Yazeed, Abdullah bin Mutee’a and his companions walked to Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyah (rahimahullah). They wanted Muhammad to agree to dismiss Yazeed, but Muhammad refused. Ibn Mutee’a said: “Yazeed drinks alcohol, does not pray, and ignores the rule of the Book.” Muhammad answered them: “I never saw what you are saying about him. I came to him, and stayed with him for a while and I saw him taking care of his prayers, looking for goodness, asking about jurisprudence, and clinging to the Sunnah.” They said: “He was acting like that!” Muhammad answered: “And what did he scare from me or please so that he shows piety to me? Did he show you what you saying about drinking alcohol? If he did, then you are his partners, but if he did not, then it is not lawful for you to testify what you do not know.” They said: “It is the truth for us even if we did not see it.” Muhammad said: “Allah refused that on the people of witness, Allah says: “Except for those who testified with truth and they know,” and I have nothing to do with you anymore.” They said: “Perhaps you did not like someone to take control rather than yourself, therefore, we give you our leadership.” He said: “I do not make this fight lawful for me, either as a leader or as a follower.” They said: “But you fought with your father!” He answered: “Give me someone like my father to fight the like of what my father fought.” They asked: “Then, order your sons Abu Al-Qassim and Al-Qassim to fight with us.” He answered: “I would have fight if I ordered them.” They said: “Atleast join us to urge people to fight.” He said: “Praise be the Lord! Do you want me to order the people to do what I do not do and do not accept? I would not then advised Allah’s slaves for the sake of Allah.” They replied: “Hence, we will force you.” He said: “Then I will order the people to fear Allah and do not make a creature happy at the expense of the Creator’s anger.” Then Muhammad left to Makkah.” [Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah for Ibn Katheer, vol.8, p.236]

Al-Tijani’s claim that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) ordered to insult Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), and that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) is not a writer of the revelation and the answer to these claims:

Al-Tijani says: “I looked for the reasons which led those Companions to change the Sunnah [the tradition] of the Messenger of Allah (saw), and found that the Umayyads (and most of them were Companions of the Prophet) and Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (writer of the revelation, as he was called) in particular used to force people to swear at Ali ibn Abi Talib and curse him from the pulpits of the mosques, as most of the historians have mentioned in their books. Muslim, in his Sahih, wrote in a chapter entitled, “The virtues of Ali ibn Abi Talib”, the following: Mu’awiyah ordered his governors everywhere to take the curse [of Ali ibn Abi Talib] as tradition, and that all the speakers must include it in their speeches.” [Then I was Guided, p106-107] 

He also says: “How could they judge him as a man who had worked hard to promote Islam and to reward him, after he forced the people to curse Ali and Ahl  al-Bayt, the Family of the chosen Prophet.” [Then I was Guided, p.121] 

And: “He was the one who forced people to curse Ali and Ahl al-Bayt, the offspring of the Prophet, in every mosque, so that it became a followed tradition for sixty years.” [Then I was Guided,  p.169] 

And: “And how could they call him “The writer of the Revelations” since the revelation came upon the Messenger of Allah (saw) for twenty-three years, and Mu’awiyah was a polytheist for the first eleven years of them, and later, when he was converted to Islam, did not live in Madinah (for we could not find any historical reference to support that), whereas the Messenger of Allah (saw) did not live in Mecca after al-Fath [the conquer of Mecca by the Muslims]? So how could Mu’awiyah manage to write the Revelation?” [Then I was Guided,  p.170]

I say:

1) It is a lie that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) ordered to insult Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) from the pulpits. There is no rightful or clear evidence about that. Mu’awiya (radhiyallahu anhu)’s biography and manners refuses this accusation. What some of the historians mention about that has no value because when these historians presents these words about Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu), they do not differentiate between true or false stories. In addition, most of these historians are Shia. But some of the Historians narrated in their books sound stories and false stories, but they are excused when they attributed these stories to their narrators so that we could judge these stories, whether to accept them or reject them. Among these historians is Al-Tabari, who lived in a time of Shia’s growing power. Al-Tabari says in the introduction to his history: “Let the person who reads through our book know that my reliance on whatever I recorded is on news and history with attribution to their narrators, without using intellect except in rare occasions. The knowledge of what had happened before, and what is going to happen at present time, is not reached to those who did not see and their time did not allow them for it without being told by people and without the interference of intellect. Therefore, whatever news you find in my book about history that the reader may deny it, or the listener may abhor it because he did not find it truthful according to him, then let him know that we did not present it ourselves, but it came from some of the people who narrated the story to us. We just presented what we have been  told.” [Tareekh Al-Tabari, Introduction, p.13] Then, it is a must on Al-Tijani, when he takes the historians as an argument, to mention the story that shows that Mu’awiyah ordered to insult Ali from the pulpits. Then let him cry and shout as he wishes.

