Category Archives: True Sufism/ Tasawwuf


by Shaykh Muhammad Shareef bin Farid

Allah Ta`ala says on the tongues of His prophets:

ﻭَﻣَﺎ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻨَﺎ ﺇِﻟَّﺎ ﺑَﻠَﺎﻍٌ ﻣُﺒِﻴْﻦٌ

“…and the only obligation upon us is to deliver a clear message.”

It has been related by at-Tirmidhi, and al-Haakim verified its soundness that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said:

“Whoever is asked about some knowledge and he conceals it, Allah will bridle him with a bridle of fire on the Day of Judgment.”

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abd’r-Rahman said in his Tuhfat’l-Ahwadhi about the meaning of the above tradition:

“His saying: ‘Whoever is asked about some knowledge’, means knowledge which the one questioning is in need of in the affairs of his religion. This includes all of the sciences of the individual obligations, such as: determining pure water, purification, prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage, marriage, etc, as well as the prohibitions.

His saying: ‘and he conceals it’, means by failing to answer, or by neglecting to put it in writing. This supports the idea that recording religious knowledge using diverse media is a collective obligation for the Umma and an individual obligation for the scholars.

His saying: ‘Allah will bridle him’, means a bridle will be entered into his mouth because the mouth is the conduit of knowledge and speech.”

Thus, the punishment is not only physical and corporeal, it is also symbolic. However the punishment in the Hereafter will be horrendous because this individual would have spent his/her entire life learning knowledge; and on the Day of Judgment when their knowledge will best benefit them; their mouths will be sealed and shut with a bridle of fire.

Imam at-Taybi said:
“The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace makes that which is placed in the mouth from fire to resemble a bridle placed in the mouth of a beast of burden. This meaning suffices since the scholar was content to bridle himself with silence. He also makes the person resemble an animal that has been subjugated and prevented from reaching his objectives in what he desires. The reason for this is that the affair of the scholars is to invite humanity to the truth.”

This is the profession of the scholar and religious jurists who inherit this role from the Prophets, upon them be peace. When professionals abandon their professions then the harmony and well-being of society is thrown off balance. In western societies learning is associated with something marketable. In the learned circles of Islamic Africa, learning was an act of worship, and service to Allah, humanity and existence.

Ibn Hajr said: “One of the objectives in learning knowledge is in order to disseminate it and bring advantage to humanity. However, concealing knowledge negates this pure purpose and makes the person cut off from the appearance of the scholars and wise men.”

In a sense, this is an argument that education in a society should be free from elementary, secondary to tertiary. By unfettering learning from the markets, it allows those who have received learning to research, discover, develop and teach others for the benefit and advantage of humanity and the environment and not as if knowledge were a commodity. In another sense, making learning a marketable commodity where it can only be attained by those who can afford it, can be considered a form of concealment of knowledge as well.

The legal judgments that can be extracted from this prophetic tradition are both restricted
(muqayyid) and general (`aam) and allow for the emergence of legal differences among the jurists. These differences emerge around the meaning of the key word in the above prophetic tradition – KNOWLEDGE.

The meaning of the prophetic tradition is general if you define knowledge as those sciences which are an obligation upon every individual to learn. In that case whoever conceals this knowledge when asked has acted unjustly with his/her learning and has acted unjustly towards those from whom he/she concealed this knowledge.

This was corroborated by Imam as-Sayyid who said:
“This prophetic tradition refers to the knowledge that is necessary to learn, like teaching the disbelievers the reality of Islam, the methodology of the prayer; as well as giving legal decisions in what is permissible and prohibited. Thus, in these affairs it is incumbent to give an answer, but not in the science considered superogatory and those sciences not essentially necessary.”

As-Sayyid clearly shows that there is a level of knowledge which should be concealed, at least from those undeserving of it, in intellectual capacity or in moral/ethical capacity. It is for this reason that one of my teachers in Martial Arts informed me at the outset, as he was informed by his teacher before him:

“If you use this art to harm another, act unjustly or oppress others, then I will kill you.”

It is the same principle that I apply when taking new MARTIAL ARTS students as well. That is an extreme example, nevertheless, it indicates that there are some sciences and levels of knowledge which must be concealed and only transmitted to those who are deserving of it intellectually, morally or spiritually.

