Category Archives: Qurbaani/Udhiyyah

SHARING THE QUR’BAANI MEAT

QUESTION:

How should the meat, etc. of an animal (bull, camel, etc.) be divided if all seven shareholders will be taking their share of the meat?

ANSWER

If several people are taking shares in the same Qur’baani cow/bull, and if they stipulate that they want to take their full share, then it is Waajib for the meat to be weighed. They must be given their share by weight. When each one wants to take his/her share, then any extra given to a shareholder will be riba, hence haraam. The meat should be apportioned out equally.

However, the one who takes any other part, e.g. liver, lungs, trotters, skin, etc., should be given less meat. The meat in this case may be any amount, but less than the amount the others will receive.

Example: The total weight of the meat alone is 350 kg. If there are seven participants, each one’s share will be 50 kg. Before distributing the shares, it should be determined who will take the skin or any other part which is not meat. If, for example, one shareholder is given the skin and something else, and another shareholder is given the trotters, etc., then these two should be given less than 50 kg of meat.

If, for example, each one of the two is given 40 kg meat, then the balance of the meat will be 270 kg. Now this 270 kg meat should be divided equally to the five remaining shareholders.

If the shareholders will not be taking their full shares, but want their meat, etc. to be distributed to others and the poor, then exactitude is not necessary.

SLAUGHTER MERCIFULLY

By Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng

Qurbaani or the Sacrifice of animals on the 10th, 11th and 12th Zil-Hajj, is a very lofty Ibadat decreed by Allah Ta’ala in commemoration of Nabi Ibraahim Alaihis Salaam’s supreme sacrifice of his son Ismaail (Alaihis Salaam) at the altar of Allah’s command. The father offering the sacrifice of his little boy, the Love of Allah Ta’ala was not a jocular affair nor an occasion of play or amusement. The noble father and khaleel (friend) of Allah Ta’ala was ordered to slit the throat of his beloved son with his own hands. He passed his trial with the highest degree of success and Allah Ta’ala substituted a ram for Ismaail (alayhis salam).

It is to commemorate this wonderful and supreme sacrifice of Nabi Ibraahim (alayhis salaam) that we have to sacrifice animals each year on the occasion of Eidul Adha. Keeping in mind what this ibadat is all about, when the Muslim is about to slaughter or have his animal) slaughtered, he should bring to his mind Hadhrat Ibraahim (alayhis salaam) slaughtering his son Hadhrat Ismaail (alayhis salaam). But this thought is furthest from the minds of most people who make the Qurbaani.

One of the gravest acts of transgression committed in negation of the spirit underlying Qurbaani is the gross maltreatment met out to the sacrificial animals. Animals are dragged, kept hungry and thirsty in fear. They are slaughtered at times with blunt knives and by incompetent persons who instead of effecting the Thabah with a clean cut, saw at the neck of the animal. This cruel act – Zulm – is a major sin which destroys much of the thawaab of the Qurbaani.

Animals are slaughtered and skinned in the presence of other live animals. The skinning process begins even before the slaughtered animal has become motionless. While some signs of life remain, workers commence skinning the animals. All these act are reprehensible, cruel, un-Islamic and haram.

Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said: “Verily Allah Ta’ala has decreed kindness for everything. Therefore, when you kill then effect the killing, when you slaughter, then slaughter kindly. Sharpen your knife and be merciful to the animal.” (Muslim, ibn Majah, Nisai)

Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said: Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) commanded that the knife be sharpened and that it (the knife) be concealed from the animal, and he said: “When anyone of you slaughters he should make haste.” (Ibn Majah)

This hadith in fact informs us of the understanding which the animal posses. The sight of the knife can produce fear in the animal. It should, therefore, not be displayed in its presence. The animal should not be kept down unnecessarily. It should be put on the ground only at the precise moment of slaughter. After laying it down facing the Qublah, there should be no unnecessary delay in slaughtering it.

In one Hadith Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam prohibitied dragging of the animal. He ordered that the animal be held by the neck. Nabi-e-kareem Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam also forbade that the animal be kept hungry and thirsty while it awaits to be slaughtered.

Once Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) saw a man sharpening his knife after he had laid down the animal. Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) struck the man with his whip and exclaimed: “Do you want to cause many deaths to the animal?”

