Category Archives: Taqlid

The Compulsory Nature Of Taqleed Shakhsi

[By Maulana Muhammad Maseehullah Khan Sherwani (rahmatullah alayh)]

There are two classes of Wujub (compulsory nature), viz,

(I) Wujub biz-zát

(ii) Wujub bil-ghair

Commission and omission of acts emphasised by the Qur’án and Hadith are classified in the first category of Wujub, viz.Wujub biz-zát which means compulsory in itself. The very nature of the commission or omission brings about the compulsion. Salát,. Saum, etc. are of this kind.

Then there are such acts which by themselves are not commanded practices. However, these acts constitute the basis for practices commanded in the Qur’án and Hadith. Normally it is not possible to execute the commanded practices without their basis which is termed Mauquf alayhi. Such acts constituting the essential basis for commanded practices are of the second class of Wujub, viz. Wujub bil-ghair which means compulsory by virtue of an external factor. The compulsion is established for the sake, and preservation of practices categorically commanded (Umur Mansus). The universally accepted principle, viz., the basis of a Wajib is Wajib, governs the compulsory nature of Taqleed Shakhsi. Such an example is the writing of the Qur’án and Hadith. Reducing the Qur’án and Hadith to writing has been negated in the Hadith. In this regard appears the following Hadith:

lbn Umar narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“We are a nation which neither writes nor calculates.” [Mishkát-Mut-tafaq alayh]

In this hadith writing has been unconditionally negated by way of implication. However, it has been found necessary to reduce the Qurán and Hadith to writing in order to preserve their authenticity and prevent them from destruction. Hence, such writing is not considered as conflicting with the hadith. No one has questioned the Wujub of such writing nor has anyone demanded daleel (proof) for this Wujub. The preservation of the Qur’án and Hadithis an act categorically commanded and emphasised. Experience shows that such preservation is not a normal possibility without reducing the Qur’an and Hadith to writing. For this reason has the writing of the Qur’an and Hadith been decreed Wajib. Consensus of the entire Ummat on this need has been reported down the ages in an unbroken chain of transmission. Such a need is classified as Wujub bil-ghair. In exactly the same way is Taqleed Shakhsi decreed essential and Wájib, falling within the classification of Wujubbil-ghair.

In view of this explanation the need does not arise for the presentation of Sareeh Nass (clear and categoric Qur’anic verses and Ahádith) in substantiation of the compulsion of Taqleed Shakhsi. For this purpose Dalálatun Nass (Indication of Nass) is ample evidence — a fact which is not hidden from men of knowledge. In our age, in view of the dominant condition of people, it is indisputable that without Taqleed Shakhsi protection and Preservation of Mansus Alayh affairs (clear and categoric commands of the Shariat) are not possible. Taqleed Shakhsi is therefore both essential and compulsory.

The 4 Paths of Guidance

Translation of the Introduction to “Radiant Benefits of the Biographies of the Hanafis” (Fawaid Bahiyya fi Tarajim Hanafiyyah) by Imam ‘Abdul Hayy Lucknowi (rahmatullah alayh).

Know that the essence of our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is like the source of fountain springs from which rivers of knowledge flow. The first of those who channelled and set in motion this knowledge were the rightly guided Companions, in particular the caliphs. In knowledge, they are all like the stars; if you were to follow any one of them you will be guided. They are the true inheritors of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), and his representatives in spreading the religion. From them, the knowledge then flowed to those who benefited from them, and then to their followers. Amongst them, according to the most correct and established position, are our greatest Imam and the foremost of those who are followed, Abu Hanifa, N’uman ibn Thabit. This knowledge then passed to their followers, and then to their successors who include in their ranks mujtahid Imams. From them, it passed on to their followers, amongst whom were Fuqaha and Muhaddithun. This system will remain until the Day of Judgement. Every one of them endeavoured their utmost to spread knowledge and to pass it on to intellectual masters, through reminders, writings, orally and by facilitating understanding. May Allah shower His vast mercy upon them and shade them with clouds of His perfect favours. Had it not been for them, we would never have been guided and would have remained upon what we were upon.

Know that the affair is not, as is imagined by corrupt, ignorant people with dull minds, that the differences between the Companions and mujtahidun of this Community has complicated matters and made the task more difficult. The truth is that these differences are a mercy for this Community, having made the religion easy and removed any difficulty from it. Equally, it should not be imagined that if everything had sprung from the source of one river, the matter would have been easier than it is, having sprung from a variety of sources. These various schools of the Imams and mujtahidun of this Community all connect back to the rivers of the Companions. These, in turn, are connected to the source; the recipient of the Divine message, (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Thus, every one of the schools is on guidance and whoever follows anyone of them is guided. However, whomsoever imagines that only one of them is on guidance, whilst the remainder are misguided, has fallen into the pit of misguidance.

Know that many mujtahidun, with groups of scholars following them, have appeared in this Community. Every one of them spent their time channelling the rivers of Sacred Law and expended their efforts in determining the upright path. In fact, no century has passed without the appearance of reformers mujaddidun, with their followers, nor does an age pass by without the appearance of a group of mujtahidun across the lands, even if they themselves may seem to be mere followers. This process is from the complete favour of Allah to his slaves, which requires constant gratitude towards Him. By them, we are guided, provided with sustenance, blessed with rain and remain on the straight path. However, from all of these, only four schools have become universally accepted with their understanding having been archived, their methods having been identified and their proofs having been clarified. With the passage of time they have received acceptance from intellectual masters across the lands. They are Abu Hanifa, Malik, Ahmad and Shafi’i. The first of these was the first. The second was his contemporary. It is said that the first related a little from the second. It is also said that, in fact, the second was a student of the first. The third was a student of the fourth. The fourth was a student of the second and some of the students of the first. Amongst the remaining mujtahidun, who either preceded or came after the aforementioned four, some never had any followers and thus complete benefit was never gained from them. Others did have groups of followers and their schools spread through their documented books. However, after a short period of time these schools disappeared, and no narrations remained from them.

As a consequence, some have said that there is no accepted path except for these four paths. However, this claim is disputed. Most people, then, began to follow these four schools, with very few taking from any other way. The school of Ahmad spread in areas within Baghdad. However, in other places its spread was less than the other schools. The school of Malik spread throughout North Africa and parts of Hijaz. The school of Shafi’i spread through most of Hijaz, Yemen, parts of India and the border regions of Bengal, parts of the border regions of Khurasan and Turan. The school of Abu Hanifa spread to distant lands and many cities. These include areas of Baghdad, Egypt, Eastern Europe, Balkh, Bukhara, Samarqand, Isfahan, Shiraz, Azerbaijan, Jurjan, Zinjan, Tus, Bistam, Istiribad, Marghaynan, Farghana, Damghan, Khawarizm, Ghazna, Karman, most of India, Sindh and Bengal, parts of Yemen and other areas. Each one of them spread the knowledge of their Imam through dictating, teaching and writing.

This system will remain until the appearance of the mujtahid mutlaq, the last of the true scholars, the rightly guided one, Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah, the Mahdi. ‘Isa, peace and blessings be upon our Prophet and upon him, will also descend, and from that point on, following the schools will no longer remain valid. Their rules will be based on taking from the Qur’an, Sunnah and by extracting from the Prophetic example based on the correct opinion. This has been stated by leading scholars in their notes and books such as ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani, Jalal Suyuti, Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Rasul Barzanji, ‘Ali Qari and Shaykh Muhyiddin ibn ‘Arabi. As for the statement of some ignorant bigots that ‘Isa and the Mahdi will follow Abu Hanifa and will not, in any way, oppose his school: it is absurd, as has been stated by legal and spiritual masters. In fact, it is undoubtedly an attempt at guessing the unknown.

Know that the followers of the four Imams have become known by their being affiliated to these great Imams, from whence we have the titles Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki and Hanbali. This allows for each one to be clearly identified and known from the other. The reality is that each one of these schools is from the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, because, each one, by treading the path of their Imam is treading the Prophetic path, and drinking from that greatest of all sources. Whoever disdains affiliation to any one of these agreed upon schools, and regards them as being in opposition to Sacred Law, acts rashly and wanders blindly. Such a person is ignorant and will spread ignorance, is astray and will lead others astray.

Notes:

1. The mujtahid is a scholar qualified to issue expert legal opinion.

2. Fuqaha is the plural of faqih. Faqih is a scholar of Islamic law.

3. Muhaddithun is the plural of muhaddith. Muhaddith is a scholar whose expertise is in the Prophetic traditions.

4. Mujtahidun is the plural of mujtahid, the definition of which has preceded.

5. Mujaddidun is the plural of mujaddid who is the one who returns people back to the Prophetic way.

6. Mujtahid mutlaq is the absolute mujtahid who is not restricted in any way in law.

THE FUQAHA AND TODAYS SO-CALLED ‘MUJTAHIDS’

THE IMPERATIVE NEED TO REFER TO ONLY THE FUQAHA

“One Faqeeh is sterner on shaitaan than a thousand Aabids.” (Hadith)

(Aabid is a man of adequate knowledge who devotes the greater part of his life to only ibaadat. However, he lacks in the divinely bestowed attribute of faqaahat — a Noor of Understanding which Allah Ta’ala infuses into the heart of the Mu’min.)

