Category Archives: Christianity/Orientalists

A Comparative Study on the Status of Women According to the Judeo-Christian Scriptures and The Holy Qur’an

[By Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem]

In the  West, Islam is  believed to be the  symbol  of  the  subordination  of  women  par  excellence.  In  order  to  understand  how firm  this  belief  is,  it  is  enough  to  mention  that  the  Minister  of  Education  in  France,  the land  of  Voltaire,  had  ordered  the  expulsion  of  all  young  Muslim  women  wearing the  veil  from  French  schools!  A  young  Muslim  student  wearing  a  headscarf  is  denied  her right  of  education  in  France,  while  a  Catholic  student  wearing  a  cross  or  a  Jewish  student wearing  a  skullcap  is  not.  The  scene  of  French  policemen  preventing  young  Muslim women  wearing  headscarves  from  entering      their  high  school  is  unforgettable.  It inspires  the  memories  of  another  equally  disgraceful  scene  of  Governor  George  Wallace of  Alabama  in  1962  standing  in  front  of  a  school  gate  trying  to  block  the  entrance  of black  students  in  order  to  prevent  the  desegregation  of  Alabama’s  schools.  The  difference between  the  two  scenes  is  that  the  black  students  had  the  sympathy  of  so  many  people  in the  U.S.  and  in  the  whole world.  President  Kennedy  sent  the  U.S. National Guard to  force the  entry  of  the  black  students.  The  Muslim  girls,  on  the  other  hand,  received  no  help from  any  one.  Their  cause  seems  to  have  very  little  sympathy  either  inside  or  outside France.  The  reason  is  the  widespread  misunderstanding  and  fear  of  anything  Islamic  in the  world  today.  What intrigues the most is this question. Do  Judaism,  Christianity,  and  Islam  have  the  same  conception  of  women?? Are they  different  in  their  conceptions?? Do  Judaism  and  Christianity,  truly,  offer  women  a better treatment than Islam does??  What is the Truth??

It  is  not  easy to search for and find answers  to these  difficult questions. The  first difficulty is  that  one  has  to  be  fair  and  objective  or,  at  least,  do  one’s  utmost  to  be  so.  This  is  what Islam  teaches.  The  Qur’an  has  instructed  Muslims  to  say  the  truth  even  if  those  who  are very  close  to  them  do  not  like  it:

  “Whenever  you  speak,  speak  justly,  even  if  a  near relative   is  concerned”  (6:152) 

“O  you  who  believe  stand  out  firmly  for  justice,  as witnesses  to  Allah,  even  as  against  yourselves,  or  your  parents  or  your  kin,  and  whether  it be (against) rich or poor” (4:135).

My  goal  from this post is  only to  vindicate  Islam  and  pay  a  tribute,  long  overdue  in  the  West,  to  the  final  truthful Message  from  Allah to  the  human  race.  my  concern  in this article,  mainly,  the  position  of  women  in  the three  religions  as  it  appears  in  their  original  sources  not  as  practised  by  their  millions  of followers  in  the  world  today.  Therefore,  most  of  the  evidence  cited  comes  from  the Qur’an Kareem,  the  sayings  of  Prophet  Mohammed (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) ,  the  Bible,  the  Talmud,  and  the  sayings  of some  of  the  most  influential  Church  Fathers  whose  views  have  contributed  immeasurably to  defining  and  shaping  Christianity.  This  interest  in  the  sources  relates  to  the  fact  that understanding  a  certain  religion  from  the  attitudes  and  the  behaviour  of  some  of  its nominal  followers  is  misleading.  Many  people  confuse  culture  with  religion,  many  others do not know what their religious books are saying, and many others do not even care.

EATING FROM THE TREE OF JANNAH. WAS IT  JUST HAWWA’s (radhiyallahu anha) (Biblical Eve) FAULT??

The  three  religions  agree  on  one  basic  fact:  Both  women  and  men  are  created  by  Allah (God), The  Creator  of  the  whole  universe.  However,  disagreement  starts  soon  after  the  creation of the  first  man,  Adam (alaihissalaam),  and the first  woman,  Eve (Ammi Hawwa radhiyallahu anha).  The  Judaeo-Christian conception  of the creation  of  Adam  (alaihissalaam) and  Eve  (Hawwa radhiyallahu anha) is  narrated  in  detail  in  Genesis  2:4-3:24.  God prohibited  both of  them  from  eating  the  fruits  of  the  forbidden  tree.  The  serpent  seduced  Eve (Hawwa radhiyallahu anha) to  eat  from it  and  Eve (Hawwa radhiyallahu anha),  in  turn,  seduced  Adam (alaihissalaam) to  eat  with  her.  When  God  rebuked  Adam  for  what  he did,  he  put  all  the  blame  on  Eve, “The  woman  you  put  here  with  me  –she  gave  me  some fruit  from  the  tree  and  I  ate  it.” Consequently,  God  said  to  Eve:  “I  will  greatly  increase your  pains  in  childbearing;  with  pain  you  will  give  birth  to  children.  Your  desire  will  be for  your  husband  and  he  will  rule  over  you.”   To  Adam  He  said:  “Because  you  listened  to your  wife  and  ate  from  the  tree  ….  Cursed  is  the  ground  because  of  you;  through  painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life…”

The  Islamic  conception  of  the  first  creation  is  found  in  several  places  in  the  Quran,  for example:

“O  Adam (alaihissalaam) dwell  with  your  wife  in  the  Garden  and  enjoy  as  you  wish  but approach  not  this  tree  or  you  run  into  harm  and  transgression.  Then  Satan  whispered  to them  in  order  to  reveal  to  them  their  shame  that  was  hidden  from  them  and  he  said:  ‘Your Lord  only  forbade  you  this  tree  lest  you  become  angels  or  such  beings  as  live  forever.’ And  he  swore  to  them  both  that  he  was  their  sincere  adviser.  So  by  deceit  he  brought them to their  fall: when  they tasted the  tree their  shame became manifest to them  and they began  to  sew  together  the  leaves  of  the  Garden  over  their  bodies.  And  their  Lord  called unto  them:  ‘Did  I  not  forbid  you  that  tree  and  tell  you  that  Satan  was  your  avowed enemy?’  They  said:  ‘Our  Lord  we  have  wronged  our  own  souls  and  if  You  forgive  us  not and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be lost’ “(7:19:23).

A  careful  look  into  the  two  accounts  of  the  story  of  the  Creation  reveals  some  essential differences.  The  Qur’an,  contrary  to  the  Bible,  places  equal  blame  on  both  Adam (alaihissalaam) and  Eve (Hawwa radhiyallahu anha) for  their  mistake.  Nowhere  in  the  Qur’an  can  one  find  even  the  slightest  hint  that  Eve (Hawwa radhiyaĺahu anha) tempted  Adam (alaihissalaam)  to  eat  from  the  tree  or  even  that  she  had  eaten  before  him.  Eve  in  the Qur’an  is  no  temptress,  no  seducer,  and  no  deceiver.

  Moreover,  Eve (Hawwa radhiyallahu anha)  is  not  to  be  blamed for  the  pains  of  childbearing.  Allah,  according  to  the  Qur’an,  punishes  no  one  for  another’s faults.  Both  Adam (alaihissalaam) and  Eve (Hawwa radhiyallahu anha) committed  a  sin  and  then  asked  Allah  for  forgiveness  and  He forgave them both.

The  image  of  Eve (Hawwa radhiyallahu anha) as  temptress  in  the  Bible  has  resulted  in  an  extremely  negative  impact on  women  throughout  the  Judaeo-Christian  tradition.  All  women  were  believed  to  have inherited  from  their  mother,  the  Biblical  Eve,  both  her  guilt  and  her  guile.  Consequently, they  were  all  untrustworthy,  morally  inferior,  and  wicked.  Menstruation,  pregnancy,  and childbearing  were  considered  the  just  punishment  for  the  eternal  guilt  of  the  cursed female  sex.  In  order  to  appreciate  how  negative  the  impact  of  the  Biblical  Eve  was  on  all her  female  descendants  we  have  to  look  at  the  writings  of  some  of  the  most  important Jews  and  Christians  of  all  time.

  Let  us  start  with  the  Old  Testament  and  look  at  excerpts from  what  is  called  the  Wisdom  Literature  in  which  we  find:  “I  find  more  bitter  than death  the  woman  who  is  a  snare,  whose  heart  is  a  trap  and  whose  hands  are  chains.  The man  who  pleases  God  will  escape  her,  but  the  sinner  she  will  ensnare….while  I  was  still searching  but  not  finding,  I  found  one  upright  man  among  a  thousand  but  not  one  upright woman among them all” (Ecclesiastes 7:26-28).

In  another part  of the  Hebrew literature which is found  in the  Catholic  Bible  we  read: “No wickedness  comes  anywhere  near  the  wickedness  of  a  woman…..Sin  began  with  a  woman and  thanks  to  her  we  all  must  die” (Ecclesiasticus  25:19,  24). 

Jewish  Rabbis  listed  nine curses inflicted on women as a  result of  the  Fall:   “To the  woman He  gave nine  curses  and death:  the  burden  of  the  blood  of  menstruation  and  the  blood  of  virginity;  the  burden  of pregnancy;  the  burden  of  childbirth;  the  burden  of  bringing  up  the  children;  her  head  is covered  as  one  in  mourning;  she  pierces  her  ear  like  a  permanent  slave  or  slave  girl  who serves her master; she is not to be believed as a witness; and after everything–death.”

2. To  the  present  day,  orthodox  Jewish  men  in  their  daily  morning  prayer  recite “Blessed  be God  King  of  the  universe  that  Thou  has  not  made  me  a  woman.” The  women,  on  the other  hand,  thank  God  every  morning  for  “making  me  according  to  Thy  will.” 

3  Another prayer  found  in  many  Jewish  prayer  books:  “Praised  be  God  that  he  has  not  created  me  a gentile.  Praised  be  God  that  he  has  not  created  me  a  woman.  Praised  be  God  that  he  has not created me an ignoramus.” 

The  Biblical  Eve  has  played  a  far  bigger  role  in  Christianity  than  in  Judaism.  Her  sin  has been  pivotal  to  the  whole  Christian  faith  because  the  Christian  conception  of  the  reason for  the  mission  of  Jesus  (Qur’anic ‘Eesa alaihissalaam)  on  Earth  stems  from  Eve’s  disobedience  to  God.  She  had sinned  and  then  seduced  Adam  to  follow  her  suit.  Consequently,  God  expelled  both  of them  from  Heaven  to  Earth,  which  had  been  cursed  because  of  them.

  They  bequeathed their  sin,  which  had  not  been  forgiven  by  God,  to  all  their  descendants  and,  thus,  all humans  are  born  in  sin.  In  order  to  purify  human  beings  from  their  ‘original  sin’,  God  had to  sacrifice  Jesus,  who  is  considered  to  be  the  Son  of  God,  on  the  cross.  Therefore,  Eve  is responsible  for  her  own  mistake,  her  husband’s  sin,  the  original  sin  of  all  humanity,  and the  death of  the Son  of God.  In  other words,  one woman  acting  on her  own caused  the fall of  humanity!

5  What about  her  daughters?? They are sinners  like her  and have to  be treated as  such.  Listen  to  the  severe  tone  of  Paul  in  the  New  Testament:  “A  woman  should learn  in  quietness  and  full  submission.  I  don’t  permit  a  woman  to  teach  or  to  have authority  over  a  man;  she  must  be  silent.  For  Adam  was  formed  first,  then  Eve.  And Adam  was  not  the  one  deceived;  it  was  the  woman  who  was  deceived  and  became  a sinner” (I  Timothy  2:11-14).

Tertullian  was  even  more  blunt  than  Paul,  while  he  was  talking  to  his  ‘best  beloved sisters’  in  the  faith,  he  said:  “Do  you  not  know  that  you  are  each  an  Eve?  The  sentence  of God  on  this  sex  of  yours  lives  in  this  age:  the  guilt  must  of  necessity  live  too.  You  are  the Devil’s  gateway:  You  are  the  unsealer  of  the  forbidden  tree:  You  are  the  first  deserter  of the  divine  law:  You  are  she  who  persuaded  him  whom  the  devil  was  not  valiant  enough to  attack.  You  destroyed  so  easily  God’s  image,  man.  On  account  of  your  desert  even  the Son of God had to die.”

Augustine  was  faithful to the legacy  of his predecessors,  he wrote  to a friend:  “What is the  difference  whether  it  is  in  a  wife  or  a  mother,  it  is  still  Eve  the  temptress  that  we  must beware  of  in  any  woman……I  fail  to  see  what  use  woman  can  be  to  man,  if  one  excludes the  function  of  bearing  children.” 

Centuries  later,  Thomas  Aquinas  still  considered women  as  defective:  “As  regards  the  individual  nature,  woman  is  defective  and misbegotten,  for  the  active  force  in  the  male  seed  tends  to  the  production  of  a  perfect likeness  in  the  masculine  sex;  while  the  production  of  woman  comes  from  a  defect  in  the active force or from some material indisposition, or even from some external influence.”

Finally,  the  renowned  reformer  Martin  Luther  could  not  see  any  benefit  from  a  woman but  bringing  into  the  world  as  many  children  as  possible  regardless  of  any  side  effects:  “If they  become  tired  or  even  die,  that  does  not  matter.  Let  them  die  in  childbirth,  that’s  why they are there”

Again and again  all women  are denigrated  because of  the  image  of  Eve  the temptress,  thanks  to  the Biblical Genesis  account. 

To  sum  up,  the  Judaeo-Christian  conception  of women  has  been  poisoned  by  the  belief  in  the  sinful  nature  of  Eve  and  her  female offspring.

If  we  now  turn  our  attention  to  what  the Noble Qur’an  has  to  say  about  women,  we  will  soon realize  that  the  Islamic  conception  of  women  is  radically  different  from  the  Judaeo-Christian  one.  Let  the  Qur’an the Word of Allah Ta’ala speak  for  itself: 

“For  Muslim  men  and  women,  for  believing men  and  women,  for  devout  men  and  women,  for  true  men  and  women,  for  men  and women  who  are  patient,  for  men  and  women  who  humble  themselves,  for  men  and women  who  give  in  charity,  for  men  and  women  who  fast,  for  men  and  women  who guard  their  chastity,  and  for  men  and  women  who  engage  much  in  Allah’s  praise–  For them  all  has  Allah  prepared  forgiveness  and  great  reward”  (33:35). 

“The  believers,  men and  women,  are  protectors,  one  of  another:  they  enjoin  what  is  just,  and  forbid  what  is evil,  they  observe  regular  prayers,  practise  regular  charity,  and  obey  Allah  and  His Messenger.  On  them  will  Allah  pour  His  Mercy:  for  Allah  is  Exalted  in  power,  Wise” (9:71).

