Category Archives: Quran

The Preservation of Islamic Scripture

By Sharif Abu Laith

The preservation of Islamic scripture has no precedence in any other culture, civilisation or religion.

It stands as unique and although the details can be complex this complexity actually proves how Muslims were meticulous over their preservation.

They went to the nth degree debating critiquing and developing a systematic methodology in order to ensure Islam was preserved.

I want to give some brief examples just to emphasise this point

1. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would have designated scribes who were tasked in recording the revelations. We know their names, their lineage and their biographies. We also know the Prophet (saw) would check the memorisation and the recitation of the revelation, both the Quran and his sunnah.

2. The sahaba would ensure that if anybody departed from what they knew of the revelation they’d check with the prophet (saw) as we saw in numerous ahadith in which sahaba who recited the Quran in the different readings would return back to the prophet (saw) to check whether such recitations were correct.

3. After the prophet (saw) we saw the sahaba undertake a great effort to ensure the written verses of the Quran were brought together into one mushhaf (book). They would ensure that those who wrote down the Quran would bring two witnesses before Zaid ibn thabit (a scribe of the prophet and Hafiz of Quran) that testified that this written parchment was written in front of the prophet (saw) AND that this written form was in accordance to the collective recitation of the generation of the sahaba. This took place within a year after the prophet (saw).

4. Within 25 years after Hijra, Uthman (ra) recommissioned Zaid ibn thabit (ra) to reproduce the mushhaf of the Quran to be sent to the different regions of the khilafah. Not just one mushhaf with one reading but multiple copies that encompassed all the readings of the Quran. Uthman (ra) sent not only these canonised mushhaf but also a hafiz and qari to recite from this mushhaf to ensure that the different regions had the correct recitation and the divinely revealed scripture before them.

5. In the sunnah the sahaba would cross reference a hadith narrated by a companion with other companions eg when Umar (ra) asked Abu musa al Ansari (ra) to bring a witness that the prophet (saw) said to knock three times and if no answer then to leave. And he brought Muhammad bin maslama to testify that he also heard this.

6. The early generation of the Muslims from the time of the sahaba began developing the script of the Arabic language to make it easy for non native Arabs to recite the Quran and thus prevent any distortion in its reading. From the diacritical marks above the consonance to help with the vowelisation to the development of the script (orthography) and evening the ordering of the alphabet. Again all done to preserve the Quran and sunnah and it’s meanings.

6. The early Muslims (again began in the time of the sahaba) began collecting the vocabulary of the Arabic language developing dictionary of terms.

7. Within the first century the codification began of the Arabic grammar and morphology to ensure that the Arabic language doesn’t evolve beyond the rules and grammar of the Arabic spoken at the time of the prophet (saw).

8. The Muslims developed and codified the science of rhetoric (Ilmul balaagha) which meant in part the collection of pre Islamic poetry and the manner of language spoken by the Bedouin Arabs who had little interaction with other non Arab civilisations and cultures. Preserving the rhetoric of the language and it’s idioms again fixed the language and thus fixed the meaning found within the Quran and sunnah.

9. The Muslims developed the isnad system and the science of Hadith and narrations. Thus they subdivided reports into different categories from ghareeb, aziz, mashhur and mutawattir. They classified these reports through analysis of the type of chains, the narrators in these chains and the reports mentioned by these narrators into four general classes. This became known as uloomul Hadith

10. They laid down criteria to distinguish between irregular readings of the Quran to the standard ones. Thus they said that a standard reading is one which has a chain going back to the prophet (saw), that conformed to the rules of the Arabic language, that was in conformity to the uthmanic mushhaf and that the particular reading was mutawattir. Hence they were able to lay down the seven different categories of divinely revealed variant readings. So for example they were able to distinguish between Malik and maalik as standard readings from malaka as shadh (irregular) reading in surah Fatiha.

This is just some of what they did to preserve the scripture and meanings found in the Quran and sunnah. And we haven’t mentioned the many thousands of huffaz there were in both the Quran and also ahadith.

Now compare this to any other civilisation or religion. Was there anything that approached this level of meticulousness? Were there schools developed just on grammar? Or an detailed isnad system? Or the canonisation of the readings of the Quran?

And just for comparison, we have the New Testament in which we have little to no knowledge of who the gospel writers are. And a gap of decades between the life of Jesus (as) to the first authored gospel

where we do not know who these gospel writers took their information nor whether any methodology was used to distinguish between weak and strong reports.

So what we have is more authentic than Shakespeares plays, or the text of the magna carta or the Iliad or the British national anthem.

It’s really something to contemplate upon and what level Islam was preserved and all of this effort was done because the early Muslims sincerely believed in the revelation and to ensure absolutely no distortion or human element crept into the divinely revealed scriptures of the Quran and the sunnah.

In this there’s evidence for Islam’s divine origin for if Islam was a human invention why would they have gone into such immense and detailed effort to ensure it remains preserved and free of human distortion?

And even after all of this we have the divine protection from Allah swt.

“Indeed, We have revealed the Dhikr and We will surely be its guardian.” [Qur’ān 15: 9]

THE VIRTUES OF SURAH YAASEEN

Hadhrat ‘Ataa’ bin Abi Ribaah, (Radhiyallahu anhu) says that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said, “Whoever reads surah Yaaseen in the’beginning of the day, all his needs for that day are fulfilled.”

Many merits of surah Yaaseen are mentioned in ahadith. It is said in one hadith, “Everything has a heart, and the heart of the Glorious Qur’an is surah Yaaseen. Whoever reeds surah. Yaaseen, Almighty Allah records for him a reward equal to that of reading’ the whole Qur’an ten times.”

According to another Hadith Almighty Allah recited surah Yaaseen and surah Taahaa one thousand years before the creation of Heaven and Earth, and on hearing this the angels said, “Blessing’ is for the ummat unto whom the Qur’an will be sent down, blessing is for the hearts that will bear, ie. memorize it, and blessing is for the tongues that will recite it.”

There is another narration, “Whoever reads surah Yaaseen for the pleasure of Allah only, all his earlier sins are forgiven. Therefore, make a practice of reading this surah over your dead.”

According to one hadith, surah Yaaseen is named in the Torah as Mun’imah (giver of good things), because it contains benefits for its reader in this life as well as in the Hereafter; it removes from him the afflictions of this world and the next and takes away the dread of the next life.

This ‘surah’ is also known as ‘Raafi’ah Khaafidhaah’, ie., that which exalts the status of the believers and degrades the unbelievers. According to a riwaayat, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, “My heart desires that surah Yaaseen should be present in the heart of every one of my ummat.”

According to another hadith, if anybody recites surah Yaaseen every night and then dies, he dies as a shaheed (martyr).