1. It is a lie also what al-Tijani says that Muslim narrated in his Saheeh a similar incident in “Ali’s Virtues” Chapter. The story that Al-Tijani is meaning is the story which is narrated by A’amir bin Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas who narrated from his father who says: (Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan ordered Sa’ad and asked him: “What prevented you from insulting Abu Turab (Ali bin Abi Talib)?” Sa’ad answered: “The prophet peace be upon him said three things to him (Ali bin Abi Talib), so I would not insult him because to have one of these three things is more beloved to me than Humr Al-Ni’am (a kind of best camels). I heard the prophet peace be upon him saying to appoint Ali as a leader when the prophet used to go to Battles. Ali then would say to him: “O’ Messenger of Allah, you left me with the women and children?” The Prophet ﷺ answered him:  “Would not you be pleased if you were for me as Haroon was for Musa? Except there is no prophet after me.” And I heard the Prophet ﷺ saying at the day of Khaybar: “I would give this banner to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger and who Allah and His Messenger love him too.” He said: “Then we were looking for this honor.” Then the Prophet ﷺ said: “Call Ali.” Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was brought and he had sore eyes. So the Prophet ﷺ spitted in his eyes and gave him the banner. Then Allah granted victory to the Muslims by the hands of Ali. And when this verse revealed: “Come, let us gather together, our sons and your sons,” the Messenger of Allah ﷺ called Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Hussain and said: “O’ Allah, they are my family.” [Saheeh Muslim with Explanation, Book of “The Companions,” Chapter of “Virtues of Ali,” #2404]

This hadith does not mean that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) ordered Sa’ad (radhiyallahu anhu) to insult Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). But, as it is obvious, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) wanted to know the reason that prevented Sa’ad (radhiyallahu anhu) from insulting Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). Therefore, Sa’ad (radhiyallahu anhu) gave him the reason, and we do not know that when Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) heard Sa’ad (radhiyallahu anhu)’s answer got angry with him or punished him. Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu)’s silence is a correction for Sa’ad (radhiyallahu anhu)’s opinion. If Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was despotic; forcing people to insult Ali as Al-Tijani claims, then Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) would not be quiet and would force Sa’ad (radhiyallahu anhu) to insult Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), but nothing of that happened. Hence, it is known that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not order to insult Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) nor was pleased by that.

Al-Nawawi (rahimahullah) says: “Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu)’s saying does not declare that he ordered Sa’ad to insult Ali, but asked him for the reason that prevented him from insulting. As if Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was saying to him: “Have you refrained from insulting Ali as a result of piety, fear or anything like that? If it was as a result of piety and veneration to refrain from insulting, then you are rightful and if it were other than that, then there would be another answer.” Or it might be that Sa’ad (radhiyallahu anhu) was in a group of people who insults Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) and he did not insult Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) with them, and could not prevent them and controverted them so Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) asked him this  question. They said: “And it may have another explanation, that what prevented you from making Ali wrong in his thought and opinion, and to show to people our good opinion and thought and that Ali was wrong?” [Ibid. p. 250-252]

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3) It is so strange that this Tijani objects on insulting Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) but he does not abstain from insulting the best of the Companions i.e. Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman (radhiyallahu anhum)! Their (the Shias) books are full of that and among them is Al-Tijani’s book itself. Therefore, I have to say: “These Rafidites, who claim to be believers, have ignominy and lowness. Ignominy is fixed on them wherever they go except with a rope from Allah and a rope from the people.” [Minhaj Al-Sunnah, vol.4, p.498]

4. It is a firm thing that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was among the writers of the revelation. Muslim narrated in his Saheeh from Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) that Abu Sufyan (radhiyallahu anhu) asked the Prophet ﷺ for three things: He (Abu Sufyan) said to the prophet: “O’ Prophet of Allah, give me three things.” The prophet said: “yes.” … Abu Sufyan said: “Mu’awiyah, make him a writer (of the revelation) under your hands.” The prophet answered: “Alright.” [Muslim with explanation. Book of “Virtues of the Companions,” Chapter of “Virtues of Abu Sufyan,” vol.17, p.2501]

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullah) narrated in his Musnad, and Muslim from Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) who says: Once I was a kid playing with other boys when I looked behind and I saw the Prophet ﷺ coming towards us. So I said: “The Prophet ﷺ did not come to anyone but to me.” So I went behind the door to hide. I did not feel until the Prophet ﷺ found me, grasped my neck, and pressed my shoulders gently. The Prophet said: “Go and call Mu’awiyah for me.” And Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was his writer (of the revelation). So I went looking for Mu’awiyah and told him: “Go an  answer the Prophet of Allah ﷺ because he needs you.” [Musnad  Ahmed, vol.1, Musnad Ibn Abbas #2651, and Muslim with explanation, Book of “Al-Birr wa  Al-Silah,” #2604]

These two hadiths prove that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu)was one of the writers of the revelation.

5) Al-Tijani says that revelation came down on the Prophet ﷺ for twenty-three years during which Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was a mushrik (disbeliever) for eleven years! I already said that Abu Sufyan (radhiyallahu anhu) asked the Prophet ﷺ him to make Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) as a writer of the revelation and the Prophet  accepted that and Mu’awiyah ﷺ went on writing the revelation for the Prophet ﷺ for complete four years, is this something hard to believe?

Then in delirium, Al-Tijani says: “When he (Mu’awiyah) was converted to Islam, did not live in Medina (for we could not find any historical reference to support that), whereas the Messenger of Allah (saw) did not live in Mecca after al-Fath [the conquer of Mecca by the Muslims]?.”

I say: Is the preceding story does not prove that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) lived in Madinah? Al-Tirmithi narrated from Abu Majliz who says: When Mu’awiyah was about to leave, Abdullah bin Al-Zubair and Ibn Safwan stood for him when they saw him. Mu’awiyah said to them: “Set down, I heard the Messenger of Allah ﷺ saying: “Whoever is pleased that men stand for him in respect, then let him take his seat in hell.” [Al-Tirmithi, Book of “Taking Permission,” #3755, see also Saheeh Al-Tirmithi #2212]

Does not this hadith prove it too? But it seems that the Prophet ﷺ ordered Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) to call Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) from Makkah!! I will not rebuke Al-Tijani for saying, “We could not find any historical reference to support that,” because if he sought it, he would have found it, but we ask Allah for a cure for his fairness complex!

