By Ali al-Sallabi
The meaning of the word ‘Hadith’ in Islamic terminology is that which was narrated from the Prophet ﷺ of words, deeds or approval. The scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah paid a great deal of attention to writing down the sound reports and made every effort to protect the Hadith from fabrications and fabricators. They did their utmost and used the best academic methods of checking and examining texts, to the extent that we can be certain that our scholars (may Allah have mercy on them) were the first ones among all the nations of the earth to lay down rules of precise academic examination of reports. Their effort in that fieId is something for Muslims to be proud of and to boast about before all nations. This is the bounty of Allah, which He grants to whom He wills for His creatures’ needs, and Allah is All-Sufficient All-knowing.
The Sunni scholars took the following steps to examine and check reports. They were able to save and protect the Sunnah from the plots and conspiracies that were drawn up against it, and to cleanse it from all the dirt that contaminated it.
The chain of narrators of reports
The Companions of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ did not doubt one another after he died, and the Tabi’oon never hesitated to accept any hadith that was narrated by a Companion from the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, but this changed when fitnah arose and the wretched ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ started preaching his evil ideas, which were based on an extreme form of Shiism that claimed that ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was divine. He began to fabricate reports and insert them into the Ahadith, and the number of fabricated reports accumulated with the passage of time. At this point, the scholars among the Companions and the Tabi’oon became very careful about the transmission of hadith, and they would not accept any report unless they knew its chain of narration and narrators and were satisfied with their trustworthiness and good character.
Ibn Sireen (rahimahullah) said, as was narrated by Imam Muslim in the introduction to his collection of sound hadiths (Sahih Muslim): “They used not to ask about chains of narration, but when the fitnah occurred, they said: ‘Name for us your men (in the chain of narration).”‘ They would find out who were followers of the Sunnah and accept their hadiths, and they would find out about who were followers of innovation and reject their hadiths. This checking began at the time of the younger Companions who were still alive at the time of fitnah.
Muslim narrated, in the introduction to his collection of sound hadiths, that Mujahid said: “Basheer al-‘Adawi came to Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) and started narrating to him, saying: ‘The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said.’ Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) did not listen to his reports and did not even look at him. He said: ‘O Ibn ‘Abbas, why is it that I do not see you listening to what I tell you? I am narrating to you from the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, and you are not listening.’ Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) said: ‘At one time, if we heard a man say, “The Messenger of Allah said ﷺ ,” we would all turn to look at him and listen to him. But when the people started to narrate a great deal, we did not accept from the people anything but that which we were familiar with.’ Then when lying became widespread, the Tabi’oon began to ask for chains of narration. Abu al-‘Aliyah said: ‘We used to hear hadiths from the Companions, but we would not be content until we went to them and heard it from them.’ Ibn al-Mubarak said: ‘The chain of narration is part of the religion. Were it not for the chain of narration, anyone could say what they wanted.’ Ibn al-Mubarak (rahimahullah) also said: ‘Between us and the people are the lists’ – meaning chains of narration.”
This was done by referring to the Companions, Tabi’oon and prominent scholars in this field. It is a sign of Allah’s preserving the sayings of His Prophet ﷺ that He made the lives of some prominent Companions and scholars among them long, so that they could serve as a reference point and people could be guided through them. When the fabrication of hadiths began, the people turned to these Companions first, asking them what they knew of hadiths and seeking their advice concerning the hadiths and reports they heard. Many trips were made by the Tabi’oon, and even some of the Companions, from one country to another for that purpose, so that they could hear proven hadiths from trustworthy narrators. Hence Jabir ibn Abdullah (radhiyallahu anhu) travelled to Syria, and Abu Ayyoob (radhiyallahu anhu) travelled to Egypt to hear hadiths.
Critical examination of narrators, highlighting how truthful they were
This is a very important field, through which the scholars were able to distinguish sound from fabricated hadiths, strong from weak.
They did very well in this regard, tracing narrators and studying their lives, history and biography, what was hidden about them and what was known, never fearing the blame of the blamers.