The Chain of the Fuqaha commences with the Sahaabah who were the Students of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). While all the Sahaabah were not Fuqaha, a great many were Fuqaha (Jurists of Islam) of the highest class. These Fuqaha among the Sahaabah spread out into the distant lands of the Islamic Empire after the demise of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). They imparted and disseminated the Ilm of the Qur’aan to those who became the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen and Fuqaha of the first and highest class in the era of the Taabieen.

The Taabieen duplicated the function and the activities of their Sahaabah-Ustaadhs. In this way, from one generation to the next, came into existence great and illustrious Fuqaha who raised the Edifice of the Divine Immutable Shariah on the Foundations of the Qur’aan and Sunnah.

THE MUJTAHID IMAMS

The vital and indispensable links  in the Chain of the Shariah  leading up to Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) are  the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen such  as Imaam Abu Hanifah  (Rahmatullah alayh), Imaam Maalik (Rahmatullah alayh) and many other Mujtahid Imaams of  the Salafus Saaliheen era of the  first and second centuries of Islam.

The Aimmah Mujtahideen had structured the edifice of the  Shariah on the basis of the  Qur’aan and Ahaadith which  reached them authentically from  the Sahaabah. Numerous of the  Taabieen Ulama were among the Aimmah Mujtahideen. Minus the  Aimmah Mujtahideen, there is no  Islam. These Mujtahid Imaams are  a special group of the greatest Ulama created by Allah Ta’ala for the specific task of formulating  and codifying the Shariah. Hence, (Sallallahu  Rasulullah alayhi wasallam) ordered his Sahaabah to deliver to posterity every Hadith. He added that some of those to whom the Ahaadith would be delivered will understand it more than those who had delivered it. This was a reference to the Aimmah Mujtahideen. Numerous of them were the direct Students of the  Sahaabah. Nothing of Islam can be separated from the Aimmah  Mujtahideen.

This was that Jamaat of Men whom Allah Ta’ala had chosen to guard and defend the Deen of Islam. There is no comparison with them. They were unique in every aspect. They were Fuqaha, Muhadditheen, Mufassireen, etc. of the highest category. None of the later Muhadditheen such as Imaam Bukhaari (rahmatullah alayh) attained the rank of Ilm which was occupied by the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen.

No one, neither Muhaddith nor Mufassir of any age, was independent of the Fuqaha. Every authority in Islam on any subject had to incumbently refer to and bow their heads in subservience to the Fuqaha. For the safety of Imaan the need to accept without scrutinization and with complete submission the rulings of the Fuqaha, is imperative. Whoever has attempted to set himself up as an adversary to the Fuqaha has miserably failed and ended up in the dregs of deception and deviation —far, very far from Siraatul Mustaqeem. Hakimul Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thaanvi (rahmatullah alayh) explains the imperative nature of submission to the Fuqaha in the following answer to a question posed to him.

QUESTION

Whenever the Ahnaaf Ulama issue a fatwa on any mas’alah, they always refer to Durr-e-Mukhtaar, Raddul Muhtaar, Shaami, Aalamghiri, etc. They do not say: ‘Allah said so or Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said so…’ Why have they adopted this practice when Qur’aanic and Hadith references are more convincing to a Mu’min?

ANSWER by Hakimul Ummat

“In fact, you have not even seen the kutub of the Ahnaaf Ulama.  You will find for example Hidaaya replete with Aayaat and Ahaadith references. The same will be found in Badaai’ and Mabsoot. The same applies for Durr-e-Mukhtaar and Raddul Muhtaar. Why do present-day Muftis refrain from citing the Qur’aan and Hadith? Its answer is that today all Ulama are Muqallideen. They do not possess the ability to deduct ahkaam directly from the Qur’aan and Hadith. It is for this reason they cite the reference of such Ulama-e-Mujtahideen who had made use of ijtihad and had compiled the kutub.

If they do not do so, and of their own accord deduct masaail from the Qur’aan and Hadith, even the questioner will have no confidence. Furthermore, such a Mufti is the victim of thousands of errors. When he is not on the pedestal of Ijtihaad, how can he employ ijtihaad to formulate masaail from the Qur’aan and Hadith? Besides reading the superficial translation and deceiving people, he does nothing else. In the present age, there is a group of people who are trapped in the disease of self-deception imagining themselves to be among the Mujtahideen.

If their ‘ijtihaad’ is examined, the state of their error will be understood. In view of the condition of today’s claimants of ijtihaad, it is the Ruling of the Ulama that taqleed of the illustrious Predecessors (the Salf) is Waajib.  Hence, they issue Fataawa by reference to these kutub in which are compiled the Ahkaam which have been formulated on the basis of the Qur’aan and Hadith (by the Aimmah-e-Mujtahiddeen)”

(Imdaadul Ahkaam, Vol.1, page 228)

IJTIHAAD AND ITS CLAIMANTS

In this age of liberalism, the disease of pride has impelled many half-baked students of Deeni knowledge to lay claims to Ijtihaad and to imagine that they are Mujtahiddeen, Muhadditheen and Mufassireen. They consider themselves competent to deduct Shar’i ahkaam directly from the Qur’aan and Sunnah, and feel themselves independent of the Fuqaha.

In this regard, Shaikh Yusuf Bin Ismaaeel An-Nibhaani writes in his treatise, Hujjatullaahi Alal Aalameen:

     “Today it is only a man who is mentally deranged and whose Deen is corrupt, who will lay claim to Ijtihaad. This has been said by Shaikhul Akbar Muhayyuddin. Imaam Al-Munaawi said in his Sharhul Kabir alal Jaami’is Saghir that Allaamah Shihaab Ibn Hajar Al-Haitami said:

“When Al-Jalaal As-Suyuti claimed Ijtihaad (for himself), his contemporaries (among the Ulama) stood up and unanimously criticized him. They forwarded to him a questionnaire consisting of a number of questions (each one having) two views. They said that if he possessed the ability of the lowest category of Ijtihaad, namely, Ijtihaadul Fatwa, then he should comment on the Raajih (Preferred view) from the views presented, and he should expound the daleel for each view in terms of the principles of the Mujtahideen. Allaamah Suyuti returned the questionnaire without answering the questions and presented the excuse of the volume of work which prevents him from studying the questions.”

Ibn Hajar then adds: Now ponder the colossal difficulty of this category, namely Ijtihaadul Fatwa, which is the lowest category of Ijtihaad. It will then become manifest to you that the one who lays claim to even this lowest category of ijtihaad, leave alone Ijtihaad-e-Mutlaq, is trapped in bewildering confusion in his affairs and he languishes in mental corruption. He is among those who wander aimlessly in blindness”

Imaam Nawawi says in Ar-Raudhah:“Istimbaat (Deducting masaail) directly from the Kitaab (Qur’aan) and Sunnah is not permissible except for one who has attained the pedestal of Ijtihaad. This has been explicitly said (by the Fuqaha).”

Grievous errors are nowadays perpetrated by mediocre molvis who ludicrously seek to elevate themselves to the pedestal occupied by the illustrious Mujtahideen of the  early eras of Islam. The miscreant molvis, due to half-baked or quarter baked knowledge, awed by the methodology of the deviate Salafis of our time, commit the fatal blunder of digging in the Kutub of Ahaadith. They extract a Hadith, subject it to their opinion to formulate masaa-il to appease the Salafi Manhaaj (ideology).

We refute and oppose Salafis day & night for negating the rulings & usuls based by Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen and their clinging onto the isolated views of the seventh century Aalim, Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) & his student Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullah), but it has now become a norm that our very own Muqallid Molvis are making flawed-ijtihad to support their views, while they pick and choose from personal views of different scholars to suit their agenda resulting in negating the ruling made by Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen.

For example, some molvis cite the personal view of 8th century scholar Imam al-Suyuti (rahimahullah) to subtantiate Mawlid while negating the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen who didn’t formulate a day for Mawlid nor they heeded the Salaf who never celebrated Mawlid.

If such personal opinions of scholars are made a daleel in the Shariah, then we would have never criticized the salafis for their deviance!. Therefore, personal opinions of the later day scholars which opposes the Ijmaa’i view of the Imam’s of  Math-hab’s cannot be identified as hujjah in the Shariah.

Then on the other hand, the modern-day Molvis are making flawed ‘ijtihad’ and labelling Riba (Interest) as ‘Profit’ and legalizing it while negating the unanimous view of Riba being haraam as per the rulings of the Imams from the Khairul-Khuroon epoch.

Nowadays, the modern scholars are legalizing Digital pictures, this too results in total rejection of the unanimous view of the 4 Madh-habs rulings on this issue who declared pictures as haraam irrespective of any modern-day techniques to produce it.

We have mentioned a few examples above, while there are many such instances where the modern-day scholars make their own personal opinions while rejecting the rulings of Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen.

The Consequences of such rulings based on personal ‘Ijtihaad’ is that the lay-person are deprived of the original rulings of Aimmah Mujtahideen and they fall into deviancy as similar to that of Salafis & Bidatis.