Third: Al-Tijani’s claim that the reason Mu’awiyah killed Hujr bin Adi was because Hujr refused to insult Ali and the answer to this claim:

Al-Tijani says: “When some of the Companions protested very strongly against such a rule, Muawiah ordered their killing and burning. Among the famous Companions who were killed at the order of Muawiah were Hijr ibn Adi al-Kindi and his followers, because they protested and refused to curse Ali, and some of them were buried alive. [Then I was Guided, p.107] 

He also says in another place: “How could they judge him as a promoter of Islam when he killed Hujr Ibn Adi and his companions and buried them in Marj Adhra in the Syrian desert because they refused to curse Ali ibn Abi Talib?” [Then I was Guided, p.121]

So I say:

1. People disagreed on the companionship of Hujr bin Adi (the famous!). Al-Bukhari and others counted him as a follower (Tabe’ei), and some others as a companion.

2)  Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not kill Hujr (rahimahullah) because he refrained from insulting Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), and this is calumniation. What the historians mentioned about the reason behind killing Hujr bin Adi (rahimahullah) was that Ziyad, the ruler of Al-Kufah appointed by Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu), once gave a prolonged speech. So Hujr bin Adi (rahimahullah) called for the prayer, but Ziyad went along with his speech. So, Hujr and his group threw stones at Ziyad. Ziyad wrote Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) telling him what Hujr (rahimahullah) did and Ziyad reckoned that as corruption on earth. Hujr (rahimahullah) used to do this with the governor of Al-Kufah who preceded Ziyad. Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) ordered that Hujr (rahimahullah) be sent to him. When Hujr (rahimahullah) reached there, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) ordered to kill Hujr (rahimahullah). Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu)’s severity in killing Hujr (rahimahullah) was because Hujr (rahimahullah) tried to transgress against the Islamic nation and to break the bond of the Muslims and Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) considered it as an endeavor to corrupt the earth especially in Kufah where some groups of the affliction first appeared against Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu). If Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu) were lenient in this matter, which ultimately lead to his death and lead the Islamic nation to the greatest affliction and caused blood to run like rivers, then Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) wanted to cut this affliction from its roots by punishing Hujr (rahimahullah). Strange is this Al-Tijani when he cries and mourns for the death of Hujr (rahimahullah) and at the same time does not object on Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) when Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) fought the rebels against his caliphate at the battle of The Camel and Siffeen, which caused the death of the best Companions and in addition, the death of thousands of Muslims, although the reason was one i.e. rebelling against the ruling of the caliph!

Read More: Karbala

Fourth: Tijani’s claim that Al-Hasan Al-Basri slandered Mu’awiyah and the answer to this claim:

Al-Tijani says: “Abu al-Aala al-Mawdudi wrote in his book “Caliphate and Kingdom”: Abu al-Hasan al-Basri said: Muawiah had four features, and if he had only one of them, it would have been considered a great sin:

1. Making decisions without consulting the Companions, who were the light of virtues.

2. Designating his son as his successor. His son was a drunkard, corrupt and wore silk.

3. He claimed Ziyad [as his son], and the Messenger of Allah said, “There is offspring for the honorable woman, but there is nothing for the whore.”

4. His killing of Hujr and his followers. Woe unto him from Hujr and the followers of Hijr.” [Then I was Guided, p.107]

Answer:

1. Abu Mikhnaf narrates this story. Abu Mikhnaf’s full name is Lut bin Yahya Al-Azdi Al-Kufi [Tareekh Al-Tabari, vol.3, p.232, and year of 51H]. Al-Thahabi and Ibn Hajar said about him: “Akhbari Talif” (This is a phrase for the Scholars of hadith. Akhbari is the person who narrates stories, and talif is the one who lies when he narrates stories) [Meezan Al-E’tidal by Al-Thahabi, vol.3, p.419 #6992 and Lisan Al-Meezan by  Ibn Hajar, vol.4, p.492]

Abu Hatim and others did not take him, and Al-Darqutni said: “He is weak,” Ibn Ma’een said: “Not a trustworthy,” Marrah said: “He is nothing,” and Ibn Adi said: “A burned Shia!”)  [Meezan Al-E’tidal, vol.3, p.419-420] and

Al-Aqeeli accounted him as weak [Al-Du’afa by Al-Aqeeli, vol.4, p.18-19  #1572].

Therefore, this story is false and hence is not an argument.

2. Even if we supposed that Al-Hasan Al-Basri (rahimahullah) really said that, then it would have no slander against Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu). To claim that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) became the leader without consultant (Shoora) is false because Al-Hasan bin Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) abandoned the caliphate for Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and all the people gave the allegiance to Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and none of the companions refrained in giving him the allegiance!

Making Yazeed as the successor to him was done by people’s allegiance and among them was Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) and only Al-Hussain bin Ali and Abdullah bin Al-Zubair (radhiyallahu anhuma) refrained.

To refuse giving the allegiance does not cancel the allegiance itself and does not represent a slander against Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu). Muhammad Al-Hanafiyah (rahimahullah), the son of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), who adjourned at Yazeed, belied that Yazeed was a drunkard who wears gold and silk. Muhammad Al-Hanafiyah (rahimahullah) found Yazeed as the opposite of what they claim.

