Category Archives: Qurbaani/Udhiyyah

SHARING THE QUR’BAANI MEAT

QUESTION:

How should the meat, etc. of an animal (bull, camel, etc.) be divided if all seven shareholders will be taking their share of the meat?

ANSWER

If several people are taking shares in the same Qur’baani cow/bull, and if they stipulate that they want to take their full share, then it is Waajib for the meat to be weighed. They must be given their share by weight. When each one wants to take his/her share, then any extra given to a shareholder will be riba, hence haraam. The meat should be apportioned out equally.

However, the one who takes any other part, e.g. liver, lungs, trotters, skin, etc., should be given less meat. The meat in this case may be any amount, but less than the amount the others will receive.

Example: The total weight of the meat alone is 350 kg. If there are seven participants, each one’s share will be 50 kg. Before distributing the shares, it should be determined who will take the skin or any other part which is not meat. If, for example, one shareholder is given the skin and something else, and another shareholder is given the trotters, etc., then these two should be given less than 50 kg of meat.

If, for example, each one of the two is given 40 kg meat, then the balance of the meat will be 270 kg. Now this 270 kg meat should be divided equally to the five remaining shareholders.

If the shareholders will not be taking their full shares, but want their meat, etc. to be distributed to others and the poor, then exactitude is not necessary.

SLAUGHTER MERCIFULLY

By Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng

Qurbaani or the Sacrifice of animals on the 10th, 11th and 12th Zil-Hajj, is a very lofty Ibadat decreed by Allah Ta’ala in commemoration of Nabi Ibraahim Alaihis Salaam’s supreme sacrifice of his son Ismaail (Alaihis Salaam) at the altar of Allah’s command. The father offering the sacrifice of his little boy, the Love of Allah Ta’ala was not a jocular affair nor an occasion of play or amusement. The noble father and khaleel (friend) of Allah Ta’ala was ordered to slit the throat of his beloved son with his own hands. He passed his trial with the highest degree of success and Allah Ta’ala substituted a ram for Ismaail (alayhis salam).

It is to commemorate this wonderful and supreme sacrifice of Nabi Ibraahim (alayhis salaam) that we have to sacrifice animals each year on the occasion of Eidul Adha. Keeping in mind what this ibadat is all about, when the Muslim is about to slaughter or have his animal) slaughtered, he should bring to his mind Hadhrat Ibraahim (alayhis salaam) slaughtering his son Hadhrat Ismaail (alayhis salaam). But this thought is furthest from the minds of most people who make the Qurbaani.

One of the gravest acts of transgression committed in negation of the spirit underlying Qurbaani is the gross maltreatment met out to the sacrificial animals. Animals are dragged, kept hungry and thirsty in fear. They are slaughtered at times with blunt knives and by incompetent persons who instead of effecting the Thabah with a clean cut, saw at the neck of the animal. This cruel act – Zulm – is a major sin which destroys much of the thawaab of the Qurbaani.

Animals are slaughtered and skinned in the presence of other live animals. The skinning process begins even before the slaughtered animal has become motionless. While some signs of life remain, workers commence skinning the animals. All these act are reprehensible, cruel, un-Islamic and haram.

Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said: “Verily Allah Ta’ala has decreed kindness for everything. Therefore, when you kill then effect the killing, when you slaughter, then slaughter kindly. Sharpen your knife and be merciful to the animal.” (Muslim, ibn Majah, Nisai)

Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said: Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) commanded that the knife be sharpened and that it (the knife) be concealed from the animal, and he said: “When anyone of you slaughters he should make haste.” (Ibn Majah)

This hadith in fact informs us of the understanding which the animal posses. The sight of the knife can produce fear in the animal. It should, therefore, not be displayed in its presence. The animal should not be kept down unnecessarily. It should be put on the ground only at the precise moment of slaughter. After laying it down facing the Qublah, there should be no unnecessary delay in slaughtering it.

In one Hadith Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam prohibitied dragging of the animal. He ordered that the animal be held by the neck. Nabi-e-kareem Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam also forbade that the animal be kept hungry and thirsty while it awaits to be slaughtered.

Once Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) saw a man sharpening his knife after he had laid down the animal. Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) struck the man with his whip and exclaimed: “Do you want to cause many deaths to the animal?”

In other words, creating fear in the animal was like multiplying death for it. Those who maltreat animals and perform cruelly when sacrificing them should remember that Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said: “Beware of the Dua (curse) of the mazloom, for there is no barrier between if (the curse or call of the mazloom) and Allah.”