  “And  their  Lord  answered  them:  Truly  I  will  never  cause  to  be  lost  the  work  of any  of  you, Be  you a  male  or  female, you are  members one  of another” (3:195).

“Whoever works  evil  will  not  be  requited  but  by  the  like  thereof,  and  whoever  works  a  righteous deed  -whether  man  or  woman-  and  is  a  believer-  such  will  enter  the  Garden  of  bliss” (40:40).

“Whoever  works  righteousness,  man  or  woman,  and  has  faith,  verily  to  him/her we  will  give  a  new  life  that  is  good  and  pure,  and  we  will  bestow  on  such  their  reward according to the best of their actions” (16:97).

It  is  clear  that  the  Qur’anic  view  of  women is  no different  than that of  men. They, both, are Allah’s  creatures  whose  sublime  goal  on  earth  is  to  worship  their  Lord,  do  righteous  deeds, and  avoid  evil  and  they,  both,  will  be  assessed  accordingly.  The  Qur’an  never  mentions that  the  woman  is  the  devil’s  gateway  or  that  she  is  a  deceiver  by  nature.  The  Qur’an,  also, never  mentions  that  man  is  God’s  image;  all  men  and  all  women  are  his  creatures,  that  is all.  According  to  the  Qur’an,  a  woman’s  role  on  earth  is  not  limited  only  to  childbirth.  She is  required to  do  as  many  good  deeds  as  any  other  man is required  to  do.  The  Qur’an  never says  that  no  upright  women  have  ever  existed.  To  the  contrary,  the  Qur’an  has  instructed all  the  believers,  women  as  well  as  men,  to  follow  the  example  of  those  ideal  women such  as  the  Virgin  Mary  and  the  Pharoah’s  wife:

  “And  Allah  sets  forth,  As  an  example  to those  who  believe,  the  wife  of  Pharaoh:  Behold  she  said:  ‘O  my  lord  build  for  me,  in nearness  to  you,  a  mansion  in  the  Garden,  and  save  me  from  Pharaoh  and  his  doings  and save  me  from  those  who  do  wrong.’

And  Mary  the  daughter  of  Imran  who  guarded  her chastity  and  We  breathed  into  her  body  of  Our  spirit;  and  she  testified  to  the  truth  of  the words of her  Lord and of  His  revelations  and was one  of the  devout” (66:11-13).  

What is the West?? The Origins and Definition of Western Civilisation

[By Abdullah al Andalusi]

Introduction: Why is it important to understand and define ‘The West’??

The term ‘The West’, ‘The Western world’ and ‘Western culture’ are used quite widely by ‘Western’ politicians, media and academics to refer to the very specific phenomena of ‘Western Civilisation’. Most people who use the term ‘the West’, do so intuitively, and generally agree on who are the main Western countries and states.

However, there are times when some people challenge the label ‘the West’, and seek to dismiss its use – especially when faced with arguments criticising ‘The West’ for its collective history of colonial abuses, ongoing foreign military interventions, and the endless stream of cultural products it exports aggressively across the world.

Generally, most people would agree that England, France, Germany, USA, Canada and Australia are Western countries, while countries such as Nigeria, Turkey and South Korea are ‘Westernised’. Obviously ‘The West’ doesn’t just mean europe, otherwise Australia and USA wouldn’t be included – and Russia would be included.

But what does ‘Western’ mean, where did the term come from, and what definitive criteria can be use to determine what is ‘Western’, ‘Westernised’ and ‘non-Western’?
An understanding of the origins of the West, and what defines it, will decisively help to ascertain and predict its character and behaviour.

The Origins of the West: The Roman Empire

The discussion about the West begins with the Roman Republic (509BC-27BC). The Roman republic lasted until 27BC when its republican political system of elected representatives and unelected aristocrats was overturned by the rise to power of the military general Octavian who became Rome’s first Emperor, transforming Rome into an Empire. The Roman Republic already controlled many provinces around the Mediterranean that it had conquered before it transformed into an Empire. This is because Rome under elected representatives was no less warlike than when ruled under Emperors, in fact probably more so before the imperial period [1].

Between 274–148 BC, the Roman Republic never had a year where it wasn’t at war with other states – including against other republics, like Carthage.

While Western Civilisation certainly arose in Europe, many falsely assume that Western Civilisation is based upon the lands occupied by the Roman Empire, but this is historically inaccurate. The Romans didn’t see themselves as a european empire but more of an mediterranean empire (the word ‘mediterranean’ means in Latin: ‘middle of the Earth’). Rome wasn’t exactly European as there were many places in Europe that were unconquered and uncivilised to them, like the north western european territories outside roman control – which were populated by peoples the romans considered barbarians like Caledonia (Scotland), Hibernia (Ireland), or in the north, like Scatinavia (Scandinavia) and in the east, like Magna Germania (Germany/Poland). Furthermore, the Roman Empire was not a european Empire because it had numerous middle-eastern and north African possessions which were integral parts of it


The Roman Empire’s territories do not correspond with the modern ‘West’, nor Europe. The seeds of Western civilisation wouldn’t start in Europe, but in the middle-east. Rome’s acquisition of a middle-eastern province it called Judea, would later see the rise of an obscure middle-eastern religious sect that would later be called Christianity – which would have a seminal role in the creation of Western civilisation.

The Roman Occupied Province of Judea and Judaism

Roman Judea was situated upon the area formerly occupied by the Biblical Ancient Kingdom of Israel (1050–931 BC).

The Kingdom of Israel comprised the 12 tribes of Israel, a nation led out of slavery in Egypt, according to the Tanakh (Jewish scriptures/Old Testament for Christians) and the Quran, who were favoured by God to bear witness of monotheism to the world and righteousness under the law of Moses.

There are a number of archeological and biblical sources for the history of the 12 tribes of Israel, but dates and events are still speculative. However, what the Tanakh teaches, is that Moses took the 12 tribes of Israel out of Egypt and into the wilderness of Sinai. The 12 tribes constitute the 12 clans originating from the 12 sons of Prophet Jacob (Yaqub [a.s.]), who was given the name Israel [2].

While in the wilderness, Moses conveyed the Law of God he received from revelation (called the Law of Moses , or Mosaic Law ) and decreed the building of a mobile tent-shrine to the one God – the Tabernacle. Moses’ teachings are alleged to be incorporated into the ‘5 books of Moses’ (called the
Torah by Jews . The books that would come later would record the stories of Prophets, the history of the tribes of Israel, and the Prophetic kings that came after Moses. These texts would be gathered and added to the 5 books of Moses, and later called the Tanakh by Jews, or the Old Testament by Christians).

The 12 tribes were promised by Moses the land of Canaan (modern day Lebanon and Palestine) except [3] the Philistine city states (modern day Gaza) [4].

The Conquest of Canaan and the era of Judges

After 40 years of waiting in the wilderness as nomads and growing in strength, the death of Moses saw the 12 tribes begin a successful conquest of Canaan led by Joshua, who was given the title ‘Judge’ in the Tanakh. Each tribe was given an area to settle – except the tribe of Levi, who were to be the priest caste for the other tribes, and would dwell in the cities being paid a tithe by the others. The 12 tribes lived under a loose confederation under successive leaders called ‘Judges’ but were more than judges in the legal sense, and were considered as Prophets in the Tanakh. Judges arose amongst the 12 tribes to unite them to fight external enemies, and sometimes they would arise to revive Mosaic law and monotheism in the face of lapses by the 12 tribes.

Due to border wars with the Philistines, the loose confederation of 12 tribes demanded a King over them, and were united into the Kingdom of Israel by Prophet Samuel (a.s.) under the King Saul (1050BC). Saul was later deposed by the Prophet Samuel due to allegedly not following God’s commands, and was replaced as King by David (1010BC), from the Israelite tribe of Judah.

The Jewish Concept of the Kingdom of God

The lands of Israel were described in the Tanakh as ruled by God, who would be its King [5]. During the time of the Judges, the Judges would direct the tribes of Israel by God’s judgements. After the beginning of kingship, the King was considered the deputy of God, and would rule Israel on His behalf according to Mosaic law. Courts would be set up and to judge by Mosaic law [6]- where even the King would be held accountable and deposed upon serious breach.

Mosaic law was a complete way of life for its time, guiding personal spiritual rituals, personal virtues to economic transactions, structure of Jewish society, laws and state. The Jewish understanding of the Kingdom of God, was an earthly Kingdom that established justice and the worship of God on earth.

The Prophet Kings of Israel
King David (Dawud alaihissalaam.) conquered the city of Jebus from the Jebusite tribe of Canaan [7], after which it is eventually renamed Jerusalem (as well as ‘The City of David’, and ‘Zion’) . After the passing of David, his son, Solomon [Sulayman alaihissalaam] becomes king of the Kingdom of Israel (970BC to 931BC), and builds its temple to the One god in Jerusalem. The Kingdom of Israel continued until Solomon’s (Sulayman alaihissalaam) death (931BC), where it split, with 10 tribes forming the northern Kingdom of Israel (centered around their capital of Samaria) and two tribes, the tribes of Benjamin and the dominant tribe of Judah forming the southern Kingdom of Judah (with the tribe of Levi, or Levites, moving to them shortly after), centered around their capital of Jerusalem.


The Northern kingdom of Israel was eventually conquered by the Assyrian Empire (720BC), and is portrayed in the Tanakh as being conquered as divine retribution for its sins and turning to idolatry. It’s ten tribes were exiled by the Assyrians and became known as the ‘ten lost tribes of Israel’ .

It was from the remaining Kingdom of Judah, which was dominated by the Judah Tribe, that the word ‘Judaism’ and ‘Jew’ originate from, i.e. the religion of the people of Judah.

Destruction of the Kingdom of Judah and the beginning of the era of Occupation

The Babylonians eventually conquered the Assyrians, and then took the southern kingdom of Judah in 587BC – destroying the first temple of Solomon – and taking the Jewish population as slaves into exile in Babylon.

The Babylonians were then conquered in turn by the Achaemenid Persians under ‘Cyrus the Great’ (539BC), who allowed the Jews to return back to Canaan and rebuild their (second) temple in Jerusalem. The Jews were given the region around Jerusalem as an autonomous region within the Achaemenid Persian empire, called Yehud Medinata. The Persians were then in turn conquered by Greeks led by Alexander III of Macedon, or ‘Alexander the great’ (331BC) which spread Greek culture (called Hellenism by historians) and Greek language throughout the eastern part of the mediterranean and the middle east, which would later have a decisive impact on creating the borders of Western civilisation .

Alexander’s greek empire split after his death (323BC) and was divided by his generals. Alexander’s General Seleucus eventually took control of the area from modern day Turkey and the Levant (Palestine/Syria) to modern-day Pakistan. This would be the later called the Seleucid Empire. It would clash with Rome in greece, and later crumble and fall to Parthian Persians invading from the East.

Under Seleucid rule, there were many Jews who adhered to the laws of Moses and the belief in one God, and strongly preserved the teachings of their ancestors against the ‘modern’ pagan Hellenism that dominated the Middle-East and eastern mediterranean. However, many Jews became Hellenised and adopted Greek culture, and even greek pagan religions.

The end of occupation, and the establishment of the Kingdom of Judea

In 167BC, the Seleucid King Antiochus IV Epiphanes ordered that non-Hellenised Jews were forbidden from practicing their religion, laws and culture, and were ordered to adopt Hellenistic religion, customs and laws. This caused a revolt amongst Jews, called the Maccabean Revolt, which lasted 7 years and pitted Jews against collaborators amongst the ‘Hellenised Jews’ and and Seleucid authorities. The revolt eventually lead to a victory from the Jewish forces, and the establishment of the Kingdom of Judea (160BC-63BC). Hellenistic Pagan temples were torn down and the temple of Solomon was cleansed of idolatry and re-dedicated to the one God (which Jews still celebrate today as Hanukkah) [8].

The Kingdom of Judea was independent for almost 100 years and expanded its borders during this time. However, Hellenism still was a potent political and cultural force, and Jewish society was split into a number of factions or political parties, with some based upon the preservation of Jewish tradition and the rejection of hellenism, and others who had a mild accommodation to hellenistic culture and philosophy. The three main factions were the Pharisees (Jewish traditionalists), Sadducees (aristocratic and inclined to hellenist philosophy, which, for example, denied the existence of an afterlife) and the Essenes (ascetics) [9].

Beginning of the Roman Occupation of Judea

In 63BC a civil war in the Kingdom of Judea allowed the Roman Republic an excuse to intervene.

Jerusalem was then conquered by the Roman general ‘Pompey the Great’ in 63BC, and the Kingdom of Judea became a client state of Rome with puppet figurehead rulers (known to be oppressive and silence political dissent), like King Herod. In 6BC, the puppet ruler Archelaus was made ruler of Judea by Roman approval, but was even more unpopular than his predecessors. This led to Rome deposing the ruler and turning the Kingdom of Judea into a Roman province under direct Roman rule from 6AD onwards.

Roman occupation and taxation caused the rise of two new factions, the Zealots (followers of Pharisee intent, but actively opposed to Roman occupation and paying taxes to them), and another faction faction or group, known as the Sicarii (Greek, ‘dagger men’), a group of violent individuals, who undertook extreme violent actions against Romans and Jews identified as tax collectors and collaborators.

The Coming of Hadhrat ‘Eesa (alaihissalaam) (Jesus)

The factionalism between the Jewish movements increased, and over the centuries since the time of Solomon (Sulayman alaihissalaam) the understanding of Judaism had become stale, with blind adherence to doctrines and laws of Moses, lacking nuance and subtlety in places. The laws of personal conduct and jurisprudence had over the centuries become overly-complex and prescriptive, becoming cumbersome and leading to contradictions beyond the law’s original intent. On the other extremes, many Jews had succumbed to greek philosophy and adopted corruptions into Jewish theology (like denial of an afterlife or a continuing soul), while others adopted asceticism and complete separation from worldly life.

Into this milieu came Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam), an alleged carpenter by trade, and raised in Nazareth (Galilee, north of Judea). He claimed receipt of divine revelation and that he was the prophesied Messiah (from Hebrew, ‘anointed one’) that would come and lead Israel to follow the commands of God, establish justice and vanquish its enemies. It is believed he (alaihissalaam) preached throughout Judea, correcting the superficial and over-complicated understanding and practice of the law held by the Pharisees, returning the understanding to the original practice of the time of Musa (alaihissalaam) (Moses).

Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) also is alleged to have argued against the corrupt greek-influenced theology of the Sadducees, and lived a life amongst the community and not separate from it, like the Essenes.

However, although it is believed by many historians today that Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) was executed by Romans at the initiation of Jewish colonial authorities, however the New Testament’s collection of books and the Qur’an declares that he was seen alive and well after his alleged crucifixion (the Qur’an argues he wasn’t killed). According to both sources, Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) was later raised up to heaven and believed will return to fulfill his mission in the future.

