Category Archives: Purity/Taharat

Are Currency Notes Impure?

Question: One of the ingredients of the British 5 pound note is tallow (beef fat). Explaining the permissibility of performing Salaat with such notes in one’s pocket, a Mufti In the U.K. mentioned as daleel the following three texts from the Kutub of Fiqh:

1) In Al-Fataawa Al-Hindiyyah it is mentioned that if one side of a double-folded cloth is najis (impure), then Salaat on the other side will be valid.

2) “If a woman kindles the tan-dur (an oven in the ground heated with coal or timber), then wipes the (sides of) the oven with a damp najis cloth, then bakes the bread in it, the bread will not be najis if the heat of the fire dries the (impure) moisture before the bread is placed in the oven”. No reference is given. 

3) If the intestines of a dead goat are treated and a person performs Salaat with these intestines on him, the Salaat will be valid……” (Al-Bahrur Raaiq)

On the basis of these masaa-il, the Mufti inferred: “The note is kept in the pocket and the pocket is considered to be an inner lining of the cloth. The ruling is that if the inner layer is impure but the outer layer is pure then Salaat will still be valid.”

Please comment. Are the arguments of the Mufti valid?

Answer by Mujlisul Ulama:

All three arguments presented by the Mufti are invalid. While we agree that it is permissible to perform Salaat with such currency notes in one’s pocket, and that the Salaat is valid, we disagree with his dalai-il. The Mufti did not correctly apply his mind to the texts which he has adduced for his argument of permissibility.

Regarding the first quote from Fataawa Hindiyyah, the Mufti has not cited the full text. The full text stipulates that the doubly folded cloth must not be sewn. If the folded cloth is sewn into a single cloth, then performing Salaat on the other socalled clean side will not be valid. Only if the large cloth is not sewn, may the clean part be folded over the najis portion, or not even folded, but Salaat performed on the clean part. Then only will Salaat be valid.

The second error pertaining to this argument is that it is ludicrous to analogize the pocket in one’s trousers, etc. on the basis of a cloth or a musalla which is not attached to the body or which is not part of a garment on the body. Salaat will not be valid if the pocket is impure. The pocket is a portion of the trousers/kurtah. It is unlike the cloth used as a musalla.

The second citation pertaining to fire being a cleansing agent is not applicable to the tallow ingredient which is not eliminated by whatever melting process is employed. Melting an impure substance does not purify it. The haraam tallow exists as an ingredient. If it is totally eliminated, the intended benefit will not be acquired. It is very much present in the admixture of substances which go into the manufacture of the notes.

The third daleel from Bahrur Raa-iq has no relevance to the issue of the notes. Expulsion of moisture from haraam skins and other items which the Shariah categorizes as ‘skins’, e.g. intestines, bladder, etc., during the tanning and treatment process, renders the skins taahir. The skin is not destroyed or changed into another substance. Only the impurities are expelled from the skins, hence these skins are pure.

In the manufacture of the notes, the tallow is not eliminated. The whole of the tallow is impure. Assuming that the moisture from the tallow is expelled, then too the tallow will remain haraam.

The simple daleel for permissibility is the real need (dhuroorat). This principle obviates and makes unnecessary the lengthy labyrinthal arguments presented by the Mufti.

 

CLEANLINESS IN ISLAM

By Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi

Cleanliness and purification is one of the great privileges of Islam. It has evolved a wonderful system that encompasses Muslim life on individual and social levels. Islam places great emphasis on cleanliness, in both physical and spiritual terms. The attention to hygiene is the aspect which is an unknown concern in any other religion or philosophy before Islam. While people generally consider cleanliness a desirable attribute, Islam insists on it, making it an indispensable fundamental of faith. Cleanliness is an essential part of Islamic life and in fact the meaning and spirit behind the concept of cleanliness is much beyond the superficial concept of the conventional cleanliness.