However, all sciences which are of general benefit to the whole of humanity and the environments in which we live, then those sciences should never be concealed from the people. In fact, soe Muslim jurists believe that it becomes an obligation for the society as a whole, a collective to archive, preserve, conserve and inter-generationally transmit certain sciences to the people.

This is verified by what was related in the Saheeh of al-Bukhari, that Umar ibn Abd’l-`Azeez wrote to Abu Bakr ibn Hizaam:

“Examine what is with you from the prophetic traditions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and transcribe them; for I fear the elimination of knowledge and the loss of the scholars.”

The elimination of knowledge and the loss of the scholars, if you will recall, are both among the seventy-two signs of the End of Time. Yet, we have an Amir al-Mu’mineen, legislating or giving an executive order for his officials to develop the industry designed to protect the society from these Signs.

Clearly, the transmission of the prophetic traditions and their recordings were seen as a societal obligation, and not to do so could be seen as a form of concealing a necessary message.

Like the Martial Arts, which should never be taught to brigands, rogues, or criminals, there are many other sciences which should be concealed and only taught to those who have the intellectual and moral capacity to understand and use them. Some of these sciences are elemental such as medicine, the science of disposal, astronomy, engineering; while others are spiritual and can only be given to those who are spiritually prepared.
An example of this is what Shaykh Abd’l-Qaadir Dan Tafa said in his al-`Uhuud wa’l-Mawaathiq:

“I have taken and oath and covenant not to invite anyone from the people to what I have learned from the philosophical and elemental sciences; even though I took these sciences in a sound manner, rejecting from that what is in these sciences of errors. Along with that, I will not teach these sciences to anyone in order that they may not be led astray; and errors will thus revert back to me, may Allah protect me. On the contrary, I will invite them to sound legitimate knowledge, the Qur’an, the Sunna, jurisprudence and spiritual purification.”

Later in the same text Shaykh Dan Tafa said:
“I have taken an oath and covenant to keep secret what is with me from the sciences of the spiritual realities and secrets and to conceal my works regarding these. This is because these sciences are an exalted class of sciences for the spiritually elite and are only designated for those who are spiritually prepared from among the People of Allah.”

This form of concealment of knowledge is obligatory in one sense, highly recommended in one sense, reprehensible in one sense, and forbidden in another. It is obligatory to conceal this knowledge from those who are diametrically opposed to it. It is highly recommended to conceal it from those are not of its People. It is reprehensible to conceal it from its People. It is forbidden to conceal it from those sages and believers who deserve it.

al-Uhuud wa ‘l-Mawaatheeq – the Book of Oaths and Covenants by Shaykh Abd’l-Qaadir Dan Tafa


[By Shaykh Muhammad Shareef bin Farid]

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful, may Allah send blessing upon our master Muhammad (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) his family and Companions and grant them abundant peace.

Among the most pervasive evils which Satan has caused to emerge on the tongues of those associated with Sufism in this post-modernist era is the false claim that a person can see Allah with the physical eyes. This pernicious claim is a denial of the Infallible Book of Allah and the Sunna of His infallible Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is also a denial of the consensus opinion of the scholars of Islam from the earliest times to the present.

You hear on the tongue of rank amateurs in the Path to Allah, and by those who have not even smelt the scent of the sound faith and knowledge, that Allah is the Manifest (Dhaahir) and the Hidden (Baatin) and that everything you see is none other than Him. We seek refuge with Allah Ta`ala from inventing lies against Him without authority (sultan) and from compounded ignorance.

These are ideas which these novices misread and extracted from the pages of the spiritually unveiled sages and incorrectly repeated them without having the least understanding of the true import of their words and wisdom. It is for this reason that prior to the age of the European Christians (zaman ‘n-nasaara), it was forbidden to induct into the Tareeqa anyone who had no completed the mastery of their individual obligations in knowledge (fard’l-ayyaan fee ‘l-`ilm).

Today, charlatan murshids & shaykhs and their charlatan mureeds induct any ignoramus into the Sufi path and expose them to advanced ideas on Divine Unity; who then speak on things about Allah which they have no true knowledge or guidance.