Formulating masaa-il on the  basis of the Hadith and Qur’aan  was the function of only the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen. That  methodology has ended during the era of Khairul Quroon. The  corrupt methodology of the  Salafis is haraam, and may not be  emulated. Masaa-il decided and  finalized by the Aimmah Mujtahideen are not open for interpretation/re-interpretation  and mutilation. Islam was finalized and perfected during  the very time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) as    the Qur’aan confirms. Re-interpretation is explicit KUFR.

There is no need to comment further on those who have embarked on deviation on the basis of their misconceived ability of ‘ijtihaad’.

DOORS OF IJTIHAAD ARE CLOSED

Question: What is meant by the doors of Ijtihaad are closed? If  Ijthaad is no longer permissible,  how will the status of the many  new developing issues be  decided? Innumerable things did  not exist during the age of the  Sahaabah, Taabieen and Tab-e-Taabieen. Please explain.

Answer: The Doors of Ijtihaad being closed applies to the Usool  (Principles) and Furoo’ detailed  masaa-il) formulated by the  Aimmah Mujtahideen. The issues which the Aimmah Mujtahideen  had settled and finalized may not be subjected to ijtihaad. For  example, the Aimmah  Mujtahideen of all Math-habs have unanimously ruled that  three Talaaqs uttered in one  breath are three, not one as the  deviant Salafis opine on the  basis of their understanding of  certain Hadith narrations.

The Doors of Ijtihaad having  closed is not applicable to new  development e.g. preforming Salaat on the moon or using  scientific instruments/ calculations to determine the  Islamic months or to decide the  permissibility or impermissibility  of performing Salaat in the air or  for deciding the impermissibility  of digital picture, etc., etc.

The rulings for all new developments will be based on  the Principles evolved by the  Aimmah Muhtahideen and also  on similar particular mas’alahs  already existing in the Shariah. Re-interpreting existing Principles and Particulars is  haraam.

Prophetic sayings about the Imams of the Madh-habs

Imam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullah alayh)

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) also said, according to an authentic narration “If the  Religion were at the Pleiades (in  Persia), even then a person (muslim) from Persia would have  taken hold of it, or one amongst  Persian descent would surely  have found it” [al-Ajluni, Kashfu’l-Khafa

Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu)  narrated: “We were sitting in the  company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  when Surat al-Jumu’ah was  revealed to him and when he  recited (it) amongst them, (those  who were sitting with the  prophet) said “Allah’s Messenger?” but Allah’s Apostle  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) made  no reply, until he was questioned once, twice or thrice, and there  was amongst us Salman the  Persian. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu alayhi wasllam)  placed his hand on Salman and then said: “Even if faith were near  the Pleiades (in Persia), a man  from amongst these would surely  find it.”

When Muslim’s conquered Persia  it became a great centre for  knowledge and many of the  worlds greatest scholars came  from there like Imam al Ghazali, Imam Abu Dawud, Imam Bukhari, Ibn Sina, Ibn Haytham one could name well over 200 prominent  and well known Islamic figures, Scholars, Scientists, Philosophers, and Physicians in  world history that came from  Persia, but Imam as-Suyuti (rahimahullah) remarked: “It has been communicated unanimously that this hadith refers to Imam Abu Hanifah (who was a Persian) and founded the Hanafi Madhhab (School of Law)” which 45% of  muslims around the world follow  today.

Imam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullah alayh d.150) is the first in Islam to organize and categorize fiqh (Islamic Law), at a time when it was simply the Qur’an and the Narrations so information could be easily researched and found. This was a Sunnah (example) he began and as the prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said regarding those who begin beneficial Sunnah’s they will have the reward of all  those who adopt it after them  and indeed the entire Ummah adopted this after Him.

He gave rulings on matters  relating to various topics, and organized the religion under sub-headings, categorizing everything  and embracing the whole of Law, beginning with purity (tahara)  followed by prayer (salah), an  order which was retained by all  subsequent scholars such as  Imam Malik, Shafi’i, Abu Dawud, Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and others.

Imam Ash-Shafi’i (rahmatullah alayh)

The Prophet once made a dua’, “O  Allah! Guide (the tribe of)  Quraysh, for the science of the  scholar that comes from them  will encompass the earth. O  Allah! You have let the first of  them taste bitterness, so let the  latter of them taste reward.”

The Scholars agreed that this Dua’ was referring to Imam al Shafi’i (rahmatullah alayh) whose work “al Risal fi Usul al Fiqh” (The Treatise on the  Principles of Legal Jurisprudence) was the first work to define and develop the Legal science of Usul al Fiqh (Principles of Law). This legal science is at the heart of all  modern legal systems on earth today.

“In its comprehensive character, legal science developed among  Muslims very early. They  were  the first in the world to entertain  the thought of an abstract  (theoretical and conceptual)  science of law, distinct from the  codes of the general laws of the  country. The ancients had their  laws, more or less developed and even codified, yet a science which  should treat the philosophy and sources of law, and the method of  legislation, interpretation, application, etc, of the law was  wanting, and this never struck  the minds of the jurists before  Islam”. Since the second century of the Hijrah (800 C.E.) many  Islamic works of this kind began  to be produced, called Usul al-Fiqh (Principles of Law).
In addition, the prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “A scholar from Quraysh will fill  all regions of the earth with  learning.”  [al-Ajluni]

The entire Ummah utilized and benefited from the work of Imam  Shafi’i, it systemized Law itself  for the other Schools of Law that  emulated it’s structure.

The Prophet also said: “Truly, Allah shall send forth for this  Community, at the onset of every  hundred years, someone who will  renew their Religion for them.”

The  scholars  agreed, among  them Imam Abu Qilaba (d. 276) and Imam Ahmad, that the first  narration above signified Imam  al-Shafi’i, and the second signified Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, a  just Khalif who opposed the  tyrants around him, as the first person Allah sent for the Ummah  and then Imam al-Shafi’i after  him as the second person Allah  sent.

Imam Malik Ibn Anas (rahmatullah alayh)

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Very soon will  people beat the flanks of camels  in search of knowledge, and they  shall find no-one more  knowledgeable than the knowledgeable scholar of  Madinah.” 

Imam Tirmidhi, al-Qadi ‘Iyad, Dhahabi and others relate from  Sufyan ibn Uyaynah, Abd al-Razzaq, Ibn Mahdi, Yahya Ibn Ma’in, Dhu’ayb ibn ‘Imama, Ibn al-Madini (rahimahumullah), and others that they considered that scholar to be Malik ibn Anas (rahimahullah) the founder of the  Maliki Madhhab.

Imam Malik (rahmatullah alayh) was responsible for preserving the Sunnah of Madinah for later generations, this was the way of life the people of Madinah lived shortly  after the prophets (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) death, it gave the clearest picture of life in  those times we have today and the Imam and his Madhhab (school of Law) are famous for  taking the actions of the people  of Madinah as a source of  legislation in Islamic law because  it was the prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) himself who established that community.

Thus in this way the Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  foretold the Madhhab’s (Islam’s  Schools of Law) and all the  scholars they would be named after, the Hanafi Madhhab, Shafii, Maliki and Hanbali, all of whom adopted the science of  Imam Shafi’i (rahmatullah alayh) that the prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) mentioned specifically and is the method by which they derive Laws from the Qur’an and Sunnah, this is in contrast to the Deviant sects who lie and say the  Madhhab’s are an evil innovation  that has no basis in Islam rather they seek to dismantle Islam as  the Yahud’s dismantled their own  faith. These sects are a product  of the “Ruwaibidah” a group of  people the prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) gave this name  to and said would come towards  the end of time. History has  occurred as the prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  mentioned, the entire world adopting the methods of Imam  Shafi’i (rahmatullah alayh), which makes the authenticity of the narration’s self  evident.

He (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said “My nation will be divided into seventy-three sects, and only  one among them will attain  salvation” He was asked, “Who are  they?” He replied, “Those who follow me and my Companions,” (Abu Dawud); thus, he mentioned the sects of innovation that  would emerge afterwards and stated that the muslims should stick to the main body of the  Ummah, it’s largest group. He  (sallallaahu alayhi wasllam)  described the reality after this  time clearly, He said “One who defected from obedience and separated from the main body of  the Muslims-if he died in that  state would die the death of one  belonging to the days of Jahiliyya  (before Islam)”  [Muslim]

He advised “My community will  not come together on  misguidance”;

”You have to follow  the congregation for verily Allah  will not make the largest group of Muhammad’s community agree  on error.”,

“Whoever among you wants  to be in the middle of Paradise, let  him cling to the congregation.”,

“Shaytan is a wolf like the wolf  that preys on sheep, taking the  isolated and the stray among  them; therefore, avoid factionalism and keep to the  congregation and the collective  and the masjid.”,

“Allah’s hand is over the group, and whoever dissents from them  departs to hell.”

Thus he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) advised Muslim’s should stick to Islam’s four schools of Law and they would attain the middle of Paradise if they did so. Islam’s four schools of Law have  been the main Body of the Ummah from the beginning of  Islam until our time, almost 90% of Islam’s 1.7 billion Muslim’s around the world today follow them.

The Four Madh-habs are from the Qur’an and Sunnah

By Majlisul Ulama

Allah  Ta’ala  commands:

“And  follow  the  path  of  those  who  turn  (and  lead)  to Me.” [Qur’aan]

The  denigrators  of  the  sacred  concept  of  Taqleed  of  the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen  usually  pose  the  ludicrous question:

“Did  the  four  Madh-habs  exist  during  the  time  of Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)?”