In other words, creating fear in the animal was like multiplying death for it. Those who maltreat animals and perform cruelly when sacrificing them should remember that Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said: “Beware of the Dua (curse) of the mazloom, for there is no barrier between if (the curse or call of the mazloom) and Allah.”

Any person or animal who is oppressed or wronged or brutalized is a mazloom, so beware of the curse which emanates from the hearts of even these dumb animals. They are Allah’s makhluq (creation). No one is entitled to perpetrate zulm on them. Those making Qurbaani should take note of the under mentioned essential requirements:

  1. The knife must be very sharp.
  2. The animals should be properly fed if they have been acquired some time before slaughter
  3. An animal must not be slaughtered in front of another animal.
  4. The animal brought for slaughtering should not see the blood of the other animals.
  5. Animals should not be skinned while there is any sign of life visible in them.
  6. An animal taken for slaughtering should not be led passed animals which are being skinned.
  7. The animal should be caught and brought only when the slaughterer is ready for slaughtering. Usually workers grab hold of the animal well in advance. They hold the animal captive while the slaughterer is still engaged in slaughtering another animal.
  8. The animal should be laid down facing the Qiblah.
  9. The neck of the animal should not be sawed. Clean cuts should be effected.

Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said; “He who shows no mercy, mercy will not be shown to him”

SCIENTISTS PROVE THAT ISLAMIC SLAUGHTER OF ANIMALS IS HEALTHIER

The following is a summary of research done by Professor Schultz and his colleague Dr.Hazim of the Hanover University,Germany about the methods of animal slaughter and their merits.The conclusion drawn was that:-Halaal slaughter is the humane method providing hygienic meat to the consumer.

Al Shaddad Bin Aous (Radhiyallaahu Anhu) has quoted this tradition of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) “Allah calls for mercy in everything,so be merciful when you kill and when you slaughter”.

Sharpen your blade to relieve its pain.” Many allegations have been made that Islamic slaughter is not humane to animals. However, Professor Schultz and his colleague Dr. Hazim of the Hanover University,Germany, proved through an experiment, using an Electroencephalogram (EEG – An instrument that records the electrical activity of the brain) and Electrocardiogram (ECG – An instrument that records the electrical current generated by heartbeat) that:

1.. Islamic slaughter is the humane method of slaughter; and,

2.. Captive bolt stunning, practised by the western method, causes severe pain to the animal.

Experimental Details

Several electrodes were surgically implanted at various points on the skull of all animals, touching the surface of the brain. The animals were allowed to recover for several weeks. Some animals were slaughtered by making a swift, deep incision with a sharp knife on the neck cutting the jugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides; and also the trachea and oesophagus i.e. the Halaal method. Some animals were stunned using a captive bolt pistol slaughter by the western method. During the experiment, EEG and ECG were used on all animals to record the condition of the brain and heart during the course of slaughter and stunning.

Results and Discussion:

Halaal Method

The first three seconds from the time of Islamic slaughter as recorded on the EEG did not show any change from the graph before slaughter , thus indicating that the animal did not feel any pain during or immediately after the incision. For the following 3 seconds, the EEG recorded a condition of deep sleep -unconsciousness. This is due to a large quantity of blood gushing out from the body. After the above mentioned 6 seconds, the EEG recorded zero level, showing no feeling of pain at all. As the brain message (EEG)dropped to zero level, the heart was still pounding and the body convulsing vigorously (a reflex action of the spinal cord) driving maximum blood from the body, resulting in hygienic meat for the consumer.

Western method by Captive Bolt Stunning

Reference: http://www.grandin.com/humane/captive.bolt.html

The animals were apparently unconscious soon after stunning. EEG showed severe pain immediately after stunning. The hearts of the animal stunned by C.B.P.stopped beating as compared to those of the animals slaughtered according to the Halal method resulting in the retention of more blood in the meat. This in turn is unhygienic for the consumer.

The Time for Offering Udhiyah/Qurbani – 3 or 4 Days??

By Maulana Ilyas Ghuman

Qurbani can only be offered on three days – the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth of Dhul Hijjah.