Read More: Karbala Part – 2

Fifth: Answering Tijani’s ill understanding of the happenings of the affliction between Mu’awiyah and Ali (radhiyallahu anhum) :

Al-Tijani says: “When we ask some of our scholars about Muawiah’s war against Ali, who had been acknowledged by al-Muhajireen and al-Ansar,  a war which led to the division of Islam into Sunnis and Shiites and left it scarred to this very day, they simply answer by saying, “Ali and Muawiah were both good Companions, and both of them interpreted Islam in his own way. However, Ali was right, therefore he deserves two rewards, but Muawiah got it wrong, therefore, he deserves one reward. It is not within our right to judge for them or against them, Allah – the Most High – said: “This is a people that have passed away, they shall have what they earned and you shall have what you earn, and you shall not be called upon to answer for what they did” (Holy Qur’an 2:134).

Regrettably, we provide such weak answers that neither a sensible mind nor a religion, nor indeed a law would accept. O Allah, I am innocent of idle talk and of deviant whims. I beg You to protect me from the devil’s touch.

How could a sensible mind accept that Muawiah had worked hard to interpret Islam and give him one reward for his war against the leader of all Muslims, and for his killing of thousands of innocent believers, in addition to all the crimes that he committed? He was known among the historians for killing his opponents through feeding them poisoned honey, and he used to say, “Allah has soldiers made of honey.”

How could these people judge him as a man who worked hard to promote Islam and give him a reward for that, when he was the leader of a wrong faction? There is a well known Hadith of the Prophet, and most of the scholars agree its authenticity, “Woe unto Ammar.. he will be killed by the wrong faction.” And he was killed by Muawiah and his followers.

The question crops up over and over again. Which faction was right, and which faction was wrong? Either Ali and his followers were wrong, or Muawiah and his followers were wrong, and the Messenger of Allah (saw) explained everything. In both cases, the proposition of the righteousness of all the Companions does not hold ground and is incompatible with logic.” [Then I was Guided, p.120-121]

I Say:

1)  I said that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not fight Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) except for the matter of Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu). Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) saw himself as the guardian of Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu)’s blood, and Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu) was one of his relatives, and Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) relied on some prophetic hadiths that show and clear that Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu) would be killed as an innocent and describes the rebels as hypocrites.

Al-Tirmithi and Ibn Majah narrated from Aa’isha (rashiyallahu anha) who says: The Prophet ﷺ said: “O’ Uthman! If Allah one day gave you the leadership of this nation, and the hypocrites wanted you to remove your clothes which Allah had gave you, then do not do it.” The prophet said that three times. [Sunan Ibn Majah, Book of “Virtues of the Companions of the Prophet peace be upon him,” #112. See also Saheeh Ibn Majah #90]

Ka’ab bin Murrah (radhiyallahu anhu) testified for Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu)’s innocence once in front of Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu)’s army, and said: If it were not for a hadith that I heard from the Prophet ﷺ, then I would not have taken a stand (did not support Mu’awiyah to punish Uthman’s murderers) and the Prophet ﷺ mentioned the afflictions and acknowledged them. Then a masked man passed by so the Prophet ﷺ: “This man at these (affliction) days is on guidance.” So I went to the masked man and he was Uthman bin Affan. I took Uthman to the Prophet ﷺ and asked him: “This one?” The Prophet ﷺ answered: “Yes.” [Al-Tirmithi, Book of “The Virtues,” #3704. See also Saheeh Al-Tirmithi #2922]

Also, Abdullah bin Shaqeeq bin Murrah says: The Prophet ﷺ said: “Afflictions would agitate on earth as the horns of cows” Then a masked man passed by and the Prophet ﷺ said: “This man and his companions at these (affliction) days would be on the right path.” So I went to this man and unmasked him and took him to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and I asked: “O’ Messenger of Allah ﷺ , is he the one?” The Prophet ﷺ said: “He is.” He was Uthman bin Affan. [Musnad Ahmad, Book of “Virtues of the Companions,” vol.1, p.449-450, #720. The Examiner of the book said that this hadith has a true attribution.]

Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and his companions thought they were right according to this and that they were on guidance especially when we know that the hypocrite rebels against Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu) were in the army of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). Hence, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and his companions thought them on astray and therefore they made it lawful for themselves to fight Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) and his faction.

1. In addition, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu)’s supporters would say: “We cannot give allegiance to anyone except the one who would act with justice and does not oppress us. If we gave allegiance to Ali, then we would act unjustly with his party as Uthman was oppressed. Besides, Ali is unable to act justly and we do not have to give allegiance to such a person. Uthman’s murders are in the army of Ali, and these murders are unjust. Uthman’s murderers want  to kill us as they killed Uthman, so we will fight them to defend ourselves. Therefore, it is lawful to fight them, and we did not start the fight, they did.”

3) Moreover, authentic traditions from the Prophet ﷺ says that to leave the fight was better for both parties. The fight was neither mandatory nor preferable. Although Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was more deserving and closer to right than Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was, if Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) left the fight, a great goodness would happen and the shedding of the blood would be spared.

Hence, Imran bin Husayn (radhiyallahu anhu), banned the selling of weapons at the time of afflictions. He says: “Weapons are not supposed to be sold in the affliction.” The same saying was shared by Sa’ad bin Abu Waqqas, Muhammad bin Musaylimah, Abdullah bin Umar, Usamah bin Zayd, and many other of the first believers from the Muhajireen and Al-Ansar (radhiyallahu anhuma) who isolated themselves from the affliction and did not partake in the fight. Therefore, many  Scholars from Ahl Al-Sunnah say: “It is not conditioned to start fighting the aggressor party. Allah did not order to start fighting them. Instead, He ordered that if two parties fought, then peace should be done between them. Then if one of the two parties transgresses on the other, then the transgressor should be fought.”  [Minhaj Al-Sunnah, vol.4, p.391]

It is plain lie Tijani’s claim that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) ordered to start the fight against Ali (radhiyallahu anhu).