Since the raising up of Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) from the earth, (speculated around 27AD), the disciples of Jesus [‘Eesa alaihissalaam) formed a Council in Jerusalem, capital of the roman province of (occupied) Judea.

These individuals were considered practicing Jews for all intents and purposes and some historians go as far as to call them, at this juncture, a sect of Judaism. This Jewish sect followed the teachings of Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) which attested that the promised Jewish Messiah had come, and were devout Jews adhering to the laws of Moses (Musa alaihissalaam). They became known by others Jews as the ‘ Notzrim’ (Hebrew: Nazarenes, the people of Nazareth, or ‘Nazoraioi’ in Greek).

The decline of the Nazarenes and the birth of Roman/Hellenic Christianity

After the disappearance of Jesus (‘Eesa Maseeh alaihissalaam), Saul of Tarsus, arose to prominence in the new Jewish sect of Nazarenes. Known later as “St Paul”, Saul was a rabbinical student, tent maker and Roman citizen . He was a follower of the Jewish Pharisee school of thought, who initially persecuted the Nazarenes, but later claimed he had a vision of Jesus and converted to the new sect on the way to Damascus.

Paul’s charisma combined with his Roman citizenship and knowledge of Greek, Roman culture and Greek philosophy, allowed him to take a leading role in preaching to Gentiles (i.e. non-Jews) and he described himself as ‘a Messenger to the gentiles’ [10]. Paul preached a message to gentiles of faith and spirituality, but played down the importance of the law of Moses (Musa alaihissalaam) – which guided Jews in their personal, social and political lives.

Some scholars would later argue that Paul attempted to make the teachings of Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) more appealing to Gentiles, by not requiring any strict rules. Furthermore, Paul preached a decidedly passive and submissive doctrine, commanding people to pay their taxes to Rome, that Israelites be apolitical and wait for the return of Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam), and for slaves to be obedient to their masters without complaint. Paul’s ‘interpretation’ on the new sect of Judaism would be more preferable to the Romans and Greeks than the Mosaic social and political way of life that had been causing Jewish uprisings against Roman occupation.

Paul’s ‘Kingdom of God’ would no longer be an earthly kingdom, as Moses (Musa alaihissalaam) understood it, but Paul would reinterpret it to be purely a ‘spiritual kingdom’ that exists only in ‘hearts’ and in the future world of the coming of Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam).

It is recorded in the works of Paul, a new Greek-based name for followers of the new Jewish sect: Christians (Greek: Christianoi , followers of Christ , the Greek word for Messiah [11]).

Paul’s virtual abrogation of the law of Moses (Musa alaihissalaam), saw him come to blows with the council of Jerusalem over whether the Law of Moses (Musa alaihissalaam) should be followed by Gentiles or not. His teachings were notably submissive to the current political authorities, and his ‘understanding’ of the teachings of Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) became the most influential, despite Paul never having known Jesus or learned from his companions. Centuries later, 14 of the 27 books of the modern Christian New Testament would be composed entirely of his alleged writings alone. He died in Rome, having supported Peter in setting up a Christian community there.

A number of Jewish revolts against Rome rule failed, leading to the destruction of the second temple in 70AD by the Romans. 60 years later another failed and disastrous Jewish revolt called the Bar Kokhba revolt (132 AD – 135 AD) led to the Romans destroying the province of Judea, killing and exiling many of the jewish inhabitants. The Romans then renamed Judea to an ancient name for the region ‘Palaestina’, and merged the Roman province of Judea with the Roman province of Syria to create a new province called ‘Syria Palaestina‘. At the decree of Emperor Hadrian, Jews were banned from the city of Jerusalem, which was rebuilt and renamed ‘Aelia Capitolina’ and became a purely pagan capital.

After the destruction of Judea in 130AD, the character of Christianity became dominated by non-Jewish (Gentile) communities of Christian believers called ‘churches’ (from Greek ‘Ecclesia’: assembly) who were spread throughout the areas of the Mediterranean.

After 130AD, the centre of gravity of Christianity shifted from Jerusalem to the Church in Rome, which began to rise in prominence due to being in the capital of the Roman Empire. The Christian community in Rome was founded allegedly by Peter (a disciple of Jesus [‘Eesa alaihisalaam]who is reported to have come to Rome, and was killed by Emperor Nero around 67AD) and later supported by Paul.

However, Christianity began to be viewed with distrust throughout the Roman Empire, leading to many persecutions and killings of Christians lasting on-and-off for over two hundred years.

Christians were suspected of not being loyal to Rome and the Emperor, not participating the Roman political system or military, and holding ideas that threatened traditional roman values and beliefs.

During this time, the beliefs of Christian communities were written down, with each community writing its own version of Jesus’s (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) teaching and life – called Gospels (Greek: Evangelion, good news), other writings included history of the companions of Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam) or the early churches, and other writings featuring visions later Christians claim they had received about the future (called Apocalyses from the Greek word for ‘revelation’).

Centuries later, these Gospels would be gathered up, with some being discarded, and others being chosen depending on whether or not they agreed with Christian beliefs held by the majority (who were Pagan Greeks/Romans).

Eventually these were compiled into a compilation later to be called ‘the New Testament’ (The Jewish Tanakh was then referred to as the Old Testament).

The Roman Empire Adopts Christianity

Eventually, Christianity persisted through the persecutions and continued to spread to the point it was patroned by the Roman Emperor Constantine – some historians say as a means to supplant his rivals, and use it to enforce order in a declining empire. Constantine issued the edict of Milan, in 313AD officially granting tolerance of Christianity.

Eventually, after support from following Christian emperors, under Emperor Theodosius I, in 380AD, Christianity was declared the only legitimate religion of the Roman Empire, and therefore the ‘Catholic ‘ Church (from Greek: katholikos, universal). In the years that followed, many pagans were forced to convert to Christianity or lose their positions, be threatened, or even killed.

The Christian Church at this point wasn’t hierarchical or strictly unified. It was composed of a scattered collection of Christian communities (churches) in different areas of the Roman Empire, each led by its own Bishop (from Greek ‘epískopos’, meaning overseer or guardian) and following various gospels or other writings.

Whenever a matter of doctrine or dispute was to be decided, the Roman emperor would summon the bishops of all the areas within the Roman empire to attend a council or synod, where each matter would be decided by voting. The Council of Nicaea in 325AD was one such example, convened by Constantine to decide the question of the divinity of Jesus by putting it to a vote, resulting in a majority voting for Jesus being declared one with God, and God himself, despite being opposed by a minority (an example of democracy in theology).

The Split of the Roman Empire into East and West

The adoption of Christianity did not prevent the continuingly endless civil wars, succession crises, constant barbarian invasions and gradual economic decline that wrecked the Roman Empire. After the death of Emperor Theodosius I, in 395AD, the Roman Empire split into two.

The Western half being roughly composed of Latin speakers, and the Eastern half of Greek speakers.


The Eastern Roman Empire remained, and was later called by historians, the Byzantines, because Emperor Constantine moved the Roman capital to former Greek city of Byzantium, rebuilt it and renamed it Constantinople.

Despite this, the Eastern Roman Empire regarded themselves simply as ‘Romans’ and they viewed their lands as the continuing Roman Empire.

The Western Roman Empire continued to decline, and retreated from its northern territories in europe. The empire lasted (officially) until 4 September 476AD, when Rome was conquered and sacked by a barbarian invasion force led by Odoacer, which deposed the Roman emperor.

The traditions and practices of the West and Eastern churches would later gradually diverge over time, with communication becoming increasingly difficult and theological disagreements would arise due to translation differences, becoming more acute with the decline of the use of Latin and Greek in both areas.

In the wake of the collapse of the Roman Empire, the tribes and nomadic hordes of Scatinavia and Germania, the Franks, Visigoths, Vandals, Lombards and Saxons burst into former Roman lands, rampaged and conquered and established a patchwork of new fiefdoms and kingdoms. The relatively uneducated and unsophisticated barbarian tribes couldn’t repair roman technology or buildings, and left them to slowly crumble. The places of learning fell into disrepair and the technological know-how of the romans was lost, which heralded in the what historians would call the european ‘Dark Ages’ . The Dark Ages were not a product of Christianity as some modern day Secularists falsely misrepresent, but rather the Dark Ages were an obvious and natural result of the collapse of the (Christian) Roman Empire and the usurpation of its lands by barbarian tribes!

The Eastern Roman Empire didn’t fall, and therefore managed to preserve all the learning and technology from the Roman Empire and never suffered under a ‘dark age’. The Dark Ages would only descend upon the remains of the Western Roman Empire setting the scene for what would come next.

The split in the Roman Empire into a Western Latin speaking half, and an Eastern Greek speaking half would set the course for the creation of the modern “West”. The surviving remnant of the fall of Rome, the Church of Rome would operate within the latin speaking half and cause subsequent transformations using a radically altered religion that was taken from the Middle-East into Europe and transformed into a hybrid of ancient semitic beliefs and Greeco-Roman philosophy and mythology.

This hybrid religion would then create a historical peculiarity over the next 1,000 years that would form Western Civilisation and make it distinct from all others.

Now, we look at what happened after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and how the last surviving institution, the Roman Church was vaulted into ascendency by the unwitting activity of a new rising civilisation – Islam.

The clash of the West European Christian Tribes with the Islamic Civilisation, would unleash forces that led to the birth of the West as a distinct civilisation. The rise of Islam would create the West.

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire and the ‘Barbarian’ Colonisation of Europe

The Western Roman Empire was crumbling economically and militarily, and began to withdraw from many areas of the Empire, in many places it ceded areas to barbarian tribes for settlement instead of resisting. However it was a matter of time before the complete collapse of the Western Roman Empire came.

After the sack of Rome to Alaric and his gothic army in 410AD, the city of Rome remained, although only a pale shadow of its former esteem.

The Gothic armies of Odoacer (a former Roman officer) deposed the last Western Roman Emperor in 476AD and Odoacer was declared first (‘Barbarian’) King of Italy. This formally ended the Western Roman Empire.

With the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was overrun with barbarian tribes, from Germania – the Franks, the Lombards, the Visigoths, the Saxons, the Frisians and the Angles and Danes from Scandinavia.


The native Gauls and Celts who had previously lived throughout western Europe under Roman power were christian and many Christian communities of the Western Roman Empire survived and adapted to their new pagan overlords (although some of the tribes were nominally Christian).


Later on, the Eastern Roman Empire under Emperor Justinian (ruled 527AD-565AD) attempted to reconquer all the former Western Roman areas into a reunited Roman Empire, which met with some success, but eventually shrank back due to overstretched resources.

However, the Eastern Roman Empire managed to retain Rome, leaving a small garrison force to protect it. The city of Rome looked to the Eastern Roman Empire for its protection against the european barbarians. The Bishop of Rome attended the councils and synods of his fellow Bishops in the Eastern Roman Empire (who each head churches in Antioch, Alexandria and Constantinople), but this didn’t last long.

The Rise of Islam & the Breakaway of the Church of Rome

Pressured by constant wars against the Persian Sassanid Empire and the invading Bulgars, the rise of Islam and the military defeats of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) armies, shrivelled up the Eastern Roman Empire, losing it North Africa, Egypt, the Levant and the islands of the mediterranean. Constantinople barely resisted a number of sieges by Caliph Muawiyah, relying on ‘greek-fire’ flamethrowers to fend off the Muslim forces.

The pressure of the barbarian Lombards invasions of Italy, and the loss of a significant amount of provinces to the Islamic Caliphate created a weakness and inability in the Eastern Roman Empire to protect the Italian peninsula. This prompted the Bishop of Rome to look towards the new germanic tribal overlords of Europe for protection. If the rise of the Islamic Caliphate hadn’t conquered the lands dominated by the Eastern Roman Empire, history would have taken a completely different turn.

The Roman Catholic Church finds new patrons

With the Roman Church free of the Eastern Roman Empire’s control, it used Rome as a base of operations to send missionaries and resources from the Catholic Church to convert the invading pagan tribes to Christianity and set up new communities and expand existing ones – leading to new Bishops and Churches being established throughout Europe. This task was made easier due to the fact that many of the invading tribes were already (nominal) Christians, and had earlier become Christian due to awe at the power and civilisation of the former Roman Empire.

The Bishops and clergy preserved Western Roman language (Latin) and a lot of Roman administrative methods, laws and codes. They offered their assistance and giving them religious-approved authority to the rule over the new Christian tribal kings and chiefs in return of protection and patronage. Over time, the invaders were latinised and their languages changed under the tutelage of Bishops and clergy who preserved many aspects of late Roman culture. This led to the adoption of many latin words into the languages of these new Christian tribes – leading to the languages that would eventually become French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, English and German. Eventually, conquest and increasing wealth from settlement and sedentary life led to the rise of bigger kingdoms in Western Europe.

In 800 AD,  Pope Leo III crowned the highly successful Frankish King, Charlemagne, as ‘Holy Roman Emperor’, conveying upon the church of Rome, the ability to spiritually approve and make Kings and heirs to the Roman Empire itself (which was strongly protested by the Empress Irene of the Eastern Roman Empire, and her successor Emperor Nikephoros I, who viewed themselves to be the only true continuation of the Roman Empire).

Charlemagne’s Frankish empire, called the Carolingian Empire – spanned modern-day France, Germany and Northern Italy, and had become powerful patrons of Roman Christianity, fighting Muslims in Spain (with limited results), conquering the Lombards in Italy, and forcing the Saxons in Germania to convert to Christianity or face death.


The Carolingian Empire lasted until 846AD where it split into three parts between three sons of Frankish Emperor Louis ‘the Pious’ (840AD), Western Francia, Northern Italy and the third Kingdom over the area where is now modern Germany.


The Frankish Kingdom ruling over the area where is now modern-day Germany (shown in pink on the picture above), expanded somewhat and later became another revived ‘Holy Roman Empire’ under King Otto I in 962AD (lasting in very different forms up until 1809).

While Bishops and Churches of the Eastern Roman Empire were puppets of the Emperor and lacked independence, however, the new political independence of Rome and its Church from the shrinking Eastern Roman Empire allowed the Bishop of Rome to act independently and decide theological doctrines outside of Eastern Imperial control. This would eventually lead to a schism between the Christian communities under the influence of the Roman Church (the churches of Western europe) and the prominent christian communities under the rule of the Eastern Roman Emperor.

Over the years many Bishops of Rome began increasingly claiming that they possessed preeminent authority in all earthly and spiritual matters – arguing that the foundation of christian communion (i.e. The Christian ‘ Ummah’), was upon St. Peter, who they argued was given the ‘keys to the Kingdom of Heaven’ [12]. The Bishops of Rome argued they were the direct successors of St. Peter, and therefore only they were inheritors to the same ‘powers’ and ‘authority’ allegedly first conveyed to St. Peter – possessing ‘rightful’ leadership of all the Christian communities throughout the world.