They set out guidelines and rules and applied them in order to determine whose reports were to he accepted and whose were to he rejected, whose reports were to be written down and whose reports were not to be written down. Among the most important categories of rejected reporters, whose hadiths are not to be accepted, are:
a. Those who tell lies about the Messenger of Allah ﷺ
The scholars unanimously agreed that the hadith of one who tells lies about the Prophet ﷺ is not to be accepted. They also unanimously agreed that this is the gravest of major sins, but they differed as to whether such a person is a disbeliever or not. Some said that he is a disbeliever, and some said that he is to be executed, and they differed as to whether his repentance is acceptable or not.
b. Those who tell lies in their general talk, even if they do not tell lies about the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.
The scholars unanimously agree that if a person is known to have told a lie, even once, his hadith is to he rejected.
c. Followers of innovation and whims and desires
The scholars also agreed that no hadith can be accepted from a follower of innovation if his innovation constitutes disbelief. If his innovation does not constitute disbelief, but he regards lying as permissible, his hadiths are not accepted either. What if he follows an innovation that does not constitute disbelief and he does not regard lying as permissible – can his reports he accepted or not? Is there a differentiation between one who promotes innovation and calls others to it, and one who does not? Ibn Katheer (rahimahullah) said: “Concerning this issue, there has been a dispute from early times until more recently. The view of the majority is that there should be differentiation between one who promotes innovation and one who does not.” What appears to me to be correct is that the scholars reject a narrator who follows innovation if he narrates something that supports his innovation, or if his group is known to regard lying as permissible and to fabricate hadiths in support of their whims and desires. Hence they rejected the reports of the Raafidhis, but they would accept the report of an innovator if he and his group did not regard lying as permissible, such as ‘Imran ibn Hattan.
d. Rejecting the reports of heretics and others
The scholars are agreed that the reports of the following people are to be rejected: heretics, evildoers, heedless people who do not understand what they are narrating, and anyone who does not meet the conditions of precision, good character and understanding.
The scholars of hadith established guidelines for determining what is sound, reliable and weak in categorizing hadith. They also set out guidelines for determining what is fabricated, and they mentioned the signs by which this might be known, such as poor language, unsound meanings, being contrary to the clear meaning of the Qur’an, contradicting the known facts of history at the time of the Prophet ﷺ and others.
By means of these successful efforts, the Islamic religion was preserved. The foundation of the Sunnah, which is the second source of legislation, was established, and the Muslims felt reassured with regard to the hadiths of their Prophet ﷺ. Everything alien was removed, and the distinctions between what was sound, reliable and weak were established. Allah protected His religion from tampering by those who sought to corrupt it and those who were trying to insert fabricated reports, and from the plots of the heretics and the shu’oobiyyah. The Muslims reaped the harvest of this blessed and mighty effort, among the most prominent features of which were the writing down of the Sunnah, the science of hadith, the science of examining reporters and other sciences of hadith.
The attitude of the Shia towards the Sunnah, due to the Shia regarding the Companions as disbelievers
The Shiite opinion on imamate led them to regard the overwhelming majority of the Companions as disbelievers. As a result of this abhorrent view, the Shia rejected almost all of the hadiths that were narrated through the Companions; they only accepted hadiths that were narrated through the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt or those whom they claimed were “Shia”, like Salman al-Farisi, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dharr and al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad (radhiyallahu anhum). They launched a relentless attack on narrators of hadith such as Abu Hurayrah, Samurah ibn Jundub, ‘Urwah ibn al-Zubayr, ‘Amr ibn al- ‘Aas, al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah and others (radhiyallahu anhum); they accuse them of fabricating, forging and lying. Imam ‘Abdul-Qahir al-Baghdadi (rahimahullah) regarded the Shia as being among those who rejected the Sunnah because they refused to accept the reports of the Companions of the Messenger of guidance ﷺ.
The Shia waged war against the Sunnah, hence Ahl as-Sunnah (the Sunnis) were known exclusively by this name because they followed the Sunnah of the Prophet. This is what was mentioned in some of the sources of Ahl as-Sunnah, but the Shia narrate from their Imams that everything is to be referred to the Qur’an and Sunnah, and that every hadith that is not in accordance with the Qur’an and Sunnah is invalid. They also have other reports like this. This means that the Shia do not deny the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ; they do refer to it and regard it as parallel to the Book of Allah as the criterion and final word. However, the one who studies their texts and reports will reach the conclusion that most of their reports and views head in a direction away from the Sunnah that is known to the Muslims, in terms of interpretation and application as well as chains of narration and texts.