Any person or animal who is oppressed or wronged or brutalized is a mazloom, so beware of the curse which emanates from the hearts of even these dumb animals. They are Allah’s makhluq (creation). No one is entitled to perpetrate zulm on them. Those making Qurbaani should take note of the under mentioned essential requirements:

  1. The knife must be very sharp.
  2. The animals should be properly fed if they have been acquired some time before slaughter
  3. An animal must not be slaughtered in front of another animal.
  4. The animal brought for slaughtering should not see the blood of the other animals.
  5. Animals should not be skinned while there is any sign of life visible in them.
  6. An animal taken for slaughtering should not be led passed animals which are being skinned.
  7. The animal should be caught and brought only when the slaughterer is ready for slaughtering. Usually workers grab hold of the animal well in advance. They hold the animal captive while the slaughterer is still engaged in slaughtering another animal.
  8. The animal should be laid down facing the Qiblah.
  9. The neck of the animal should not be sawed. Clean cuts should be effected.

Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said; “He who shows no mercy, mercy will not be shown to him”

SCIENTISTS PROVE THAT ISLAMIC SLAUGHTER OF ANIMALS IS HEALTHIER

The following is a summary of research done by Professor Schultz and his colleague Dr.Hazim of the Hanover University,Germany about the methods of animal slaughter and their merits.The conclusion drawn was that:-Halaal slaughter is the humane method providing hygienic meat to the consumer.

Al Shaddad Bin Aous (Radhiyallaahu Anhu) has quoted this tradition of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) “Allah calls for mercy in everything,so be merciful when you kill and when you slaughter”.

Sharpen your blade to relieve its pain.” Many allegations have been made that Islamic slaughter is not humane to animals. However, Professor Schultz and his colleague Dr. Hazim of the Hanover University,Germany, proved through an experiment, using an Electroencephalogram (EEG – An instrument that records the electrical activity of the brain) and Electrocardiogram (ECG – An instrument that records the electrical current generated by heartbeat) that:

1.. Islamic slaughter is the humane method of slaughter; and,

2.. Captive bolt stunning, practised by the western method, causes severe pain to the animal.

Experimental Details

Several electrodes were surgically implanted at various points on the skull of all animals, touching the surface of the brain. The animals were allowed to recover for several weeks. Some animals were slaughtered by making a swift, deep incision with a sharp knife on the neck cutting the jugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides; and also the trachea and oesophagus i.e. the Halaal method. Some animals were stunned using a captive bolt pistol slaughter by the western method. During the experiment, EEG and ECG were used on all animals to record the condition of the brain and heart during the course of slaughter and stunning.

Results and Discussion:

Halaal Method

The first three seconds from the time of Islamic slaughter as recorded on the EEG did not show any change from the graph before slaughter , thus indicating that the animal did not feel any pain during or immediately after the incision. For the following 3 seconds, the EEG recorded a condition of deep sleep -unconsciousness. This is due to a large quantity of blood gushing out from the body. After the above mentioned 6 seconds, the EEG recorded zero level, showing no feeling of pain at all. As the brain message (EEG)dropped to zero level, the heart was still pounding and the body convulsing vigorously (a reflex action of the spinal cord) driving maximum blood from the body, resulting in hygienic meat for the consumer.

Western method by Captive Bolt Stunning

Reference: http://www.grandin.com/humane/captive.bolt.html

The animals were apparently unconscious soon after stunning. EEG showed severe pain immediately after stunning. The hearts of the animal stunned by C.B.P.stopped beating as compared to those of the animals slaughtered according to the Halal method resulting in the retention of more blood in the meat. This in turn is unhygienic for the consumer.

The Time for Offering Udhiyah/Qurbani – 3 or 4 Days??

By Maulana Ilyas Ghuman

Qurbani can only be offered on three days – the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth of Dhul Hijjah.