In the past, the Bishops of all the most prominent Christian communities were called ‘Popes’ (Greek: Father), however, the Bishop of Rome would now (according to itself) be the only one that could be called
Pope . In essence, the Bishop of Rome, gradually claimed pre-eminence until it declared that the Bishop of Rome alone could unilaterally decide Christian doctrine, rites, creed and canon law without strictly needing councils or synods.

In 1054, Pope Leo IX sent Cardinal Humbert to deliver a decree to the head Bishop (Patriarch) of Constantinople, Michael Cærularius. The decree not only claimed the supreme authority of the Pope of Rome, but also claimed that the Roman emperor Constantine had in centuries past ‘donated’ the Roman Empire to the Church of Rome (this was based upon an inauthentic and possibly deliberately forged document called ‘the donation of Constantine’). The mission ended badly and the decree was rejected and the Cardinal excommunicated (i.e takfir) the Eastern Christian Patriarch. This was met in response by a mutual excommunication from the Patriarch against Pope Leo IX. This began the West-East schism creating what is known today as the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Christendom – The first Consciousness of Western Civilisation

Conversion to Christianity from amongst the pagan european tribes had already begun under Roman Imperial rule from 4th century and continued progressively until 14th century.

However, it was the Roman Catholic encounter with Islam that would change Western Roman Christians forever, and inadvertently create the beginning of Western Civilisation as a separate civilisation all of its own.
The Roman Catholic Churches control over the tribes and kingdoms increased over time, but politically their patrons and influence were faced with an enemy it couldn’t easily conquer – the Islamic Civilisation.

Everywhere the Catholic Church looked, whether to the West in Iberia (modern-day spain/portugal), Sicily, North Africa, the Eastern Levant and beyond, all it could see was the lands of Islam.

This created a call of unity by the Catholic Church, to all Catholic Christians, would slowly gather pace around 11th century, leading to a new purpose for war, a Crusade from Latin cruciata , past participle of cruciare “to mark with a cross,”) against the ‘infidel’.

The settled tribes of Western europe had by now become established kingdoms and had warred against eachother. The creation of a new kind of war, a war based upon their Catholic Christian identity, and blessed by their religion, created a new awareness and consciousness in the world that had now become a distinct civilisation –

From [Pope] Gregory VII [d.1058AD] onward, christianitas and related words occurred much more frequently, and it is in that period that the term began to achieve its “true significance.” The heyday of christianitas coincided with the rise of the papal monarchy, and the idea of Christendom finally “triumphed” under the pontificate of [Pope] Innocent III [d.1216AD], perhaps the mightiest of papal monarchs.
This idea lay at the center of Innocent’s political outlook and actions. One finds the full articulation of the notion of christianitas in crusading chronicles, where the word was in common use. This is understandable once we realize that the concept of Christendom was the first to take shape among the various preconditions of the crusading movement—as well as the last to vanish. A precondition of the crusade, the concept of Christendom was realized with the crusade. The launching of the crusade can be seen as marking the symbolic point when Christendom became “a living reality,” when it was transformed into what could be called a society.
“Christendom (and the idea of Christendom) found its most potent expression in the crusade; the crusade exalted Christendom, carried it to its highest point of fervor.” Christendom and the crusade came into existence together: They were “made together, in a reciprocal creation.” (13)

It comes as no surprise then, that the earliest surviving record we have today of the use of the word ‘christianitatis’ to mean ‘Christendom’ as the dominions of (Roman Catholic) Christians, occurs in a chronicle of an unnamed crusading warrior from the first Crusade:

“Turci inimici Dei et sanctae christianitatis” [The (Muslim) Turk is an enemy of God and Holy Christendom] (14)

In effect, the medieval Catholic Church created Christendom by radicalising the Catholic Christian peoples of Europe against Islam.
Up until now, the Catholic Church’s political power was limited to only rubber stamping Catholic kings and rulers and demanding their christian populations obey them.

However, the call to crusade and the ability to regularly launch wars under its instigation – attracting volunteers from both the peasant and noble classes across the Catholic kingdoms – gave the church a degree of ascendency over all the Catholic Kings. The new consciousness and civilisation of Christendom that spanned the Western European kingdoms and transcended their borders, would now be led by the Catholic Church.

The first incarnation of the something approximating the modern-day West, and its precursor, was ‘Christendom’. This concept referred to all lands dominated or ruled over by Christians from the Western Roman Church, Roman Catholicism, and did not generally include the Eastern Orthodox Church or lands of its followers.

As Europe came into the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th centuries, the Swedes, and Danes converted to Catholic Christianity as did the rest of Scandinavia and eastern Germany. Viking raiders settled in west Francia on condition of converting to Christianity, andwere called Normans (from latin Normanni, from the old Frankish word Nortmann, which mean ‘North men’). The region is now called Normandy.

Further East, the Slavs and peoples of Novgorod (later Russia) converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity.


The region in the above illustration, marks the schism between the West Roman Church (Roman Catholicism) and the Eastern Roman Church (Eastern Orthodox Christianity).

The Catholic Kingdoms of Denmark, Poland and Sweden (and two Germanic Knight orders) launched crusades in the 13th-14th century to spread Christianity and force convert the Pagans to the East, however Catholic crusades weren’t only reserved for pagans and Muslims. Pope Gregory IX endorsed Northern Crusades in 1242 against the Eastern Orthodox Christian Kingdom of Novgorod (modern day Russia), which ended in defeat for the Catholics. These campaigns are now called the ‘Northern Crusades’.

The lands under control of Roman Catholic Christians by 14th century, or Christendom , set the basis the region that would be later collectively called ‘the West’, and form the lands whose descendants would later be called ‘Westerners’.

A Brief Note on Eastern Roman Empire and the Islamic Civilisation’s Perspective towards Christendom

Since the split of the Roman Empire into two parts, the Eastern Roman Empire had always referred to the other half as fellow Romans. When the Western Roman Empire was overrun by barbarians, the barbarians were obviously not considered Romans, but after the later latinisation of their culture due to the work of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Roman Empire called them ‘Latinikoi’ (Greek: Latins ). It should be borne in mind, that the Eastern Roman Empire considered only themselves as the surviving continuation of the Roman Empire, and called themselves ‘Rhomaioi’ (Greek: Roman). The new ‘Latins’ of the West, were merely viewed as latinised barbarians who ruled over the conquered lands they took from the Roman Empire, and inherited and imitated some of the old culture from a dead part of the Roman Empire mixed with their own – and so could never truly be Roman themselves.

The Islamic Civilisation had conquered the germanic tribe Visigoths and ended their occupation of Iberia, but later encountered border clashes with the Catholics of Asturias in the mountainous area of northern Iberia (Al Andalus). Muslims had also fought against Normans invading Sicily. However, Muslims of the time did not perceive of Christendom as a united force, nor a separate civilisation.

This was going to change after the Crusades, when Muslims observed Christians from all over Western europe were flocking into armies directed at the Islamic Levant. But this didn’t prompt Muslims to lump all Christians together – they still differentiated between Eastern Romans, native Middle Eastern Christians, and the warlike newcomers from Western Europe.

The Christian Eastern Romans were simply called ‘Al Rum’ and their Greek language was called ‘Al Rumi’, and the Christians living in Islamic lands were simply called ‘Christians’ or Nassara (Arabic for Nazarenes).

The closest name invented by Muslims for the people of Christendom (Western European Catholics), was a word coined from their most prominent and most encountered ethnic group, Al Franji (Arabicised word for Franks). This was probably because the Frankish empires of Europe were the most prominent Catholic power for most of the middle ages, and to Muslims, were the most prominent of the people they encountered from that region


[1] For more information about the aggressive expansionism of the Roman Republic, and a philosophical discussion on why republics are prone to war, read ‘Imperialism In Republican Rome: 327-70 B.C’ (1985, William V. Harris)

[2] The true meaning of the name is disputed amongst historians. Some think it means to ‘rule by God’s authority’, others think it refers to something along the lines of ’success given by God’, or ‘prevailed by God’.

[3] The Philistines are absent on the list of tribes that were commanded to be destroyed by the 12 tribes of Israel (Deuteronomy 7:1, 20:17 )

[4] The modern word Palestine is speculated to be derived from Philistine or the Ancient Egyptian word ‘Peleset’ (1100BC-800BC) as the oldest word for south part of Canaan.

[5] “(God’s) throne, to be king for the Lord thy God” (2 Chron. 9:8; 1 Chron. 28:5; 29:23)

[6] Exodus 18:13-26, Deuteronomy 1:9-16, Deuteronomy 17:8-20

[7] 1 Chronicles 11:4-5

[8] 2 Maccabees 6:1–11 (Tanakh/Old Testament, Bible)

[9] For more information, read the account of Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 18:1:

[10] Romans 15:16

[11] This term is derived from the Greek translation of the Hebrew work Messiah Christós, the anointed one

[12] Matthew 16:13-19 (New Testament, Bible)

[13] Crusading Peace Christendom, the Muslim World, and Western Political Order, Tomazˇ Mastnak, 2002

[14] Gesta Francorum VI,xiii.

The Christian/Gregorian Calendar and its Pagan roots

I would like to bring to light the origins of the Christian calendar, in order to reveal their pagan roots. My purpose is twofold;

1) To help the Christians by showing them how far off from the Worship of the One True God they are, In shaa’Allah (God Willing), and

2) It is also a warning to all Muslims of the implications of celebrating said holidays, as well as adhering to the Christian calendar in the so-called spirit of
“Good Will” with the Christians.

This seems to be ever more prevalent today as Muslims are integrating with western ideologies not only in the Americas, but also much of Europe. So with that let examine where exactly these concepts originated from, and if in fact they had anything at all to do with Prophet Jesus (‘Eesa Alaihissalaam).

I wish to address the Christian calendar and its “pagan” origins. The majority of the western world follows the “solar calendar” as was implemented by the Christian
Church centuries ago. It should be noted, however, that at one time the Christians, like the Muslims and Jews, followed the “lunar calendar” . Today, Muslims and Jews still adhere to the “lunar calendar” , whereas the rest of the world, with a few exceptions, adhere to the “solar calendar” .

Before we begin though, I would like to point out that the
“solar calendar” is somewhat imperfect. It is this imperfection that causes the addition of an extra day in February every four years. This is called a “Leap Year” . I will not be discussing astronomy here however, but rather the origins of the “solar calendar” and nothing more.

When civilization was still young, and before people knew any better, the most brilliant object they could see was the sun. They thought the sun was God and as such worshipped it. This pagan idea remained with the Christians when they changed the Jewish Sabbath (Saturday) to the Christian day of rest
(Sunday) . The Christians called this rest day “Sun-day” , a day dedicated to the Roman sun-god that I mentioned earlier. This pagan idea also had an influence on the names of the months as we shall now explore;

The Roman year originally began in March, but when the calendar was revised by the Christian Pope Gregory the 13 th, January was made the first month in dedication of “JANUS”, a Roman god who was represented as having two faces, one looking backward and the other forward.

Pope Gregory the 13th took this into consideration when making January the first month of the year because it suggested both looking back and looking forward.

February was named after “FEBRUA”, the Roman feast of purification. Before Julius Caesar, it was the last month of the year but it was placed as the second month on the Roman calendar and the Christians did likewise in their calendar.

“MARS”, the Paganic god of war, gave his name to the month of March, for the Romans considered it a noisy and blustering month. When they went to war, they carried a cage full of chickens, which was sacred to “MARS”. Before the battle, they offered corn to the chickens. If the chickens rejected the corn, the Romans feared defeat. If, however, the chickens ate the corn, the Romans were confident of victory.

The month of April, which heralds the spring season in the northern hemisphere, takes the name “The Opener” from nature’s opening “Omnia Aperit”, which is Latin for “It Opens All Things”. It was named as such because it is during this month, in the northern hemisphere, that the earth awakens from its winter sleep. The buds appear and bloom in the branches. The birds rejoice and it is heard in their songs. Oddly enough, this is also the time of the year of the Pagan-Roman-Christian Easter celebrations.

May was dedicated to and received its name from “MAIA”, a female worshipped as a goddess, whose father was “ATLAS”. The whole weight of the world was supposed to have rested on the shoulders of “ATLAS”. Of his seven daughters, “MAIA” was considered to be the most famous because of her beauty and her lovely figure. Her son “MERCURY” became the winged messenger of the gods. Christians now consider May to be the month of “MARY”(ra), the mother of Prophet Jesus (‘Eesa alaihissalaam). It is easy to see the similarities between Maia and Mercury to that of Mary(ra) and Jesus(as)which the Pagan-Christians mixed.

June was considered by the Romans as the month of roses. It was dedicated to “JUNO”, the jealous, but so-called wife of the Paganic Roman god “JUPITER”.

“JUNO” is represented in her statues and pictures driving in a chariot drawn by peacocks.

The Pagan King, Julius Caesar, considered to be one of the greatest men of his time, gave his own name to July. He ordered the seventh month to be named after him.

Pope Gregory the 13 th held Julius Caesar in high esteem and as such his name was carried over unchanged into the Gregorian calendar.

August owes its name to the nephew of Julius Caesar, “AUGUSTUS”, who was first named “OCTAVIUS”. In order to flatter him, the people around him changed his name to Augustus, which means “Noble”. However, since July had 31 days and August only 30 days, the Romans took a day from September and placed it in August, fearing that Augustus might be jealous of Julius Caesar’s extra day in the month of July.

The name September comes from the Latin word for seventh, as do the names October, November and December, which means eight, ninth and tenth respectively. These months kept their names from the time when the year began in March, before the time of Julius Caesar and was adopted into the Gregorian calendar. Oddly enough, December is also the birth month of the Roman sun-god which also influenced the decision to make January the first month of the “new” Christian calendar. The events of the birth of the Roman sun-god has now become Christian dogma as pertaining to the birth of Prophet Jesus(‘Eesa Alaihissalaam).

The authority to proclaim new moons, change the system, resided with the Caesar
his seat of power ruled, and he was the priest of Janus.

Pontifex Maximus – Etruscan meaning highest priest, bestowed on Caesar as the head of the Pontifical College of Priests of Janus

Cardinals – Latin ‘cardo’ meaning hinge. They assisted the priest of Janus in opening ‘the door’ to the Elysian Fields, the Pagan ‘Heaven’.

so Caesar was the gateway to the after-life for a Roman pagans.

First, the Julian Calendar, then in 1582 Pope Gregory implemented a 10-day adjustment to the calendar designed by Sosigenes for that year. This was obeyed by the ‘papal states’ but the rest of the western world remained on the former timetable, until the time of Benjamin Franklin that the rest of society came into line with Rome. So now, we now have the Gregorian Calendar.