It is reported in another hadith“Whoever reads surah Yaaseen, is forgiven; whoever reads it in hunger, is satisfied; whoever reads it having lost his way finds the way; whoever reads it on losing an animal finds the same. And when one reads it apprehending that his food will run short, that food becomes sufficient. And if one reads it beside a person who is in the throes of death, the same are made easy for him. And if anyone reads it on a woman experiencing difficulty in child-birth, her delivery becomes easy.”

Maqri (Rahmatullah alaih) said, “If surah Yaaseen is read by one who fears the ruler or an enemy, he gets rid of this fear.”

According to another hadith, if somebody reads surah Yaaseen and surah Was-Saaffaat on Friday and begs of Allah something, his prayer is granted.

(Most of the above has been drawn from Mazaahir-e-Haq, though the scholars of hadith have questioned some of the riwaayaat).

Source: Fazaa’il e Aamaal

Response to the Christian Lie: “Allah is a Pagan God”

The claim that Allah is the pagan God because Pagans of Pre-Islamic era used this word for the Supreme Deity of their pantheon is a typical case of Non Sequitur, not just this it’s a hilarious one.

[By brother Sahel Ansary]

• the concept of ‘Allah’

Allah literally translates as “The God” or “The Deity” “The one worthy of worship” it’s a concept and every theistic worldview will by definition have this concept due to the fact it’s a theistic worldview otherwise why would you call it a theistic worldview if it doesn’t have the concept of God?
So if Pagans used this concept for their supreme deity doesn’t mean the concept becomes pagan.

Different worldview use same concepts for different things.

For example the concept of God in Islam and Christianity is different but both of these are concepts of God.

They both use the word God even when they mean different things.

• Etymology of the word Allah.

It’s the consensus of scholars that word Allah is the contraction of the definite particle “Al” and “Ilah” which becomes Al-Ilah.

It literally means – The God, even though this english translation can’t do justice with its deeper meanings in a fair manner but we get an approximate idea of what does it mean.

It means “The God” not “a god”, the deity, not a deity.

Cognates of the name “Allāh” exist in other Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic. The corresponding Aramaic form is Elah ( אלה ), but its emphatic state is Elaha ( אלהא ). It is written as ܐܗܠܐ (ʼĔlāhā) in Biblical Aramaic and ܐܵܗܵܠܲܐ (ʼAlâhâ) in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church, both meaning simply “God”. Biblical Hebrew mostly uses the plural (but functional singular) form Elohim ( אלהים ‏) , tub erom ylerar ti osla sesu eht ralugnis mrof haolE ‏( אלוהּ ).

How can Allah be a Pagan God when this word has cognates in different languages and has been used by Monotheists even before Islam?

• Christians of Pre- Islamic Era

Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by Arab Christians in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal in Northern Jordan, which contained references to Allah as the proper name of God, and some of the graves contained names such as “Abd Allah” which means “the servant/slave of Allah”.

The name Allah can be found countless times in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia, as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the Himyarite and Aksumite kingdoms.

A Christian leader named Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad was martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a ring that said “Allah is my lord”.

In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references to Allah can be found in both Arabic and Aramaic, which called him “Allah” and “Alaha”, and the inscription starts with the statement “By the Help of Allah”.

In pre-Islamic Gospels, the name used for God was “Allah”, as evidenced by some discovered Arabic versions of the New Testament written by Arab Christians during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and Southern Arabia.

Pre-Islamic Arab Christians have been reported to have raised the battle cry “Ya La Ibad Allah” (O slaves of Allah) to invoke each other into battle.

“Allah” was also mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems by some Ghassanid and Tanukhid poets in Syria and Northern Arabia.

So if Allah was a pagan God, Christians would have never used it but they did therefore one more point against this so called Pagan God claim.

• English word God

Even the english word God is said to have been originated in ancient Pagan Tribes way before before this word was ever used by Monotheists.

“A significant number of scholars have connected this root with the names of three related Germanic tribes: the Geats, the Goths and the Gutar. These names may be derived from an eponymous chieftain Gaut, who was subsequently deified”

But nobody says “God is Pagan God” because it’s a Circular sentence, if God is Pagan God then who is God? You can replace the word God with “Pagan God” and it’ll become “Pagan God is Pagan God” and it’s obvious, but who’s God? you can now insert pagan God inside this sentence and it’ll lead to an Ad Infinitum of Pagan Pagan Pagan Pagan God is Pagan Pagan ……. But it’ll still not answer who is God because the sentence is meaningless.

• What about Zeus?

The word Zeus does not denote the concept of God/Deity, Zeus is a deity, Zeus doesn’t mean a deity.

Zeus could be or could not be a deity.
It’s possible that Zeus is not God, but God is God is a tautological truth, the negation of which is contradiction.
The difference between Zeus and Allah is that Zeus is a god of Greeks, Allah means The God.

Zeus is a particular identity of a god, Allah is a concept, which means The Deity.

To understand who is Zeus you have to know what is the concept of God itself, because Zeus is a particular identity to the concept of God.

For example, BMW is a particular Car, but Car means Car, every particular car is built upon the concept of Car.

Zeus is a particular, Allah is Universal.

• How Islam defines this concept?

How Islam defines this concept is diametrically opposite to how pagans defined this concept of Supreme Deity.

The fundamental doctrine of Islam is Tawheed and it is stated in the Shahada
“There is not god but The God”

Islam denies all particulars that are associated with the concept of God, it says Only The God is God, a tautological truth, not X, Y, Z.

Islam says there’s nothing like unto Him, He’s Unique, Transcendental, Absolute, He doesn’t beget nor is He begotten, everything which exists or you can imagine is contingent except Him.

After all this, It’s unimaginable to me how can someone have the audacity to say Allah is a pagan God? It’s like saying “The God is a Pagan God” which is meaningless.

THE HYPOCRITE QAARIS – TRADING THE QUR’AAN FOR A MISERABLE MONETARY PRICE

QUESTIONS

(1) A Brother queries:

The trend of paying a qaari for Qur’aan recital is becoming more common. The payment for his recital is per qiraat. It excludes flights, meals, accommodation, tours, etc. Is it correct for a Qaari to have a set fee per recital? Is it permissible to contribute to such a fee? Is it permissible to attend such programs?

(2) Another Brother says:

I am sending an article by Bashir Patel and Zaheer Zardaad. The hypocrisy is outrageous. Please comment on the hypocrisy of today’s qaaris.  (The article by Qaari Bashir Patel is reproduced hereunder –The Majlis)

(3) A third Brother states:

Apparently a qaari whom The Majlis had banged some time ago wrote this (the reference is to Qaari Bashir Patel’s article appearing hereunder – The Majlis). Some people jumped down his throat for exposing this (treachery of trading the Qur’aan for miserable monetary gain – The Majlis).

There was supposed to have been a Qiraat program this week (December 2019) in Gauteng, but was cancelled when the public heard of the exorbitant amount the hosts had to pay the qaari. There is currently an Egyptian qaari in South Africa engaging in the qiraat business. Perhaps The Majlis can comment on this.