Allah Ta’ala mentions:

لِیَشْھَدُوْا مَنَافِعَ لَہُمْ وَیَذْکُرُوْااسْمَ اللّٰہِ فِیْ اَیَّامٍ مَّعْلُوْمَاتٍ. [سورۃ الحج:28]

That they may witness things that are of benefit to and mention the Name of Allah on appointed days over the beast of cattle. [Surah al-Hajj]

Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu) mentions:

فَالْمَعْلُوْمَاتُ یَوْمُ النَّحْرِ وَیَوْمَانِ بَعْدَہُ. [تفسیرابن ابی حاتم الرازی:ج6،ص261]

The word (مَعْلُوْمَاتُ) in the verse refers to the tenth of Dhul Hijjah and the two days after it. [Tafsir Raazi]

عَنْ سَلْمَۃَ بْنِ الْاَکْوَعِ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِیُّ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم مَنْ ضَحیّٰ مِنْکُمْ فَلاَ یُصْبِحَنَّ بَعْدَ ثَالِثَۃٍ وَبَقِیَ فِیْ بَیْتِہِ مِنْہُ شَئْیٌ. [صحیح البخاری: ج2،ص835،باب ما یؤکل من لحوم الاضاحی]

Sayyiduna Salmah ibn Akwa’ (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever offers qurbani should not have any of its meat left in his house after the third day.” [Sahih Bukhari]

This hadith informs us that qurbani is only allowed for three days, because if the meat of qurbani is not allowed to be kept in the house beyond the third day, then how can qurbani itself be allowed after the third day.

Benefit: The prohibition of keeping the meat of qurbani beyond the three days was only in the early stages of Islam. Later on, this prohibition was removed and the meat of qurbani was allowed to be kept beyond the three days. [مستدرک حا کم ج4ص259]

Now some may argue that since the permission to keep the qurbani meat after the specified three days was given, so now it is also permissible to offer qurbani after the three days. But qurbani meat can be stored at home all year long nowadays, so should it mean that qurbani can also be offered throughout the year? Absolutely not! It was never permissible to offer qurbani beyond the three specified days, nor has it become permissible now.

It has also been reported that Sayyiduna Ali (Radhiyallahu Anhu) has also said that qurbani can only be offered on three specific days. [مؤطا امام ما لک ص497، کتاب الضحایا]

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللّٰہِ بْنِ عَبِّاسٍ : النَّحْرُ یَوْمَانِ بَعْدَ یَوْمِ النَّحْرِ وَاَفْضَلُہَا یَوْمُ النَّحْرِ. [احکام القرآن للطحاوی:ج2ص205]

Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) has said that the days when qurbani can be offered on “Yawm al-Nahr” (tenth Dhul Hijjah) and the two days after it. But the best day to offer qurbani is on Yawm al-Nahr. [Ahkaam al-Qur’aan]

The Claim of the 4 Days Qurbani

Some people claim that Qurbani can be offered for four days. They quote the narration of Sayyiduna Zubayr ibn Mut’im (Radhiyallahu Anhu) where he mentioned the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) saying that all the days of Tashreeq are for offering qurbani. [السنن الكبرىٰ: باب من قال الأضحى جائز يوم النحر: 19717]

These people claim that the days of Tashreeq are until the thirteenth of Dhul Hijjah, which is the fourth day of Eid, thus qurbani can also be offered on the fourth day.

The reply to their claim:

In the chain of narrators of this hadith, there is a narrator called Muawiya ibn Yahya Al-Sadafi. The scholars of hadith have categorized him as weak (ضعیف), not strong in narration (لیس بالقوی), and unimportant (لاشى]  .(الجرح و التعدیل: ج8 ص384، الکاشف: ج2ص277]

Imam ibn Abi Hatim ar-Razi has recorded the chain of narrators as such: Mu’awiya ibn Yahya ibn al-Sadafi from Az-Zuhri from Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyab from Abu Saeed al-Khudri. And he has written the following statement of his father Abu Hatim ar-Razi under this narration:

  ھذا الحدیث کذب بھذا الاسناد. [العلل لابن ابی حاتم الرازی: ج3 ص252]

This hadith with this chain of narrators is a lie.

And in other place, he has written:

ھذا حدیث موضوع.  [العلل لابن ابی حاتم الرازی: ج4 ص493]

Translation: This narration is fabricated (موضوع).

If we were to accept this hadith and take the thirteenth of Dhul Hijjah as a day of qurbani, then we will also have to take the ninth of Dhul Hijjah as a day of qurbani because the days of Tashreeq start from the ninth. But the ninth of Dhul Hijjah is not accepted as a day of qurbani. Thus, it becomes impossible to act upon this hadith.