This  is  tantamount  to  asking: “Did  Islam  exist  during  the  time  of  Rasulullah (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)?”

Denial  of  the  four  Madh-habs  (Hanafi,  Shaafi,  Maaliki  & Hambali)  is  denial  of  Islam  as  it  existed  during  the  time of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  and  as  it  had been  transmitted  to  the  Taabieen  by  the  Sahaabah  and thereafter  from  generation  to  generation  until  it  reached us  in  the  present  day.

The  attempt  to  convey  the  idea  of  the  non-existence of  the  Madh-habs  in  the  age  of  our  Nabi  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam)  and  the  Sahaabah  is  a  devious  ploy  or  a  claim of  crass  ignorance  of  those  who  reject  the  four  Madh-habs of  the  Ahlus  Sunnah  Wal  Jama’ah.  The  only  basis  –  if  at all  could  be  termed  a  basis  –  for  the  denial  of  the  Madh- habs  is  the  non-existence  of  the  designations  of  the  Madh-habs,  viz.  Hanafi,  Shaafi,  Maaliki  and  Hambali.  But  it  is indeed  a  display  of  colossal  ignorance  to  refute  the validity  of  the  Madh-habs  simply  because  these  illustrious Fuqaha  and  Ustaadhs,  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah,  Imaam Shaafi,  Imaam  Maalik  and  Imaam  Hambal  (rahmatullah alayhim)  were  not  born  during  the  age  of  Rasulullah (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).

The  teachings  of  the  Four  Madh-habs  cannot  be intelligently  refuted  simply  because  the  names  /  titles  of the Madh-habs  did  not  exist  during  Rasulullah’s (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  time. The  devious  attempt  to  show  that  the  four  Madh-habs are  alien  to  the  Qur’aan  and  the  Sunnah  is  utterly fallacious  because  in  actual  fact  the  Qur’aan  and  Sunnah are  encapsulated  within  the  framework  of  the  four  Madh-habs.  In  fact,  each  Madh-hab  in  it’s  own  right  is  the complete  and  perfect  Islam  as  expounded  in  the  Qur’aan and  Sunnah.

INDISPENSABLE

While  the  rejectors  of  the  Madh-habs  denounce  the taqleed  of  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh)  for example,  they  unhesitatingly  cite  Imaam  Bukhari  and Imaam  Muslim  (rahmatullah  alayhim)  in  substantiation of  their  personal  opinions  for  which  they  produce  the basis  of  ahaadith  taken  from  Bukhari  and  Muslim.  Yet Imaam  Bukhari  and  Imaam  Muslim  (rahmatullah alayhima)  did  not  even  exist  during  the  time  of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahaabah,  but  appeared  on  the  scene  about  two  centuries thereafter  –  long  after  even  the  age  of  Imaam  Abu Hanifah,  Imaam  Shaafi,  Imaam  Maalik  (rahmatullah alayhim)  and  the  numerous  great  Fuqaha  who  were  the Students  of  the  Sahaabah.  The  deniers  of  Shar’i  Taqleed commit  a  greater  act  of  intellectual  vulgarity  than  this  by degenerating  to  the  level  of  making  taqleed  (following blindly)  Ibn  Taymiyyah  who  appeared  seven  centuries after  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).

REFUTATION

In  refutation  of  the  deniers  of  the  Madh-habs,  the  Ahlus Sunnah  can  justifiably  retort:  “Did  Imaam  Bukhari  and Imaam  Muslim  (rahmatullah  alayhima)  exist  during  the time  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  and  the Sahaabah??  Did  their  system  of  Hadith  classification  and codification  exist  during  the  time  of  Nabi  (sallallahu alayhi  wasallam)  and  the  Sahaabah?  Where  in  the Qur’aan  and  Sunnah  does  it  appear  that  a  Hadith classified  as  Dhaeef  (Weak),  Maudhu’  (Fabricated),  etc., etc., in terms of  the  rules  formulated  by  the Muhadditheen  two  centuries  after  the  age  of  Risaalat, should  necessarily  and  summarily  be  rejected?  In claiming  that  a  particular  Hadith  cannot  be  used  as  a basis  for  a  Shar’i  decree,  we  should  ask:  “Whose  taqleed are  the  denigrators  of  the  Madh-habs  making?  Whom  are they  blindly  following  in  this  respect?”  The  charge  of blind  following  rebounds  with  great  force  on  the  deniers of  the  Madh-habs.  Their  taqleed  of  personalities  which appeared  centuries  after  the  initiation  of  Islam,  and  even of  persons  14  centuries  later,  such  as  Al-AlBani  and  even complete  non-entities  like  Mr.  Bilal  Phillips,  is  indeed the  blindest  taqleed  ever  known  in  the  annals  of  Islam.

On  the  contrary,  the  Taqleed  of  the  Ahlus  Sunnah  is  a sacred,  intelligent  and  rational  Taqleed  having  its  basis  in the  Qur’aan  and  Sunnah  since  understanding  of  Islam without  following  blindly  the  Sahaabah  and  their students (the illustrious Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen  and Fuqaha)  is  a  total  impossibility.

This  sacred  Taqleed  is  a  superior  and  a  rational Taqleed  since  it  is  to  follow  the  original  authorities  of  the Shariah,  not  those  who  present  the  figments  of  their opinion  and  personal  understanding  of  the  Qur’aan  and Sunnah. The  Taqleed  of  the  Ahlus  Sunnah  is  not  a  new concept  like  the  Taqleed  of  Al-Albani  which  sprang  up 13  centuries  after  Islam. 

The  Taqleed  of  the  Ahlus Sunnah  is  the  continuation  of  the  Taqleed  which  the Taabieen  made  of  the  Sahaabah.  While  the  flimsy  basis of  ‘proofs’  of  the  ghair  muqallideen  is  primarily  the views  of  Ibn  Taimiyyah  which  Al-Albani  and  his  ilk propagated,  the  bases  of  the  Ahlus  Sunnah  is  the Teaching  of  the  Sahaabah  which  their  students  passed  on to  the  Ummah.  Thus,  the  Chain  of  Authority  of  the  Ahlus Sunnah  is  securely  attached  to  Rasulullah  (sallallahu alayhi  wasallam).

The  Ahlus  Sunnah  does  not  pick  out  of  the  blue, views  which  are  the  opinion  of  persons  like  Ibn Taimiyyah  and  Al-Albani  –  views  which  conflict  with the  interpretation  of  the  Salf-e-Saaliheen  (the  Taabieen and  the  Sahaabah).

If  the  Imaam  of  the  four  Madh-habs  propagated  their personal  views  and  opinions  or  presented  interpretations in  conflict  with  the  teachings  of  the  Sahaabah  and  their Students,  the  claim  of  the  non-existence  of  the  Madh-habs during the time of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam)  would  have  been  valid.  But,  the  Fuqaha  of  the Madh-habs present  the  interpretations  of  the  Sahaabah. Their  Chain  (Sanad)  of  transmission  is  Golden  –  in closest  proximity  to  the  Sahaabah  while  the  Asaaneed (chains  of  transmission)  of  the  Muhadditheen  are  lengthy and  more  distant.  Thus,  when  the  Fuqaha  cite  a  Hadith  as basis  for  their  ruling,  it  in  fact  is  evidence  for  the authenticity  of  the  Hadith  regardless  of  the  classification accorded  to  it  a  century  later  by  the  Muhaaditheen.  The prominence  of  a  Hadith  in  the  ranks  of  the  Mujtahideen is  testification  for  its  authenticity.

When  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh),  for example,  issued  a  ruling,  he  presented  the  Qur’aanic  and /  or  Hadith  daleel (evidence)  for  his  ruling.  The  chain  of his  Asaatizah  (teachers)  linking  him  to  Rasulullah (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  is  well-known.  He  spoke  on the  bedrock  of  the  Ilm  (knowledge)  of  the  most  senior Sahaabah.  The  following  assertion  of  Imaam  Abu Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh)  throws  much  light  on  this fact.  The  following  narration  of  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah (rahmatullah  alayh)  appears  in  Taareekh-e-Baghdaad:

“I obtain  my  evidence  from  Kitaabullah  (the Qur’aan).  If  this  is  not  found  in  the  Qur’aan,  then  I refer  to  the  Hadith  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam).  If  I  do  not  find  it  in  Kitaabullah  and  the Sunnah,  then  I  extract  it  from  the  statements  of  the Sahaabah.”

Thus,  the  accusation  that  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah (rahmatullah  alayh)  gave  preference  to  his  personal opinion  over  the  Ahadith  is  false.  The  following  dialogue between  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah  and  Hadhrat  Baqir (rahmatullah  alayhim)  will  confirm  the  falsity  of  the charge.

When  Hadhrat  Muhammad  Baqir  (rahmatullah  alayh) first  met  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh)  about whom  false  rumours  had  been  fabricated,  he  (Hadhrat Baqir)  said:

“You  have  changed  the  Deen  of  my  grandfather  (i.e. Rasulullah  –  sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  and  his  ahaadith with  Qiyaas  (logic)”
Imaam  Abu  Hanifah:  “Allah  forbid!”
Hadhrat  Baqir:  “You  have  done  this!”