The word of the Imam is like the word of Allah and His Messenger ﷺ
For the Shia, the Sunnah is everything that was narrated from the ‘infallible one’, whether word, deed or approval. The one who does not understand the nature of their madh-hab will not realise the extent to which they have drifted away from the Sunnah in this statement. The ‘infallible one’ refers not only to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ but also to any of those whose word they regard as equal to the word of Allah and the words of His Messenger ﷺ, namely the twelve Imams. They do not differentiate in this regard between these twelve Imams and the one who does not speak of his own desire, whose speech is only a Revelation revealed – the Prophet ﷺ. These Imams are not treated like others who narrated from the Prophet ﷺ, whose words become binding on the basis that they are trustworthy in narration. They believe that these ‘infallible ones’ were appointed by Allah, as mentioned by Prophet ﷺ, to convey the divine rulings, and that they do not speak of anything except that which comes from Allah.
There is also no differentiation between what these twelve Imams said at the age of childhood and what they said at the age of maturity, because in the view of the Shia, they cannot err – either deliberately or accidentally or as a result of forgetfulness – at any time throughout their lives, as we have seen above in the discussion of the issue of infallibility. Hence one of their contemporary shaykhs said: “Belief in the infallibility of the lmams makes whatever they utter sound, without stipulating a condition that it should have a chain of narration going back to the Prophet ﷺ, as is the case with Ahl as-Sunnah.” For them, the Sunnah is not only the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ; rather it is the Sunnah of the Imams, and the words of these Imams are like the words of Allah and His Messenger ﷺ . They admit that this is what the Shia added to the Sunnah, saying: “The Imami Shia added everything that was said or done by the twelve Imams of words, deeds or approval, to the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ.”
Their view stems from two serious matters and two principles, which for them are basic to this issue. One of their contemporary shaykhs pointed out these two things when he explained that whatever the Imams said is at the same level as the words of the Prophet ﷺ in that it is binding and must be followed, and that whatever ruling they pass is the ruling ordained by Allah. He explained that this knowledge could be attained for them in two ways: “through inspiration like the Prophet, i.e., through revelation, or through learning it from the infallible one who came before him.”
They claim that the Imams are the guardians of the knowledge and revelation of Allah. The author of al-Kafi wrote a chapter with the title: “The Imams (alayhissalaam) are in charge of executing the commands of Allah and are the guardians of His Knowledge.” In this chapter, there are six reports to that effect. He wrote another chapter entitled: “The Imams inherited the knowledge of the Prophet and all the Prophets and the appointed heirs who came before them,””‘ in which there are seven such reports. In a third chapter, entitled “The Imams know all branches of knowledge that are known to the Angels, Prophets and Messengers,” there are four reports. The Raafidhi Shia went to extremes with this issue. What we have quoted from these imaginary sources claimed by the Shia is enough; simply reading it and imagining its implications is sufficient to show how corrupt it is.
As a result of that concept of the Imams, the Raafidhi Shia did not pay attention to the soundness of the chain of narration or study and evaluate the narrators, as the scholars of hadith did. At the same time that they reject the collections of sound hadiths of Bukhari and Muslim and the books of the Hadith that are authenticated and sound, they rely for their hadiths on what was narrated by al-Kulayni, whose comments on many of their beliefs we have quoted above. They regard him as one whose view is binding and sound beyond any doubt, and his book al-Kafi is one of the oldest hadith books of the Shia and one of the most authentic in their view.
One of the Shia described the status of this book among them when he said: ‘The lmamis and the majority of Shia are agreed on the superiority of this book and on following it, trusting its reports and being content with its rulings. They unanimously agreed that it is of a supreme status and high level, and it is the main basis for all the narrations of the trustworthy reporters who are known for their precision and knowledge until today.”‘ For them, it is better than all the other books of hadith, knowing that most of what is in al-Kafi – as Abu Zahrah says – are reports that ended with the Imams. We cannot say that there is any hadith with a chain of narrators that goes back all the way to the Prophet ﷺ or claims that these are the words of the Prophet ﷺ, except on the basis that the words of their Imams are the same as the words of the Prophet ﷺ and are part of the religion of Allah. Most of what is narrated in al-Kafi stops at as- Sadiq (rahimahullah), and very little of it goes back to his father al-Baqir (rahimahullah). Even less goes back to Amir al-Mu’mineen ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), and that which goes back to the Prophet ﷺ is very rare.