In the Holy Quran, there are a number of verses which shed light at the importance of cleanliness: “Truly, Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean.” (Al Baqarah 2:222) At another place Allah says: “In it (Masjid) are men who love to clean and to purify themselves. And Allah loves those who make themselves clean and pure.” (9:108) Cleanliness and purity has been emphasized by various means in hundreds of Hadith of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. In a Hadith Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said: Cleanliness is half of faith. (Sahih Muslim Book 2, Number 0432)

The importance of cleanliness can be estimated from the fact that the books of Hadith as well as the Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) start with a chapter on cleanliness. There are two terms used in Islamic literature: taharah and nazafah. Taharah (Cleanliness from physical impurities) is required by Islam to be observed by each and every Muslim in his and her daily life while nazafah (neatness) is a desirable attribute.

There are two kinds of cleanliness; physical and spiritual. As far as physical cleanliness is concerned, it is of two types. One which is related to human body and the other is related to environment, water, house, road and public places. Muslims are required to observe cleanliness from forms of excretions and require compulsory modes of cleanliness. Muslims wash their after passing urine and secretion. Muslims are also enjoined to use water, not paper or anything else after eliminating body wastes.

A Muslim is obliged to make ablution if exposed to minor impurities. This means he must wash off those parts of the body (like hand, feet, face, nostrils etc) which are commonly exposed to dust, dirt and environmental pollution. Before every prayer (at least five times a day) and before recital of the Quran, Muslims are asked to perform this ablution. Likewise, Muslims are enjoined to have a Ghusl (bathe) for certain excretions and secretions. While at many other occasions, bathing is recommended as for Friday prayer, festival days, in Hajj etc.

Muslims are duty bound to keep the nails clipped and to remove unwanted hair as a matter of routine practice. Islam has directed attention in taking care of mouth by using any purifying agent like miswak. Brushing the teeth (once or twice a day) is very recent development of near past, but Muslims are accustomed this herbal brush for the past 1400 years, five times a day with each ablution. There are a number of Hadith that lay special stress on cleaning the teeth, hands and hair.

Apart from the body, Islam requires a Muslim to keep his clothes, houses and streets clean. In fact a Muslim cannot offer his prayers with an unclean body, clothes or using dirty premises. They are asked to use clean water and keep it safe from impurities and pollution. The particular chapter of taharah starts with the classification of water and goes on to describe how water gets impure or polluted.

Moreover, Islam instructed Muslims to maintain the cleanliness of the roads and streets. This is considered a charity to ridding the streets of impurities and filth. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam strictly warned against it and considered it one of the reasons to provoke Allah’s curse and the people’s curse, saying: “Beware of the three acts that cause others to curse you: relieving yourselves in a watering place, on foot paths or shaded places.” (Abu Dawud, No 26)

Apart from physical cleanliness, Islam emphasizes on spiritual cleanliness. This means that one is free from polytheism, hypocrisy and ill manners, love of wealth, love of fame and other carnal desires. The emphasis in Islam is more on the cleanliness of the inner-self that is heart, mind and soul. The external cleaning process and rituals in reality are the preparatory ground work to obtain the more important task and that is cleanliness of the inner-self, which is the ultimate goal of the religion. Islam requires the sincere believer to sanitize and purify his entire way of life. The directives of Zakah (alms) and fasting are nothing but to purify ones wealth and soul.

Cleanliness is the pathway to health and strength. Islam wants a healthy and strong Muslim society which is immune against infectious diseases and is capable of understanding and applying Allahs’s message and carrying it away to the whole world. The Holy Quran says: You are the best community that hath been raised up for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing In Allah. (Surah Aal-Imran, 3/110)

In view of the significance of cleanliness in Islam, Muslims should have the highest standard of cleanliness and personal hygiene of all the people in the world. But, it is highly regrettable that the heap of garbage has become an identity of Muslim homes and localities. The Muslim majority areas are marked with unhygienic and unhealthy conditions.