4) Even if we supposed that the people who fought Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) were insurgents and not depending on personal interpretation of texts, then it would not be considered as a slander in their belief and their deservance in entering heaven. Almighty Allah says: “If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel, make ye peace between them: but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other, then fight ye (all) against the one that transgresses until it complies with the Command of Allah; but if it complies, then make peace between them with justice, and be fair: for Allah loves those who are fair (and just), The Believers are but a single Brotherhood: so make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear Allah, that ye may receive Mercy.” [Surat Al-Hujarat, verses 9 and 10]

Allah described the two parties by faith and made them brothers despite the fact they fought each other and transgressed on each other. Then what about if one of them transgressed on the other thinking he is right? Does it prevent him from being an interpreter, wrong or right? Therefore, Ahl Al-Sunnah ask Allah for mercy for the two parties, as Allah says:

“And those who came after them say: “Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith, and leave not, in our hearts, rancor (or sense of injury) against those who have believed. Our Lord! Thou art indeed Full of Kindness, Most Merciful.” [Surat Al-Hashr, verse 10]

5) Authentic traditions prove that both parties have the same claim and seek the truth they believe. These authentic traditions also declare that the two parties are innocent from looking for caprice and following falsehood. Al-Bukhari narrated in his Saheeh from Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) who says: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Judgement Day will not come until two parties fight with similar claims.” [Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Book of “Virtues,” Chapter of “Signs of Prophecy in Islam,” #3413]

This hadith, as you see, proves that the two parties have the same demand and the same religion. Muslim narrated in his Saheeh from Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri (radhiyallahu anhi) who says: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: Renegades will pass through a group of Muslims. They would be killed by the more deserving party of truth.” [Muslim with Explanation, Book of “Zakat,” Chapter of “The Kharijites and their  characteristics,” #150]

This hadith clears that both parties ask for the truth and fight for it. Meaning that the two parties were intending the truth and requesting it. This hadith also shows that the truth lies with Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) because he was the one who fought these renegades i.e. the Kharijites at Al-Nahrawan. Al-Nawawi (rahimahullah) says: “It is a declaration that both parties are believers and fighting each other does not cancel their faith and they should be not called impious.” [Ibid. vol.7, p.235]

3. About Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu)’s transgression, it is either Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) thought that the truth lies with him or that he was deliberate in his transgression. In both cases, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) is not infallible from mistakes. Ahl Al-Sunnah do not refrain him from falling in sins, but they say that sins have reasons, and these sins could be removed by asking for forgiveness and repenting, or other than that. Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah) mentioned in Al-Bidayah from Al-Musawir bin Makhramah when Musawir entered upon Mu’awiyah: I entered upon him and Mu’awiyah asked me: “Why do you slander against the leaders O’ Musawir?” I answered: “Save us from his leader, and give us a leader that we want.” Mu’awiyah said: “Tell me what is in your heart.” So, I told him every single bad thing about him. Mu’awiyah said: “You are not exempted from guilt either. Did you commit any guilt that you are afraid to be doomed if you were not forgiven?” I answered: “Yes, I did commit guilts that may cause my doom if I am not forgiven.” Then Mu’awiyah said: “Then what makes you more deserving for Allah’s forgiveness than I? By Allah, I have done good deeds for my people, established Islamic Law, went to Battles for the sake of Allah, and a lot of great things I did that only Allah can count, but we do not count them more than our mistakes. And I am a believer in a religion where deeds are accepted, either rewarded by good, or rewarded by a guilt that Allah may forgive us. By Allah, if I were to choose between two matters, between Allah and anything else, I would chose Allah.” I thought of what he said, and I knew he defeated me.” Then Musawir after that, always used to supplicate good things for Mu’awiyah. [Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah, vol.8, p.136-137]

7) About the Hadith: “Ammar would be killed by the transgressor party.” This hadith is one of the greatest evidences that the truth lies with Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) but Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) interpreted the meaning of the hadith differently when Ammar (radhiyallahu anhu)’s death shocked Amr Bin Al-A’as (radhiyallahu anhu) and his son. Amr (radhiyallahu anhu) and his son got astound.

Ahmad narrated in his Musnad from Abu Bakr bin Muhammad bin Amro bin Hazm from his father who says: When Ammar bin Yaser was killed, Amr bin Hazm entered upon Amr bin Al-A’as and said: “Ammar was killed and the Prophet ﷺ said that Ammar would be killed by the transgressor party.” Amr bin Al-A’as stood fearing and vomiting until he entered upon Mu’awiyah. Mu’awiyah asked him: “What is the matter?” Amr answered: “Ammar was killed.” Mu’awiyah asked again: “So what if Ammar was killed?” Amr answered: “I heard the Messenger of Allah ﷺ saying that Ammar would be killed by the transgressor party.” Mu’awiyah told him: “… were we the ones who killed him? Ali and his comrades killed him. They brought him (to the war) and threw him into our lances (or swords).”) [Musnad the people of Syria from Musnad Al-Imam Ahmed, vol.2, Musnad Amr bin Al-A’as, #957, p.163. The Examiner of the book said the narrators of the story are trustworthy].

Then the people used to say: “The one who killed Ammar (radhiyallahu anhu) is the one who brought him.” Therefore, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) returned the confidence to his army. Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) said that because he could not imagine that Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu)’s murderers were the right people in the light of the hadiths which prove that Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu) would be killed as an innocent and that his killers are the oppressors. No doubt then, as Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was thinking, that the transgressor party is the one within the army of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). But the truth that should be said is that these thinkings are definitely false and that the truth is with Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). But Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu)’s party are excused in their interpretation because they wanted the truth but did not get it.