This false idea that claims that a person can see Allah Ta`ala with physical sight is categorically denied by the Book and the Sunna. Allah Ta`ala says:

ﻻَّ ﺗُﺪْﺭِﻛُﻪُ ﺍﻷَﺑْﺼَﺎﺭُ ﻭَﻫُﻮَ ﻳُﺪْﺭِﻙُ ﺍﻷَﺑْﺼَﺎﺭَ ﻭَﻫُﻮَ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻄِﻴﻒُ ﺍﻟْﺨَﺒِﻴﺮُ * ﻗَﺪْ ﺟَﺎﺀَﻛُﻢْ ﺑَﺼَﺎﺋِﺮٌ ﻣِﻦْ ﺭَّﺑِّﻜُﻢْ ﻓَﻤَﻦْ ﺃَﺑْﺼَﺮَ ﻓَﻠِﻨَﻔْﺴِﻪِ ﻭَﻣَﻦْ ﻋَﻤِﻲَ ﻓَﻌَﻠَﻴْﻬَﺎ ﻭَﻣَﺎ ﺃَﻧَﺎ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻜُﻢْ ﺑِﺤَﻔِﻴْﻆٍ

“He cannot be seen by vision, and He sees (all) vision; and He is the Subtlety Kind, the Aware. Indeed there have come to you clear insight from your Lord; whoever will therefore have insight, it will be for their own souls and whoever will be blind, it shall be against themselves; for I am not over you as a protector.” [6:103-104]

Shaykh Abdullahi Dan Fodio said in his Diya ‘t-Ta`weel fee Ma`ana ‘t-Tanzeel about the meaning of the above two verses: “He cannot be seen by vision’, means you cannot encompass Him in vision. This is the interpolation of the large majority of the scholars of the exegesis of the Quran (tafsir ‘l-jamhuur).

Or a second interpolation is that it means, that you cannot physically see Him in this life, because seeing Him is specific for the visions which the believers will have of Him in the Hereafter. This is based upon His words:

ﻭُﺟُﻮﻩٌ ﻳَﻮْﻣَﺌِﺬٍ ﻧَﺎﺿِﺮَﺓٌ ﺇَﻟَﻰ ﺭَﺑِّﻬِﺎَ ﻧَﺎﻇِﺮَﺓً

‘Faces on that Day will be gazing on their Lord in amazement’.

It has been related by the two Shaykhs, al-Bukhari and Muslim, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said:

ﺇِﻧَّﻜُﻢْ ﺳَﺘَﺮَﻭْﻥَ ﺭَﺑَّﻜُﻢْ ﻛَﻤَﺎ ﺗَﺮَﻭْﻥَ ﺍَﻟْﻘَﻤَﺮَ ﻟَﻴْﻠَﺔَ ﺍَﻟْﺒَﺪْﺭِ

“Indeed you will see your Lord, just as you see the moon on the night of the full moon.”

The phrase vision (absaar) is plural for sight (basar); which is a light lodged in the organ with which things are seen.

The concept of vision is applied unrestrictedly to the eyes, since it is the locus of sight.

The first interpolation is foremost and is what is intended based upon His words: ‘and He sees (all) vision‘; and means that His knowledge encompasses all visions, since He is the One who singled them out with vision. This means that He encompasses and sees the vision of the eyes; and not just the organ of sight.

This is explicit denial of anything besides Allah seeing or comprehending Him with physical or sensory vision.
Shaykh Abdullahi Dan Fodio said that the meaning of His words: ‘and He is the Subtle the Kind’, i.e., the Intimately Compassionate to His awliyya. This Divine Name ‘Lateef’ is from the etymological root ‘lutf’ (kindness) and follows the conjugation of the word ‘nusr’ (assistance).

The meaning of His words: ‘the Aware’, is that He is acutely aware of them. That is to say, that He, Allah cannot be seen by ocular vision because He is the Subtle the Kind; and yet He sees and encompasses all visions because He is the Acutely Aware.

The One who is Subtle, Kind (Lateef) is an indication that He can only be comprehended through spiritual unveiling (kashif), since He cannot be comprehended via sensory perception because there is no likeness to Him in the sensory. The sensory creation is not Allah Ta`ala.

It is other than Him and everything other than Him is in a constant state of fluctuation and annihilation. However, creation’s state of atrophy is an indication of its Creator who is Ever Living, Pre-Eternal and Eternally Continuous. This means that while creation cannot comprehend or see Allah via sensory perception, He can be comprehended through the inner vision and insight of the heart.

That is what the exalted Creator meant when He said on the tongue of our beloved Prophet: “Neither My heavens or My earth can encompass Me, but I am encompassed in the heart of the true believer.”