The power of the Caesars had been handed/inherited down to the Popes and Pagan-Christianity.

First, popes were called the Bishop of Rome, and then they used the Caesar’s title, “papal”, a Mithraic title. – therefore, the Caesar now is the Pope.

Days too are named after the Pagan fake deities!

Sunday – dies solis , day of the sun:

Since Babylon was established, pagans have worshipped the sun.
Baal, Shamash, Moloch, Ahura-Mazda, Dagon, Sol, Marduk, Mithras, Krishna, Amon-Ra, Aton, Woden(Odin), Zeus, Deus, and the Druid/Teutonic ‘God’. This began with the first king Nimrod.

In 321 CE, Constantine I, gave the term Sun-Day, which he called Sol Invictus Mithras (day of the unconquerable sun, Mithras). This was a Universal Edict. Romans considered anyone who did not worship the sun to be an atheist and a traitor, since Caesar was the sun enthroned in a man.

Mondaythe Day-of-the-Moon:

To the Romans, lunae dies
Moon was identified with Artemis (Diana) – Artemis is depicted with the crescent moon beneath her feet as if riding in a boat – exactly as you will see Mary in Roman Catholic illustrations.

Tuesday – Tyr’s Day – day of Tiu:

Teutonic Druid – Celtic idol,The Druids still worship the sun at Stonehenge every summer solstice.
Tyr or Tiu, was the Paganic Norse deity of war, considered the son of Odin(Woden). The French call this day Mardi (Mar’s Day), after Mars – the Roman deity of war.
French celebrate Mardi Gras – ‘fat Tuesday’ – bearing the name of the Roman deity.

WednesdayWodin, Odin’s Day

Considered highly skilled in magic, this Celtic deity was, to the Teutonic pagans, the husband of Freya, or Frigga. The Romans honoured Mercury on this day, calling it Mercurii dies (Mercury’s Day).

This mid-week evening was highly regarded as a night of majik – the Druids met to hold hands in a circle, chant, enchant, cast spells and do it while surrounding a burning cross – the symbol of Wodin (Odin)cross with the circle – the sun.

The Druids were very nationalistic, so it was difficult for Rome to conquer them. The only way Christianity could win them over was to absorb their culture. This is called inculturation.

Syncretism – the attempt to reconcile or combine differing beliefs in philosophy or religion by uniting them – mixes two or more behaviors together, re-inventing the meaning “on the surface”.
(syncretism – from “syn-together” and French “cretin – idiot” , from Swiss French “crestin”)

Thursday – the Celtic Thor’s Day – the deity of thunder and son of Woden and Freya:

The same as Taranus, Thor was associated with thunder.

The Dutch donder, or Germanic donder – one of Santa’s reindeer.
The Romans honoured Jupiter on this day, which was originally IU-PITAR, meaning Jovis-father.

“Jove” – Zeus. The Altar of Zeus, used at every Olympic game is lit by a torch. The altar is T-shaped – Thor’s emblem was the hammer, secretly interpreted as the letter T – harkening back to Tammuz (Babylonian Duzu), – the son of Nimrod and Semiramis.

Friday – Old English Frigedaeg – Frey Day or Frigga Day

Frigga –wife of Woden. The Greeks honoured Aphrodite on this day, and the Romans venerated Venus(Astarte). This day was the Egyptians day of Isis – depicted with the symbol of the fish on her head. The fish symbol pre-dates the Egyptians coming from the Phoenician/Philistine cult of Dagon. (Judge 16:23, 1Sam5:2).
Dag is Hebrew for fish and Latin – Pisces. Chosen by the pagans for fertility symbol because fish lays thousands of eggs.

The Greek word ichthys(ikhthus) doesn’t mean Christ, but fish.

Saturday – the Greco-Roman Day of Saturn

Saturn was the Romans deity of agriculture – Greeks is ‘Cronus’
This day was dedicated to Saturnus – the big party at the end of the Roman year at the Solstice, Saturnalia.

Also Sater Day – SATYR – a goat-legged half man with horns and pointed ears, was believed to be a drunken lecherous demon with an abnormal sexual appetite. (Observe the western culture’s weekend parties now – the satyr profile: drunkenness, orgiastic revelry, mischievousness)

Though the Gregorian calendar came into force long after the birth of Prophet Jesus(Nabi ‘Eesa alaihissalaam), the Christian church was reluctant to sever its ties, its links and its umbilical cord from its idolatrous, pagan past.

It is little wonder that Israel Zangwill, a Jewish author in his book “Children of the Ghetto”, summed up this phenomenon with these words;

“Scratch the Christian and you will find the pagan-spoiled.”

The hypothesis of Christianity History itself indicates on the outset that as the Pagans were absorbed into Christianity, it was the policy to accept everything they were accustomed to celebrating also.

Let’s hear it directly from the Catholic organization itself; the Catholic Cardinal John Henry Newman’s book, The Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, published in 1878, states in chapter 8: “The rulers of the Church from early times were prepared, should the occasion arise, to adopt, to imitate, or to sanctify the existing rites and customs of the population, as well as the philosophy of the educated class. The use of temples and those dedicated to particular saints, and ornamented on occasion with branches of trees (wreaths), incense, lamps, candles, votive offerings on recovering from illnesses, holy water, holy days and seasons (the entire Church calendar), use of calendars, processions, blessings on the fields, sacerdotal vestments, the ring in marriage, chants, the Kyrie Eleison — are all of Pagan origin, and sanctified by adoption into the Church.”

There you have it. But, you may ask, “If Easter was a Pagan festival celebrating the impregnation of ‘Mother Earth’, how did it get mixed up with Christianity??”

The present-day “Roman-Christianity’s” “Pagan Connection” started with one man more than any other. In 325 CE, the Roman Emperor Constantine I convened what is now called the Nicene Council, gathering 220 elders (bishops) together, in order to unify basic doctrines (teachings), and establish common practices. This “universalizing” produced the Roman Catholic Church (RCC). The Latin word “Catholic” means universal. There was no “Catholic” on planet Earth prior to this Council. The only Council mentioned in the Writings conducted by the first Nazarenes is mentioned at Acts 15, the purpose of which was to determine how to accommodate Roman Pagan practices and rituals into the true teachings of ‘Eesa (alaihissalaam)(Biblical Jesus).

In order to blend practices into universal (Pagan) behavior, the Shabbat (Sabbath) was abolished , along with Passover and other annual observances which even Prophet ‘Eesa (alaihissalaam) observed. This was a prophecy revealed to Prophet Daniel (Arabic Daanyal alaihissalaam).

In the prophecy, four “beasts” or kingdoms would arise, which are clearly (1) Babylon, (2) Media- Persia, (3) Greece, and (4) Rome.

At Dani’el 7:25, the 4th beast is clearly described:

“The fourth beast is a fourth kingdom that will appear on Earth (Rome). It will be different from all the other kingdoms and will devour the whole Earth, trampling it down and crushing it. The ten horns are ten kings who will come from this kingdom (Caesars/Khasars/Kaisers/Czars ~ Julius Caesar up to Constantine). After them another king will arise, different from the earlier ones (Constantine “fused” the sun worshippers with the Nazarene writings, and was not of the family name “Caesar”); he will subdue three kings. He will speak against the Most High, and oppress His saints, and try to change the set times and the law”.

The changing of the “set times” (or seasonal appointments decreed at Deut. 16 and Lev. 23) were wiped-out and replaced with Pagan observances, imposed by a Pagan king,namely Constantine.


Due to compromise, syncretism, ignorance, confusion, and the intentional deceit of humanity by fallen spatial beings, mythological Pagan designs were assimilated into the lives of most every person. Unwittingly, Christianity has embraced ancient Babylonian customs rooted in sun worship. The customs were re-invented so as to have different meanings, yet behind them remain the cunning ruses of an ancient spatial being, who seeks to be worshipped by means of trickery, perpetrated upon everyone alive. There is so much Paganism active in cultures today, there can be no doubt that it was deceitfully placed into our traditions in the name of so-called “Western Culture & trends” , then through fraud and disguise and vulgarity obscured with new meanings. This camouflaged Paganism pollutes and rots the spiritual condition of all mankind, which was later injected to other parts of the world through missionaries,crusades, Britishers, imperialists etc.

Again I remind the reader that my only wish was to show the extent in which paganism has crept into the lives of Christians and much of the world over the centuries. While there is no obligation of the part of non-Muslims to relinquish their following of the “Gregorian Calendar” , it is incumbent upon all who profess Islam as religion and call themselves Muslims to adhere solely to the “Islamic Calendar” and not allow yourselves to become influenced with the “Christian Sun-Calendar”
which, without question, has its roots in “paganism” . As Muslims, and Christians for that matter, we must strive to everything in our power to please Almighty God, and to avoid such idolatrous practices, focusing all our worship to the One True Allah, to Whom all Praise is due.

Christians must come to realize that any celebrations that have become ritualistic dogma over the centuries were never promulgated by Prophet Jesus(Qur’anic ‘Eesa alaihissalaam), nor were they practiced by him. Prophet Jesus’(‘Eesa alaihissalaam) sole purpose was to propagate “monotheism” , and to even attribute these “pagan” concepts to this great messenger of Almighty  Allah would only serve to further dishonour him.

As a Muslim, it is my duty and obligation to transmit this information to the best of my ability, and it is a task I take quite seriously. I pray that my efforts are not in vain with respect to not only our Christian counterparts, but to my Muslim brothers and sisters as well who find themselves partaking of “holiday cheer” , contrary to Islamic teachings.

Does the Qur’an say that the Sun sets in Murky water?? An analysis

One of the top-ten questions hurled at Muslims in any debate against Christians is about the following verse of the Holy Qur’an about Zulqarnain;

ﺣَﺘَّﻰ ﺇِﺫَﺍ ﺑَﻠَﻎَ ﻣَﻐْﺮِﺏَ ﺍﻟﺸَّﻤْﺲِ ﻭَﺟَﺪَﻫَﺎ ﺗَﻐْﺮُﺏُ ﻓِﻲ ﻋَﻴْﻦٍ ﺣَﻤِﺌَﺔٍ

“Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found
(wajada) it set in a spring of murky water: “ (Qur’an 18:86)

They say, the verse clearly says that sun sets in the murky water and needless to say it is blunder and proves that Qur’an is not the word of God

What does the Qur’an actually say??

Had the Qur’an actually said what they make it say, their conclusion would have been logical only. But they err in understanding the verse in the very first place.

1- The word used by the Qur’an :

I have given the translation of Abdullah Yusuf Ali above. The word he translated as “found” is ﻭﺟﺪ i.e. ‘ wajada.’ This word is used to describe the perception. See the proof from the Edward William Lane’s Lexicon.


And further he writes;


Edward William Lane’s Arabic-English Lexicon p. 2924

So the word ‘ wajada ’ refers to perception through any one of the five senses.

2- Qur’an uses the wording from Zulqarnain’s perspective:

What we find is that Qur’an has used the word from the perspective of Zulqarnain and merely describes his perception and how it appeared in his sight.

And the description is very much valid for on a shore that is how sunset actually seems. May be the following image helps a bit.


3- We Muslims have always understood the verse like this :

Someone may argue, the above explanation is the concoction of modern Muslim apologists and the verse reads as the skeptics say because early Muslims never knew the scientific facts about the cosmos as they are known today.
In Tafsir Jalalayn co-authored by al-Suyuti (d. 911 A.H.) and al-Mahalli (d. 864 A.H.)(rahimahumullah), we find the following words;

ﻭﻏﺮﻭﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻦ

“… its setting in a spring is [described as seen] from the perspective of the eye.”

Before them Ibn Kathir (d. 774 A.H.) (rahimahullah) wrote :

ﺭَﺃَﻯ ﺍﻟﺸَّﻤْﺲَ ﻓِﻲ ﻣَﻨْﻈَﺮِﻩِ ﺗَﻐْﺮُﺏُ ﻓِﻲ ﺍﻟْﺒَﺤْﺮِ ﺍﻟْﻤُﺤِﻴﻂِ، ﻭَﻫَﺬَﺍ ﺷَﺄْﻥُ ﻛُﻞِّ ﻣَﻦِ ﺍﻧْﺘَﻬَﻰ ﺇِﻟَﻰ ﺳَﺎﺣِﻠِﻪِ، ﻳَﺮَﺍﻫَﺎ ﻛَﺄَﻧَّﻬَﺎ ﺗَﻐْﺮُﺏُ ﻓِﻴﻪِ، ﻭَﻫِﻲَ ﻟَﺎ ﺗُﻔَﺎﺭِﻕُ ﺍﻟْﻔَﻠَﻚَ ﺍﻟﺮَّﺍﺑِﻊَ ﺍﻟَّﺬِﻱ ﻫِﻲَ ﻣُﺜَﺒَّﺘَﺔٌ ﻓِﻴﻪِ ﻟَﺎ ﺗُﻔَﺎﺭِﻗُﻪُ

“… he saw the sun as if it were setting in the ocean. This is something which everyone who goes to the coast can see: it looks as if the sun is setting into the sea but in fact it never leaves its path in which it is fixed.”

And even before him Nasiruddin al-Baydhawi (d. 691 A.H.) (rahimahullah) said:

ﻭﻟﻌﻠﻪ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺳﺎﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﻓﺮﺁﻫﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻄﻤﺢ ﺑﺼﺮﻩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ } ﻭَﺟَﺪَﻫَﺎ ﺗَﻐْﺮُﺏُ { ﻭﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻐﺮﺏ

“Perhaps he reached shore of an ocean and saw it like that as there was nothing in his sight except water and for this reason it is said, “and he perceived it to set”, and not that it actually sets.” (Anwar al-Tanzil wa Asrar al-Tawil 4/14)

I hope all this detail leaves no ambiguity.


In the Bible we have something interesting on these lines. Talking about the two mountains, Gerizim and Ebal, the Book of Deuteronomy tells us;

“Are they not on the other side Jordan, by the way where the sun goeth down , in the land of the Canaanites, which dwell in the campaign over against Gilgal, beside the plains of Moreh?” (KJV, Deuteronomy 11:30)

Now the question is if the sun actually goes down?? Certainly not! There is no doubt the verse simply refers to how humans perceive it and calling it a scientific error is nothing but sheer cunningness.

But the point here is, why adopt double standards?? Why do the liar evil missionaries divorce with the common sense when they speak about Islamic texts?? Because they are jealous of Islam and our Holy Book, just because it upholds the truth and calls them towards the truth?? Seems so!

Don’t they follow or heed the words of Prophet Jesus(‘Eesa Maseeh alaihissalaam)which can be quoted from their own books??:

“Judge not, that ye be not judged. For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again.” (KJV, Matthew 7: 1-2)

Sure they don’t heed it!