Allah Ta’ala mentions:

لِیَشْھَدُوْا مَنَافِعَ لَہُمْ وَیَذْکُرُوْااسْمَ اللّٰہِ فِیْ اَیَّامٍ مَّعْلُوْمَاتٍ. [سورۃ الحج:28]

That they may witness things that are of benefit to and mention the Name of Allah on appointed days over the beast of cattle. [Surah al-Hajj]

Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu) mentions:

فَالْمَعْلُوْمَاتُ یَوْمُ النَّحْرِ وَیَوْمَانِ بَعْدَہُ. [تفسیرابن ابی حاتم الرازی:ج6،ص261]

The word (مَعْلُوْمَاتُ) in the verse refers to the tenth of Dhul Hijjah and the two days after it. [Tafsir Raazi]

عَنْ سَلْمَۃَ بْنِ الْاَکْوَعِ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِیُّ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم مَنْ ضَحیّٰ مِنْکُمْ فَلاَ یُصْبِحَنَّ بَعْدَ ثَالِثَۃٍ وَبَقِیَ فِیْ بَیْتِہِ مِنْہُ شَئْیٌ. [صحیح البخاری: ج2،ص835،باب ما یؤکل من لحوم الاضاحی]

Sayyiduna Salmah ibn Akwa’ (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever offers qurbani should not have any of its meat left in his house after the third day.” [Sahih Bukhari]

This hadith informs us that qurbani is only allowed for three days, because if the meat of qurbani is not allowed to be kept in the house beyond the third day, then how can qurbani itself be allowed after the third day.

Benefit: The prohibition of keeping the meat of qurbani beyond the three days was only in the early stages of Islam. Later on, this prohibition was removed and the meat of qurbani was allowed to be kept beyond the three days. [مستدرک حا کم ج4ص259]

Now some may argue that since the permission to keep the qurbani meat after the specified three days was given, so now it is also permissible to offer qurbani after the three days. But qurbani meat can be stored at home all year long nowadays, so should it mean that qurbani can also be offered throughout the year? Absolutely not! It was never permissible to offer qurbani beyond the three specified days, nor has it become permissible now.

It has also been reported that Sayyiduna Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) has also said that qurbani can only be offered on three specific days. [مؤطا امام ما لک ص497، کتاب الضحایا]

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللّٰہِ بْنِ عَبِّاسٍ : النَّحْرُ یَوْمَانِ بَعْدَ یَوْمِ النَّحْرِ وَاَفْضَلُہَا یَوْمُ النَّحْرِ. [احکام القرآن للطحاوی:ج2ص205]

Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) has said that the days when qurbani can be offered on “Yawm al-Nahr” (tenth Dhul Hijjah) and the two days after it. But the best day to offer qurbani is on Yawm al-Nahr. [Ahkaam al-Qur’aan]

The Claim of the 4 Days Qurbani

Some people claim that Qurbani can be offered for four days. They quote the narration of Sayyiduna Zubayr ibn Mut’im (Radhiyallahu Anhu) where he mentioned the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) saying that all the days of Tashreeq are for offering qurbani. [السنن الكبرىٰ: باب من قال الأضحى جائز يوم النحر: 19717]

These people claim that the days of Tashreeq are until the thirteenth of Dhul Hijjah, which is the fourth day of Eid, thus qurbani can also be offered on the fourth day.

The reply to their claim:

In the chain of narrators of this hadith, there is a narrator called Muawiya ibn Yahya Al-Sadafi. The scholars of hadith have categorized him as weak (ضعیف), not strong in narration (لیس بالقوی), and unimportant (لاشى]  .(الجرح و التعدیل: ج8 ص384، الکاشف: ج2ص277]

Imam ibn Abi Hatim ar-Razi has recorded the chain of narrators as such: Mu’awiya ibn Yahya ibn al-Sadafi from Az-Zuhri from Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyab from Abu Saeed al-Khudri. And he has written the following statement of his father Abu Hatim ar-Razi under this narration:

  ھذا الحدیث کذب بھذا الاسناد. [العلل لابن ابی حاتم الرازی: ج3 ص252]

This hadith with this chain of narrators is a lie.

And in other place, he has written:

ھذا حدیث موضوع.  [العلل لابن ابی حاتم الرازی: ج4 ص493]

Translation: This narration is fabricated (موضوع).

If we were to accept this hadith and take the thirteenth of Dhul Hijjah as a day of qurbani, then we will also have to take the ninth of Dhul Hijjah as a day of qurbani because the days of Tashreeq start from the ninth. But the ninth of Dhul Hijjah is not accepted as a day of qurbani. Thus, it becomes impossible to act upon this hadith.