This truth was confirmed by Shaykh Abdullahi Dan Fodio when he said continuing his exegesis of the verses: “Then Allah Ta`ala: ‘say to them: ‘Indeed there have come to you clear insight from your Lord’, where the phrase ‘clear insight’ (basaa’ir) is plural for ‘baseera’, which is the vision given to the heart (qalb), like the sensory sight (basar) is given to the eyes (`ayn).

What this means is that Allah has made decisive evidences (dalaa’l qaati`a) as insight to the hearts giving evidence of the utmost extent of His Self-disclosure (jalaa’).”

His words: ‘whoever will therefore have insight’, means whoever will have inner insight of these evidences of His Self-disclosure, will come to truly believe in Him.

His words: ‘it will be for their own souls’, means that this Divine insight will increase them in insight, since its reward is increased insight of Him.
His words: ‘and whoever will be blind’, in his heart from comprehending the evidences in creation which indicate His existence; then ‘it shall be against themselves’, meaning that their error will return to them.

His words: ‘for I am not over you as a protector’, means that the Prophet, upon him be peace was not sent as a guardian of your deeds and actions. He is merely a warner. It is Allah who is the Protector (Hafeedh) of you through His preservation of your actions and deeds, and His sanctioning of them. Or it means that he, the Prophet, is unable to defend you from what Allah desires with you.”

The gnostic sage Imam al-Alusi, may Allah be merciful to him, said in his monumental exegesis of the Quran regarding His words:

“He cannot be seen by vision’ where the phrase ‘absaar’ is plural for ‘basar’ (sight); and is used unrestrictedly to refer to the organ of sight (jaarihat naadhira) and refers to the strength of vision that is in the eyes; as well inner vision itself, since it is the strength of comprehension of the heart (quwwat ‘l-qalb). Comprehension (idraak) of a thing means attaining understanding of its fullest extent and having encompassment of that thing.

The majority of the scholars of scholastic theology assert that the meaning of sight (basar) in this Quranic verse refers to the sensory organ of sight since it is the locus for the strength of vision. It is said that this reference is an indication of that and of the illusions and understanding; as Amir ‘l-Mu’mineen Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah ennoble his face said:
“Genuine Divine Unity is that you not have any false illusions about Him.” He also said: “Everything that can be comprehended and understood, by the senses, He is other than that.”

It has been related by Ibn Jareer on the authority of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him who said that the words of Allah:

“He cannot be seen by vision” means that the sensory vision of nothing or no-one can encompass Allah Ta`ala.”

Some of the scholars assert that even in the Hereafter, Allah will not be seen by sensory perception but through a new form of ‘seeing’ which Allah Ta`ala will create as a sense perception for the believers in the hereafter.

This is confirmed by what, the Imam of the Taabi`, Daraar ibn `Amr al-Kufi said: “Indeed Allah will not be seen with the sensory eyes, but He will be seen by a sixth sense which He Subhannahu will create for them on the Day of Judgement.”

These are the illuminated ideas regarding this subject from the words of the best of early communities of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. This is evidence that any Muslim, especially, a Sufi who claims that Allah can be seen by the eyes in the outward and that Allah is everything witnessed in existence, has strayed far from the Straight Path.
This is the same for those who claim that Allah is “all-in-all”, or that Allah is all Black people; and other than these from fallacious ideas which emerge from this central falsehood of the sensory vision of Allah in this existence.
As for the ideas of the masters of the Sufis regarding the sensory vision of Allah in this life and in apparent existence; they too, categorically deny this claim in the most eloquent elucidations after whose words nothing else need be said.

The SULTAN of the AWLIYYA our spiritual master, Muyh’d-Deen Abd’l-Qaadir al-Jaylani said about the meaning of these words of Allah:

“He cannot be seen by vision, and He sees (all) vision; and He is the Subtlety Kind, the Aware. Indeed there have come to you clear insight from your Lord; whoever will therefore have insight, it will be for their own souls and whoever will be blind, it shall be against themselves; for I am not over you as a protector.”

“Indeed it is so, that ‘He cannot be seen,’ due to the extreme degree of His Self-manifestation (dhuhuur) and the Self disclosure (jalaa’). He cannot be seen: ‘by vision’, due solely to the deficiency in ocular sensory vision perceiving His Immense Light; ‘and’, further, how can physical sensory vision see Him; when, ‘He, with His Essence, ‘sees’, i.e. perceives. ‘(all) vision’?