Indeed Allah knows the best!

December 25: The Pagan-Occult Origins of Christmas

”The pains of labor drove her towards Date-Palm, She [Bibi Maryam (Mary)] said:’Oh if only i had died before this or i wish i would have been something forgotten or discarded’ then a voice called out to her from under her: ‘Do not grieve,your Lord has placed a stream under your feet and shake the trunk of the palm towards you and fresh ripe dates will drop down unto you, eat and drink and delight your eyes” [Surah Maryam: Verses 23-26]

25th December, the so-called ‘Christmas’ is celebrated by Pauline Christians and even many people other than Christians celebrate it as the so-called birth day of Prophet Jesus (Qur’anic ‘Eesa Alaihissalaam) but Quran just proves that how wrong it is!!!
Hazrat ‘Eesa Bin Maryam Alaihissalaam wasn’t born in December at all!

During December, Its winter season all over the Northern Hemisphere and its severely cold in certain places including Palestine were Hazrat
Nabiyana Eesa Maseeh Alaihissalaam (Biblical Jesus the messiah) was born.

Look at the Quranic Verses 23 to 26 of Surah Maryam above dear readers, it explains the Holy event of the birth of ‘Eesa Alaihissalaam (Jesus), it explains that Bibi Maryam at the time og delivery was under a
Date-Palm and it was said to her from a voice to shake the Trunk and Fresh,ripe dates (Khajoor) will be available for her and she can eat them.

Now as we all know that Dates are yielded on trees only during Late
Spring till Early Summer (i.e. From Mid February till April),  The DePascha Computus, an anonymous document believed to have been written in North Africa around 243 CE, placed Jesus birth on March 28, then how
come ‘Eesa Maseeh Alaihissalaam (Jesus) took birth on 25th of

Our Islam and Our Quran is enough to separate the truth from the man-made lie! SUBHAN ALLAH!

Then the question arises….


Roman pagans first introduced the holiday of Saturnalia, a week long period of lawlessness celebrated between December 17-25. During this period, Roman courts were closed, and Roman law dictated that no one could be punished for damaging property or injuring people during the weeklong celebration, In the 4 th century CE, Christianity imported the Saturnalia festival hoping to take the pagan masses in with it. Christian leaders succeeded in converting to Christianity large numbers of pagans by promising them that they could continue to celebrate the Saturnalia as Christians, The problem was that there was nothing intrinsically Christian about Saturnalia. To remedy this, these Christian leaders named Saturnalia’s concluding day, December 25 th, to be Jesus’ birthday however,Christians had little success, however, refining the practices of Saturnalia. As Stephen Nissenbaum, professor history at the University of Massachussetts, Amherst, writes, “In return for ensuring massive observance of the anniversary of the Savior’s birth by assigning it to this resonant date, the Church for its part tacitly agreed to allow the holiday to be celebrated more or less the way it had always been.”

The Reverend Increase Mather of Boston observed in 1687 that “the early Christians who first observed the Nativity on December 25 did not do so thinking that Christ was born in that Month, but because the Heathens’ Saturnalia was at that time kept in Rome, and they were willing to have those Pagan Holidays metamorphosed into Christian ones.” [  The Battle for Christmas: A Cultural History of America’s Most Cherished Holiday , New York: Vintage Books, 1997, p. 4.  ]

Because of its known pagan origin, Christmas was banned by the Puritans and its observance was illegal in Massachusetts between 1659 and 1681. However, Christmas were and still is celebrated by most Christians.

We all know that Present-Day Christianity has been corrupted by beliefs and books, and one of its examples is the celebration of so-called Christmas on December 25th, Actually this Festival 25th of December Pre-dates hundreds of years before the Era of Prophet ‘Eesa Alaihissalaam (Jesus), 25th of December was celebrated in Iran as the Birth of Iranian Deity named Mithras who was a Sun God, it was believed that The
Sun of God took birth during this day, we can clearly see how this
idolatrous belief was mixed within Christianity.

Therefore as we can see, The Romans Celebrated this 25th of December as the day of Jupiter and Saturnalia deities before the Era of ‘Eesa Alaihissalaam, Now when Roman Pagan-Christian King Constantine took Christianity as the religion of Roman Kingdom he put the Birth of Eesa Alaihissalaam for the Idolatrous festival of 25th of December! This is one example of the corruption of the Islam of Eesa Alaihissalaam.

The Origins of Christmas Customs

Just as early Christians recruited Roman pagans by associating Christmas with the Saturnalia, so too worshippers of the Asheira cult and its offshoots were recruited by the Church sanctioning “Christmas Trees”. [7] Pagans had long worshipped trees in the forest, or brought them into their homes and decorated them, and this observance was adopted and painted with a Christian veneer by the Church.

Bible itself prohibits Christmas trees! But Pagan-Christians are blind!

”This is what the Lord says: Do not learn the practice of (Idolatrous)
nations nor get terrified by the signs in the sky, for the customs of the (Pagan) peoples are worthless. The cut a tree out of forest and the craftsmen carves it with his chisel, they adorn it with Gold and Silver, and Hammer it with Nails below so that it doesn’t fall” (Jeremiah1:verses 2-4)

The Origin of Mistletoe

Norse mythology recounts how the god Balder was killed using a mistletoe arrow by his rival god Hoder while fighting for the fem
ale Nanna. Druid rituals use mistletoe to poison their human sacrificial victim. [8] The Christian custom of “kissing under the mistletoe” is a later synthesis of the sexual license of Saturnalia with the Druidic sacrificial cult.[9]

The Origin of Christmas Presents

In pre-Christian Rome, the emperors compelled their most despised citizens to bring offerings and gifts during the Saturnalia (in December) and Kalends (in January). Later, this ritual expanded to include gift-giving among the general populace. The Catholic Church gave this custom a Christian flavor by re-rooting it in the supposed gift-giving of Saint Nicholas (Miles, pp. 276-279)

The Origin of Santa Claus

Nicholas was born in Parara, Turkey in 270 CE and later became Bishop of Myra. He died in 345 CE on December 6 th . He was only named a saint in the 19th century.

Nicholas was among the most senior bishops who convened the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE and created the New Testament.

In 1087, a group of sailors who idolized Nicholas moved his bones from Turkey to a sanctuary in Bari, Italy. There Nicholas  supplanted a female boon-giving deity called The Grandmother, or Pasqua Epiphania, who used to fill the children’s stockings with her gifts. The Grandmother was ousted from her shrine at Bari, which became the center of the Nicholas cult. Members of this group gave each other gifts during a pageant they conducted annually on the anniversary of Nicholas’ death, December 6.

The Nicholas cult spread north until it was adopted by German and Celtic pagans. These groups worshipped a pantheon led by Woden –their chief god and the father of Thor, Balder, and Tiw. Woden had a long, white beard and rode a horse through the heavens one evening each Autumn. When Nicholas merged with Woden, he shed his Mediterranean appearance, grew a beard, mounted a flying horse, rescheduled his flight for December, and donned heavy winter clothing.

In a bid for pagan adherents in Northern Europe, the Catholic Church adopted the Nicholas cult and taught that he did (and they should) distribute gifts on December 25th instead of December 6 th.

In 1809, the novelist Washington Irving (most famous his
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle ) wrote a satire of Dutch culture entitled Knickerbocker History . The satire refers several times to the white bearded, flying-horse riding Saint Nicholas using his Dutch name, Santa Claus.

Dr. Clement Moore, a professor at Union Seminary, read
Knickerbocker History , and in 1822 he published a poem based on the character Santa Claus: “Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house, not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. The stockings were hung by the chimney with care, in the hope that Saint Nicholas soon would be there…” Moore innovated by portraying a Santa with eight reindeer who descended through chimneys.

The Bavarian illustrator Thomas Nast almost completed the modern picture of Santa Claus. From 1862 through 1886, based on Moore’s poem, Nast drew more than 2,200 cartoon images of Santa for Harper’s Weekly. Before Nast, Saint Nicholas had been pictured as everything from a stern looking bishop to a gnome-like figure in a frock. Nast also gave Santa a home at the North Pole, his workshop filled with elves, and his list of the good and bad children of the world. All Santa was missing was his red outfit.


We can clearly see that whatever people today who call themselves Christians are following are clearly Idolatrous “Paganized” practices and it has no basis in the true beliefs of God and His Prophets!. This is how Christianity Has been Corrupted for centuries!, They don’t even follow what is said in their own books but follow what their pagan ancestors did!.

Does the Holy Qur’an encourage killing of all non-muslims?? : A slap in the face of false propagandists and Islam-haters

It is amazing to see how many non-muslims would blindly post the verses from Quran, without even reading from ‘appropriate’ and well-know translations. Needless to say they hardly ever know the context. In this article we will be examining commonly quoted verses on the topic of violence and refuting them. This article is divided in 3 parts:

1) Refuting commonly quoted verses on the topic of violence

2) Exposing the hypocrisy of Jews and Christians

3) Providing accurate picture of Islam

1)Refuting commonly quoted verses on the topic of violence


Islam-critics only post 9:5:

“Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AT TAUBAH 9:5)

Let’s read the verse in context 9:1-9:5:

Freedom from obligation (is proclaimed) from Allah and His messenger toward those of the idolaters with whom ye made a treaty. Travel freely in the land four months, and know that ye cannot escape Allah and that Allah will confound the disbelievers (in His Guidance). And a proclamation from Allah and His messenger to all men on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage that Allah is free from obligation to the idolaters, and (so is) His messenger. So, if ye repent, it will be better for you; but if ye are averse, then know that ye cannot escape Allah. Give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom to those who disbelieve,
Excepting those of the idolaters with whom ye (Muslims) have a treaty, and who have since abated nothing of your right nor have supported anyone against you. (As for these), fulfil their treaty to them till their term . Lo! Allah loveth those who keep their duty (unto Him). Then, when the sacred months have passed , slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran SURAH AT TAUBAH 9:1-5)

This verses is always quoted out of context, they never post 9:6 or from 9:1 to 9:6. If we read from start it states that there was a treaty, which the Pagans of Arab broke. Thus Allah gave them 4 months as 9:2 states in order to amend the treaty. Verse 9:4 states that the punishment prescribed in 9:5 is ONLY to those who broke the treaty and NOT to those who abided by the treaty. Therefore the context of 9:5 is of war with the pagan Arabs who broke the treaty yet refused to amend it in 4 months.

Naturally, in war violence is expected. If a war is declared between Country A and Country B, because country B broke the treaty and refused to amend, then if president of country A states “wherever you find soldiers of Country B, you kill them and besiege them”, no one would truly find much wrong in that statement.

Killing in war is nothing peculiar, and there is yet to be a war where soldiers hugged and kissed each other.

Verse 9:5 quoted to boost morale of Muslims during battle:
In Surah Taubah chapter 9 verse 5 the Qur’an says “Kill the Mushriqs [pagans] where ever you find them”, during a battle to boost the morale of the Muslim soldiers.

What the Qur’an is telling Muslim soldiers is, don’t be afraid during battle; wherever you find the enemies kill them.

Islam-critics remain shy of posting the next verse, 9:6, as it contains the answer to their deception:

“And if anyone of the idolaters seeketh thy protection (O Muhammad), then protect him so that he may hear the Word of Allah, and afterward convey him to his place of safety . That is because they are a folk who know not. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AT TAUBAH 9:6)

Quran does not only say that you release those who seek protection but it goes even further and states to protect them! In the present international scenario, even a kind, peace-loving army General, during a battle, may let the enemy soldiers go free, if they want peace. But which army General will ever tell his soldiers, that if the enemy soldiers want peace during a battle, don’t just let them go free, but also escort them to a place of security?
Hence even in war Quran promotes peace.


Islam-critics usually apply “cut and choose” approach with regards to this verse. They only quote: “And slay them wherever ye catch them…” (SURAH AL BAQARAH 2:191).

However, let us be brave enough to read the whole passage in context from 2:190-195:

Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loves not transgressors. And kill them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out; for persecution and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, kill them. Such is the reward of those who reject faith. But if they cease , God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression , and there prevail justice and faith in God;
but if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression. The prohibited month, for the prohibited month, and so for all things prohibited, there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, transgress ye likewise against him. But fear (the punishment of) God, and know that God is with those who restrain themselves. And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah, and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction; but do good; for Allah loveth those who do good. (YUSUF ALI, Quran, SURAH AL BAQARAH 2:190-195)

The verse clearly states to fight those who fight you, yet do not transgress limits. In so sense therefore does it promote killing of innocent but allows self-defence. It further goes on to state “And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice” and “if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression”.

Hence, once again when the whole context is examined the verses does not promote killing of innocent in anyway.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi (Finlay, Greece Under the Romans, pp. 367-368) writes on verse 2:190:

“…Violating the truce they themselves had signed. The Muslims, after having borne untold persecution with almost superhuman fortitude for years and years at the hands of the pagans of Makkah, are now for the first time enjoined to take to reprisals. ‘For a full thirteen years the Muslims were subjected to relentless persecution in Mecca . The Prophet and his followers fled for life to Medina, but the enemy would not leave them alone in their refuge. They came to attack them within a year , and the first three battles were fought in the very locality which will whether the Prophet was an assailant or defendant’ (Headley, The Original Church of Jesus Christ and Islam, p. 155).

The Makkans had signed a truce and were the first to break it …”
Once again when the whole context is examined the verses does not promote killing of innocents, whether muslims or non-muslims in anyway, but only self-defence.


Verse says:

But if they turn away, catch them and slaughter them wherever ye find them; and (in any case) take no friends or helpers from their ranks.” (SURAH AN-NISA’ 4:89)

Once again the context is ignored, they don’t quote previous and next verses.

They but wish that ye should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they): But take not friends from their ranks until they flee in the way of Allah (From what is forbidden). But if they turn renegades, seize them and slay them wherever ye find them; and (in any case) take no friends or helpers from their ranks;- Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. If Allah had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you:
Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (Guarantees of) peace, then Allah Hath opened no way for you (to war against them). Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people: Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto: if they withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands, seize them and slay them wherever ye get them: In their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them. (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran, SURAH AN-NISA’ 4:89-91)

When we read it in context, verse 4:89 is NOT to those “who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people.” This verse is only referring to those “withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands”.

Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi says with regards to this verse:

“Now tell me honestly, do these verses give a free permission to kill any one anywhere?? These verses were revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), at the time when Muslims were attacked by the non-Muslims of Makkah on a regular basis . They were frightening the Muslim community of Madinah. One may say using the contemporary jargon that there were constant terrorist attacks on Madinah and in this situation Muslims were given permission to fight back the “terrorist”. These verses are not a permission for “terrorism” but they are a warning against the “terrorists.” But even in these warnings you can see how much restraint and care is emphasized.”

Therefore, it is clear that the verse only allows self-defence against those who “withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands”.