Imaam  Abu  Hanifah:  “Be  seated  so  that  I  may  sit respectfully  in  your  presence.  I  believe  you  deserve  to  be honoured  like  the  Sahaabah  had  honoured  your grandfather.”

Hadhrat  Baqir  (rahmatullah  alayh)  sat  down  and  Imaam Abu  Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh)  also  sat  down  in  front of  him  like  a  student  sits  in  the  presence  of  his  Ustaadh.

Imaam  Abu  Hanifah:  “I  wish  to  ask  you  three questions.  Please  answer.  Who  is  weaker  –  man  or woman?”
Hadhrat  Baqir:  “Woman!” Imaam  Abu  Hanifah:  “What  is  a  woman’s  share  in inheritance?” Hadhrat  Baqir: “The  man  gets  two  shares  and  the woman  one.”
Imaam  Abu Hanifah:  “This  is  the  order  of  your grandfather.  If  I  had  changed  his  Deen,  I  would  have given  the  man  one  share  and  the  woman  two  in  terms  of logic  because  the  woman  is  the  weaker.

Imaam  Abu Hanifah:  “Is  Salaat  better  or  Saum (fasting)?” Hadhrat  Baqir:  “Salaat!”
Imaam  Abu Hanifah:  “This  is  the  order  of  your grandfather.  If  I  had  changed  his  Order,  I  would  have ordered  women  to  make  qadha  of  the  Salaat  they  missed during  haidh  instead  of  making  qadha  of  fasts.”

Imaam  Abu  Hanifah:  “Is  urine  more  impure  or  sperm?” Hadhrat  Baqir: “Urine  is  more  impure.”
Imaam  Abu  Hanifah: “If  I  had  altered  the  Deen  of  your grandfather,  I  would  have  ruled  that  ghusl  becomes incumbent  by  urine  and  wudhu  by  discharge  of  sperm.”

Rising  up,  Hadhrat  Baqir  (rahmatullah  alayh)  embraced Imaam  Abu  Hanifah  (rahmatullah  alayh),  kissed  him  and honoured  him.

One may read this article which clarifies many such doubts about Imam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayh): In Defense of Imam E Azam Abu Hanifah [rahmatullah alayh]

Which Imam did The Sahabah’s follow??

[By Brother Abu Muhammad]

On many occasions people are confronted by those who are trying to confuse Muslims. (A satanic deception).

They ask certain questions about Schools of thought and try to create confusion amongst the Muslims. I have personally been asked this question many times. to which I had given a lengthy reply. I have since used the same reply for this blog. (with a little addition)

Firstly I would like to add a Hadith here.

Imam Bukhari has taken proofs from the Qur’an and Hadith. He has quoted Hadith under the following headings:

Hold on fast to the Jamaat of Muslims and their Imam” [page 059, Vol 1]

One who separates oneself from the Jamaat ( of Muslims ) even a hand span, will die a death of ignorance” [page 1045, Vol 2]

There is also an order even execute those who separate themselves from the Jamaat of Muslims and their Imam.

“…they will leave Islam in the way an arrow leaves its bow…wherever you see them, you should kill them. Their killing will be rewardable on the day of Qiyaamah” [page 75, Vol 2]

A group of people will emerge from amongst you, who will belittle your Salah over theirs , and your Fasts over teirs, and your actions over theirs, they will recite the Quran, which will not pass their throats (have no effect upon them), the will leave the Deen like an arrow leaves its bow” [page 756, Vol2].

These people will emerge before Qiyaamah. Only those who are deficient in age and knowledge will join them.

Imams Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Nasai also quote the same.

Before the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) came to us, there was great Jahiliyyah in the World. There was a need for a Prophet to come set things in order. Thus came Our Final Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). The Prophet was given help by Allah in the form of Sahabah. The World had a new PERFECT teacher to learn from and to follow. The sahabah were the best of the best students to learn from for the people to come later. Islam started to spread far & wide. Many wars were taking place and many Huffaaz of the Qur’an were made Shaheed, due to the number of Huffaaz lost, The Muslims (Sahabah) saw the need of compiling the the Qur’an together in a form of a book so that the Qur’an may be preserved. This was the will of Allah and for this reason we have the Qur’an with us today. Later many opinions were being given as to how one should practice their Deen. Some quoted from what they saw the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) do in his early days and some quoted from what they saw in the middle days of his life and some quoted from the last few days of his life. Hence, there were many many opinions going around every where. Later by the will of Allah came the time for the Great Imams. These great Imams realized the problems that could arise with all these differences in the Ummah, so again by the will of Allah rules were deduced and formulas were set up in order to have a correct codified interpretation of the teachings of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) with all the corect references and hadith. The Imams would also comment that if something that they have decided upon and a stronger evidence is found, then this would become their way. This comment was not set out for laymen of the last 1000 years, infact it was set out for the other great Faqih amongst them. Now by the will of Allah, Islam was codified and recorded for the people of the future. With all four schools of thoughts having slightly different understanding of the rulings set out by them on a few aspects, Allah has in this way kept the Sunnah alive for the entire life of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Now comes the time, by the Will of Allah that all the Hadith get noted and written down and preserved for the future, the great Imams who had such vast knowledge of Hadith still followed a school of thought by the will of Allah.

So as you can see, Allah sent the Prophet, The Qur’an, The Sahaba, The Imams and then the Hadith collectors in this particular order. There is Great Hikmah in this. Allah is the best of planners. Why try to change the plan or go another way.

The Imams of The Sahabah

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) sent Hadhrat Musayb bin Umayr (radhiyallahu anhu) as the first teacher to Madinah at the request of the people of Madinah, after the pledge of Aqba.

Whilst Hadhrat Musayb (radhiyallahu anhu) was in Madinah, who did the people follow?? Did he call the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) up and ask him? Did The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam ) send Hadhrat Musayb (radhiyallahu anhu) to teach or to be followed or just to teach?

[all this was whilst the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was alive]

When the answers could not be found in Qur’an & Hadith, what did the Sahaba do??

Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) gave Fatwa and made it clear that it was his Ijtihad and view. The people followed the school of Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu).

Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) gave fatwa from his Ijtihad and view. On one occasion he sent a message to his judges that they also make Ijtihad when passing a ruling if it was not clear from Qur’an & Sunnah or amongst the senior Sahabah.

Hadhrat Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu) took pledge of Khilafat on the condition that he follow the previous Khalifas.

Hadhrat ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) used to say “I am making Ijtihad on my view

Many of the Fatawa of the Khulafa-e-Rashideen appear in “Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) sent Hadhrat Mua’dh (radhiyallahu anhu) to Yemen where he applied Ijtihad to solve many Issues. The entire population of Yemen followed the school of Mua’dh (radhiyallahu anhu). He was the Imam for Yemen.

Hadhrat ‘Adbullah ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) resided in Makkah, many of his fatwas are listed in “Musannaf Abdur Razzaq” & “Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah“. The School of thought for Hadhrat ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) was dominant in Makkah.

Hadhrat Zaid ibn Thabit (radhiyallahu anhu) resided in Madinah. He passed his fatwas there from his understanding of the Qur’an & Sunnah and from the teachings of the Senior Sahaba (radhiyallahu anhum).

Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) was followed in Basra.

Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) was sent to Kufa by Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) to be the teacher of Kufa. He was followed in Kufa.

On many occasions, proof was not given as they did not give their opinions from their desires, but they gave their rulings from the understanding of the Deen they had learnt from the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).

During the era of the Tabi’een, many people used to go to Makkah for Hajj. The Khalifa of the time would make the following announcement: “No one is to pass a Fatwa except these two Imams, Hadhrat Ata ibn Abi Rabaah and Hadhrat Mujahid.” Thousands of the Fatawa passed by these two appear with no proofs mentioned with these rulings. All the Tabi’een and the Tabe Tabi’een used to practice upon these rulings without any objection or question.

During the era of the Tabi’een, different areas were following different schools.

In Makkah, it was the school Hadhrat Ata bin Abi Rabaah

In Madinah, it was the school of Nafi Mawla of ibn Umar

In Basra, it was the school of Hassan al Basri

In Kufa, it was the school of Ibrahim an-Nakha’i

In Yemen, it was the school of Tawus

In Yamamah, it was the school of Yahya ibn Abi Katheer

In Sham, it was the school of Makhool

In Iraq, it was the school of Maymoon bin Mehran

In Khurasaan, it was the school of Dahaak

In every city, the people would follow that particular school and on many occasions without any proof.

All this was before the four Imams.

This does not mean the Hadith was not there or the information was not gathered.

So to put it all together and answer the query of who the Companions followed:

The Sahabah followed the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and took from the Qur’an & Sunnah Directly and so too did the four Mujtahid Imams.

….Allah says in the Quran “In the Sight of Allah only Islam is accepted [Sura 13/ Verse 9].

The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) left behind the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and the Sahabah, who were living examples of Islam, with whom Allah is happy with. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “hold fast to my Sunnat and the Sunnat of the Khulafa e Rashideen” [Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, ibn Majah etc]. He also said “My Sahaba are like Stars, whomsoever you follow, you will be rightly guided” [Mishkat].