Bashir Patel’s article

PAY UP, OR NO QUR’AN ENTERTAINMENT!!

(The Scourge of Qaris for Hire)

By Qari Basheer Patel

A rose by another name is a rose – a fee by another name is a fee.

In the last 2 decades an ill has crept into our society where we pay visiting qurra for reciting the quran. This trend progressed and some local qurra began charging for their recitals. This was followed by speakers charging for their talks. To crown all this, agents or middlemen sprung up and started placing markups! (can we imagine the masjid mutawallis making a cut before paying the imam, muazzin or teachers?) we’ll call that theft!

Many of us try to justify this in various ways:

We call it a gift. Is a gift anticipated, forget stipulated.

Do we set up collection drives for forwarding gifts?

Do I refuse to recite if I’m not guaranteed a gift?

When these questions can’t be answered, we say, “we’re paying for his time”. Its now very confusing. Are we giving him a gift (which comes without having to render a service) or are we paying a fee for his ‘time’ (which is after rendering a service), as he also has a family to support?

The concept of paying for his ‘time’ is flawed in itself. Later scholars permitted the paying of teachers, imams and muazzins saying saying that we’re paying for time and not deeni knowledge. This was due to fear of slowly losing deeni knowledge as people will be busy earning their livelihood and find no time in teaching us deen. So it was allowed through necessity. In the case of a visiting qari, does that fear exist?

Secondly, is his time worth $1500 per hour whereas your imam doesn’t earn that in a month? Worse off is the muazzin who often doesn’t earn that in a year and even worse than that is the Apa who taught you and me how to read Quran in the maktab. Haven’t they families to support? My suggestion to such a qari, “don’t leave your job if you can’t afford the time out”.

To my people, if we really need them, then look at the average daily wage we pay our imams and pay him that for each day + his economy travel and average accommodation.

Who brings value to our lives?

Today I sit as a qari through whom students graduate. الحمد لله I learnt by an Apa called my mother. Like me there hundreds of huffaz who learn basics from other apas who were not their mothers. Is their time not valuable?

Unlike the imam, muazzin or apa, what service did he render?

Quran is not for entertainment. It is for pondering over the message. You don’t need someone to read in the nahawand rhythm for that. Ask your child to read to you. He’ll become proficient, you’ll be rewarded and it’s FREE, and who knows – he’ll be a qari 1 day! Maybe he’ll perform the taraweeh and I’ll be inspired by listening to him!

Secondly, do we pay our local qurra those amounts? Do they have families to support? (i ask this although I disagree with paying them as well, and teach my students to read without any desire for payment).

Ibn Taymiyyah (RH) mentions that sahabah would gather in the masjid and ask one of them to start reciting while others follow. Can anyone tell me how much that sahabi was paid?

Let’s not be naive and make excuses for wrong.

Quran is nafl ibadah and not a service to be charged for.

(End of Qaari Bashir’s article)

============================

THE SPURIOUS AND STUPID JUSTIFICATION OF A MORON. MUNAAFIQ QAARI

In justification and vindication of   the evil of selling qiraat for vile monetary gain by these devilish qaaris who will be the consumers of the pus of Jahannam’s inmates, one moron qaari presents the following absolutely spurious and stupid arguments:

1) Great qurraa like Sh. Abdul Baasit, Sh Mustafa Ishmaeel had also charged for their recitation.

2) Taking money for a recitation is permissible.

3) Qurraa take the money to support their own and extended families

4) The economy in Egypt is not forthcoming in providing appropriate revenue for professions.

The response for these stupidities follows hereunder.

THE COMMENTS OF RASULULLAH

(Sallallahu alayhi wasallam)

About these scoundrel mercenary qaaris who trot the globe selling their qiraat for miserable monetary gains, Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

1)         “Most of the munaafiqeen of my Ummah are its qaaris.”

2) “Seek the protection of Allah from Jubbul Huzun (The Pit of Grief).” The Sahaabah asked: “O Rasulullah! What is Jubbul Huzun?” Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“It is a Valley in Jahannam. Daily Jahannam itself seeks Allah’s protection (from the intense heat of this Pit) 400 times.”

The Sahaabah asked:  “Who will enter it?” Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The qaaris who flaunt their deeds. Verily, the most detestable qaaris by Allah are those who visit the umaraa (the rulers and the wealthy).”

3)  “Recite the Qur’aan. Do not eat with it.”

That is: Do not make the recital of the Qur’aan a source of livelihood.

These three Ahaadith describe the status of these miserable qaaris who have made the Qiraat of Qur’aan a commodity for earning haraam money. Allah Ta’ala revealed the Qur’aan Majeed for the hidaayat of mankind, not for manipulating and mutilating it for the sake of miserable, haraam remuneration in the manner perpetrated by these touring qaaris. They extort haraam money, and their hosts are complicit in this despicable robbery and looting in which the Qur’aan Majeed is used as the device for the acquisition of the haraam boodle.

There is Ijma’ (Consensus) of all the Fuqaha of all Math-habs on the prohibition of charging money for Qiraat. Paying a qaari for tilaawat of the Qur’aan (qiraat-selling) should not be confused with paying an Ustaadh for teaching the Qur’aan.Whilst even the latter is per se haraam, dire need (Dhuroorat) constrained the Muta-akh-khir Fuqaha to issue the Fatwa of permissibility. This was to safeguard the Deen.  Therefore,  if today an Ustaadh is self-sufficient, having an independent source of income, then it will not be permissible for him to  accept a wage  for teaching the Qur’aan or teaching Fiqh or Hadith or any branch of Deeni Ilm. He has to revert to the original law of the Shariah.

These qaaris are utterly shameless in their haraam trading of the Qur’aan Majeed. When Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam), himself had described them as ‘munaafiqeen’, then what else other than such flagrant mutilation of the Qur’aan Majeed can be expected from these scoundrels who fail to understand the Fire they are ingesting into their obese bellies.

It is extremely insulting to intelligence to even respond to the stupid arguments of the moron qaari who attempts, albeit stupidly and abortively, to vindicate the despicable shaitaani trade of these miserable qaaris. Nevertheless, since the public (awaamun naas) is generally plagued by the disease of moronity, and the ignorant ones are quickly misled and deceived by even ludicrous stupidities, we feel constrained to respond.

The first stupidity

The moron says: Great qurraa like Sh. Abdul Baasit, Sh Mustafa Ishmaeel had also charged for their recitation.

Response

In which field of life were these qaaris ‘great’? Shaitaan is also ‘great’ in his sphere of life. The qaaris who were ‘great’ in the estimate of the moron held no pedestal in the firmament of Ilm and Taqwa. They were not authorities of the Shariah. They were globe trotters pursuing the boodle in the same way as the qaaris of today. All of them are equal in trading the Qur’aan Majeed for a miserable price.