There is also a book called Man la yahduruhu al-Faqeeh, which was compiled by Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Babawayh, whom they call ash-Shaykh as-Sadooq, one of their greatest scholars in Khorasan (d. 381 AH). Other main references of the Shia include Tahdheeb al-Ahkam and al-Istibsar fima ukhtulifa min al-Akhbar, by Muhammad ibn al-Hasan at-Toosi. These Shiite books are filled with tens of thousands of reports and hadiths which cannot be proven sound; indeed most of them are fabricated and made up,'”‘ such as the reports that on which they rely to defend the idea that ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) was more entitled to the caliphate. From the above, we know the views and beliefs of the Shia. The Shia themselves – or at least some of them – admit that in their books there are some fabricated reports, and they themselves criticise some of their narrators.
Since this is the case, the Shia should follow the advice of Amir al-Mu’mineen ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (radhiyallahu anhu) when he said: “Adhere to your religion and follow the guidance and Sunnah of your Prophet. Measure what you do not understand against the Qur’an; whatever the Qur’an approves of, adhere to it, and whatever it disapproves of, reject it.”‘ He (radhiyallahu anhu) also said: “Follow the guidance of your Prophet ﷺ, for it is the best of guidance, and follow his Sunnah, for it is the best of ways.”
They should adhere to the path of Amir al-Mu’mineen ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (radhiyallahu anhu) in understanding the rulings of the noble Qur’an and the meanings of its verses. They should adhere to the apparent meaning of the noble Qur’an, understanding the verses that are general in meaning in the light of the verses that are specific and detailed. They should pay attention to what abrogates and what is abrogated, study the language of the Arabs, understand some texts in the light of others, ask about any verses that are unclear, understand the reasons for revelation and learn from Amir al-Mu’mineen ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) how to respect the status of prophethood and deal with the Sunnah of the Messenger ﷺ in accordance with his guidance. Then they should examine the reports in their books on the basis of two just and precise measures: the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. Whatever is in accordance with the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger they should accept it; whatever is contrary to them, they should reject it and warn their followers against it, especially those reports that undermine their Imams themselves, let alone Islam.
The religion of Allah is complete and perfect. Allah says: This day, I have perfected your religion for you! (Qur’an 5:3). And the Messenger of Allah ﷺ conveyed all that was revealed to him and he followed the command of his Lord, Who said: O Messenger [Muhammad]! Proclaim [the Message] which has been sent down to you from your Lord. And if you do not, then you have not conveyed His Message) (Qur’an 5:67).
The Prophet ﷺ conveyed the message clearly and eloquently, and he established proof so that there would he no excuse left for anyone. He proclaimed it openly among the Muslims, without singling out anyone to tell him alone any part of Shariah and asking him to keep it secret. Allah says: verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allah and cursed by the cursers. Except those who repent and do righteous deeds, and openly declare [the truth which they concealed]! (Qur’an 2: 159-160).
And We have not sent down the Book [the Qur’an] to you [O Muhammad], except that you may explain clearly unto them those things in which they differ. (Qur’an 16: 64)
So the religion is complete and perfect, with nothing added or taken away or altered, not by any so-called Imam or any fictional absent one. The Prophet ﷺ bade farewell to this world after conveying the religion in full and explaining all of it as commanded by his Lord. He ﷺ said: “You have been left with something so clear that its night is like its day. No one goes astray from it after I am gone but he will be doomed.”‘
Abu Dharr (radhiyallahu anhu) said: “Muhammad ﷺ left us, and no bird moved its wing in the sky but he told us something about it.”‘
FRAUDS, FABRICATORS AND LIARS – THE NARRATORS OF THE AHAADITH OF SHI`ISM
By Mujlisul Ulama
The narrators and books of the numerous sects of Shi`ism are abundant. Since, the Ithna Ashris (those believing in 12 Imaams) are predominant today, this chapter will discuss the kitaabs and Raawis (narrators) of only this sect. In terms of the consensus of the Ithna Ahsris, among all Shi`i books of religion, four are described as “the most authentic”. These are:
(1) Kaafi, better known as Kaafi Kulaini
(2). Man La Yahdhurul faqeeh,
Shiah authorities have emphasised the incumbency (wujoob) of practising in accordance with these four books of fundamental importance. These four books are collectively known everything in as Usool-e-Arba’ah (the four principles). According to some Shiah priests, Kaafi is the ‘most authentic’ of the four. Others say that Man La Yahdhurul faqeeh is the ‘most authentic’ of the four.