Islam Began to Spread far & wide, thus 2 periods past, the period of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and the period of the Sahabah. During the latter time of the Sahabah, Imam Abu Hanifa (rahimahullah) grew up and met some Sahabah also. In this era, the complitaion of jurisprudence, the systematic settings of laws, rules, regulations on every subject of Deen, the arguments of jurisprudic principles were codified (later completed by his Students & other Imams of Fiqh). The delibration of every aspect of life, be it, political, social, economical took place. All this was done in the light of Qur’an and Sunnah (Because the Sahabah and Tabi’een were daily narrating Hadith & reading the Qur’an. This was not done from heresay or from the air, or by following whims and desires like they are accused of doing). In the time of Imam Abu Hanifa, a group of 40 Chosen, top ranking Ulama would discuss, delibrate and contemplate each law, rule and regulation before it was noted in registers. Delibration from every angle would take place before it was noted. Hence approximately 1.3 million masa’il were listed. (1,300,000) (we are not in the position to take out the strongest opinion, no matter which scholar tries, they are not of the calibre)

The other great Imams of fiqh followed, then the Imams of Hadith began their tremendous and marvellous task of complitaion and codification of the Hadith.

We have now completed 4 periods:

1. The era of The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),
2. The era of the Sahabah,
3. The era of the Imams of Fiqh,
4. The Imams of Hadith.

Thus, The Quran & Sunnat came first followed by the schools of thought which explained the Sunnah in detail, then the compilation of the Hadith.

There were many Imams of Fiqh but only four survived. These four reached us because, they were codified properly and they had students prepared to continue the transmission of the four schools and finally because Allah desired so. The four schools contain the entire life of our Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).

Muslims are supposed to seek the truth, you name me one scholar in the last 1000 years that was capable of making his own Ijtihad after observing and studying all the schools with all the evidence they have provided do you even think they can pull out the strongest opinion to fit around the other rulings they had passed. Some of them differed in their opinions, but they all had valid reasons. Each ruling they had passed was in conjunction with another rule for that subject, for each school, every thing fits in perfectly. The Greatest Scholars of Islam have already done all this work for us. There are no new Hadith that will come. There is no need to reinvent the wheel. The deen is perfect. There is no need for people to start giving absurd views and start misleading people. It is unbelievable that sometimes even something that is commen sense, others would like to prove them wrong.

The Imams had eye-witnessed the actions of the Senior Tabi’een (Imam Abu Hanifa saw some of the Sahaba), these Tabi’een were not fools to follow their own desires, they followed the Sahabah who followed The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).

Why Follow 1 Imam?

This Fatwa by Shaykh Uthaymeen was posted on a forum from which I have cut & pasted it.

Important advice for the student of knowledge from Imam Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen

Praise be to Allah.
It is good if a person focuses on one shaikh and makes him his main source, especially if he is a young beginner, for if the young beginner seeks knowledge from a number of people he will be confused. For people are not all of one opinion, especially nowadays. In the past, here in the Kingdom (Saudi Arabia) people never deviated from [the books] al-Iqna’ [Book of Hanbali Fiqh by Al-Buhuti] and al-Muntaha [Book of Hanbali fiqh by Mar’i bin Yusuf], so their fatawa were all the same and the bases of their fatawa were all the same; no one differed from another, except in his delivery and style. But now, everyone who has memorized a hadith or two says, “I am the Imam to be followed. Imam Ahmad was a man and we are men.” So now there is chaos. Everyone is issuing fatawa and sometimes you hear fatawa from these people which make you weep and laugh at the same time. I was thinking of recording these fatawa, but I was afraid that this might make me one of those who seek out their faults of their brothers, so I did not do it lest we transmit things that are as far from the truth as the earth is from the Pleiades.

I say: adhering to one scholar is very important when the seeker of knowledge is just starting out, so that he will not be confused. Hence our scholars forbade us to read al-Mughni and Sharh al-Muhadhdhab and other books which contain numerous opinions when we were starting out. One of our scholars told us that Shaykh ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd Rahman Babiteen (May Allah have mercy on him), who was one of the great scholars of Najd, only read al-Rawd al-Murabba’ [Book of Hanbali Fiqh by Al-Buhuti] and never read anything else. He read it repeatedly but he discussed it in great detail and in great depth.

If a person has gained a great deal of knowledge, then he should look at the views of the scholars so as to benefit from them in both academic and practical terms. But when one is just starting out, my advice is to focus on one particular scholar and not go to anyone else.
[From Fatawa al-Shaikh Muhammad ibn Salih al-‘Uthaymeen, Kitab al-‘Ilm, page # 107]

ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﻪ
ﻫﺬﺍ ﺟﻴﺪ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺋﺦ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ , ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻧﺎﺱ ﺗﺬﺑﺬﺏ , ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻟﻴﺴﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ , ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺨﺮﺟﻮﻥ ﺃﺑﺪﺍً ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻬﻰ ؛ ﻓﺘﺠﺪ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﺍﻫﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ , ﻭﺷﺮﻭﺣﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ , ﻻ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﻭﺣﺴﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ , ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺎً ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎً ﺃﻭ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ : ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺪﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻭﻧﺤﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ , ﻓﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻓﻮﺿﻰ , ﺻﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﻔﺘﻲ , ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎً ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﺒﻜﻲ ﻭﺗﻀﺤﻚ ﻭﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻫﻢَّ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺩﻭَّﻥ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺧﺸﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ ﻣﻤﻦ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﻋﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﺧﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻓﺘﺮﻛﺘﻪ ﺗﺤﺎﺷﻴﻨﺎً ﻣﻨﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻧﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺑُﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻳﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻯ .
ﻓﺄﻗﻮﻝ : ﻣﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍً ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺬﺑﺬﺏ , ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺋﺨﻨﺎ ﻳﻨﻬﻮﻧﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﻲ ﻭﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺬﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ , ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺸﺎﺋﺨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻄﻴﻦ ـ ﺭﺣﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ـ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﺋﺦ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺫﻛﺮﻭﺍ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻜﺒَّﺎً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺑﻊ ﻻ ﻳﻄﺎﻟﻊ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ ﻭﻳﻜﺮﺭﻩ , ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻛﺮﺭﻩ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺄﺧﺬﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻮﻕ ﻭﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﺤﺼﻞ ﺧﻴﺮ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ .
ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﺖ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ , ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻧﺼﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻴﺦ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﺍﻩ .
ﻣﻦ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻴﻤﻴﻦ , ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ , ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ # 107
[END OF FATWAA]

So There you have it. The Sahaba followed the Imams of their own time and this continued until all the rules were deduced and recorded for all to follow one codified Islam. This gave birth to the four great Imams.

Even the Great Hadith Scholars followed a codified Islam as layed out by the four schools of thoughts. If they followed a school, then what chance have we got in trying to find the strongest opinion. No Chance….

These people think they are very clever with their stupid questions and think they are capable of seeking out the truth for themselves. Well good luck to them as they will going round in circles only to find that their own scholars and their scholars’ scholars were following a school of thought.

Shaytan works in strange ways and some times his job becomes so easy he just has to sit back and relax.

Stick to one of the schools, you can’t go wrong, In sha Allah. Don’t pick & chose the Masa’il from different schools, you will end up living a life of Sin.

The Authority of Hadeeth, Ijma’, Qiyaas etc and their rejection by the Deviant Sects [Part 2]

For Part 1, click here➡The Authority of Hadeeth, Ijma’, Qiyaas etc and their rejection by the Deviant Sects

The Difference between Hadeeth and Sunnah

The meaning of and 4 things that constitute Hadeeth

4 things make up Hadeeth

1. The Aqwaal (sayings) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

2. The Af’aal (actions) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

3. The Taqreer i.e if a Sahaabi did something in the presence of Nabi υ and he did not express displeasure or prevent him. (consent) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

4. The physical traits and habits of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

The meaning of Sunnah

And  Sunnat  means:  At-Tareeqatul  Maslookah  fid  Deen  –  The followed path in Deen.

The  Nisbat  (link)  between  Hadeeth  and  Sunnah  is  Aam-Khaas  min Wajhin.

i.e.  they  are  similar  (Muttafiq)  in  one  way  and  different  (Muftariq) in two ways:

Maaddatul  Iftiraaq  (differences)  are  two:

1.  Those  Ahaadeeth  which  deal  with  the  Khaasiyaat (specialities)  of  the  Nabi  e.g.  marrying  more  than  4  wives. This  is  Hadeeth  but  not  Sunnah.

2.  Those  things  which  were  implemented  by  the  4  Khaleefahs. These  will  be  Sunnah  even  if  there  is  no  Hadeeth  in  support of  it  e.g.  the  2nd  Azaan  for  Jumu’ah  which  was  implemented by  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu)

The Sunnats of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu):

Like  this,  there  are  3  Masaa’il  which  came  about  in  the  time  of  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu) when  two  groups  of  Muslims  fight  against  each  other:

1. Regarding  those  who  are  killed:  will  they  go  to  Jannat  or Jahannum;

2. Will  the  goods  of  the  defeated  party  be  treated  as  Ghaneemat (spoils  of  war);

3. Will  the  captives  be  treated  as  slaves;

4.  The  answers  to  these  3  Masaa’il  were  stipulated  by  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu). This is Sunnah even though there is no ‘Hadeeth’.