For the One that sees all vision cannot be seen by physical ocular vision; ‘and’, even further, how can He be seen, when ‘He is the Subtlety Kind’, Imperceptibly Transcendent above all forms of imagery (mujaazaat), semblance (muqaabila), natural simulation (inttibaa`) or likeness (muhaaka).”

This is emphatic denial of any false claimant who declares that Allah Ta`ala can be seen outwardly in creation; or those who fall into to open disbelief by claiming that the apparent creation that we witness (mushaahadaat) is none other than Allah because He is the Manifest (Dhaahir).

Or that Allah infuses Himself in creation; or that He impersonates Creation; or that He incarnates or “comes in the person” or locus of some created being, such as Jesus, the son of Mary, Fard Muhammad, Ogun, Horus, or any other physical incarnation inspired by Satan into the hearts of his friends.

This false ideology leads to open shirk and association of Allah with His creation; and identifying creation as a deity. We seek refuge with Allah from open disbelief after being guided!

Shaykh Muyh’d-Deen Abd’l-Qaadir al-Jaylani continues:

“Since He, Allah is: ‘the Aware”, so how can anything besides Himself be truly aware of Him? In summation, nothing sees Allah except Allah, nothing is innately aware of Allah except Him; for everything is in an innate state of atrophy and destruction except His countenance. To Him belongs the judgment, and it is to Him that you all will return, just as a shadow returns back to what caste the shadow.”

Our master, Abu Bakr as-Sideeq, may Allah be pleased with him said corroborating the above principle: “The acknowledgement of the inability to comprehend (`adamu’l-istidraak) Him is comprehension of Him.”

However, Allah Ta`ala does disclose Himself, His Names and Attributes as well as His Actions in creation to His close intimate friends (awliyya) when He says: ‘Indeed there have come to you clear insight from your Lord.’

Shaykh Abdl-Qaadir al-Jaylani said about these words:

‘Indeed there have come to you’, i.e., there has occurred among some of you, who have a propensity (majbuul) for the original lucid state of Divine Unity (fitra ‘t-tawheed), ‘clear insight’, that is to say, there has come to you clear evidences (shawaahid) and dialectical moments of spiritual unveiling (kawaashif), ‘from your Lord’, who brought you into existence and disclosed these to you.
‘Whoever will therefore have insight’, that is to say, the one who actually witnesses these evidences of His Self-disclosure and those who experience genuine unveiling with them, ‘it will be for their own souls’.

This means that the advantage will naturally recur to them; ‘and whoever will be blind’, i.e., veiled from it; ‘it shall be against themselves’. This means that the harm of being blinded and veiled to these realities returns back to them.
‘For I am not over you as a protector’; that is to say, I am not your overseer responsible for managing you. I am only a deliverer of prophetic news. Your preservation and that of all things besides Him is in the Hand of Allah. For, management is by His omnipotent power. He alone guides whom he wills and leads astray whomever He wills.”
How did this pernicious idea permeate some of those who claim association with the Path of the Sufis? It came from a prevalent heretical innovation which emerged with those charlatan Sufi shaykhs who were more concerned with garnering large numbers of mureeds, so out of lust for this world’s life and its rubble; these business tycoons posing as shaykhs; threw away the basic principle in inducting people into the Tareeqa.

The basic rule for inducting a person, man, or woman, into the Path of the Sufis was that the person had to, as a prerequisite, have completed the attainment, and understanding of the rules (ahkaam) of the individual obligations (`ilm fard al-`ayyaan).
However, with the emergence of the Hour of the European Christian imperial control of globe, there also emerged avaricious marabous, shaykhs, murshids whose only aim was to increase in followers, fame and to assure a constant flow of wealth into their coffers.

Thus, the doors of the spiritual guilds were flung open to every kind of wanton spirit, desirous for power, rank, and wealth. In the past a student of knowledge who had exerted themselves in the pursuit of sacred knowledge by completion of the sciences which are obligatory upon every Muslim to know and act upon; would then seek out a Shaykh murrabi (a teaching guide) who could then instruct them in the deeper aspects of faith, and gnosis of Allah.