These supposedly ‘great’ qaaris and today’s moron qaaris are all signs of Qiyaamah. Among the Signs of Qiyaamah according to the Hadith is that scholars for dollars will pursue the dunya and the dollars with the a’maal (acts of ibaadat) of the Aakhirah. A’maal, the objective of which is Allah’s Pleasure and reward in the Aakhirah will be practised for despicable nafsaani and worldly / monetary gains. These qaaris are a manifestation of this Sign of Qiyaamah.

Tilaawat of the Qur’aan is an amal for gaining success in the Aakhirah and for Allah’s Pleasure, but these miserable specimens of humanity are trampling recklessly on the Qur’aan Majeed for the sake of the haraam boodle.

By what stretch of brains and Shar’i logic can the haraam misdeeds of Abdul Baasit, etc. be presented in justification of the haraam misdeeds of their moron minions of today? The misdeeds of Abdul Baasit, etc. cannot abrogate the Shariah. Indeed this moron has sunk to the lowest dregs of jahaalat by citing the misdeeds of former qaaris as ‘daleel’ for the vile misdeeds of today’s moron qaaris.

The second stupidity

The fellow avers: Taking money for a recitation is permissible.

Response

This is a silly averment. It is not a daleel. He has not presented any Shar’i daleel to justify taking money for tilaawat of the Qur’aan Majeed.

The third stupidity

The deviate says: Qurraa take the money to support their own and extended families.

Response

No one is allowed by the Shariah to pursue haraam avenues for the acquisition of the Rizq which Allah Ta’ala has ordained for him. What type of stupidity is this? Stupidity too has divisions and sub-divisions. The silliness of the moron justifier of trading tilaawat of the Qur’aan appears to be in the worst class of stupidity. All people have families and extended families to feed. But this never justifies acquisition of Rizq in haraam ways.

These fellows should cut grass, and do other work even of a menial kind to earn instead of bartering away their Aakhirah thereby making themselves candidates for Jubbul Huzn (The Pit of Grief) in Jahannam. Never was the Qur’aan revealed to be a source of livelihood or to earn so much boodle to enable the qaaris to live in mansions like moron kings.

For the edification of the chap with deficient Imaan, it will be salubrious for him to be informed that Rizq has been pre-ordained by Allah Ta’ala. Nothing will increase or decrease the fixed amount of Rizq. However, there are two ways of acquiring one’s pre-ordained Rizq – a halaal way and a haraam way. Whichever route is adopted, the pre-ordained Rizq will be acquired. But each method of acquisition comes with its consequences.

It is totally unexpected of men of learning – of molvis, sheikhs and qaaris – to adopt a haraam way for acquiring their pre-ordained Rizq. Then they further aggravate their villainous sin manifold by their satanic justification of the haraam in which they indulge. One major sin is selling qiraat, and the other major sin is the kufr of justification with copro-arguments.

The fourth stupidity

Making a mockery of his brains, the moron says: The economy in Egypt is not forthcoming in providing appropriate revenue for professions.

Response

If the ‘economy in Egypt’ is unable to provide sufficient boodle for a life of waste and luxury such as  the indulgences of these millionaire qaaris who grovel in the boodle and in obesity, it is not a daleel for halaalizing the haraam act of  charging money for tilaawat of the Qur’aan Majeed. It is clear that shaitaan has urinated into the brains of this chap, hence he presents ludicrous and laughable stupidities as daleel to justify the haraam misdeeds of the mercenary qaaris.

Poor economy of any country does not justify haraam. Theft, robbery, fraud and selling the Qiraat for a miserable price never become halaal if sufficient funds for squandering and luxury are not available. Even for alleviating poverty and for assisting extended families, haraam may not be halaalized. Consuming a little pork to save one’s life in dire straits of starvation when halaal food is not available is a concession. But for the despicable objectives of these munaafiq qaaris, not an iota of haraam can be rendered halaal.

Not even a semblance of a sustainable daleel has been proferred to justify the major haraam act of selling Qiraat. The basis utilized for halaalizing the evil of selling tilaawat may also be used to pay someone to perform Salaat on a stage. Like Salaat, Tilaawat too is pure Ibaadat which is not a sale commodity.

It is haraam to contribute to these qiraat programmes. It is also not permissible to participate in any way.

Response to the Christian Objection of the Qur’anic Ayat: “Mary, the sister of Aaron”

Let us look at Qur’anic Verses 19:27-28 “At length she brought The (babe) to her people, carrying him (in her arms). They said: ‘O Mary ! Truly an amazing thing Hast thou brought! O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a man of evil, nor thy mother a woman unchaste!'”

There are no errors in the above noble verses. Let us look at what Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said regarding these verses

Mughira bin Shu’ba (radhiyallahu anhu) reported: “When I came to Najran, they (the Christians of Najran) asked me: You read “O sister of Harun (Aaron)” (i. e. Mary) in the Qur’an, whereas Moses was born much before Jesus. When I came back to Allah’s Messenger I asked him about that, whereupon he said: The (people of the old age) used to give names (to their persons) after the names of Apostles and pious persons who had gone before them.” [Translation of Sahih Muslim, The Book on General Behaviour (Kitab Al-Adab), Book 025, Number 5326]

As we clearly see from the Hadith of our beloved Prophet, this issue was brought to him before and he clearly responded to it. The false claim made against our Prophet about him meaning that Mary was a biological sister of Aaron is clearly refuted.

The People of Isra’il used to call people by either their last names, or by adding words such as you “Son of…” or “Brother of…” or “Sister of…” When they called people “O Son of…” they didn’t mean for that person to be the actual biological son of the person whom they used his name. The other person could be a simply in the family tree or a last name.

When Jesus was called “Jesus the son of David” for instance, the Jews didn’t mean to call Jesus the actual biological son of David. Similarily, when they called Mary “O sister of Aaron”, they meant to call her sister of Aaron in faith! Not the actual biological sister of Aaron.

The Qur’an talked about Aaron being Moses’s biological brother and messenger to Pharoah in Quranic verses 2:248, 4:163, 6:84, 7:122, 7:142, 7:150-151, 10:75, 10:87, 10:89, 19:28, 19:53, 20:30-35, 20:42, 20:70, 20:92-94, 21:48, 21:23, 21:45, 25:35-36, 26:13, 26:48, 28:34-35, 37:114-122 and many more.

The Qur’an also talks about Moses being the People of Isra’il’s first Messenger of GOD in Qur’anic verses 2:108, 2:248, 4:153, 5:20-26, 6:84, 14:8, 19:51-53, 22:44, 25:35-36, 28:3, 37:114-122, 18:60-82, 20:9-48, 27:7-12, 28:29-35, 79:15-19, 7:109-126, 10:79-82, 20:56-73, 26:38-51, 33:7, 2:53, 2:87, 2:136, 3:84, 6:91, 6:154, 7:144-145, 10:87, 11:110, 14:5, 17:2, 21:48, and may more.