One Sheep cannot be shared by a Family for Udhiyah/Qurbani

[By Maulana Ilyas Ghuman]

If the qurbani animal is sheep or goat, then it must be not be shared and must be offered by only one individual. Here are the proofs:

Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates:

اَنَّ النَّبِیَ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم اَتَاہُ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ اِنَّ عَلَیَّ بَدَنَۃً وَاَنَا مُوْسِرٌ بِھَا وَلاَ اَجِدُھَا فَاَشْتَرِیْھَا فَاَمَرَہُ النَّبِیُّ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم اَنْ یَّبْتَاعَ سَبْعَ شِیَاۃٍ فَیَذْبَحُھُنَّ. [سنن ابن ماجہ:ص 226،کتا ب الاضاحی باب کم یجزی من الغنم عن البدنۃ]

A man came to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and said, “The qurbani of a large animal (cow or camel) has become obligatory upon me and I have the wealth to buy it but I cannot find one for purchase. (So what should I do now?)” So the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) commanded him to buy seven goats and offer them for qurbani. [Ibn Majah]

In this hadith, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) equated a large animal (cow or camel) to seven goats, and a large animal can only be shared by seven people and no more. Thus it proves that one sheep or one goat cannot be shared and can only be offered as qurbani by one person.

Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu) has said:

اَلشَّاۃُ عَنْ وَاحِدٍ. [اعلاء السنن:ج 17،ص210،باب ان البدنۃ عن سبعۃ]

A goat can only be (offered as qurbani) on behalf of one person. [I’laa al-Sunan]

The Claim that one goat is sufficient for a Family for Qurbani

Some people claim that an entire family can share a goat in qurbani. They quote the narration of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari (Radhiyallahu Anhu) where he mentioned that a person used to offer one goat as qurbani on his behalf and his family’s behalf, and then the entire family used to consume it. [جامع الترمذی ج1ص272 باب ما جاء أن الشاة الواحدة تجزي عن أهل البيت]

The reply to this claim is that this narration of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is implying on the rewards that was shared by the entire family. Otherwise, one goat can only be offered by one person and cannot be shared as has already been proven earlier.

Sharing the reward in a qurbani is explained by the following hadith where the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) slaughtered a sheep for qurbani and said:

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّ هَذَا عَنِّي وَعَمَّنْ لَمْ يُضَحِّ مِنْ أُمَّتِي. [مسند الإمام أحمد بن حنبل رقم الحدیث: 14893، سنن أبي داؤد: باب فِى الشَّاةِ يُضَحَّى بِهَا عَنْ جَمَاعَةٍ]

“O Allah! This is from me and from all those from my Ummah who could not offer qurbani.” [Musnad Ahmad]

This way the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) included his Ummah in the rewards of qurbani. Similarly, the narration of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is also regarding the sharing of rewards in qurbani.

Are there 10 Shares in a Camel for Udhiyah/Qurbani??

By Maulana Ilyas Ghumman

Partnership in Qurbani

If the qurbani animal is a camel, cow or buffalo, then seven individuals can share such an animal.

عَنْ جَابِرٍ رضی اللہ عنہ قَالَ خَرَجْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللّٰہِ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم مُھِلِّیْنَ بِالْحَجِّ فَاَمَرَنَا رَسُوْلَ اللّٰہِ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم اَنْ نَّشْتَرِکَ فِی الْاِبِلِ وَالْبَقَرِ کُلُّ سَبْعَۃٍ مِّنَّا فِیْ بَدَنَۃٍ. [صحیح مسلم:ج1،ص424 باب جواز الاشتراک الخ]

Sayyiduna Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates: We had donned our Ihram for Hajj with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) when he (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) ordered us to share each camel and each cow among seven people.

عَنْ جَابِرٍ رضی اللہ عنہ قَالَ نَحَرْنَا مَعَ رَسُوْلِ اللّٰہِ صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم عَامَ الْحُدَیْبِیَۃِ اَلْبَدَنَۃَ عَنْ سَبْعَۃٍ وَالْبَقَرَ عَنْ سَبْعَۃٍ. [صحیح مسلم ج1ص424 باب جواز الاشتراک الخ]

Sayyiduna Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) narrates that we offered our qurbani with the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) in the year of Hudaybiya. One camel was offered for qurbani on behalf of seven people and one cow was also offered by seven individuals.

The Claim that a Camel has 10 Shares for Qurbani

Some people claim that a camel for qurbani can be shared by ten individuals. They quote the narration of Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu anhu) where he said, “We were on a trip with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) when Eid al-Adha arrived. So, seven people shared one cow, and ten people shared one camel.”  [سنن الترمذي ج1ص276 باب ما جاء ان الشاۃ الواحدۃ تجزی عن اھل البیت]

The reply to this claim:

We do not act upon this narration, rather we act upon the narration of Sayyiduna Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) which mentions that seven people shared a camel. The reason behind this is because the Companions of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) used to act upon this narration of seven people per camel.