The Ithna Ashri Shiahs obtain all their Fiqhi masaa`il (Rules of Jurisprudence), Usool-e-Aqaaid (principles of Beliefs) and their views on Imaamat from these four fundamental books. Among the narrators of so-called Ahaadith in these ‘most authentic’ books of the Shiahs are the following:
a. Hishaamain Maithami, and the author of Taaq. They were of the Mujassamah sect, believing that Allah Ta`ala is a three-dimensional physical body. Among the Mujassamah are those who believe that Allah’s body is hollow until the navel and solid from below the navel. Hishaam bin Saalim and Maithami belong to this group. Kulaini narrates the following in this regard:
“…………..Verily, Hishaam Bin Saalim, Maithami and the author of Taaq say that Allah Ta`ala is hollow until the navel and the remainder is solid.”“
Kulaini also narrates from Ali Bin Hamzah who said:
“I said to Abu Abdullah alaihi salaam ‘I heard Hishaam Ibnul Hakam narrating from you (Imaams) that Allah Ta`ala is a solid body of Noor…………”
b. Zuraarah Bin A`yun Bukhair Bin A`yun, Ahwalain, Sulaimaan Ja`fari, Muhammad Bin Aslam, etc.
They ascribed to the belief that Allah Ta`ala at one stage in eternity was jaahil (ignorant). He gained knowledge only at a later stage.
c. Bani Fudhail, Ibn Bukhair, etc. were of corrupt mathhab even according to Shi`i principles because they either rejected the Imaamat of the Imaam of their time or they refuted the entire concept of Imaamat. i.e. they did not believe in any Imaam.,
A denier of Imaamat is a Kaafir according to Shi`ism. Yet, Shiah authorities unhesitatingly narrate the narratives of such Kaafirs and base their religious teachings thereon.
d. Ja`far Muraadi, Ibn Ayyash, etc. Even Shiahs brand these narrators as Wadh-dhaa` (fabricators).
e. Muhammad Bin Isaa, etc. Even Shiahs brand him and others as Kath-thaab (Liars).
f. Ibn Ammaar, Ibn Miskaan, Ibn Sakar, Zaid Yamaami, etc. They are classified as Dhuafaa (weak narrators) and Majaaheel (unknown entities).
g. Taflisi, Qaasim Khazaaz, Ibn Farqad , etc. They are classified Mast’rul Haal (i.e. their state is hidden).
The four ‘most authentic’ books of Shi`ism are cluttered with narrations of these fabricators, liars and frauds. Invariably the chains of transmission (Asaaneed) of these frauds terminate on such persons who were perpetrators of major sins, eg. those anarchists (Sabaiyyah Shias) who had infiltrated the army of Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). The book of Kulaini, i.e. Kaafi, known as ‘the most authentic’ book of the four fundamental books of Ithna Ahsris contains numerous narrations of Ibn Ayyaash who is a fabricator and a liar by the consensus of Shi`i sects. Abu Ja`far Tusi narrates simply from anyone who claims to have been a companion of an Imaam inspite of the close associates of the Imaam branding him a liar and categorically refuting his claim of Hadhrat Ja`far companionship of the Imaam. For example, Ibn Miskaan claimed companionship with Saadiq. But the close companions of Hadhrat Ja` far Saadiq refute this contention.
CLASSIFICATION OF NARRATIONS
According to Shiahs there are four classifications of narrations:
(1) Saheeh, (2) Hasan, (3) Mauthaq, (4) Dhaeef.