Socialization Desensitizes Imaan

By Mujlisul Ulama

Intermingling with the kuffaar has completely desensitized the Imaan of Muslims. All Imaani inhibitions for kufr, fisq and fujoor have been effaced from the hearts of the vast majority of the Muslim Ummah. Socializing, fraternizing, dining and frolicking with them have become completely acceptable. But these spiritually destructive activities are severely proscribed in the Qur’aan and Ahaadith which state that those who befriend and fraternize with the kuffaar are of them.

Muslims are no longer concerned with the harm they are causing their Imaan by consuming the foods of non-Muslims. Even if the food is halaal, it should not be accepted from the hands of non-Muslims whom the Qur’aan describe as “Rijs”, nor should their utensils be utilized even after having been washed. While washing cleanses the utensils from physical impurities,  the athar (effect/ impression) of kufr remains and constitutes a spiritual detriment.

Even when going for Hajj and Umrah, Muslims conduct themselves as non-Muslims on the planes, especially regarding food. They consume the haraam food served in kuffaar utensils by the hands of immoral personnel. Imaan cannot withstand such assaults which contaminate and emaciate it. Imaan is a valuable and an extremely delicate treasure which is quickly affected and darkened by Rijs –filth – whether physical or spiritual.

The skins of wild beasts if tanned and treated are halaal and taahir (clean). Nevertheless, Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) forbade sitting on it because the beastly athar remains in the skins and this can adversely affect the spirituality of the Muslim. Yet Muslims eat from the very same utensils in which haram food, pork and wine are served. This is the norm on planes, in hotels and other public venues where Muslims frequent and acquit themselves in kuffaar manner.

The plane journey is a few hours. There is no imperative need to constrain eating from the contaminated utensils. Muslims should take along lunch for the journey, and refrain from eating anything of the food served on the plane. The importance of halaal and tayyib food can be understood from the Qur’aanic Aayat:

“O Rusul (Messengers)! Consume halaal-tayyib (foods) and do virtuous deeds.”

The ingestion of contaminated food even if halaal from the legal (Fiqhi) angle, pollutes Imaan and destroy the spiritual fibre of the Mu’min.

KUFFAAR UTENSILS

(By Hadhrat Mufti Muhammad Shafi)

“Discarding all the conditions for the permissibility of utilizing the utensils of the kuffaar, Muslims have adopted such recklessness in this regard which harms their Deen and their dunya. (The reckless utilization of the utensils and consumption of their food causes Imaani damage – The Majlis).

Muslims no longer exercise any caution when using the utensils and other items of the kuffaar. This applies in general to dealings with non-Muslims, and in particular with Hindus. (Hadhrat Mufti Muhammad Shafi –Rahmatullah alayh – mentions Hindus in particular due to the naseehat initially having been for Indian Muslims – The Majlis).

Muslims are unnecessarily using the utensils and items of Hindus despite them being aware  that these people (the Hindu mushrikeen) consider some impurities such as cow urine and cow dung to be not only pure, but are also purifiers. Similarly, other kuffaar in general whilst having some regard for cleanliness, have no concept of Tahaarat and Najaasat.

As long as Muslim utensils are available, the utensils of non-Muslims should not be used. (Siyarul Kabeer, Alamghiri, etc.).”

Comment (by Mujlisul Ulama): Modernists and even these juhala molvis and sheikhs of today, will argue unrestricted permissibility to justify using the utensils of kuffaar. They will relegate the conditions of permissibility into oblivion in the very same way that they turn a blind eye and a stupid brain to the conditions for the initial permissibility of women attending the Musaajid.

 

The Benefits of Wudhu (Ablution)

By Mujlisul Ulama

Wudhu is not a mere worldly act of washing. In addition to its function of physical cleanliness it is an act of ibaadat of considerable virtue. When the Shar’i rules related to Wudhu are observed, the effect is not only physical purity, but spiritual purity as well. Sins are washed away with the water.