This is what pushed Amr bin Al-A’as (radhiyallahu anhu) to suggest to raise the Quran to stop the war because he had some of that hadith in his heart.

Read More: The Martyrdom of Hadhrat ‘Ammar ibn Yasir (radhiyallahu anhu) & the role of the Saba’iyyah [the Early Shia’]

8)  If Al-Tijani insisted on making Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) a despotic, then Al-Nasibah [The ones who hate the household of the Prophet peace be upon him] would answer that Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was despotic too because Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) fought the Muslims for nothing but for the sultanate. Al-Nasibah would also say that Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was the one who started fighting and shedding blood without a benefit for the Muslims. Then Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) retreated – as Al-Nasibah would say – and made a peace with Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu). Then Al-Tijani and his Shia would not be able to answer this. If Al-Tijani took the hadith of Ammar (radhiyallahu anhu) as an argument, then he would be answered that Allah did not put it a condition to fight the transgressor party except when the transgressor party starts to fight. But Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was the one who started the fight, so what is the answer of Al-Tijani? Many pages have been written by the Kharijites and Mu’tazilah slandering Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). What important to know is that for every argument Al-Tijani gets against Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu), there would be a similar argument from other parties. Ahl Al-Sunnah are pleased by the two parties, and do not consider them impious. Ahl Al-Sunnah say that the truth is with Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), and answer all the arguments that are presented from different sects which defames Ali or Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhuma) because Ahl Al-Sunnah’s way is straight, not like the Shia, and many thanks to Allah.

9) It is taken for granted for anyone who read something about the Imamiyah sect that they attribute kufr to Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) because he fought Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). However, the fact is that Al-Hasan bin Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) – and he is one of the infallible Imams according to the Shia, therefore whatever he says is truth – made peace with Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) – as Al-Tijani admits, refer to “Then I was Guided, p.171” and gave him allegiance. So, did the “infallible” Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu) made peace with a kafir and gave him the leadership?? Or he made peace between two parties of Muslims as the Prophet ﷺ: “My son is a master, and Allah may use him to make peace between two parties of Muslims.” [Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Book of “Afflictions,” #6629, vol.6]

I please Al-Tijani to give an answer?!

10) It is of great ignorance and lie Tijani’s allegation that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) committed numberless crimes, and that he was known by historians to kill his opponents by his famous way; giving them poisoned honey and Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) saying: “Allah has soldiers made of honey.” I want from Al-Tijani to guide us to these historians so that we could make sure of this obvious allegation, otherwise talk is easy.

11)  The strange is that Al-Tijani dismisses Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu)’s fighting against the people who did not give Zakat even though the war happened by the consensus of the Ummah. And on the other hand, you see Al-Tijani standing with Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) in his fight against Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) which the companions disagreed about, did not give the hoped results, and caused the death of thousands of Muslims! Perhaps the reason is his said fairness and his said intelligence!

12) I can give the answer to Al-Tijani’s repeated and insisted question by saying that the party of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was right, and Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was not a despotic, nor a caller to falsehood, but he searched for the truth and did not find it. Therefore, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) is rewarded for his religious interpretation.

None of the two was an oppressor or impious. To fall in guilt, does not slander the justice of the guilty person. Anyway, the justice of the companions, all of them without exception, is taken for granted through the Quran, Sunnah and consensus, and it goes smoothly with rightful logic but it does not, of course, goes smoothly with the false logic which is found in Al-Tijani!

13) If Al-Tijani haven’t had enough of this, then I would be compelled to give him something from his guides, the Imamiyah, what proves that Ali and Mu’awiyah are both rightful in their interpretation. Al-Kulayni mentioned in his book, Al-Rawdah min Al-Kafi – which represents the basis and branches of the Imamiyah sect – from Muhammad Bin Yahya who says: I heard Abu Abdullah peace be upon him saying: “Disagreement of Bani Al-Abbas is unavoidable, the calling is unavoidable, and the coming of the twelfth Imam is unavoidable.” I said: “And how is the calling?” He answered: ‘Someone will call from the heaven in the beginning of the day: “Ali and his party are the winners.”’ He also said: “And someone will call in the end of the day: “Uthman and his party are the winners!”’ [Al-Rawdah min Al-Kafi, p.177, vol.8] 

And here is Ali bin Abi Talib (radhiyallahu anhu) makes a resolution that Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu) and his party are people of Islam and faith, but the case is a matter of interpretation, every person seeing himself on the right path in the matter of Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu). Al-Shareef Al-Ridi mentions in your book “Nahjul Balagha” that Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) said: “In the beginning of our matter, the people of Sham and us met. It is obvious that our God is one, our Prophet is one, and our call in Islam is one. We do not see ourselves more in faith in Allah or more in believing His messenger than them, nor they do. Our matter is one, except for our disagreement in Uthman’s blood, and we are innocent from his murder.” [Nahjul Balagha, vol.3, p.648]

For More Info: Martyrdom of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan (Radhiyallahu Anhu) & the Role Of the Saba’iyyah

Sixth: Al-Tijani’s allegation that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) poisoned Al-Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu), and the answer to this claim:

Al-Tijani says: “How could they judge him a just Companion when he killed al-Hasan, leader of the Heaven’s youth, by poisoning him?” [Then I was Guided, p.121]

And he also says: “How could they judge him like that when he was the one who poisoned al-Hasan ibn Ali, leader of Heaven’s youth? Perhaps they say, “This was an aspect of his ijtihad [interpretation], but he got it wrong!”” [Then I was Guided, p.169]

I say: This claim is false for several reasons:

1. It is not proven, nor there is a clear evidence that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) poisoned Al-Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu). If Al-Tijani has an authentic narration narrated by just people, then let him guide us to it, otherwise he should not charge a Companion without giving a proof for his claim.