The  Battle  of  Jamal  was  fought  between  Ali  and  Aa’ishah’s (radhiyallahu anhuma) parties. Ali’s (radhiyallahu anhi)  group  was  victorious.  Questions  2  and  3  came  up.  Some Muslims  wanted  to  take  the  spoils  as  theirs.  Ali (radhiyallahu amhu) said:  “Which wretched  person  will  take  Aa’ishah (radhiyallahu anha)  as  a  slave?  There  is  no  booty, nor  any  slavery!”  So  all  the  prisoners  were  set  free  and  all  the  goods of the Shuhadaa (martyrs) was returned to their families.

Then  the  Battle  of  Siffeen  came  along  between  Ali  and Mu’aawaiyah (radhiyallahu anhuma).  Some  people  raised  the  first  question.  Ali  said: “ours and theirs are in Jannah

This  is  such  a  Mas’alah  that  no  one  could  have  solved  since  no Hadeeth  was  present,  nor  anything  similar  by  which  a  Shari’  analogy could have been extracted (Qiyaas).

Ignorant  people  (the noisy ‘La Madh-habi’s)  generally  make  a  huge  noise  about the  2nd  Azaan  and  the  Rak’ats  of  Taraweeh.  We  have  presented  the Sunnah  of  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) here  because  their  knowledge  has  not  yet  reached this  level.  When  they  come  to  know  about  this,  they  will  have  an extra Mas’alah to shout about.

The  basic  point  is  that  the  decrees  (Fatwahs)  and  rulings  of  the Khulafaa e Raashideen  are  accepted  as  Sunnah  by  the  Muslims  even if  perchance  there  is  no  Hadeeth  in  support  thereof.  This  has  always been  the  standpoint  of  the  Ahlus  Sunnah  till  the  emergence  of  this group. 

We  will  discuss  the  name  ‘Ahlus  Sunnah  wal  Jama’ah’  shortly In shaa’Allaah  –  suffice  for  now  that  we  are  Ahlus  Sunnah  not  Ahle Hadeeth.        

The  Similarity  between  Hadeeth  and  Sunnah (Maaddatul Ijtimaa’):

Those  Ahaadeeth  which  are  accepted  as  Ma’mool  Bihaa  (practiced upon)  and  are  not  Mansookh  (abrogated)  or  Khaas  (special)  are  also Sunnah.

We  accept  all  the  Ahaadeeth  in  this  category  and  we  practice  upon them. We also follow the Sunnah of the Sahaabah

Being  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  is  not  good  enough  for  two  reasons:

1.  Hadeeth  includes  Mansookh  and  Khaas  matters.  It  is  not correct  to  practice  on  this  even  though  it  is  Hadeeth.  e.g. Marrying  more  than  four  and  temporary  Nikaah  –  both  these are  Baatil.

2.  Hadeeth  does  not  cover  the  Sunnah  of  the  Khulafaa.  For  this reason  the  Salafis  are  in  Dhalaalat  (error).  We  have  been clearly  commanded  to  follow  the  Sunnat  of  the  Khulafaa  in Hadeeth  just  as  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  the  Sunnah in the Qur’aan!   

The  ‘Ahle  Quraan’  rejects  Sunnah.  The  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  also  reject  it in practice yet when confronted, neither of them will admit to it. 

This  is  the  deception  of  the  Ghair  Muqallid/  Salafi/  Ahle  Hadeeth sect.

A Challenge:

We  place  a  challenge  to  all  the  self-styled  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth  –  present a  single  Hadeeth  where  we  have  been  commanded  to  follow  the Hadeeth. Hadeeth is a technical term, an academic classification.

In  the  Hadeeth,  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  the  Sunnah:  The Sunnah  of  the  Rasul  everyone  accepts  –  we  have  been  clearly ordered  by  the  Rasul  himself,  in  a  Saheeh  Hadeeth  to  follow  the Sunnah of the Khulafa as well and this too, with no distinction!

In  our  discussion,  this  is  the  matter  that  separates  the  truth  from falsehood.  We  follow  Hadeeth  –  they  claim  to  follow  Hadeeth.  A claim  that  is  

a)  false  and  

b)  deceptive.

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said: “You  must  follow  my  Sunnah and  the  Sunnah of  the  rightly guided  Khulafaa!  Hold  firmly  onto  it  and  grip  it  with  your teeth!”

In  another  Hadeeth  He  said:

Whoever  holds  on  to  my  Sunnah  during the time of evil…

And:

I  am  leaving  behind  two  things.  You  will  never  go  astray  so long  as  you  hold  on  to  them:  The  Kitaab  of  Allaah  and  my Sunnah

There  are  great  virtues  for  memorizing  Hadeeth  and  passing  it  on  to others  –  But  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  Sunnah.

The Sunnats of Abu Bakr (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

So  we  have  touched  on  the  Sunnah  of  the  other  Khulafaa. Sayyidinaa  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) has  also  given  us  certain  Sunnahs.  In  fact  He was  the  first  to  present  certain  Sunnahs  (since  he  was  the  first Khaleefah). 

If  any  townspeople  collectively  leave  out  any  important  command of  Islaam  (e.g.  Zakaat),  the  Ameer  can  wage  Jihaad  against  them. When  one  group  refused  to  pay  Zakaat,  He  said:  “If  they  with  hold even  one  piece  of  string  which  they  used  to  pay  in  the  time  of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  I  will  fight  them!”  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  did  not  understand  this verdict.  He  felt  that  there  were  more  pressing  matters  like  dealing with the renegades and the threat against Madinah itself. 

This  was  a  very  important  decision  taken  by  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu).  The  entire stability of the Muslim nation depends on it. 

He  named  a  successor  (i.e.  Umar radhiyallahu anhu)  He  wrote  an  order  to  this  effect, and  then  told  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu)  to  gather  the  Muslims  in  the  Masjid  and take Bay’at on Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu) hand. The Sahaabah accepted this. 

These  were  two  Masaa’il  which  only  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) could  have  enacted, because  this  was  the  era  of  the  Sahaabah.  They  were  people  of understanding  and  Ita’at  (obedience).  The  very  next  generation  was one  of  turmoil.  That  is  why  we  see  that  in  the  period  of  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu) and  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu),  non-Sahaabah  created  great  anarchy.  They  were  not prepared to accept the decisions of the Khaleefah

A  person  once  asked  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu)  why  the  first  2  eras  were  of  unity  and peace  while  the  2nd  two  were  of  turmoil  and  strife.  He  said: “Because  of  the  change  in  Ra’iyyat  (the  general  public)”  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) led  people  like  Ali,  Uthmaan,  Abu  Ubaidah  and  the  others (radhiyallahu anhum).  The latter  period  saw  a  death  of  men.        
The name: Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah:

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said  that  the  Yahood  and  Nasaara  were  split  into  71 and  72  sects…  and  that  this  Ummat  will  be  split  into  73  –  all  of them  but  one  will  enter  Hell.  On  being  asked  who  they  were,  he said:  

Maa  Ana Alaihi  wa  Ashaabee” “Those who follow the path that I am on and my Sahaabah

My Path: this is the Sunnah

My  Sahaabah:  this  is  Al-Jamaa’ah.  From  this  comes  the  Ijmaa’ (consensus of the Mu’mineen)

Ibn Taymiyyah has supported this in “Minhaajus Sunnah” 

The  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  scholar  Nawaab  Waheeduz  Zamaan  in  “Nazlul Abraar”  has  also  affirmed  it.

The  group  who  are  on  Haqq  (truth)  and  that  will  gain  Najaat (salvation)  are  those  who  follow  the  Sunnah  and  accept  the  Ijmaa’ of  the  Ummat.

The 3 Usools of Deen:

The  3  principle  sources  of  Sharee’at  are:  The  Kitaab  of  Allaah;  the Sunnah; Ijmaa’.

The  fourth  Usool  is:  Qiyaas  (analogical  reasoning)  based  on  these three Usools.

The  Masaadirul  Asliyyah  (principle  sources)  are  3.  Qiyaas  is  the  4th (source) but it is not in the category of the first 3.

Qiyaas  is  Muzhir  (makes  apparent  the  hidden)  of  Sharee’at  not Muthbit  (proof  of  itself)  of  Sharee’at  i.e.  Qiyaas  is  a  means  of understanding  the  laws  of  Sharee’at  from  Qur’aan,  Sunnah  and Ijmaa’.  Qiyaas  is  not  used  to  create  laws  of  its  own  type  in  conflict of  the  3  UsoolsQiyaas  is  not  contradictory  to  them.  

Ijmaa’ is also linked to Qur’aan and Hadeeth 

These  are  now  the  4  Usools  of  Deen.  The  first  3  are  on  a  higher level.  Qiyaas  is  of  a  ‘lower’  level.  But  all  4  are  interlinked.  Deen  is the  command  of  Allaah  –  Allaah  is  the  Shaari’  (The  one  who revealed  Sharee’at).  This  Sharee’at  is  manifested  through  these Usools.  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) expounded  the  commands  of  Allah.  He conveyed  and  taught  them  to  us  in  full.  He  did  not  alter  them  in  any way  or  present  anything  on  his  own  account  [Na’oodhu  Billah].  The Sahaabah then conveyed this to us. 