The Qur’an also talks about Jesus coming to the people of Isra’il so many years after Moses and the many other Messengers of GOD that were sent to the People of Isreal in Qur’anic verses 3:49-51, 5:46, 5:72, 43:59, 61:6, 61:14, 4:171, 5:75, 43:59, 42:13, 4:172, 19:30, 43:64, 43:63, 3:52-54, 5:111-113, 57:27, 61:14, 61:6 and many more.

The Qur’an also talks about Mary being the biological Mother of Jesus in Quranic verses 3:35-37, 19:22-26, 21:91, 66:12, 5:75, 21:91, 4:156, 4:171, 5:17, 5:116, 21:91, 3:42-51, 19:16-21, and many more.

So if the Qur’an speaks clearly about Aaron being the biological brother of Moses, and speaks clearly about Jesus comming many years after Moses and the many other Messengers of GOD that were sent to the people of Isreal, and speaks clearly about Mary being the Mother of Jesus, then therefore, the Qur’an (1) Recognizes Mary as a woman who was born long years after Aaron, and (2) When the Jews called Mary ‘O sister of Aaron…’, then meant it to be Sister of Aaron in faith only and not a biological sister.

The Christian IDOL-WORSHIPPERS claim that since the MOTHER of ESAU was REALLY the BIOLOGICAL SISTER of AAROON the Prophet made a “mistake.”

However, It is clear that Mary WAS figuratively a “O SISTER OF HAROON” – WHY Because both the Bible and Qur’an agree she was a LEVITE i.e. a member of the tribe of hereditary “cohens” or “priests” in Judaism. (All
ultimately descendants of Aaron)
How do I know this Mary’s cousin was Elizabeth whom we are told “belonged to a priestly family”. (Luke 1:5, 36)

THE “PARAQLEITA (COMFORTER)” IN THE GOSPEL OF BARNABAS

“Then said the priests, how shall the comforter be called? And what signs shall revealed his coming? Jesus answered the name of the comforter is ADMIRABLE, for God gave him the name when he had created his soul and place it in a celestial splendor. God said, wait O MUHAMMAD; for thy seek I will create paradise, the world a great multitude of creatures where of I made thee a present in so much that whosoever shall bless thee shall be blessed, and whosoever shall cursed thee shall be cursed. When I shall send thee into the world, I shall send thee as my messenger of salvation; heaven and earth shall fell; but thy word shall never fell. Muhammad is his blessed name. Then the crowed lifted up their voice saying; O God, send us thy messenger. O Muhammad, come quickly for the salvation of the world. [Gospel of Barnabas 97:10-17]

It is interesting seeing that the above passage from the Gospel of Barnabas was compatible with the narration reflected in the Holy Quran.

And giving glad tidings of a messenger to come after me (Jesus) whose name shall be Ahmad. [Quran 61:6]

Ahmad is the second name of our beloved prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), which corresponding English meaning is Admirable. It is even more enthusiastic that the name Muhammad was clearly stated in the passage.

Even though, the Gospel of Barnabas was declared an apocrypha, but history makes it clear that the early Christians had attested to the canonicity of the Gospel, and was accepted and used by the early Christian Churches. However, we have comprehended that the banning of the Gospel of Barnabas by the church was because it contained the name of our beloved prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), and described Jesus Christ in exactly the same way as the Qur’an. Through this, the incapable Christians were enticed with the dubious word APOCRYPHA.

Originally, the meaning of “Apocrypha” is “hidden or secret”, but the church is seditious to vitiate the meaning as full of doubt or not genuine. What however the meaning may be; the Bible described Barnabas as a good man and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith (Act 11:24). And in Colossians 4:10, Paul described Barnabas Saying,
(Barnabas) “Concerning whom you receive commandments, if he comes to you; receive him”.

Here, Paul refers to the commandments of Jesus. But in objection to this Biblical testimony, the church rejected the Gospel of Barnabas, and the four gospels canonized by the Church were full of contradictions and discrepancies.

IS HOLY SPIRIT /RUH-AL-QUDUS GOD?

Even early elementary student of linguistical study, will find it easy to translate the Arabic terms ” ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ” transliterated “Ruh-al-Qudus”. This is simple because “Ruh” (ﺭﻭﺡ) means “spirit” and “Qudus”  (ﻗﺪﺱ) means holy, thereby, joining them together, (ﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ) “Ruh-al-Qudus” means holy spirit.

Most Christians believe that holy spirit is “part of God” in the unionism of trinity, and Jesus is “part of the holy spirit”, which make them equally God. They backed it by a claim that God is a combination of three elements: Body, spirit and soul, just as human being is; such that father was the body, holy spirit was the spirit, and Jesus the soul: a claim never found in bible.

They go further by insisting that, the spirit of God is as old as God himself. And, since God has no beginning, neither the holy spirit, nor Jesus has, since Jesus himself was from the holy spirit, and holy spirit is from God, even according to Quran.

Unfortunately, this was a late deceit initiated by enemies of Allah (God ) led by whispers of Satan the rejected, immediately after the alleged crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

Consider these points;

1. No such ideas as trinity or duality throughout all past prophets, all generations before the alleged crucifixion

2. Old testament and Jews, the supposed keepers of Torah, never agree to this filthy idea until this day

3. No verse in Qur’an where Allah says that “Jesus is his spirit” but rather “a spirit from him”

4. In Qur’an, Allah said he breathed (not just a spirit from him) but “his” spirit into Adam. Yet no one ever said that Adam was God!

5. In the case of Adam, Allah breathed his spirit by himself. But for Jesus, he sent an Angel messenger to breathe the spirit into Mary’s womb (as referenced on sticker below). Which spirit is closer to Allah (God)?

6. Even if Jesus might have been referred to, in Hadith, as “spirit of Allah” is normal. Because “of” in English (as in other languages) is an adjective of possession. So simply, “spirit of Allah” means “spirit possessed by Allah”. Not as Christians want to imply it mean “spirit part of Allah” taking the “OF” as “part of”

7. Spirit from Allah or spirit of Allah simply means spirit belonging to Allah, not a spirit part of Allah just like if we say a house of God. House of God means a house belonging to God, not a house part of God.

May Allah protect us from the deceivers who mislead people from the truth, Aameen!

Hajj in the Bible

Biblical prophets and the bible commands piligrims to Makkah
Let us look at the word al-Hajj itself:
ﺍﻟﺤﺞّ (al-Hajj)

Typically, the entire Arabic vocabulary, like its sisters in the Semitic linguistic group, consists of words structured from triliteral triconsonantal roots. In this case the root is Hajaj (ﺣﺠﺞ).

According to the classical Arabic lexicon Lisān al-`Arab it is defined:

ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ . ﺣﺞ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺪﻡ

“Purpose. As in, ‘So-and-so did Hajj unto us,’ which means he presented himself before us.”