Imam Tirmidhi (Rahimahullah), under the narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) (of seven people per camel), writes:

والعمل على هذا عند أهل العلم من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وغيرهم.  [سنن الترمذي ج1ص276 باب ما جاء ان الشاۃ الواحدۃ تجزی عن اھل البیت]

The scholars from among the Companions of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) used to act upon this narration. [Sunan Tirmidhi]

And the rule is that:

إِذَا تَنَازَعَ الْخَبَرَانِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نُظِرَ إِلَى مَا عَمِلَ بِهِ أَصْحَابُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ. [سنن ابی داؤد: باب لحم الصید للمحرم، باب من لا یقطع الصلوۃ شئی]

Whenever there are two narrations from the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) where they seem to be contrary to each other, then we will adopt the narration which the Companions of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) act upon. [Sunan Abi’ Dawud]

The scholars of hadith have mentioned that the narration of Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu anhu) is mansukh (abrogated) and the narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is the nasikh (abrogator).

Imam Nawawi (Rahimahullah), in his book Sharh Muslim under the chapter of ablution, writes:

وهذه عادة مسلم وغيره من أئمة الحديث يذكرون الاحاديث التي يرونها منسوخة ثم يعقبونها بالناسخ. [شرح النووی علی صحیح مسلم: ج1ص156 باب الوضوء مما مست النار]

It is a common practice of Imam Muslim and other hadith scholars that in their books, they first mention those narrations that are mansukh (abrogated) and then they mention the narrations that are nasikh (abrogators). [Sharh Muslim an-Nawawi]

Imam Tirmidhi also followed this practice and thus he recorded the narration of Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu anhu) first and then he recorded the narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu anhu) in his book.

The narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu anhu) is a “qawli” hadith while the narration of Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is “fe’li” hadith. And the rule is that qawli hadith is given preference over fe’li hadith. And in this case the narration of Jabir (Radhiyallahu Anhu) is both a “qawli” and a “fe’li” hadith.

Islamic Method of Slaughtering Animal

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Islamic has the most merciful way of Slaughtering Animals

1. ‘Zakkaytum’ is a verb derived from the root word Zakah (to purify). Its infinitive is Tazkiyah which means purification. The Islamic mode of slaughtering an animal requires the following conditions to be met:

a. Animal should be slaughtered with sharp object (knife).

The animal has to be slaughtered with a sharp object (knife) and in a fast way so that the pain of slaughter is minimised.

b. Cut wind pipe, throat and vessels of neck.

Zabiha is an Arabic word which means ‘slaughtered’. The ‘slaughtering’ is to be done by cutting the throat, windpipe and the blood vessels in the neck causing the animal’s death without cutting the spinal cord.

c. Blood should be drained.

The blood has to be drained completely before the head is removed. The purpose is to drain out most of the blood which would serve as a good culture medium for micro organisms. The spinal cord must not be cut because the nerve fibres to the heart could be damaged during the process causing cardiac arrest, stagnating the blood in the blood vessels.

2. Blood is a good medium for germs and bacteria.

Blood is a good media of germs, bacteria, toxins, etc. Therefore the Muslim way of slaughtering is more hygienic as most of the blood containing germs, bacteria, toxins, etc. that are the cause of several diseases are eliminated.

3. Meat remains fresh for a longer time.

Meat slaughtered by Islamic way remains fresh for a longer time due to deficiency of blood in the meat as compared to other methods of slaughtering.

4. Animal does not feel pain.

The swift cutting of vessels of the neck disconnects the flow of blood to the nerve of the brain responsible for pain. Thus the animal does not feel pain. While dying, the animal struggles, writhers, shakes and kicks, not due to pain, but due to the contraction and relaxation of the muscles defecient in blood and due to the flow of blood out of the body.

Islam forbids any kind of atrocity on animals & even in sacrificing or slaughtering animals.

Buffaloes are Permissible for Udhiyah/Qurbani

[By Maulana Ilyas Ghuman]

The Animals used for Qurbani

The animals which can used to offer qurbani are sheep, goat, cow, buffalo, and camel (male or female).