Or, sometimes the Shaykh murrabi would have students of knowledge studying the basic usuul whose characters, enthusiasm, uprightness and resolve were signals for the teacher to introduce them to the ancient Way or Tareeqa of direct gnosis of Allah ta`ala based upon sound sanad (corroborated chain) going back to the Beloved Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Alas, those days are long gone! It has become like Imam Ibn Mubaarak said: “The chains of authority are from the deen. If there are no chains of authority, then whoever likes can say whatever he likes.”

Today, everyone is a shaykh! Every knows the asraar! Everyone has an opinion and most of what they say about Allah and His Path is pure nonsense!

Today, people whose nafs is like that of donkeys have put on the glorious saddle of stallions (maqarrabuun) of the Path and without the bridal of taqwa to reign them in or a general of the path guide them; they now trample over the Garden of the Knowers Allah, utilizing the language of the People; whose Path, they have never truly followed nor have they a sound chain of authority connecting them.

These people claim to have reached the Pleiades of gnosis of Allah when they have never left the suffocating bowels of their own souls which command to evil (nafs al-amaara bi’s-suu).

Imam Ibn al-Mubarak said about them: “The likeness of one who seeks an issue of his deen without a chain of authority is like the one who desires to climb to the roof without a ladder.”

Many of these charlatans, peruse the books of the People of spiritual insight and unveiling (tabassur wa inkishaaf) and with lack of training or discipline repeat what they misread and misunderstand from these noble texts. They end up deceiving themselves and deceiving whoever had the misfortune of listening to them.

It is about these kinds of spiritual charlatans this reason that the Imam of the Sufis, Shaykh Abu’l-Qaasim Junayd al-Baghdadi:

“There is nothing worse than the ignorant sufi!”

Shehu Uthman Dan Fodio said in his renown Ihya as-Sunna:

“Among the heretical innovations in the Path of the Sufis is searching in the books of the people of spiritual unveiling (ahl’l-kashf) by those who cannot tell the difference between a gnat and an elephant in knowledge. This is a forbidden innovation.

Searching and examining the books of the people of spiritual unveiling is not permissible except for the scholar who knows the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He should take from these books that which clarify guidance for him and he should leave what it is not clear. He should accept the validity of what is not clear, but not act in accordance with it.

This should be done not because of any deficiency in its words, but because his own knowledge has not reached to the level of comprehending it. This is because no person is held responsible for that which his knowledge does not encompass. On the contrary, it is not permissible for him to follow it,

ﻭَﻻَ ﺗَﻘْﻒُ ﻣَﺎ ﻟَﻴْﺲَ ﻟَﻚَ ﺑِﻪِ ﻋِﻠْﻢٌ

“Do not follow that which you have no knowledge.” [17:36]

So, people who lack the training to understand the immense depth of the wisdom of the sages; will swear that the falsehoods that they espouse were the words of their Shaykh, who is the Qutb of this and the Qutb of that; without knowing the import of their Shaykhs words and how their words spring from the Two Sacred Infallible sources, the Quran, Sunna and the fundamental principles of the early community (as-salaf).

Shaykh Abdullahi Dan Fodio said in his Diya’u ‘s-Siyaasa:

“When the Knower of Allah speaks from knowledge, his words should be viewed from the perspective of its source from the Book of Allah, the Sunna of His Messenger and the traditions of the Salaf; because knowledge is interpreted based upon its foundation.

When the Knower of Allah speaks from his spiritual states (ahwaal), its meaning should be surrendered to the understanding of the one who has had the same experience. However, he is not to be followed because of the lack of universal application of his judgment except by the one who has attained the same spiritual experience. The one who possesses spiritual states (ahwaal) is not to be followed in that.”

Similarly words uttered by the shuyuukh and the sages of this sacred Path should not be repeated just because they sound profound, deep and makes a person appear wise. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace said: “Address people according to their intelligence.” Not every word of wisdom should be spoken. There are certain spiritual states, spiritual ideas and knowledge which should be experienced and tasted…and not talked about.
Allah is a Witness for what I say.

Tawajjuh and Tasarruf – An Explanation of the Science of Sufis

Question: The following outrageous claim is made among Sufi circles: The Ahlullāh make an impression on the hearts of their murīds through focus and affectionate gaze. The blessings of this focus results in the rectification of the hearts of the murīds. In fact, there are times when this focus of the shaykh results in outsiders getting the inspiration for guidance and īmān. If this is correct in the Sharī‛at, why could the Chief of all past and future generations Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam not instil guidance in the heart of his beloved uncle, Abū Tālib? Allāh forbid, was he deprived of such focus from Allāh ta‛ālā? We seek refuge in saying such a thing and from showing disrespect.