So the general lexical meaning of the word is “intended purpose”. In the context of the Hajj, the Ka`bah within the Meccan Sanctuary is the intended destination and purpose. To list usages of this word in an Islamic context would be, for most Muslims, an appeal to the very obvious as stories of its wonder and splendor that have been related to them since childhood. However, if we peer beyond the context of Islamic rites and deep into the past, do we find this word used in the previous traditions of the Old Testament?

The answer is in the affirmative. The book of Exodus contains the following verse in reference to a Hajj in the time of Moses:

והיה היום הזה לכם לזכרון וחגתם אתו חג ליהוה לדרתיכם חקת עולם תחגהו

wa-haya ha-yōm haza lakhem li-zikrōn wa-Khagōtem otō Khag li-Yehōwa li-dorotaychem khuqat `olam taKhaguhū

“And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.” (Exodus 12:14)

In this verse the King James translators rendered the uninflected noun Khag ( חג) as “feast”. This word Khag is wholly cognate to the Arabic Hajj ( ﺣﺞ). Elsewhere in the verse the word Khag is inflected as Khagotem and taKhaguhū. One must pay attention to the fact that the Hebrew phonetic “kh” (ח) is the pharyngeal fricative “h” (ﺡ ) in Arabic. Also, one must note that the phonetic “g” ( ג) is cognate to the Arabic “j” ( ﺝ). So for analytical purposes in this context the verse would be rendered:
“And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a Hajj to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a Hajj by an ordinance forever.”

Another verse using this root is the following:

ואחר באו משה ואהרן ויאמרו אל – פרעה כה – אמר יהוה אלהי ישראל שלח את – עמי ויחגו לי במדבר

wa-ākhar bā’u Mōshe wa-Aharōn wa-yomru el-Par`o koh-amar Yahweh Elohay Yishrael shalach et-`ami wa-yakhugū li ba-midbār

“And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go , that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness.” (Exodus 5:1)

The inflected word that the King James translators rendered “feast” is yakhuggū (יחגו ) which is cognate to the Arabic “yuhajjū” ( ﻳُﺤَﺠّﻮﺍ) so for analytical purposes the verse would be rendered in this context as:

“And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a Hajj unto me in the wilderness.”

This is not to suggest that Moses and Aaron went to Mecca and performed Hajj as Muslims know it today. It is merely to exemplify that a consecrated journey and pilgrimage unto God at His Temple did, indeed, precede the rise of Islam in the 7th Century CE.

An additional and astonishing dimension to this that makes the concept of lexical borrowing between the Old Testament and the Quran improbable, if not outright impossible, is found in an alternate form of the root in Hebrew, Khug ( חוג). Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (1846) defines this word:

“ חוג To describe a circle, to draw a circle, as with compasses. Job 26:10…m. a circle, sphere, used of the arch or vault of the sky, Pro. 8:27; Job 22:14; of the world, Isa. 40:22.”[2]

Let us look at the verses he has cited above:

“When he prepared the heavens, I was there: when he set a compass ( חוג) upon the face of the depth.” (Proverbs 8:27)

“Thick clouds are a covering to him, that he seeth not; and he walketh in the circuit of heaven ( וחוג שמים ).” (Job 22:14)

“It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth ( חוג הארץ ), and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.” (Isaiah 40:22)

Thus, this word not only means sacred pilgrimage and feast unto God in the Bible, it also means to encircle. To any Muslim this will be a striking discovery.
Semitic languages have been, since time immemorial, broad and deep systems of expression where one word’s many variant, but supplementary, meanings all coalesce to a greater understanding of that lexeme. So in this case we have a root which has a form meaning a feast, also meaning a pilgrimage, and in one form meaning to encircle! The Hajj pilgrimage, which is at its core an encircling of the Ka`bah called Tawāf, is concluded with none other than the Feast of the Sacrifice, Eid al-Adha, to commemorate Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son at God’s command. Borrowing all these meanings buried in lexica that did not even exist until hundreds of years after the life of the Prophet Muhammad would require no short of a Semitic linguist and Biblical scholar. It should be noted that the Bible itself would not be available until 200-300 years after the passing of the Prophet Muhammad[3]. Such lexical depth and lucidity is consistently found throughout the Quran as God has stated therein:

“And this Quran is not such as could ever be produced by other than Allah (Lord of the heavens and the earth), but it is a confirmation of (the revelation) which was before it [i.e. the Torah, and the Gospel, etc.], and a full explanation of the Book (i.e. laws and orders, etc, decreed for humankind) – wherein there is no doubt from the the Lord of the Worlds” (Quran 10:37)

Psalm 84 1-6
How lovely is your dwelling place, O Lord Almighty!
My soul yearns, even faints, for the courts of the Lord;
my heart and my flesh cry out for the living God.
Even the sparrow has found a home, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may have her young— a place near your altar,
O Lord Almighty, my King and my God.
Blessed are those who dwell in your house;
they are ever praising you. Selah
Blessed are those whose strength is in you,
who have set their hearts on “pilgrimage.”
As they pass through the Valley of Baca,
they make it a place of springs;
the autumn rains also cover it with pools.
Let See What we have here.
Place is a Valley, in this Valley there is a blessed Well
To this Valley pilgrims make their journey and there is a Sacred House of Worship in this Valley of Baka, this Place of worship where the sacred house is at there are COURT YARDS, There are alters
and Sparows and Swallows Lodge at this location and bare their young.

There is no place in Palestine that fits this description the only place that fits this description is BACA which all the Muslims know

“The most important shrine established for the people is the one in Baca; a blessed beacon for all the people. In it are clear signs: the station of Abraham. Anyone who enters it shall be granted safe passage. The people owe it to GOD that they shall observe Hajj (Pilgrimage) to this shrine, when they can afford it. As for those who disbelieve, GOD does not need anyone.” [3:96-97]

What Is Baca?

Baca (in Psalms) and Baca (in Quran) is another name for Mecca (Makkah, Saudi Arabia) where the first house of worship on earth which was built by Abraham and his first son Ishmael and it was appointed by God for human beings. This house is the Holy Kabah to which all Muslims face while praying and go for Hajj (pilgrimage).

Hajj (Pilgrimage):

Hajj!! There is no hajj in the Bible. someone might say. Let’s see what were the Biblical prophets were doing?

[Exodus 10:9] Moses is telling Pharaoh where he is taking the sons of Isreal :
Moses answered, “Everyone! We’ll be taking our young and old, our sons and daughters, our flocks and herds with us. For us it’s “a pilgrimage festival” in the LORD’s honor.”

According to BDB Theological Dictionary the most fundamental meaning of hagag which the name Haggai is derived from is to make a pilgrimage or keep a pilgrimage feast.