One Sheep cannot be shared by a Family for Udhiyah/Qurbani

[By Maulana Ilyas Ghuman]

If the qurbani animal is sheep or goat, then it must be not be shared and must be offered by only one individual. Here are the proofs:

Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates:

اَنَّ النَّبِیَ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم اَتَاہُ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ اِنَّ عَلَیَّ بَدَنَۃً وَاَنَا مُوْسِرٌ بِھَا وَلاَ اَجِدُھَا فَاَشْتَرِیْھَا فَاَمَرَہُ النَّبِیُّ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم اَنْ یَّبْتَاعَ سَبْعَ شِیَاۃٍ فَیَذْبَحُھُنَّ. [سنن ابن ماجہ:ص 226،کتا ب الاضاحی باب کم یجزی من الغنم عن البدنۃ]

A man came to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and said, “The qurbani of a large animal (cow or camel) has become obligatory upon me and I have the wealth to buy it but I cannot find one for purchase. (So what should I do now?)” So the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) commanded him to buy seven goats and offer them for qurbani. [Ibn Majah]

In this hadith, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) equated a large animal (cow or camel) to seven goats, and a large animal can only be shared by seven people and no more. Thus it proves that one sheep or one goat cannot be shared and can only be offered as qurbani by one person.

Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu) has said:

اَلشَّاۃُ عَنْ وَاحِدٍ. [اعلاء السنن:ج 17،ص210،باب ان البدنۃ عن سبعۃ]

A goat can only be (offered as qurbani) on behalf of one person. [I’laa al-Sunan]

The Claim that one goat is sufficient for a Family for Qurbani

Some people claim that an entire family can share a goat in qurbani. They quote the narration of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari (Radhiyallahu Anhu) where he mentioned that a person used to offer one goat as qurbani on his behalf and his family’s behalf, and then the entire family used to consume it. [جامع الترمذی ج1ص272 باب ما جاء أن الشاة الواحدة تجزي عن أهل البيت]

The reply to this claim is that this narration of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is implying on the rewards that was shared by the entire family. Otherwise, one goat can only be offered by one person and cannot be shared as has already been proven earlier.

Sharing the reward in a qurbani is explained by the following hadith where the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) slaughtered a sheep for qurbani and said:

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّ هَذَا عَنِّي وَعَمَّنْ لَمْ يُضَحِّ مِنْ أُمَّتِي. [مسند الإمام أحمد بن حنبل رقم الحدیث: 14893، سنن أبي داؤد: باب فِى الشَّاةِ يُضَحَّى بِهَا عَنْ جَمَاعَةٍ]

“O Allah! This is from me and from all those from my Ummah who could not offer qurbani.” [Musnad Ahmad]

This way the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) included his Ummah in the rewards of qurbani. Similarly, the narration of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is also regarding the sharing of rewards in qurbani.

Are there 10 Shares in a Camel for Udhiyah/Qurbani??

By Maulana Ilyas Ghumman

Partnership in Qurbani

If the qurbani animal is a camel, cow or buffalo, then seven individuals can share such an animal.

عَنْ جَابِرٍ رضی اللہ عنہ قَالَ خَرَجْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللّٰہِ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم مُھِلِّیْنَ بِالْحَجِّ فَاَمَرَنَا رَسُوْلَ اللّٰہِ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم اَنْ نَّشْتَرِکَ فِی الْاِبِلِ وَالْبَقَرِ کُلُّ سَبْعَۃٍ مِّنَّا فِیْ بَدَنَۃٍ. [صحیح مسلم:ج1،ص424 باب جواز الاشتراک الخ]

Sayyiduna Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates: We had donned our Ihram for Hajj with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) when he (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) ordered us to share each camel and each cow among seven people.

عَنْ جَابِرٍ رضی اللہ عنہ قَالَ نَحَرْنَا مَعَ رَسُوْلِ اللّٰہِ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم عَامَ الْحُدَیْبِیَۃِ اَلْبَدَنَۃَ عَنْ سَبْعَۃٍ وَالْبَقَرَ عَنْ سَبْعَۃٍ. [صحیح مسلم ج1ص424 باب جواز الاشتراک الخ]

Sayyiduna Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates that we offered our qurbani with the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) in the year of Hudaybiya. One camel was offered for qurbani on behalf of seven people and one cow was also offered by seven individuals.