The spiritual dimension of Wudhu comes into effect when the Sunnah method is observed. The Sunnah method comprises of the niyyat, the specific way of washing, the recitation of the Masnoon duas, etc. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) emphasised the observance of a `Beautiful’ Wudhu. As a result of a Beautiful Wudhu the body parts washed during Wudhu will glitter with a wonderful noor in Qiyaamah. By means of this noor, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) will recognize the members of his Ummah among the vast multitudes in the plains of Qiyaamah, It therefore does not behove Muslims to destroy the wonderful and beneficial effects of this simple and easy act of ibaadat. Most Muslims nowadays deprive themselves of the great thawaab and benefit of wudhu because of their western life-style. Wudhu is generally made in bathrooms. But almost all Muslims living in the western world and even the innumerable Muslims banefully affected by westernism in the eastern world make wudhu in the toilet. The bathroom and toilet in western style are located in the same cubicle. Since the toilet is the abode of najaasat (impurity) it is not permissible to recite the Masnoon Duas and the Kalimah, etc. in such a place.

A toilet remains a place of najaasat irrespective of its style and clean appearance and regardless of the detergents and aerosols used to maintain its cleanliness. It is essentially a place of impurity which has an attraction for the shayaateen, hence the dua which we have to recite before entering the toilet is a supplication seeking Allah’s protection from male and female shayaateen which inhabit places of najaasat. Every Muslim has certain Angels of Rahmat which accompany him/her at all times. They separate themselves from a person only when he/she is engaged in sexual relations and when in the toilet. No matter how clean the toilet may be, the Malaaikah do not enter it. The shayaateen visit such places. The Masnoon Duas, Kalimah and Durood which should be recited while engaged in Wudhu may therefore not be recited verbally. Muslims should ponder and understand the great spiritual deprivation they are suffering by having adopted the stupid, filthy and un-Islamic styles of the kuffaar.

Some Ulama argue that in view of the high standard of `cleanliness’ of modern toilets where the impurity does not remain, but is flushed away, it is permissible to recite the Masnoon duas while taking Wudhu. If this is indeed as they are claiming, it will follow that the Malaaikah will join a person into the modern toilet.

Then there no longer remains the need to recite the Masnoon Dua on entering the toilet, for it will be meaningless to seek Allah’s protection against shayaateen because the Malaaikah and the shayaateen do not co-exist in the same place. In terms of the logic of these Ulama it will mean that the Masnoon Dua for entry into the toilet has become redundant in view of the clean’ look of the western toilet. But this is baseless. In fact, the Masnoon toilet dua should be recited even if one answers the call of nature in an open field.

The Fuqaha have ruled that a place made for najaasat is impure and it is not permissible to recite duas or tasbeeh in such a place. In Raddul Muhtaar it is said:

“Verily in a place made for najaasat, qira’t [of Athkaar, Tasbeeh and Tahleel] is Makrooh (i.e. Makrooh Tahrimi).”

It is necessary that Muslims alter the structure of their bathroom-toilet by separating the two so that they may gain the wonderful rewards and benefits of the Ibaadat of Wudhu.

AHKAM (Laws) OF THE MA’ZOOR

By Mujlisul Ulama

DEFINITION OF MA’ZOOR

A person who, due to some illness, etc. continously remains in the state of impurity, being to remain in the state of taharah (purity) long enough unable to perform Salat, is called a Ma’zoor.

Once a person qualifies as a Ma’zoor, he/she has to perform Salat even in the state of impurity. Because of his/her helpless condition, he/she is excused from the normal state of purity. Ma’zoor means an ‘excused’ person.

When does one become a Ma’zoor?

One will become a Ma’zoor only if the state of impurity initially lasts for one complete duration of Salat. If throughout this time, blood or urine, etc., flowed or dripped continuously, not enabling one to make wudhu and perform the Fardh Salat with taharat (purity), then one will be known as a Ma’zoor and the Ahkam of the Ma’zoor will become applicable.