The Arabic equivalent means “to betake oneself to or towards an object of reverence,” and this verb returns in the prescribed pilgrimage to Makkah: the Hadj.
[www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Haggai.html ]

Marwah mountain:

Genesis 22:2 “He said, Take now your son, your only son, whome you love, Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah (Marwah), and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains which I will tell you.”

Marwah and Safa are two elevated places in Mecca where Hajar was going forth and back looking for water as the water they had finished and she was worried about the baby Ishmael from Dying due to lack of water. During and after few trips looking for water or people, Angel Gabriel hit a rock and a sprig of water flowed and then she was able to drink and to water her baby.

“Indeed, as-Safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah . So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs ‘umrah – there is no blame upon him for walking between them. And whoever volunteers good – then indeed, Allah is appreciative and Knowing.” Quran 2:158

The bible scholar are not sure where is this mountain located in the holy land and they are making assumptions. [ http://
bibleatlas.org/mount_moriah.htm ] sometimes they say it is in Jerusalem while there was not even Jerusalem at all this time sometimes they say it is in the south and so on.

The Maqam (Place) of Abraham:
Genesis 22:9
“When they arrived at the place (lit. Maqam) where God had told him to go, Abraham built an altar ….”

Now where is that Altar in Jerusalem ?? why they did not keep it as a Holy place??? this place exist only in Makkah

“In it (Baca) are clear signs [such as] the (Maqam) standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House “ (Quran 3:97)

Pilgrimage to Mecca in Isaiah 60:1-7
“Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord rises upon you.
See, darkness covers the earth and thick darkness is over the peoples, but the Lord rises upon you and his glory appears over you.
Nations will come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your dawn.
“Lift up your eyes and look about you: All assemble and come to you; your sons come from afar, and your daughters are carried on the hip.
Then you will look and be radiant, your heart will throb and swell with joy; the wealth on the seas will be brought to you, to you the riches of the nations will come.
Herds of camels will cover your land, young camels of Midian and Ephah. And all from Sheba will come, bearing gold and incense and proclaiming the praise of the Lord.
All Kedar’s flocks will be gathered to you, the rams of Nebaioth will serve you; they will be accepted as offerings on my altar, and I will adorn my glorious temple.

In [Isaiah 60:1] A prophecy about a Holy man (prophet) bringing the light of God to the world. This holy man would appear in a time of darkness filling the world and covering the earth, He would appear to eliminate the darkness and spread the light of God and his praises.

In [Isaiah 60:3] we read “And the Nations shall come to thy light “ and that means this Holy Prophet would arise among the nations and his Light would fill his place where the nations would come and visit.

In [Isaiah 60:4] we find the people would come from far, the sons and daughters, all would come together for the Light.
[Isaiah 60:5-6] it keeps telling us about the coming of the people from all over the world to the Light.
[Isaiah 60:7] is the clear meaning, it’s Kedar, Where its flocks and tribes would be gathered together under the light of God, “they would come up with acceptance on mine altar”. Muslims during the Hajj “pilgrimage” they slaughter the sacrifices as one of the ceremonies and Muslims all over the world share that from their places which is Eid Al Adha.

“And I Will glorify the house of my glory” and it refers to the Ka’ba in Makkah, the Sacred House for God’s glory.

And proclaim among men the Pilgrimage: they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel, coming from every remote path” [Quran 22:27]

The Way of Holiness [Isaiah 35:8]

“And a highway will be there; it will be called the Way of Holiness. The unclean will not journey on it; it will be for those who walk in that Way; wicked fools will not go about on it.”

“O you who have believed, indeed the polytheists are unclean, so let them not approach al-Masjid al-Haram (the Sacred House) after this, their [final] year. And if you fear privation, Allah will enrich you from His bounty if He wills. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Wise.” (Quran 9:28)

The Azan (call of prayer):
Isaiah 40:3 and Mark 1:3

“A voice of one calling: “In the desert prepare the way for the LORD; make straight in the wilderness a highway for our God.”

The Arabian Peninsula was a deserted place. The “voice calling in the desert” here is clearly refering to the Azan.
Why Azan?

The whole verse reads “Make a path a highway for God”

The Azan (call of prayers) for Muslims is a call which tells Muslim that God is calling him. It is heard all around the world and five times a day. Moreover, hadith refer Azan as a way to Allah and to a submission to God.

 

The Quranist Fallacy: How Quranism Ultimately Undermines the Quran’s Authenticity

[By Brother Abdullah Feras]

In the 20th century, a fundamentalist doctrine, known as Quranism, began to emerge which called for the sole reliance upon the Quran as a source of Islamic law and guidance. Proponents of this new doctrine thus rejected the authority of traditions ascribed to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, known as hadiths. The basis upon which these calls were made varied in nature: some stemmed from skepticism in the authenticity of hadith collections, while others stemmed from a more fundamentalist outlook that dismissed the Prophet’s role as a source of legislation. Regardless of their leanings, Quranists are all united under the proposition that the Quran is the only viable source of Islamic legislation and guidance.

In this article, I am not interested in delving into traditional Muslim-Quranist polemics. Rather, I am primarily interested in exploring the Quranist paradigm and taking it to its logical conclusion.Though the Quranist doctrine fundamentally revolves around the utilization of the Quran as the sole source of Islamic legislation/guidance, it ironically ends up undermining the entire basis and authenticity of the Quran for two (related) reasons:

  1. Its inability to demonstrate the authenticity of the Quran itself.
  2. Its inability to explain the presence of textual variations in the Quran today.

The Quran’s Authenticity

Since the Quranist polemic is mostly directed at other Muslims who already take the Quran’s authenticity for granted, its logical conclusions are often overlooked. The rejection of primary historical sources that have documented the history of the Quran results in absolute ignorance in the history of the Quran’s compilation and its authenticity.

  • When was the Quran compiled?
  • Who compiled it into its current arrangement/form?
  • Who outlined its script?
  • Who outlined the diacritical marks in its script?
  • How can one ensure the authenticity of our current recension of the Quran?

All of these questions are questions one simply cannot answer if he/she were to entirely dismiss the hadith canon, which provides necessary historical context behind the compilation of the Quran.

Some may claim that the Quran is mutawātir (mass-transmitted), and, thus, definitively authentic. Asides from blindly following later authorities on the Quran who had claimed that the Quran was mutawātir, the Quranist polemicist simply cannot substantiate this claim. Blindly following those authorities is self-defeating, since they all considered hadith collections to be viable sources of Islamic legislation.

Some may cite 15:9 (and similar verses) to argue for the Quran’s authenticity; however, such appeals are circular, since they already presume the authenticity of the Quran. The Quranist narrative simply cannot demonstrate the authenticity of the Quran independently of the Quran. It is merely grounded in several assumptions upon which the entire doctrine is based.

The Ten Qirā’āt: Errors or Recitations?