2. At those days, people were in an affliction, and their desires leading their instincts, each sect attributing bad things to other sects. If a story was told about that, then we ought not to accept it unless just and trustworthy people narrated it.

3. It is said that the person who poisoned Al-Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu) was not Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) but Al-Hasan’s wife. It is also said her father, Al-Ash’ath bin Qays ordered her to do that. It is also said that it was Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) who ordered her and some say it was Yazeed.

These contradictory stories about who poisoned Al-Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu) weaken these stories because they lack the trustworthy narrators. Al-Tijani did not like anyone of them except Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) although he was the furthermost of the rest from this charge!

4. Intellect would accept Al-Tijani’s arguments in a situation where Al-Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu) refuses to make peace with Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) and wanted to fight Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) for the leadership. But the truth is that Al-Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu) made peace with Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu), and gave him the leadership and the allegiance. Therefore, for what reason would Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) poison Al-Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu)? For these reasons I say that Al-Tijani’s argument has no basis for truth.

Read More: Who Poisoned Hadhrat Hasan (Radhiyallahu Anhu)??

Seventh: Al-Tijani’s claim that Mu’awiyah changed the caliphate from Shoora to a hereditary one, and the answer to this claim:

Al-Tijani says: “How could they judge him as being correct after he had forced the nation to acknowledge him as a caliph and to accept his corrupt son Yazid as his successor, and to change the Shurah [consultative] system to a hereditary one?” [Then I Was Guided, p.121]

Also: “After Ali, Muawiya took over the caliphate and changed it to a hereditary system within Bani Umayya, and after them came Bani al-Abbas where the caliphs succeeded one after the other either by personal nomination [from the previous caliph] or by means of force and seizure of power. From the beginning of the Islamic era until Kamal Ataturk – who abolished the Islamic caliphate – there has been no correct acclamation except that for the Commander of the Believers Ali ibn Abi Talib.” [Then I Was Guided, p.145]

And: “How could they judge his Ijtihad, when he was the one who took the nation’s acclamation for himself by force, then gave it to his son Yazid after him, and changed the Shura system to a hereditary one.” [Then I Was Guided, p.169]

Answer: 

1) Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not take the caliphate by force, but it was given to him by Al-Hasan bin Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) after peace occurred between them. Al-Bukhari narrated in his Saheeh that Al-Hasan Al-Basri (rahimahullah) says: “Narrated Al-Hasan Al-Basri: By Allah, Al-Hasan bin Ali led large battalions like mountains against Mu’awiyah. Amr bin Al-As said (to Mu’awiyah), “I surely see battalions which will not turn back before killing their opponents.” Mu’awiyah who was really the best of the two men said to him, “O ‘Amr! If these killed those and those killed these, who would be left with me for the jobs of the public, who would be left with me for their women, who would be left with me for their children?” Then Mu’awiyah sent two Quraishi men from the tribe of ‘Abd-i-Shams called ‘Abdur Rahman bin Sumura and Abdullah bin ‘Amir bin Kuraiz to Al-Hasan saying to them, “Go to this man (i.e. Al-Hasan) and negotiate peace with him and talk and appeal to him.” So, they went to Al-Hasan and talked and appealed to him to accept peace. Al-Hasan said, “We, the offspring of ‘Abdul Muttalib, have got wealth and people have indulged in killing and corruption (and money only will appease them).” They said to Al-Hasan, “Mu’awiyah offers you so and so, and appeals to you and entreats you to accept peace.” Al-Hasan said to them, “But who will be responsible for what you have said?” They said, “We will be responsible for it.” So, whatever Al-Hasan asked they said, “We will be responsible for it for you.” So, Al-Hasan concluded a peace treaty with Mu’awiyah. Al-Hasan (Al-Basri) said: I heard Abu Bakr saying, “I saw Allah’s Apostle on the pulpit and Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali was by his side. The Prophet ﷺ was looking once at the people and once at Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali saying, ‘This son of mine is a Saiyid (i.e. a noble) and may Allah make peace between two big groups of Muslims through him.”   [Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Book of “Peacemaking,” vol.2, #2557]

2) Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was eager for people’s agreement to give allegiance to his son Yazeed. He resolved to take allegiance to Yazeed as a crown prince. So he consulted the grandest companions, the masters of the people and the district’s governors. They all accepted. Delegations from the districts came with acceptance to give allegiance to Yazeed. Many Companions gave him the allegiance as well. Al-Hafedh Abdul Ghani Al-Maqdisi says: “His (Yazeed’s) caliphate is rightful, sixty of the companions of the Prophet ﷺ gave him the allegiance. Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was one of them.” [Qayd Al-Shareed min Akhbar Yazeed, by Ibn Khaldun, p.70]

It is proven in Saheeh Bukhari that Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) gave allegiance to Yazeed and when the rebellion against Yazeed happened in Al-Madinah, Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) gathered his family and warned them from revolting against Yazeed.