Naturally, it would be necessary for the enemies to withdraw and make peace in order to achieve peace. Verse is not referring to “those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people”.

In “…withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands”, it is obviously necessary to give guarantees of peace or form a treaty in addition to stop fighting. Otherwise, anyone can pretend to be “restraining their hands” when they are weak, and when they are strong again they come back and attack again. Thus to make it official, Quran says to give you (guarantees) of peace, and not act as two-faced.


We have already discussed 4:89, now lets look at 4:95. Common translation amongst the critics of this verse (poorly translated) is:
Not equal are those believers who sit at home and receive no injurious hurt, and those who strive hard, fighting Jihad in God’s Cause with their wealth and lives. God has granted a rank higher to those who strive hard, fighting Jihad with their wealth and bodies to those who sit (at home). Unto each has God promised good, but He prefers Jihadists who strive hard and fight above those who sit home. He has distinguished his fighters with a huge reward.

Now let’s examine this verse in the light of another common translation:

O ye who believe! When ye go forth (to fight) in the way of Allah, be careful to discriminate, and say not unto one who offereth you peace: “Thou art not a believer,” seeking the chance profits of this life (so that ye may despoil him). With Allah are plenteous spoils. Even thus (as he now is) were ye before; but Allah hath since then been gracious unto you. Therefore take care to discriminate. Allah is ever Informed of what ye do. Those of the believers who sit still, other than those who have a (disabling) hurt, are not on an equality with those who strive in the way of Allah with their wealth and lives. Allah hath conferred on those who strive with their wealth and lives a rank above the sedentary. Unto each Allah hath promised good, but He hath bestowed on those who strive a great reward above the sedentary; (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran SURAH AN-NISA’ 4:94-95)

The verse is stating One who strive in the path of God with lives and wealth are not equal to those who do not, which is logical. Accurate translations make no mention of “Jihadists” and killing as poor translations indicate. Once again, critics take advantage of inaccurate translations. Also 4:94 prevents killing of innocents as it says “…be careful to discriminate, and say not unto one who offereth you peace: “Thou art not a believer,” seeking the chance profits of this life…”


If read with good translation and historical context in mind, no significant complaint can be found about 47:4. However, some non-muslims insist on using a very poor translation of Quran with additions. One such translation reads:

Qur’an 47:4 So, when you clash with the unbelieving Infidels in battle, smite their necks until you overpower them, killing and wounding many of them . At length, when you have thoroughly subdued them, bind them firmly, making (them) captives. Thereafter either generosity or ransom until the war lays down its burdens. Thus are you commanded by God to continue carrying out Jihad against the unbelieving infidels until they submit to Islam .

However, almost all of the major translations are contrary to the above translation. Yusuf Ali’s translation reads:

Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been Allah’s Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the Way of Allah,- He will never let their deeds be lost. (Yusuf Ali Translation, Quran, SURAH MUHAMMAD 47:4)

Further translations can be checked out here . Nowhere does the accurate translations make any mention of 1)”killing and wounding” 2) “Thus are you commanded by God to continue carrying out Jihad against the unbelieving infidels until they submit to Islam”, those are additions of the translator’s and are not to be found in Quran.

The context of this verse was when the Muslims were to fight their enemies for their very existence . After thirteen years of endurance and patience, the prophet and his companions had to leave their home town of Makkah and to emigrate to Madinah. When the people of Madinah had welcomed him there and he was accepted as a leader there, the Makkans became unhappy. They wanted to eliminate Muhammad and his religion; and so they sent their army to root out Islam. And the crucial battle took place in Badr.

Once again, the context is of war here and therefore killing of innocent people is not prescribed. Naturally, in war people would be expected to fight and kill, therefore “smite at their necks” is only natural.


Another poor translation of this verse commonly seen reads:

Qur’an 33:23 Among the Believers are men who have been true to their covenant with God and have gone out for Jihad ( holy fighting ). Some have completed their vow to extreme and have been martyred fighting and dying in His Cause, and some are waiting, prepared for death in battle .

More accurate and common translation reads:

Among the Believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah: of them some have completed their vow (to the extreme), and some (still) wait: but they have never changed (their determination) in the least: (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran, SURAH AL AHZAAB 33.23)

Critics have included “fighting and dying”, “prepared for death in battle” and their own interpretation to the verse. Ibn Kathir rahimahullah writes:

“When Allah mentions how the hypocrites broke their promise to Him that they would not turn their backs, He describes the believers as firmly adhering to their covenant and their promise:
([they] have been true to their covenant with Allah; of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah;) Some of [the Qur’anic commentators] said: “Met their appointed time (i.e., death).” Al-Bukhari said, “Their covenant, and refers back to the beginning of the Ayah.
(and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.) means, they have never changed or broken their covenant with Allah. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir)”

It is clear, when read in proper translation, that the verse does not promote killing of innocents at all.


Verse states:
They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave (offence); but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members.” Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein. Those who believed and those who suffered exile and fought (and strove and struggled) in the path of Allah,- they have the hope of the Mercy of Allah: And Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran SURAH AL BAQARAH 2:217-218)

The context of these verses refers to an expedition of a group of the companions of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam), under the lead of Abdullah bin Jahsh Asadi Raziyallahu Anhu. The companions recognized a caravan from the Quraysh. Since the Quraysh had openly declared war on the Muslims and had persecuted them to the extent that they drove them out of their homes, and stole their property, the companions present, felt that they could retaliate. They killed one man of from the caravan, and took two as prisoners. When they returned to Madinah, the Prophet Muhammad disapproved of their attack during the Holy Month. But God revealed this verse as a reminder to the Muslims that while killing in the Holy Month was bad, persecution and expelling people from their homes because of their faith is far worse. So the verses make it very clear that in the face of the terrorist attacks of the polytheists, the Muslims should be brave and steadfast and turn to God for help rather than giving in and leaving the truth.

Shaykh Safiur Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri (Al-Mubarakpuri, Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum; Riyadh-Saudi Arabia, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1996; pp. 205-206)writes on verse 2:217:

The Words of Allah were quite clear and said that the tumult created by the polytheists was groundless. The sacred inviolable sanctities repeatedly violated in the long process of fighting Islam and persecuting its adherents . The wealth of the Muslims as well as their homes had already been violated and their Prophet Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam had been the target of repeated attempts on his life…Shortly afterwards, the two captives were released and blood money (compensation) was given to the killed man’s father. (fn. For details see Zad Al-Ma’ad, 2/83-85; Ibn Hisham, 1/605; Rahmat-ul-lil’alameen, 1/115. 2/468.) (Al-Mubarakpuri, Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum; Riyadh-Saudi Arabia, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1996; pp. 205-206, emphasis added)


2:244 Fight in God’s Cause, and know that God hears and knows all. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL BAQARAH 2:244)

Verse 2:244 is informing us not to transgress limits and Allah “hears and knows all”, also fight in God’s cause which could be in reference to several things including liberation of the oppressed, meaning the helpless men and women who are yearning and praying for freedom as well as striving for all that which is good as well as doing Dawah in an appropriate manner. This does NOT refer to fighting and killing innocents . As Quran says:

Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you , but do not transgress limits ; for Allah loveth not transgressors. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL BAQARAH 2:190)


Those who believe do battle for the cause of Allah; and those who disbelieve do battle for the cause of idols. So fight the minions of the devil. Lo! the devil’s strategy is ever weak. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AN-NISA’ 4:76)

Now, let’s read the verse in textual context:

Let those fight in the way of Allah who sell the life of this world for the other. Whoso fighteth in the way of Allah, be he slain or be he victorious, on him We shall bestow a vast reward. How should ye not fight for the cause of Allah and of the feeble among men and of the women and the children who are crying: Our Lord! Bring us forth from out this town of which the people are oppressors! Oh, give us from thy presence some protecting friend! Oh, give us from Thy presence some defender! Those who believe do battle for the cause of Allah; and those who disbelieve do battle for the cause of idols. So fight the minions of the devil. Lo! the devil’s strategy is ever weak. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AN-NISA 4:74-76)

Verse 4:76 is specific to those who have been oppressed. In order to help those who cannot help themselves is indeed a great deed and to shun away tyranny and help those who are weak and oppressed. Islam-critics seek to present a view of violence and hate on behalf of Quran, however, when the verse is examined carefully in a correct context, their deceit is clearly exposed.

Dr. Maher Hathout (Hathout, Jihad vs. Terrorism; US Multimedia Vera International, 2002, p.50) comments on verse 4:76 by saying:

This verse is related to the two preceding verses where it was stated that those who fight for God’s cause would be rewarded whether they are victorious or slain. Fighting for God’s cause includes the liberation of the oppressed, meaning the helpless men and women who are yearning and praying for freedom. The believers fight for God’s cause, and the disbelievers fight for the sake of their idols. An idol may be taken conceptually. For example, evil or greed may figuratively be construed as idols. The believers should put all their trust in God the Almighty and Powerful and fear not the disbelievers and their evil plans. Evil plans are always inferior to goodness. (Hathout, Jihad vs. Terrorism; US Multimedia Vera International, 2002, p.50)


Verse states:

The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran, SURAH AL MA’IDAH 5:34)

The verse before and after 5:33 is not usually quoted, as 5:32 prohibits murder and 5:34 encourages forgiveness.

On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if any one slew a person – unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land – it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people . Then although there came to them Our messengers with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land. The punishment of those who
wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is : execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter; Except for those who repent before they fall into your power: in that case, know that Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran, SURAH AL MA’IDAH 5:32-34)

The verse mentions “The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land ” is either execution, OR crucifixion, OR the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, OR exile from the land. This is the punishment for waging war against the Prophet of God and spreading corruption. Four kinds of punishment are mentioned based upon the gravity of the crime. As Muhammad F. Malik writes in his translation of this verse:

The punishment for those who wage war against Allah and His Rasool and strive to create mischief in the land is death or crucifixion or the cutting off their hands and feet from opposite sides or exile from the land (based on the gravity of their offence)… (Malik, Al-Qur’an: Guidance for Mankind)

Therefore stealing may not result in execution but cutting of hand. Similarly, killing an innocent person may not result in exile from the land but execution. Verses 5:32 and 5:34 must also be taken in consideration, which condemns killing of innocent and takes into account repentance.


Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran, SURAH AT-TAUBAH 9:29)

This verse is referring to the Islamic Concept called “Jizya”, which Shaikh Sayed Sabiq in the Fiqh Alsunna (a commonly used source of fiqh[rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists]), describes as “ the underlying root of the word jizya is jaza, and defines it as “A sum of money to be put on anyone who enters the themah (protection and the treaty of the Muslims) from the people of the book“.

It is usually portrayed by certain critics that jizya is a mechanism for discriminating non-muslims in an Islamic-society. This is a common misconception; jizya is a political method dealing with finance.

One of the main pillars of Islam is called Zakat (Muslims whose wealth is above a certain limit must pay a percentage of it (in most cases 2.5%) to the poor and needy). Islam does not “force” upon non-muslims to follow one of it’s main pillar. This certainly quietens some critics who would otherwise be accusing Islam of imposing itself on them. Just like in a non-muslim society muslims pay tax, likewise non-muslims are obliged to pay certain percentage of their money to the Islamic State. It is quite hypocritical of non-muslims to criticize Jizya, whilst, in non-muslims countries muslims have to pay tax. If tax is justified then so should jizya be.

Regarding the amount of jizya Shaykh Abu’l-Hasan Al-Mawardi (d. 1058CE) writes in his book Al- Al-Mawardi, al-Ahkam as-Sultaniyyah, Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. 1996, pp. 209-210: :

“The fuqaha (Jurists) differ as to the amount of the Jizya. Abu Hanifa considers that those subject to this tax are of three kinds: the rich from whom forty-eight dirhams are taken; those of average means from whom twenty four are taken, and the poor from whom twelve dirhams are taken: he thus stipulated the minimum and maximum amounts and prohibits any further judgement on behalf of those responsible for its collection. Malik, however, does not fix its minimum and maximum amount and considers that those responsible should make their own judgement as to the minimum and maximum. Imam Ash-Shafi’i Rahimahullah considers that the minimum is a dinar, and that it is not permitted to go below this while he does not stipulate the maximum, the latter being dependant on the ijtihad (judgement) of those responsible: the Imam, however, should try to harmonise between the different amounts, or to exact an amount in accordance with people’s means.”

In conclusion, this verse refers to non-muslim who doesn’t pay poll-tax in Islamic State and thus do not contribute to the financial needs of the territory. It is generally agreed by the four major Jurists that jizya money is based upon one’s income. We ought also not forget that muslims are also obliged to pay Zakat.

Some critics try to pose the conception that the verse ought to be translated as “Kill those who believe…” instead of “Fight those who believe…” They claim since the verse uses the arabic word Qateloo, which comes from the root word Qaatil. However, there is derivitive field in arabic, when prefix and suffix are added, it determines the defination of verse in context. If it meant to say kill, verse would have said uqtulo or uqtul.

in arabic words for “Fight” are:
N ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ , ﺷﺠﺎﺭ , ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤِﻜﻤﺔ , ﺻﺮﺍﻉ , ﻭﻏﻰ , ﻋﺮﺍﻙ , ﻣﻨﺎﻭﺷﺔ , ﻛﻔﺎﺡ , ﻧﻀﺎﻝ , ﻣِﻜﻤﺔ ,
V ﺣﺎﺭﺏ , ﻗﺎﺗﻞ , ﺗﻘﺎﺗﻞ , ﺗﺒﺎﺭﺯ , ﻛﺎﻓﺢ , ﻧﺎﺿﻞ , ِﻛﻢ , ﺧﺎﺽ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ , ﻗﺎﻭﻡ

Note: As the dictionary testifies one of the word for Fight is Qaatil (in a verb). Furthermore, in english, word Qaatil is translated thus:Adverb: DEADLY, LETHAL, VITAL, MURDERED, MURDEROUS,

So Fight indeed is a correct translation, in a context of a
VERB . Also the jizya is only upon livings, dead people cannot pay money. Therefore “kill until they pay jizya” would also have logical contradictions, as killing would cause jizya to be abolished.


Anti-Islam websites quote this verse as:

“I will instill terror into the hearts of the unbelievers. Smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger tips off them. This because they contend against God and his apostle…”

Let’s read verses from 8:12-16:

When thy Lord inspired the angels, (saying): I am with you. So make those who believe stand firm. I will throw fear into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Then smite the necks and smite of them each finger. That is because they opposed Allah and His messenger. Whoso opposeth Allah and His messenger, (for him) lo! Allah is severe in punishment. That (is the award), so taste it, and (know) that for disbelievers is the torment of the Fire. O ye who believe! When ye meet those who disbelieve in battle , turn not your backs to them. Whoso on that day turneth his back to them, unless manoeuvring for battle or intent to join a company, he truly hath incurred wrath from Allah, and his habitation will be hell, a hapless journey’s end.(PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL ANFAAL 8:12-16)

Hence when read in its textual context the verse is referring to smiting in the time of BATTLE. Now let’s read 8:17 which is presented in absence of 8:14-16:

Ye (Muslims) slew them not, but Allah slew them. And thou (Muhammad) threwest not when thou didst throw, but Allah threw, that He might test the believers by a fair test from Him. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL ANFAL 8:12-16)

Verses 8:12-17 are in the context of Battle Of Badr. 