As known, various parts of the Muslim world recite the Quran in different modes/recitations, known as qirā’āt. The textual variation in these different recitations varies in nature and spans differences in pronunciation, spelling and meaning. The geographical distribution of the qirā’āt has constantly changed throughout history, and the most prominent recitation in the Muslim world today is the recitation of Ḥafṣ b. Sulaymān al-Kūfī (d. 180), which he reportedly inherited from his stepfather, ‘Āsim b. Abī al-Nujūd (d. 127). The recitation is commonly referred to as Ḥafṣ ‘an Āsim. 

The predominant recitation in North and West Africa is the recitation of ‘Uthmān b. Sa’īd al-Miṣrī (d. 197), who was known as Warsh. Warsh partially inherited his recitation from his teacher, Nāfi’ b. ‘Abdurrahmān al-Madanī (d. 169). The recitation of another student of Nāfi, ‘Isā b. Mīna al-Madanī (d. 160), who was known as Qālūn, is prominent in Libya and Tunisia today.

The geographic distribution of the recitations across the Muslim world, however, has varied throughout history due to many factors. Ibn al-Jazarī (d. 855), for example, noted that the predominant recitation in Al-Shām, Hejaz, Egypt and Yemen during his time was that of Abū ‘Amr al-Baṣrī (d. 154) (Ibn al-Jazarī 292). This would quickly change, however, as the Ottomans institutionalized and enforced the recitation of Ḥafṣ, which, as a result, became the predominant recitation in the Muslim world till this day.

Nevertheless, the presence of textual variants in the different qirā’āt of the Quran does not necessarily pose a problem to traditional Muslim scholarship, since it is authentically established, as reported by al-Bukhārī, Muslim, Abū Dawūd, al-Tirmiḍī, al-Nasā’ī and many others, that the Prophet recited the Quran in different modes of recitation (aḥruf). These variants in recitation can thus be contextualized and explained by the Prophet’s recitation of the Quran in different modes. Even traditional scholars who held the position that some errors may exist in some of the qirā’āt were able to navigate their way through these different recitations, since they believed that the Prophet himself was a source of textual variations in the Quran.

Since Quranists reject the authenticity and authority of Prophetic traditions, they have no basis for the concept of qirā’āt and Quranic modes of recitation. Rather, the implication of the Quranist polemic is that all of the discrepancies in the qirā’āt simply are errors and accretions that have gradually accumulated in the Quran as it was disseminated across the centuris. They have no way to differentiate the “erroneous” from the “correct” in the Quran today.

Most Quranists simply opt to recite the Quran according to the recitation of Ḥafṣ, for no reason other than the fact that it is recited by the majority of Muslims today.

Conclusion

The purpose of this article is not to appeal to the necessity of the hadith canon out of desperation, for we have, on several occasions, outlined the objective reasons behind our belief in the integrity of the hadith canon. Rather, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the Quranist paradigm, which calls for the sole reliance upon the Quran for guidance and legislation, ultimately undermines the authenticity of the Quran itself. This ironic reality is often overlooked due to the fact that the Quranist polemic is mostly directed at Muslims who already believe in the authenticity of the Quran. By taking the Quranist doctrine to its logical conclusion, we can observe its flaws, defects and contradictions. Similarly, we are able observe the double standard of this paradigm, which prides itself in its intense historical skepticism with Prophetic traditions yet laxly presumes the historical authenticity of the entire Quran for no objective reason(s).

Works Cited

Ibn al-Jazarī, Muḥammad. Ghāyat al-Nihāyah fī ṭabaqāt al-Qurrā’. Edited by Gotthelf Bergsträßer vol. 1, DKI, 2006.

INIMITABILITY OF THE QUR’ÂN

Inimitability of the Qur’ân and Some Evidences of It Being From Allah (Subhaanahu Wa ta`aalaa) Excerpted from an article written by scholars from al-Azhar

Follow us we’ll show you a straight path and show you some matters which will prove that the Qur’ân is God’s word:

FIRST – Because it is the pinnacle of linguistic perfection. The Arabs [of Jahiliyyah] were not accustomed to its form. Their linguistic abilities were hindered by the fact that its expression was worded in the shortest of forms without loss of clear meaning [bayaan].

SECOND – Its wonderful structure was unique when it comes to the beginning of verses, their termination, and the places where one stops [when rehearsing it].  This is added to a refined way of presenting truth and the true knowledge of God [`irfan].  Its beautiful word and kind insinuation, easiness of construct and correctness of ordering made the minds of the purest of desert dwellers [al-Arba’] amazed and the understanding of the masters of the tongue struck. The wisdom behind this intended differentiation in which the Qur’ân was revealed was to leave no doubt for those with wit [Fitnah] or give them reason to steal [by producing something like it].

THIRD – Because the Qur’ân has a record of things to come. They came to pass in accordance with the way God has intended. Allah said, “you shall most certainly enter the Sacred Mosque [Mecca], if Allah pleases, in security, (some) having their heads shaved and (others) having their hair cut, you shall not fear.” (Surah “The Victory”, 48.27) 

FOURTH – What it told about previous generations and the people of yore and it was known [to the people of Quraish] that [Mohammed] was but an illiterate who neither read nor wrote.  He did not sit with teachers in schools, nor mixed with the learned. He was raised within a people who knew no book. They were naked [`arin] when it came to scientific inquiry [al-ulum al-`aqliyyah]. Allah said, “Surely this Qur’ân declares to the children of Israel most of what they differ in.”  (Surah “The Ant”, 27.76).

FIFTH – What it revealed of the secrets of those who opposed it and what they used to plot. Their deceit was revealed to the messenger of God.

SIXTH – That it included knowledge from the smallest of particles to cosmic facts the Arabs did not know in general and neither did Mohammed (peace be upon him); most important, what it included about the science of Sharee’ah and how to deduce laws, the ways to logical argumentation [al-hujaj al-`aqliyyah], the wisdom one derives from the stories of yore, the matters of the hereafter and the best of manners and behavior.

SEVENTH – It is free of contradiction despite the fact that it is a large book which includes many facts and various arts. “If it were from any other than Allah, they would have found in it many a discrepancy.” (Surah “The Women”, 4.82)

EIGHTH – It is a living miracle for it is read everywhere in uniformity, and God has promised to protect it. It is an established argument that, in contrast to other prophets whose miracles disappeared with them, the Qur’ân is Mohammed’s eternal miracle.

NINTH – Those who read it are not tired of it. Those who hear it are not bothered by it. And those who rehearse it fall in love with it.

TENTH – It includes both proof and proven. Those who understand the meaning know how to derive proof and how to find religious dictum at the same time when they consider both the way it is read and the way it is understood.  It is conciseness of words [balaghah] which proves its miraculous character. It is with meaning that one finds God’s order and His warning. Learning it by heart [hifdh] has been made easy. The fear that comes to the heart when hearing it and the humbleness that surrounds those reading it are beyond description.