قال اللہ تعالیٰ: ﴿ثَمَانِيَةَ أَزْوَاجٍ مِنَ الضَّأْنِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنَ الْمَعْزِ اثْنَيْنِ قُلْ آلذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ نَبِّئُونِي بِعِلْمٍ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ؁ وَمِنَ الْإِبِلِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ اثْنَيْنِ قُلْ آلذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ الایۃ﴾ [سورۃ الانعام: 143،  144]

Eight pairs; of the sheep two (male and female), and of the goats two (male and female). Say: “Has He forbidden the two males or the two females, or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose? Inform me with knowledge if you are truthful.” And of the camels two (male and female), and of oxen two (male and female). Say: “Has He forbidden the two males or the two females or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose?” [Surah al-An’aam]

Eight animals are mentioned – two from sheep, two from goats, two from cows, and two from camels.

Buffaloes are also included within the animals permissible for qurbani because it is a type of cow.

Consensus of Ummah:

وَاَجْمَعُوْا عَلیٰ اَنَّ حُکْمَ الْجَوَامِیْسِ حُکْمُ الْبَقَرِ. [کتاب الاجماع لابن المنذر: ص37]

The scholars of this Ummah all agree that buffaloes will have the same rulings as cows.

Lingual

اَلْجَامُوْسُ ضَرْبٌ مِّنْ کِبَارِ الْبَقَرِ. [المنجد:ص101]

Buffalo is a type of cow.

Some statements of the Salaf on the Permissibility of Buffaloes for Qurbani

Sayyiduna Hasan Al-Basri (Rahimahullah) has said:

اَلْجَامُوْسُ بِمَنْزِلَۃِ الْبَقَرِ. [مصنف ابن ابی شیبہ:ج7،ص65 رقم:10848]

Buffalo has the same status as a cow. [Musannaf ibn Abi’ Shaybah]

Imam Malik ibn Anas al-Madani (Rahimahullah) has said:

اِنَّمَا ھِیَ بَقَرٌ کُلُّہَا. [مؤطا امام مالک:ص294 ، باب ما جاء فی صدقۃ البقر]

A buffalo is a (type of) cow (i.e. buffalo has the same ruling as a cow).

He further mentions:

اَلْجَوَامِیْسُ وَالْبَقَرُ سَوَائٌ. [کتاب الاموال لابن عبید:ج2،ص385،رقم:812]

Buffalo and cow are the same (i.e. same type).

Imam Sufyan at-Thawri mentions:

’’تُحْسَبُ الْجَوَامِیْسُ مَعَ الْبَقَرِ‘.  [مصنف عبدالرزاق:ج4ص23،رقم الحدیث:6881]

Buffaloes will be considered the same as cows. [Musannaf ‘Abd al-Razzaq]

For more detailed rulings on Udhiyah/Qurbani read: Fiqh of Qurbani (Udhiyyah) – The Annual Sacrifice of Eid ul Adh-ha

QURBAANI OF LAMBS

QUESTION: During the current Qur’bani season a man purchased several sheep from a Darul Uloom which does Qur’baani on a big scale every year. The sheep were small, not more than 5 or 6 months old. I am aware that if a six-month old sheep is big and fat, and if let loose in a flock of one-year old sheep, it will be the same in size, then Qurbaani of such a sheep is valid. However, these 5 and 6 month old sheep were very small. They could never pass for one-year olds. The meat yield was about 8 kg. Is the Qur’baani of such sheep valid? Is there perhaps another fatwa governing such animals if   slaughtered by a Darul Uloom? When I brought this fact to the attention of the man, he said that it was not his concern if the Qur’baani was valid or not because the senior Ulama of the Darul Uloom condoned and legalized the Qur’baani. What is the Shar’i ruling on this issue?

Also advise about a big six month old goat which has the appearance of a year-old goat. Is Qurbaani of such a goat valid?

ANSWER (Majlisul Ulama):

Qurbaani of the small lambs described by you is most certainly not valid. There is no separate law for Darul Ulooms. The Qurbaani obligations were not discharged by slaughtering such small lambs. If any of these animals were for Waajib Qurbaani, then it is incumbent on the respective persons to make qadha of their Qurbaani by giving a live animal to the poor or the price of an animal. A 6 month old or a less than 1 year goat is not valid for Qurbaani, even if it passes as a 1 year old in size.

If an animal is slaughtered to compensate for the corrupted Qurbaani, all the meat and every item of the slaughtered animal will be Waajibut Tasadduq, i.e. it will be compulsory to distribute everything of the animal to only the Fuqara and Masaakeen. The person whose Qurbaani it is and the wealthy may not consume of the meat.

The vindication for this haraam act of slaughtering deficient animals which invalidate the Qurbaani, is satanic. Such logic is severely castigated by Allah Ta’ala. In regard to this man’s Yahudi-type justification of haraam, the Qur’aan Majeed states:

“They (the laity – the ordinary people of Bani Israaeel) take their Ulama and their Mashaaikh as gods besides Allah, (and they take for their god) Isaa, the son of Maryam.”