Their  Ijmaa’  strengthened  the  foundation  of  Islaam  and  protected  it from  being  tampered.  They  did  not  alter  anything.  This  is  how  Deen was  established  on  a  firm  –  watertight  –  tamper-proof  foundation. The  A’immah  then  codified  it  to  its  finest  detail  through  Ijtihaad and  Qiyaas.  They  did  not  alter  Deen  or  present  anything  of  their own. This completed the matter. 

The  Shee’ahs  tried  to  alter  Deen.  The  Khawaarij  tried  to  alter  Deen. The Mu’tazilah tried.

Many  groups  have  come  and  gone.  ‘Kulluhum  fin  Naar’  –  All  are  in Hell. They are not part of us. 

Then  the  ‘Ahle  Qur’aan’;  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’;  ‘Ghair  Muqallid’; ‘Salafi’;  ‘Maudoodi’  etc.  sprang  up.  They  changed  things.  They created  confusion.  Some  of  them  went  very  far  –  right  out  of  the fold  of  Islaam;  others  will  be  classed  as  Muslim  but  not  part  of  the Ahlus  Sunnah.  Some  on  something,  others  on  something  else… All of this is nothing but Dhalaalat (waywardness) and confusion.

We  have  a  straight,  clear  road.  Our  Deen  has  come  to  us  generation by  generation  from  the  best  of  people  from  every  age.  May  Allaah keep  us  on  this  and  raise  us  on  this.

All Ahaadeeth are linked to Qur’aan:

Hadhrat  Abdullaah  ibn  Mas’ood  (radhiyallahu anhu) once,  while  delivering  a  sermon, mentioned  a  Hadeeth  that  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  cursed  the  person  who lengthens  her  hair  by  joining  other  hair  to  hers  as  well  as  the  person who  carries  this  out.  He  also  cursed  the  tattooer  and  the  person  who gets  himself  tattooed…

After  the  sermon,  a  woman  said  to  him:  “You  narrate  Ahaadeeth about such matters that we find no mention of in the Qur’aan.” 

He  said  to  her:  “If  you  recited  the  Qur’aan,  you  would  have  foundTake  that  which  the  Rasul  gives  you  and  abstain  from  all  that  he has  prohibited  you’”  [Surah  Hashr].      

Ijmaa’  (consensus  of  opinion)  is  also  linked  to Hadeeth and Qur’aan

Ijmaa’  has  to  be  Mustanad  (based  on  something  in  Qur’aan  or Hadeeth).  The  question  then  arises  that  what  is  the  need  for  Ijmaa’ then, when the Qur’aan and Hadeeth are there??

The  answer  is  that  sometimes  the  Aayat  or  Hadeeth  only  makes Ishaarah  (an  indication)  to  the  matter.  Ijmaa’  makes  it  clear.  Ijmaa’ is a Hujjate Qat’i (a definite proof) in Deen.

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  did  not  nominate  a  successor.  In  his  last  days,  He appointed  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  the  Imaam  for  14  days!  After  his  demise, the  Ansaar  met  at  Saqeefah  Bani  Saa’idah.  They  proposed  two Ameers  –  one  from  the  Ansaar  and  one  from  the  Muhaajireen.  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  said  that  this  is  the  person  who  the  Rasul  of  Allaah  appointed  as Imaam  in  his  lifetime.  All  the  Sahaabah  then  took  Bay’at  to  him. This is the 1st Ijmaa’ of this Ummat.

Abu  Bakr’s (radhiyallahu anhi)  appointment  as  Imaam  was  an  Ishaarah  (indication). Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu) understanding  this  as  appointment  as  Khaleefah  was Istidlaal  or  Qiyaas  (extracting  a  proof/  deeper  reasoning). Sahaabah’s unanimously accepting it was Ijmaa’.

Ijmaa’  is  a  Hujjate  Qat’i.  An  absolute  proof.  To  oppose  it  is Dhalaalat  (misguidance).  If  anyone  rejects  the  Khilaafat  of  Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu),  one  will  be  in  the  wrong.

Similar  is  the  case  with  20  Rak’ats  of  Taraweeh.

How Qiyaas is linked to the 3 Usools

The  example  of  Qiyaas  is  like  3  huge  pots  of  steaming  food.  A person cannot take this food out by hand. He needs a big spoon. 

Like  this,  you  have  Qur’aan,  Hadeeth  and  Ijmaa’.  To  extract  the Masaa’il  (laws)  of  Deen,  the  Imaams  use  Qiyaas.  Call  it  Qiyaas  or Ijtihaad,  it  is  the  same  thing.  The  Qiyaas  of  the  Imaams,  contrary  to the  propaganda  of  the  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  is  not  personal  opinion  or reasoning  in  the  matters  of  Deen.  The  Imaams  were  people  of Allaah and were far beyond such evil.

So  now  we  have  proven  these  four  Usools  of  Deen.  The  Madh-hab of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah is based on this.

Let  us  conclude  with  the  two  Aayats  that  we  began  with:

The  first  Aayah  (115  of  Surah  Nisaa)  has  been  discussed  in  detail in Part 1.

The  2nd  Aayah  is  from  (Surah  An-Nahl  Aayah  44) in Part 1

The proof of Qiyaas from Surah An-Nahl

The  Kuffaar  of  Makkah  objected  to  the  Risaalat  of  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). They  reasoned  that  if  Allaah  really  wanted  to  send  a  message,  He would  have  sent  an  angel  or  some  other  supernatural  being.  In  reply, this Aayat was revealed. 

Throughout  history,  Allaah  had  sent  messengers.  All  of  them  were human  men.  No  Nabi  was  a  female  and  no  angel  was  ever  sent  for this purpose.

Allaah  Says:

“…and  We have revealed  the  Reminder  (Qur’aan)  to  you,  so that  you  may  explain  to  the  people  all  that  has  been  revealed  to them, and so that they may reflect.

The  Qur’aan  is  Allaah’s  message  to  mankind.  Allaah  has  the  power to  do  anything  He  wills.  Yet  Allaah,  by  His  wisdom,  takes  the temperament  of  man  into  account.  For  this  reason,  Allaah  did  not send  the  Qur’aan  directly.  He  sent  it  with  His  Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  so  that  the Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) can  explain  it  to  them.  He  can  guide  them  and  assist  them. They can relate to the Nabi since the Nabi is a human among them. 

A  human  cannot  relate  to  an  Angel  or  to  any  other  supernatural being.  Allaah  took  man’s  weakness  into  account  and  sent  a  Nabi.  The actions and commands of the Nabi are an exposition of the Qur’aan. 

This  is  Hadeeth.  So  in  this  Aayah,  the  Hujjiyyat  of  the  Qur’aan  and Hadeeth  has  been  established.  Ijma’  has  not  been  mentioned  here. Ijmaa’ has been mentioned in the other Aayah.

Then  Allaah  says:  “…so  that  they  may  reflect” i.e.  so  that  they  may  ponder  on  the  deep  meanings  of  the  Qur’aan and  as  and  when  the  need  or  situation  arises,  they  may  seek guidance  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadeeth.  In  their  respective  periods, the  Khulafaae  Raashideen  extracted  guidance  in  this  way.  Then  in every  age,  the  Fuqahaa  have  extracted  and  will  extract  guidance  like this. 

Whenever  any  new  Mas’alah  arises,  the  Ulamaa  will  show  the  right path through Qur’aan and Sunnah

Daily  we  are  faced  with  new  questions  –  in  the  business  field,  in  the field  of  commerce  and  medicine.  As  technology  advances,  the Muslim  is  faced  with  new  conditions.  Hidaayat  (guidance)  through all of this is in Deen. The Ulamaa will show the way. 

The  work  of  the  Ulamaa  in  these  instances  is  through  Ijtihaad  and Qiyaas. There is no avoiding it. 

Here  the  big  question  arises  as  to  who  has  the  right  of  Ijtihaad  and Qiyaas.  Every  common  layman  will  not  have  the  right  to  voice  his feeling.  This  is  ‘self-opinion’,  which  is  Haraam  in  Deen.  This  is  a topic of its own.

The  last  part  off  this  verse  is  the  proof  for  Qiyaas. One  cannot  avoid  Qiyaas.  The  ‘Ghair  Muqallids’  of  our  belated  age are  allergic  to  the  word  Qiyaas.  But  just  as  in  the  Mas’alah  of Taqleed,  here  too  they  are  even  more  ‘guilty’  of  Qiyaas  than  us.  We follow  set  rules  in  Qiyaas.  They  are  free  thinkers  –  without studying  the  Usools  of  Qiyaas,  they  go  about  it.  They  have  thrown the  flood  gates  open.  All  and  sundry  are  allowed  to  decide  for themselves  what  they  wish.  They  bring  loads  of  the  strangest  types of Istimbaat (deductions) and Qiyaas.

The  safest  route  for  all  today  is  that  of  the  pious  people  gone  by. Every  new  matter  in  Deen  is  as  dangerous  as  it  is  misleading.  May Allaah protect all of us in these trying times.