Tafseer (Commentary) on 8:12-13:
“The historical context is that this verse was revealed at the Battle of Badr, a battle in which the pagans of Makkah traveled over 200 miles to destroy the Muslims of Madinah . The Pagans of Makkah had an army of about 1000 while the Muslims were only 300 followers. The Prophet Muhammad ((peace be upon him)) and his followers had suffered severe persecutions and torture for 13 years in the city of Makkah. Having fled from Makkah to the safety of Madinah, they found that they were once again threatened.”
Al-Mubarakpuri, Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum; Riyadh-Saudi Arabia, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1996; pp. 219-220, says:

“When the fierce engagement grew too hot he (Prophet Muhammed) again began to supplicate his Lord saying: “O Allâh! Should this group (of Muslims) be defeated today, You will no longer be worshipped.”….

Immediate was the response from Allâh, Who sent down angels from the heavens for the help and assistance of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his companions.

The Noble Qur’ân observes:

And recall when your Lord inspired the angels: “Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved.” [SURAH AL ANFAL 8:12]

Furthermore, 8:19 says:

(O Qureysh!) If ye sought a judgment, now hath the judgment come unto you. And if ye cease (from persecuting the believers) it will be better for you, but if ye return (to the attack) We also shall return. And your host will avail you naught, however numerous it be, and (know) that Allah is with the believers (in His Guidance). (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL- ANFAAL 8:19)

It is obvious from historical and textual context therefore that the verse in no sense promote killing of innocents. Verse 8:19 reaches out a hand of peace towards the Qureysh despite their aggression.


Translation of PICKTHAL is usually quoted:

O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends. They are friends one to another. He among you who taketh them for friends is (one) of them. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk. (PICKTHAL Translation Quran, SURAH AL MA’IDAH 5:51)

The arabic word Awliya used in 5:51 is mistranslated by PICKTHAL and other major translators. More accurate translation of the word Awliya would be “Protector” , “allies” or “intimate friends”. Dr. Muzammil Siddiqi says regarding this:
“In the verse you quoted, the word “Awliya” is used. It is a plural and its singular is “wali”.

The correct translation of the word “”wali”” is not “friend” but it is someone who is very close and intimate. It is also used to mean “guardian, protector, patron, lord and master.”

In addition, according to Ectaco Online Dictionary, root word of Awliya (Al-wali ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻲ ) means:

Whilst according to the same dictionary words for friends in arabic are:

Noun: ﺻﺪﻳﻖ , ﺭﻓﻴﻖ , ﺯﻣﻴﻞ , ﻧﺼﻴﺮ , ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻲ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺘﺰﻳﻦ , ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻴﻖ ,
Verb: ﺻﺎﺩﻕ , ﺁﺯﺭ

Al-Wali and awliya are NOT mentioned in the above list of friends.

However, according to it one of the word for protector in arabic is ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻲ (the wali):
Noun ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﻲ , ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺍﻓﻊ , ﺍﻟﻮﻟﻲ , ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺮ , ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍّﺫﻯ , ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺵ

Allah says Allah alone is the Auliya (in the sense of a proctector):

Auliyâ’ (protectors and helpers) other than Allâh is as the likeness of a spider, who builds (for itself) a house, but verily, the frailest (weakest) of houses is the spider’s house; if they but knew. (Al-‘Ankabut 29:41)

Or have they taken (for worship) Auliyâ’ (guardians, supporters, helpers, protectors, etc.) besides Him? But Allâh, He Alone is the Walî (Protector, etc.). And it is He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things. (Ash-Shura 42:9)

The word Auliya is also used as a substitiotion for God/Lord:

Say (O Muhammad Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam): “Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?” Say: “(It is) Allâh.” Say: “Have you then taken (for worship) Auliyâ’ (protectors, etc.) other than Him, such as have no power either for benefit or for harm to themselves?” Say: “Is the blind equal to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light? Or do they assign to Allâh partners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them.” Say: “Allâh is the Creator of all things, He is the One, the Irresistible.” (Surah Ar Ra’d 13:16)

Do then those who disbelieve think that they can take My slaves [i.e., the angels, Allâh’s Messengers, ‘Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), etc.] as Auliyâ’ (lords, gods, protectors, etc.) besides Me? Verily, We have prepared Hell as an entertainment for the disbelievers (in the Oneness of Allâh Islâmic Monotheism). ( Surah Al-Kahf 18:102)

Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allâh (if He wants to punish you). Verily, the Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong-doers, etc.) are Auliyâ’ (protectors, helpers, etc.) to one another, but Allâh is the Walî (Helper, Protector, etc.) of the Muttaqûn (pious). (Surah Al-Jathiyah 45:19)

Or have they taken (for worship) Auliyâ’ (guardians, supporters, helpers, protectors, etc.) besides Him? But Allâh, He Alone is the Walî (Protector, etc.). And it is He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things. (Surah Ash-Shura 42:9)

Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allâh only. And those who take Auliyâ’ (protectors and helpers) besides Him (say): “We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allâh.” Verily, Allâh will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allâh guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever. (Surah Az-Zumar 39:3)


Verses 9:111-112 states:

Allah hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur’an: and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme. Those that turn (to Allah) in repentance; that serve Him, and praise Him; that wander in devotion to the cause of Allah,: that bow down and prostrate themselves in prayer; that enjoin good and forbid evil; and observe the limit set by Allah;- (These do rejoice). So proclaim the glad tidings to the Believers. (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran, SURAH AT-TAUBAH 9:111-112)

As we read in Quran limits set by Allah are: “Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.” (Yusuf Ali Translation, Quran, SURAH AL BAQARAH 2:190).

Thus in the light of 2:190 it can be easily understood that the verse teaches self-defence in a form of a physical jihad (striving in the path of Allah). Let us also remember the rest of context of Chapter 9, which we have discussed before in 9:5 and 9:29.

2) Exposing the Hypocrisy of Jews And Christian And Jews

It is quite hypocritical of non-muslims to quote verses from Quran out of context or to mistranslate them. Some non-muslims are under the impression that their holy book does not even speak of self-defence or war! If I am to quote certain verses, I would be blamed of misquoting and taking things out of context, if that act is so disgraceful then why do certain non-muslim persist on misquoting Quran??
Here is a sample of some such verses, these are from KJV Bible unless states otherwise:

“Thus saith the LORD of hosts, I remember that which Amalek did to Israel, how he laid wait for him in the way, when he came up from Egypt. Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass .” (I Samuel 15:2-3)

NOTE: One might ask what crimes have the poor infant, sucking and animals have done?

“And to the others he said in mine hearing, Go ye after him through the city, and smite: let not your eye spare, neither have ye pity: Slay utterly old and young, both maids, and little children, and woman: but come not near any man upon whom is the mark; and begin at my sanctuary. Then they began at the ancient men which were before the house.” (Ezekiel 9:5-6)

“Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against the LORD in the matter of Peor, and there was a plague among the congregation of the LORD. Now therefore kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known man by lying with him. But all the women children, that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves .” (Numbers 31:16-18)

“And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword .” (Joshua 6:21)

“Ye shall utterly destroy all the places, wherein the nations which ye shall possess served their gods, upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every green tree: And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the names of them out of that place.” (Deuteronomy 12:2-3)

“All who would not seek the LORD, the God of Israel, were to be put to death, whether small or great, man or woman.” (From the NIV Bible, 2 Chronicles 15:13)

“Every one that is found shall be thrust through; and every one that is joined unto them shall fall by the sword. Their children also shall be dashed to pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished.” (Isaiah 13:15-16)

“And he brought out the people that were in it, and cut them with saws, and with harrows of iron, and with axes …” (I Chronicles 20:3)

“And we took all his cities at that time, and utterly destroyed the men, and the women, and the little ones, of every city, we left none to remain.” (Deuteronomy 2:34)

“And we utterly destroyed them, as we did unto Sihon king of Hesbon, utterly destroying the men, women, and children, of every city . But all the cattle, and the spoil of the cities we took for a prey to ourselves.” (Deuteronomy 3:6-7)

“Either three years’ famine; or three months to be destroyed before thy foes, while that the sword of thine enemies overtaketh thee; or else three days the sword of the LORD, even the pestilence, in the land, and the angel of the LORD destroying throughout all the coasts of Israel…” (I Chronicles 21:12)

“And he smote the men of Bethshemesh, because they had looked into the ark of the LORD, even he smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten men: and the people lamented, because the LORD had smitten many of the people with a great slaughter.” (I Samuel 6:19)

“Thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly, and all that is therein, and the cattle thereof, with the edge of the sword.” (Deuteronomy 13:15)

But of the cities of these people, which the LORD thy God doth give thee for an inheritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth: But thou shalt utterly destroy them ; namely, the Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; as the LORD thy God hath commanded thee: (Deuteronomy 20:16-17)

“And he brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under harrows of iron, and under the axes of iron , and made them pass through the brickkiln: and thus did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon. So David and all the people returned unto Jerusalem.” (II Samuel 12:31)

“Every one that is found shall be thrust through; and every one that is joined unto them shall fall by the sword. Their children also shall be dashed to pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished.” (Isaiah 13:15-16)

“And we took all his cities at that time, and utterly destroyed the men, and the women, and the little ones, of every city , we left none to remain.” (Deuteronomy 2:34)

“And we utterly destroyed them, as we did unto Sihon king of Hesbon, utterly destroying the men, women, and children, of every city . But all the cattle, and the spoil of the cities we took for a prey to ourselves.” (Deuteronomy 3:6-7)

“Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones.” (Psalms 137:9, KJV)

“I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things.” (Isaiah 45:7)

“How blessed will be the one who seizes and dashes your little ones Against the rock .” (Psalms 137:9, New American Bible)

“Samaria shall become desolate; for she hath rebelled against her God: they shall fall by the sword : their infants shall be dashed in pieces, and their women with child shall be ripped up.” (Hosea 13:16)
“a blessing on anyone who seizes your babies and shatters them against a rock !” (Psalms 137:9, Jerusalem Bible)

“ The LORD is a man of war : the LORD is his name.” (Exodus 15:3)

If a man happens to meet a virgin who is not pledged to be married and rapes her and they are discovered, he shall pay the girl’s father fifty shekels of silver. He must marry the girl , for he has violated her. He can never divorce her as long as he lives. (From the NIV Bible, Deuteronomy 22:28-29)”

There are many other examples. Now, let’s examine certain quotes of Jesus:

“If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple .” (Luke 14:26)

“Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law. And a man’s foes shall be they of his own household.” (Matthew 10:34-37)

“I am come to send fire on the earth; and what will I, if it be already kindled?” (Luke 12:49)

“Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division: For from henceforth there shall be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three. The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother in law against her daughter in law, and the daughter in law against her mother in law.” (Luke 12:51-53)

“But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me .” (Luke 19:27)

“Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one” . (Luke 22:36)

3) Providing accurate picture of Islam — Quran preaches peace

Unsurprisingly, Islam-critic shy away from posting verses of the Quran, which preaches peace. By bombarding verses out of their context or using dubious translations they seek to give the impression that a book such as Quran leaves no place for peace.
Can muslim and non-muslim co-exist??

One of the common misconception is that Quran teaches that either non-muslim must be forced to become muslim or they must be put to death. They justify themselves by misquoting verses, most of which we have discussed in this article. Now, let’s examine what Quran really says, does Quran allow non-muslim to keep their religion? One whole chapter is dedicated in Quran to this topic called Surah Kafiroon (Chapter THE DISBELIEVERS):

Say: O disbelievers! I worship not that which ye worship; Nor worship ye that which I worship. And I shall not worship that which ye worship. Nor will ye worship that which I worship. Unto you your religion, and unto me my religion.
(PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL KAAFIROON 109:1-6)

The chapter gives crystal-clear evidence of “let and let live”. Quran states “Unto you your religion, and unto me my religion” “let and let live” to me my religion”. Thus no enforcement of religion by sword or otherwise is suggested in Islam. Furthermore, Quran says that there is no compulsion in religion; non-muslims do not have to become muslims against their wishes:

There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower.
(PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL BAQARAH 2:256)

Does Quran not say kill (innocent) non-believers??

Murder is a grave sin in Islam, Quran says in 5:32:

For that cause We decreed for the Children of Israel that
whosoever killeth a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind, and whoso saveth the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind . Our messengers came unto them of old with clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty), but afterwards lo! many of them became prodigals in the earth. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL MA’IDAH 5:32)

As Quran points out killing an innocent being is like killing an entire humanity, which naturally leaves no place for killing innocents. It must be pointed out that Quran states “…whosoever killeth a human being…”, thus referring to a human being and not simply restricted to muslims.

Quran also says:

And slay not the life which Allah hath forbidden save with right. Whoso is slain wrongfully, We have given power unto his heir, but let him not commit excess in slaying. Lo! he will be helped. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH E BANI ISRAA’IL 17:33)

Quran emphasises not to slay unjustly!

Does Quran state to hate non-muslims and treat them unjustly??

This is another common misconception, Quran itself describes how ought a muslim to a treat non-muslims:

Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from
dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH AL MUMTHAHANAH 60:8)

Quran states to deal KINDLY and JUSTLY with those who don’t fight us. It does not only order muslims “not to live and let live” but to even go a step further in living peacefully and deal with them kindly and justly.

Another verse says:

O ye who believe! Be steadfast witnesses for Allah in equity, and let not hatred of any people seduce you that ye deal not justly. Deal justly , that is nearer to your duty. Observe your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is Informed of what ye do. Allah hath promised those who believe and do good works: Theirs will be forgiveness and immense reward. (PICKTHAL Translation, Quran, SURAH MA’IDAH 5:8-9)

Allah emphasises not to let hatred of people prevent them from upholding justice.

Does Quran not say to wage war with non-muslims for any reason possible?

Quran states:

To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; – and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid;- (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right ,- (for no cause) except that they say, “our Lord is Allah”. Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will). (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran,SURAH AL HAJJ 22:39-40)

There are reasons for which permission of war is given is mentioned in the verse as those have been wronged and “expelled from their homes in defiance of right” because they are muslim.

Quran also calls upon it’s followers not to transgress limits:

Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits ; for Allah loveth not transgressors. (YUSUF ALI Translation, Quran,SURAH AL BAQARAG 2:190)