The Shi`i definition of Saheeh (Authentic) is that the narration should be an uninterrupted chain of transmission linked to an infallible Imaam through the medium of uprighteous narrators.
In terms of this definition a narration in which there is an interruption (or a missing link) will not be However, inspite of their own definition, Shiahs do classify narrations with missing links as Saheeh. eg. “Ibn Abi Ameer narrated in the Saheeh like this…” or “In the Saheeh of Ibn Ameer it is like this….”
Although, the Shi`i definition of Saheeh stipulates the condition of Adal (Uprighteous, etc.) in practice this condition is ignored and narrations in which the narrator/s is/are not Aadil are also classified as Saheeh.
Example: Hussein Bin Hasan Bin Hasan. He is described by the Shi`i, Hilli, in Muntaha as Majhulul Haal.
Shiahs classify the narrations of Hasan Bin Samaa’ah as Saheeh inspite of him being of the Waaqifiyyah sect. He refuted the Imaamat of the contemporary Imaam. Such a person is not an Aadil according to the principles of Shi`ism.
The narrations of Abaan Bin Uthmaan are classified as Saheeh inspite of him being an Aftahi. He refuted the contemporary Imaam and accepted another person as the Imaam. He is, therefore, not Aadil in terms of Shi`ism.
The narrations of Ali Bin Fudhaal and Abdullah Bin Bukhair are said to be Saheeh although the mathhab of both was Faasid (corrupt) according to Shiahs. Indeed, it is most surprising because their experts have recorded this information in their own writings. Inspite of this, they classify the narrations of such persons as Saheeh. The definition for Saheeh according to Shi`ism requires that the narrator be an Imaami (a follower of an infallible Imaam). Uprighteousness and expert of knowledge are insufficient.
Even the narrations of persons cursed by an ‘infallible’ (Ma`soom) Imaam are accorded the status of Saheeh.
The narrations of members of the Mujassamah sect, who believe that Allah Ta`ala is a three-dimensional body with physical anthromorphical features, are also classified as Saheeh inspite of such narrators being Kaafir even according the Shiahs.
The narrations of persons who believe that Allah Ta`ala at one stage was ignorant and devoid of His Sifaat (Attributes), are also classified as Saheeh.
The narrations of those who exposed the secrets of the Imaams and betrayed their trust, eg. Abu Baseer, are also classified as Saheeh. The narrations of also Kaththaabeen (Liars) – on their own admission – are also accepted as Saheeh. Narrations of Majhulul Haal persons are also described as Saheeh, eg. Hasan Bin Abaan. Narrations of exceptionally weak (Dhaeef) narrators such as Mukhbir Ibn Sanaan, are likewise assigned the category of Saheeh.
Ja`far Bin Muhammad Bin Isaa Bin Shaapur Qawaari who is better known as Abu Abdullah was a fabricator of Hadith. Inspite of this, Shi`i authorities narrate his fabrications. In regard to this great fraud, Najaashi says:
“Abu Abdullah was dhaeef in Hadith. Ahmad Bin Hussein said: ‘He fabricated Hadith.. He was most cunning, narrating from unknown entities. I have heard it being said that he was of corrupt Mathhab.
Nevertheless, Abu Ja`far Tusi, the Sheikh of the group (of experts) narrated from him and relied on his narration.”
“Hasan Bin Ayyaash Bin Jareesh Raazi, who narrated from Ja`far Thaani is extremely weak. He has (written) a kitaab, Inna Anzalna hu fi Lailatil Qadr, in which is narrated Ahaadith of dubious words.
Nevertheless, Kulaini narrated from him many Ahaadith. And his kitaab according to them is the authentic of the most authentic books.”
“Ali Bin Hussaan is a great fabricator (of Hadith). Najaashi said that he is extremely weak. Some of Ulama say that he was of the Ghullaat (Extremists) of corrupt beliefs. He has a kitaab (called) Tafseerul Baatin, the whole of which is a concoction. Nevertheless, Kulaini narrates him in his (Kulaini’s) Saheeh from (i.e. Kaafi).”