When the Sahaabi, Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Salaam (radhiyallahu  anhu), who was among the leading Ulama of the Tauraah, asked Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) for the tafseer of this aayat, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) explained that when the ulama-e-soo’ of Bani Israeel would make halaal into haraam, and vice versa, the laity would accept such mutilation of the Ahkaam and follow it. This they did because it well-suited their nafsaani desires.

Thus, the brother who sought to shrug off his Deeni responsibility and Waajib obligation by passing the buck to the errant Ulama of the Darul Uloom cast himself into the mould of the laity (awaam) of Bani Israaeel. He made the Ulama of the Darul Uloom his arbaab min dunillaah (gods besides Allah). Allah Ta’ala expects that all Muslims utilize the treasure of Aql bestowed to them. Basic masaa-il of Istinja, Tahaarat, Salaat, Zakaat, Qurbaani, etc. are known to all Muslims. Even the juhala quickly understand these masaa-il (rules) when they read them in elementary text books prepared for Maktab kids.

This brother despite being aware of the one year requirement for sheep, soothed his conscience by having appointed the Ulama of the Darul Uloom his ‘gods’ besides Allah Ta’ala. He utilized the Darul Uloom’s Ulama as a scapegoat for his shirk – his assignment of partners with Allah Azza Wa Jal by citing the miscreant Ulama in derogation of Allah Azza Wa Jal, and in abrogation of the Ahkaam of Allah’s Shariah. May Allah Ta’ala save us from the kufr and shirk of our nafs.

Also Read: Fiqh of Qurbani (Udhiyyah) – The Annual Sacrifice of Eid ul Adh-ha

Understanding the Concept Of Udhiyah (Sacrifice) in Islam

Actually, there are many misconceptions filling the mind of many non-Muslims, who fail to perceive the significance and wisdom behind acts of worship in Islam. That is why addressing those misconceptions becomes obligatory in order to erase distortions about Islam. Thus, on the case in point, we find it relevant to cite for you the following:

Sacrifice is a sunnah in Islam. We must look at the occurrences of a ritual in a contextual manner, understanding not only the pre-Islamic institution of sacrifice, the Qur’anic reforms concerning this practice, and the continuance of sacrifice in the Muslim world, but also the context in which the Qur’anic revelations occurred. For it seems that with many people, both non-Muslims and Muslims alike, context is the key that they are missing.

With this in mind, let us start with the situation as it was in pre-Islamic Arabia with regard to animal sacrifice. Not only did the pagan Arabs sacrifice to a variety of gods in hopes of attaining protection or some favor or material gain, but so, too, did the Jews of that day seek to appease the One True God by blood sacrifice and burnt offerings. Even the Christian community felt Jesus to be the last human- sacrifice, “the final lamb,” so to speak, in an otherwise valid tradition of animal sacrifice (where one’s sins are absolved by the blood of another).

Islam, however, broke away from this longstanding tradition of appeasing an “angry God” and instead demanded personal sacrifice and submission as the only way to die before death and reach “fana’” or  “extinction in Allah.” The notion of “vicarious atonement of sin” (absolving one’s sins through the blood of another) is nowhere to be found in the Qur’an. Neither is the idea of gaining favor by offering the life of another to Allah. In Islam, all that is demanded as a sacrifice is one’s personal willingness to submit one’s ego and individual will to Allah.

One only has to look at how the Qur’an treats this subject, to see a marked difference regarding sacrifice and whether or not Allah is appeased by blood. The Qur’anic account of the sacrifice of Isma`eel (alayhissalaam) ultimately speaks against blood atonement. Allah says:

Then when (the son) reached (the age of) (serious) work with him, he said: “Oh my son! I see in vision that I offer thee in sacrifice: Now see what is thy view!” (The son) said: “Oh my father! Do As thou art commanded: Thou wilt find me, if Allah so wills one practicing patience and constancy!” So when they had both submitted their wills (to Allah), and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (for sacrifice), We called out to him, “Oh Abraham! Thou hast already fulfilled the vision!” Thus indeed do We reward those who do right. For this was obviously a trial and We ransomed him with a momentous sacrifice. [As-Saafaat 37:102-107]