The Claim that a Camel has 10 Shares for Qurbani

Some people claim that a camel for qurbani can be shared by ten individuals. They quote the narration of Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu anhu) where he said, “We were on a trip with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) when Eid al-Adha arrived. So, seven people shared one cow, and ten people shared one camel.”  [سنن الترمذي ج1ص276 باب ما جاء ان الشاۃ الواحدۃ تجزی عن اھل البیت]

The reply to this claim:

We do not act upon this narration, rather we act upon the narration of Sayyiduna Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) which mentions that seven people shared a camel. The reason behind this is because the Companions of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) used to act upon this narration of seven people per camel.

Imam Tirmidhi (Rahimahullah), under the narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) (of seven people per camel), writes:

والعمل على هذا عند أهل العلم من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وغيرهم.  [سنن الترمذي ج1ص276 باب ما جاء ان الشاۃ الواحدۃ تجزی عن اھل البیت]

The scholars from among the Companions of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) used to act upon this narration. [Sunan Tirmidhi]

And the rule is that:

إِذَا تَنَازَعَ الْخَبَرَانِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نُظِرَ إِلَى مَا عَمِلَ بِهِ أَصْحَابُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ. [سنن ابی داؤد: باب لحم الصید للمحرم، باب من لا یقطع الصلوۃ شئی]

Whenever there are two narrations from the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) where they seem to be contrary to each other, then we will adopt the narration which the Companions of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) act upon. [Sunan Abi’ Dawud]

The scholars of hadith have mentioned that the narration of Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu anhu) is mansukh (abrogated) and the narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is the nasikh (abrogator).

Imam Nawawi (Rahimahullah), in his book Sharh Muslim under the chapter of ablution, writes:

وهذه عادة مسلم وغيره من أئمة الحديث يذكرون الاحاديث التي يرونها منسوخة ثم يعقبونها بالناسخ. [شرح النووی علی صحیح مسلم: ج1ص156 باب الوضوء مما مست النار]

It is a common practice of Imam Muslim and other hadith scholars that in their books, they first mention those narrations that are mansukh (abrogated) and then they mention the narrations that are nasikh (abrogators). [Sharh Muslim an-Nawawi]

Imam Tirmidhi also followed this practice and thus he recorded the narration of Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu anhu) first and then he recorded the narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu anhu) in his book.

The narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu anhu) is a “qawli” hadith while the narration of Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is “fe’li” hadith. And the rule is that qawli hadith is given preference over fe’li hadith. And in this case the narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is both a “qawli” and a “fe’li” hadith.

Islamic Method of Slaughtering Animal

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Islamic has the most merciful way of Slaughtering Animals

1. ‘Zakkaytum’ is a verb derived from the root word Zakah (to purify). Its infinitive is Tazkiyah which means purification. The Islamic mode of slaughtering an animal requires the following conditions to be met:

a. Animal should be slaughtered with sharp object (knife).

The animal has to be slaughtered with a sharp object (knife) and in a fast way so that the pain of slaughter is minimised.

b. Cut wind pipe, throat and vessels of neck.

Zabiha is an Arabic word which means ‘slaughtered’. The ‘slaughtering’ is to be done by cutting the throat, windpipe and the blood vessels in the neck causing the animal’s death without cutting the spinal cord.

c. Blood should be drained.

The blood has to be drained completely before the head is removed. The purpose is to drain out most of the blood which would serve as a good culture medium for micro organisms. The spinal cord must not be cut because the nerve fibres to the heart could be damaged during the process causing cardiac arrest, stagnating the blood in the blood vessels.

2. Blood is a good medium for germs and bacteria.

Blood is a good media of germs, bacteria, toxins, etc. Therefore the Muslim way of slaughtering is more hygienic as most of the blood containing germs, bacteria, toxins, etc. that are the cause of several diseases are eliminated.

3. Meat remains fresh for a longer time.

Meat slaughtered by Islamic way remains fresh for a longer time due to deficiency of blood in the meat as compared to other methods of slaughtering.

4. Animal does not feel pain.

The swift cutting of vessels of the neck disconnects the flow of blood to the nerve of the brain responsible for pain. Thus the animal does not feel pain. While dying, the animal struggles, writhers, shakes and kicks, not due to pain, but due to the contraction and relaxation of the muscles defecient in blood and due to the flow of blood out of the body.

Islam forbids any kind of atrocity on animals & even in sacrificing or slaughtering animals.