“Muhammad Bin Isaa said – Nasr Bin Sabbaah: ‘He is a Kath-thaab (Great Liar). Inspite of this, Abu ‘Amr al-Kashi and others narrate from him.”
“Najaashi said: ‘Our Ulama have condemned Abdur Rahmaan Bin Katheer Al-Haashimi, saying that he fabricated Hadith. Nevertheless, their (Shi`i Ulama) experts narrate from him – experts such as Hasan bin Ali Bin Fadh-dhal, etc. And, Kulaini, Ibn Baabawayh and Muhammad Bin Hasan Tusi also narrated from him.”
The list of fabricators, frauds and liars, i.e. even according to Shiahs, is extremely lengthy. Nevertheless, Shiah authorities narrate ‘Hadith’ from them. Such fabrications clutter the ‘most authentic’ books of theology of the Shiahs.
From the aforegoing discussion, the fallacy of Shi`ism with it’s corrupt basis of falsehood is conspicuously established. Since the state of their ‘Saheeh’ ‘Ahaadith’ is absolutely putrid and false, discussion on the other categories, viz. Hasan, Mauthiq and Dhaeef, is superfluous. The incongruency of Shi`i scholars, i.e. their acceptance of narrators whom they themselves condemn, is imposed on them by the following three factors:
1. Their inherent kufr which has mentally deranged them.
2. Their theology being absolutely bankrupt, lacking entirely in truthful narrators in view of Shi`ism discarded and condemned the whole glorious Body of Sahaabah of Rasulullah ﷺ.
The unknown entities from whom Shiah authorities narrate so-called Ahaadith constitute a dubious, ambiguous and of illegitimate spiritual and moral formidable list. Such unknown narrators – dubious, ambiguous and of illegitimate spiritual and moral fibre, characters and origin are technically termed MAJHOOL.
The names of some of these Majaahil (plural of Majhool) will now be presented:-
Hasan Bin Ahbaan, Qaasim Bin Sulaimaan, Amr Bin Hanzalah, Amr Bin Abaan, Hussein Bin Alaa, Abbaas Bin Amr Qaq`ami, Fadhl Bin Sakan, Ali Bin Uqbah Bin Qais Bin Sam`aan, Ibn Abi Alaa, Haashim Bin Abi Ammaar Husseini, Basheer Bin Yasaaril Yasaaree, Musaa Bin Ja`far, Fadhl Bin Sakrah, Zaidul Yamaani, Saeed Bin Zaid, Abdur Rahmaan Bin Abi Haashim, Bakaar Bin Abi Bakr, Yazeed, Ghaalib Bin Uthmaan, Ubay Habibul Fulaih Bin Zaid, Muhammad Bin Sulaih, Abdulah Bin Asadi, Ubay Saeedul Makaari, Rikaaz Bin Farqad, Hasan Tifleesi, Qa asim Bin Khazaaz, Saalih Sa`di, Hasan Ibn Ali, Ibnul Ishaaq Al-Ali Bin Duqail, Hasan Bin Ali Bin Ibraheem, Ibraheem Bin Muhammad, Hawi, Uthmaan Bin Abdul Malik, Uthmaan Bin Abdullah, Isaa Bin Amr, Maulal Ansaar, Rabi Bin Bin Muhammad Salmi, Ali Bin Sa`d As-Sa `di, Muhammad Bin Yusuf Bin Ibraheem, Mahmood Maimoon, Ja`far Bin Suwaid, Ja`far Bin Kilaab.
About all these unknown entities, scholars and authorities pass the following judgement:
“Therefore, all of them are Majaahil (unknown entities) along with another group (of narrators) who cannot be enumerated (on account of their abundance). However, their Shuyookh (seniors) such as Ibraheem, his son Ibraheem, Muhammad Bin Yaqoob Kulaini, Ibn Baabawayh, Abu Ja`far Ali Bin Tusi and his Sheikh Abu Abdullah whose title is Mufeed, narrate from them (the Majaahil) in their Sihah (i.e. authentic books). Their Mujtahids have made compulsory practising in accordance with whatever appears in these Sihah. They think that these (Sihah) produce absolute knowledge (Ilmul Qa t`i). Murtadha, Tusi and Hilli have explicitly declared this.” [Hadyah Majeediyah]