The time when the cause of continous impurity (e.g. wound from which blood flows, dripping of urine, etc.) developed, will not be taken into consideration in determining whether a person has become a Ma’zoor. The time will be reckoned from the Salat time immediately following the Salat in which the wound, etc. was sustained. Example:

During Zuhr time, one sustained an injury which caused bleeding. The bleeding was continuous. One shall now have to wait until the approach of the end of Zuhr time, i.e. until so much time remains that the Fara-idh of Wudhu and four raka’te Fardh Salat could be performed. When this much time remains before the ending of Zuhr time then make Wudhu even while the bleeding contihues and perform the four rakat of Fardh of Zuhr.

However, one has not yet become a Ma’zoor since one complete Salat duration has not passed.

Now if the bleeding continues for the full Asr time which follows immediately after the ending of the Zuhr time in which the bleeding commenced, one will be known as a Ma’zoor.

If during this Asr tifne (i.e. the Asr time in which the bleeding started) the bleeding stopped long enough to enable one to make Wudhu (i.e. only the Fara-idh of Wudhu) and the Fardh Salat,’ then one will not be a Ma’zoor.

If after having qualified as a Ma’zoor, the bleeding stopped for any length of time but not stopping completely for one Salat “time – and then resumes, one will still be regarded as a Ma’zoor, e.g. In the example given above, one became a Ma’zoor at the end of Asr time. During Maghrib time, the bleeding ceased for some tiime and then resumed. This cessation of bleeding will not be taken into consideration. One will still be a Ma’zoor.

After qualifying as a Ma’zoor, one will remain a Ma’zoor as long as the bleeding, etc. does not stop for one full Salat time.

Upon becoming a Ma’zoor, it is not necessary for the bleeding to be continuous in the succeeding Salat times. In the succeeding Salat times, it will suffice, if the bleeding was for just a moment for one to contihue as a Ma’zoor.

THE MA’ZOOR’S TAHARAT

A Ma’zoor shall take wudhu for every Fardh Salat. When the time for performing Salat, Wudhu should be made. The wudhu of a Ma’zoor remains valid for the duration of the Salat tune. Example: During Asr time, a Ma’zoor made wudhu for performing Asr Salat. This wudhu will remain valid throughout the Asr duratibn. When Asr time expires, the wudhu will become null. All Nawaqidh-e-Wudhu (factors which break Wudhu) besides the factor responsible for making one a Ma’zoor, will nullify the Wudhu of a Ma’zoor. Example: A person became a Ma’zoor as a result of continuous bleeding from a particular wound. This person made wudhu for Salat, but before performing Salat, he/she bled from another wound or had to answer the call of nature. These other acts will now break the Ma’zoor’s wudhu although the bleeding from the particular wound will not. Wudhu made by a Ma’zoor will become null after sunrise. If the Ma’zoor wishes to perform any Salat after sunrise, wudhu will again have to be made. The Ma’zoor’s wudhu taken after sunrise will remain valid for Zuhr Salah: This wudhu taken after sunrise will end only with the expiry of Zuhr time. The Ma’zoor may perform any type of Salat With his/her wudhu, be it Fardh, Sunnat, Witr and Nafl.The Ma’zoor can touch the Quran Shareef with his/her Wudhu.

THE CLOTHING AND BODY OF THE MA’ZOOR BEING SOILED BY BLEEDING ETC.

The following two rules will apply to the soiled body and garment of the Ma’zoor.

If the soiled garment – soiled by the bleeding, urine, etc – be washed, but will again become soiled before the Salat could be completed, then it is not obligatory to wash it. Salat could be performed with such soiled garment. If, however, the garment or body will not soil so quickly, and one will be able to perform and complete the Salat With  (pure) garments and body, then it will be Wajib to wash the soiled parts when the extent of the najasat (impurity) becomes more than the size of a dirham (dirham’s size is the area of the hollow in the palm of the hand.)

IMAMATE OF A MA’ZOOR

It is not permissible for a Ma’zoor to become the Imam of a jamat (congregation) if all or some of the Muqtadis (congregante) are not Ma’zoor.