Notice that the Qur’an never says that Allah told Ibraheem (alayhissalaam) to kill (sacrifice) his son. Though subtle, this is very important, for the moral lesson is very different from that which appears in the Bible. Here, it teaches us that Ibraheem (alayhissalaam) had a dream in which he saw himself slaughtering his son. Ibraheem (alayhissalaam) interpreted the dream and thought that the dream was a Command from Allah, but the Qur’an never says that Allah directly ordered Ibraheem (alayhissalaam) directly to sacrifice his son. However, in Ibraheem and Isma`eel (alayhimussalaam)’s willingness to make the ultimate sacrifice— Abraham of his son, Isma`eel (alayhissalaam) of his own life—they are able to transcend notions of self and false attachment to the material realm, thus removing a veil between themselves and Allah, enabling Allah’s mercy to descend upon them as the Spirit of Truth and illuminate them with divine wisdom (thus preventing a miscarriage of justice and once and for all correcting the false notion of vicarious atonement of sin).

For, certainly, Allah, the Ever Merciful, Most Compassionate, would never ask a father to go against His command of “thou shall not kill” and then order to kill his own son in order to be accepted by Him. For the Qur’an teaches us that Allah never advocates evil (see 7:28 and 16:90) and that only Satan advocates evil and vice (24:21). The notion that Allah would want us to do an immoral act runs counter to Allah’s justice.

As far as the yearly tradition that has followed this event (that is, the sacrificing of a ram to commemorate Ibraheem and Isma`eel (alayhimussalaam)’s great self sacrifice), we must understand it and the Qur’anic verses that pertain to animal sacrifice, in relation to the time and place circumstances under which these revelations were received and how people were trying to make a personal sacrifice by sharing their limited means of survival with the poorer members of their community.

That is to say, the underlying implication of Islam’s attitude toward ritual slaughter is not that of blood atonement, or seeking favor with Allah through another’s death, but rather, the act of thanking Allah for one’s sustenance and the personal sacrifice of sharing one’s possessions and valuable food with one’s fellow humans. The ritual itself is NOT the sacrifice. It is merely a method of killing where the individuals kill as quickly as possible and acknowledge that only Allah has the right to take a life and that they do so as a humble member of Allah’s creation in need of sustenance just like every other species in Allah’s creation.

So let us examine some of the appropriate verses in the Qur’an to see what it has to say about sacrifice and how it related to life in 500 C.E. Arabia.

Allah Ta’ala says: In them ye have benefits for a term appointed: In the end their place of sacrifice is near the Ancient House. [Al-Hajj 22:33]

The word ‘In them’ refers to cattle or animals offered for sacrifice. It is quite true that they are useful in many ways to humans, e.g., camels in desert countries are useful as mounts or for carrying burdens or for giving milk, and so, for horses and oxen; and camels and oxen are also good for meat, and camel’s hair can be woven into cloth; goats and sheep also yield milk and meat, and hair or wool. But if they are used for sacrifice, they become symbols by which people show that they are willing to give up some of their own benefits for the sake of satisfying the needs of their poorer brethren.

Allah also says: To every people did We appoint rites (of sacrifice) that they might celebrate the name of Allah over the sustenance He gave them from animals (fit for food). But your God is One God: Submit then your wills to Him (In Islam): and give thou the good news to those who humble themselves. [Al-Hajj 22: 34]

This is the true end of sacrifice, not propitiation of higher powers, for Allah is One, and He does not delight in flesh and blood, but a symbol of thanksgiving to Allah by sharing meat with fellow humans. The solemn pronouncement of Allah’s name over the sacrifice is an essential part of the rite.

Allah says further: It is not their meat nor their blood, that reaches Allah: it is your piety that reaches Him: He has thus made them subject to you, that ye may glorify Allah for His guidance to you: And proclaim the Good News to all who do right. [Al-Hajj 22: 37]

No one should suppose that meat or blood is acceptable to the One True God. It was a pagan fancy that Allah could be appeased by blood sacrifice. But Allah does accept the offering of our hearts, and as a symbol of such offer, some visible institution is necessary. He has given us power over the brute creation, and permitted us to eat meat, but only if we pronounce His name at the solemn act of taking life, for without this solemn invocation, we are apt to forget the sacredness of life. By this invocation we are reminded that wanton cruelty is not in our thoughts, but only the need for food…

It is quite clear from the Qur’anic passages above that the issue of animal sacrifice is in relation to the role animals played in Arabian society at that place and time (as well as other societies with similar climates and culture), in that humans are commanded to give thanks to Allah and praise Allah for the sustenance He has given them and that they should sacrifice something of value to themselves to demonstrate their appreciation for what they have been given.