Narrated Nafi’: When the people of Madinah dethroned Yazid bin Muawiya, Ibn ‘Umar gathered his special friends and children and said, “I heard the Prophet ﷺ saying, ‘A flag will be fixed for every betrayer on the Day of Resurrection,’ and we have given the oath of allegiance to this person (Yazid) in accordance with the conditions enjoined by Allah and His Apostle and I do not know of anything more faithless than fighting a person who has been given the oath of allegiance in accordance with the conditions enjoined by Allah and His Apostle, and if ever I learn that any person among you has agreed to dethrone Yazid, by giving the oath of allegiance (to somebody else) then there will be separation between him and me.”) [Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Book of “Afflictions”, vol.7, #6694]

Ibn Al-Zubair and Al-Hussain (radhiyallahu anhum) disagreed on this allegiance but it does not defame this allegiance because it must have some objectors. From this we know that Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) was eager to have the acceptance of the Ummah in giving the allegiance to Yazeed. If Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) wanted to oppress and take the allegiance to Yazeed by force and coercion, as Al-Tijani claims, then Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) would be sufficed by one allegiance and impose it forcibly on people. This Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not do. Whoever wanted to refuse objected and Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not force them to give the allegiance.

1. Perhaps the reason that pushed Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) to take allegiance to Yazeed was to push away the disagreement and to be one in this crucial time at which the Ummah lived and where a lot of people claimed the caliphate. Hence, Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) thought that by giving the leadership to Yazeed would be a good thing for the Ummah and it would prevent another affliction of happening by the agreement of Ahl Al-Hil wa Al-A’qd (A group of people with a degree in religion, manners, and knowledge of people’s situations. They are also called the people of Choosing, people of Shoora, People of Decision, and they are responsible for choosing a leader for the Ummah instead of the common people. Islamic Scholars put some certain conditions to be eligible for this position on Yazeed.

2. Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did not invent a new system for the caliphate by inheriting the leadership to his son Yazeed. Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) was the first to do it when he gave the leadership to Umar bin Al-Khattab (radhiyallahu anhu) did the same when he limited the leadership in six Companions.

If Al-Tijani disputed that leadership was not to sons at the time of Abu Bakr and Umar (radhiyallahu anhum) i.e. hereditary Kingdom, then I would say that the first person to do it was Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) when he gave the leadership to his son Al-Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu).

Al-Kulayni mentioned in his book “Usool Al-Kafi” from Saleem bin Qays who says: “I eye-witnessed the will of the Commander of the Faithful peace be upon him when he gave the leadership to his son Al-Hasan peace be upon him. As witnesses, Ali took Al-Hussain and Muhammad (Al-Hanafiyah) peace be upon both of them and all of this sons, leaders of his party and his household. Then Ali gave Al-Hasan the Book and the weapon…”  [Usool Al-Kafi, vol.1,  p.236, bab “Al-Esharah wa Al-Nas ala Al-Hasan bin Ali alayhima Al-salam”]

3. The Imamiyah Shia originally refuses the idea of Shoora, and claim that the leadership should be stated by the prophet peace be upon him with a clear declaration. Al-Tijani himself repudiated the caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman (radhiyallahu anhum). Therefore, why is he crying on the system of Al-Shura which he himself rejects, and disputes what Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) did by giving the leadership to son Yazeed? If Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) made the leadership a Shura, would Al-Tijani and his Rafidites brothers accept it? Or it does not matter? The answer is that they will not accept it even if it was a Shura from all the Muslims. So why this uproar and the fabricated piety from Al-Tijani on the principle of Al-Shura?

The strangest thing in this matter is that Al-Tijani refuses Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) giving the leadership as an inheritance to his son Yazeed yet the greatest doctrine of the Imamiyah Rafidites is their belief that the leadership is a hereditary in the sons of Ali bin Abi Talib (radhiyallahu anhu) by the father giving the leadership as an inheritance to his son! Is it allowed for them and forbidden on others?

Al-Tijani claims that there had never been a correct allegiance in the history of Islam from the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs until the era of Kemal Ataturk who ended the Islamic Caliphate except the Caliphate of the Commander of the Faithful Ali Bin Abi Talib (radhiyallahu anhu):

This saying is only said by the least person in understanding, the highest person in ignorance, and the most blind-folded. I would say to this Tijani: What supported your false claim? And what are the conditions of a correct allegiance? If you said that the consensus of people is necessary for a correct allegiance, then I would say: Ali bin Abi Talib (radhiyallahu anhu) was the furthest of the three caliphs from consensus. A lot of people disagreed on the caliphate of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), a lot more than who disagreed on the caliphate of the early three caliphates. Wars had been risen between Ali and his opponents and Ali died before achieving Muslim’s unity on allegiance. If you said that the caliphate of the three caliphs was by force, I would say: this is of the biggest lies, and history proves you wrong. You by yourself said that the caliphate was Shura until Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu) turned it into a hereditary system. If the opponents of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) said that Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) wanted the caliphate by force, then their argument would be stronger than yours would because Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) fought for his caliphate until thousand of Muslim bloods were shed. If you claimed that the caliphate of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) is correct because it is proven through hadiths, then I would say: this is a lie too, all of the evidences you represented do not prove that the leadership should be given to Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). If that were true, then Ali would not give allegiance to the three rightly guided Caliphs. The hadiths, which prove Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) as a caliph, is much stronger and more obvious in making the Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) the successor of the Prophet ﷺ. All of Al-Tijani arguments are plain and clear false. It is strange that Al-Tijani who denies the existence of a correct caliphate except for Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), admits the truth in a way he does not know by saying: “From the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs until Kemal Ataturk – who abolished the Islamic caliphate.”

Praise be the Lord how the truth appears from their tongues for the sake of Mu’awiyah (radhiyallahu anhu). By now, I guess I had answered all of the allegations that Al-Tijani represented. Thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.