Answer: Focus is a type of influence which is not within man’s choice. Let alone piety, focus does not even require īmān. The focus of non-Muslims can also be effective for certain periods of time. Nevertheless, focus is proven from the Qur’ān, Hadīth and countless incidents of the righteous. Observe the following:

The Origin of Focus

Hadrat Shāh ‛Abd al-‛Azīz Muhaddith Dehlawī rahimahullāh writes in Tafsīr ‛Azīzī:

The first sign and effect of divine revelation coming to Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam was in the form of true dreams. Whatever he saw in his dreams would be experienced by him exactly like that while in a state of wakefulness. He was then made to become attracted to solitude. Subsequently, he would go alone to the cave of Hirā’ and engage in Allāh’s remembrance. He used to take as much as one week’s food and provisions for himself. When the food and drink were finished, he would return home, get more food and drink, and go back to the cave. In most cases, his stay used to be for less than a month. Occasionally he even stayed over for a full month.

One day he was standing out of the cave to wash his mouth when Jibra’īl ‛alayhis salām suddenly called out: “O Muhammad!” He looked up but did not see anything. He heard this voice a second and third time, and began looking around in confusion. Suddenly a face which was glittering like the sun, in the form of a human, decorated with a crown of light on his head and wearing green clothes appeared before Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam and began saying: “Read!” Some narrations state that he had a green silken cloth in his hand. Something was written on it. He presented it to Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam and said: “Read.” Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam said: “I cannot read.” The person said: “Read!” He embraced Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam and squeezed him so tightly that he felt constricted and began perspiring. This happened three times. On the fourth occasion he said:

Read in the name of your Sustainer who is the creator of all. He created man from a clot of blood. Read, and your Sustainer is the most bountiful. Who taught by the pen. He taught man what he did not know. [Sūrah al-‛Alaq, 96: 1-5]

These five verses settled in Rasūlullāh’s mind and were memorised by him. He writes further on:

The circumstances surrounding this initial revelation to Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam contains a few points which must be borne in mind.

Shāh Sāhib rahimahullāh then writes four points. He writes under the third point:

Jibra’īl ‛alayhis salām was ordered to squeeze Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam so that the effect of Jibra’īl may become firmly embedded – to the point of perfection – in the blessed soul of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam. The effect of the perfect servants of Allāh ta‛ālā, which the people of the Tarīqat refer to as tawajjuh (focus) is divided into four categories.

Types of tawajjuh

1. Ta’thīr In‛ikāsī: The example of this is of a person who applies a lot of perfume and comes into an assembly. The fragrance of his perfume perfumes the mind of every person sitting in that assembly. This is the weakest type of tawajjuh because its effect only remains for as long as the person is in the company of a Walī. Once he leaves, the effect does not remain with him.

2. Ta’thīr Ilqā’ī: The example of this is of a person who pours oil into a container and places a wick into it. He then comes to a person who has a fire. He touches the wick to the fire, it takes light and becomes a lamp. This effect and focus is stronger than the first type because its effect continues even after the assembly. However, if any calamity or impediment comes upon it, it will leave. In this case, although the lamp was lit, a sudden gush of wind or rain came upon it and extinguished it. This effect cannot culture and rectify the self and the senses.

3. Ta’thīr Islāhī: Through his spiritual power, the mentor rectifies the inner self of the murīd and the senses are put into motion. The example of this is of a person who brings water from a river or well and stores it in one place. He makes canals which connect this water to a pond which has a fountain. He clears the canals of all dirt and grime, and releases the water with full pressure so that the water now gushes forth from the fountain.

This type of effect is stronger than the first two. The self is rectified and the senses are cultured. However, its effect is dependent on the amount of water which is stored, and the extent and cleanliness of the canals. It is not according to the capability of the river or well. However, despite this, if any calamity or weakness befalls the treasure [of water], there will be a drop in the effect.

4. Ta’thīr Ittihādī: Through his spiritual power, the Sufi master takes the murīd under his wing and joins his soul to his murīd’s soul in such a way that the excellences of his soul are transferred into the soul of the murīd. This is the strongest type of effect.

Once this is realized, there is no need for going repeatedly to the shaykh to derive benefit from him. [Tafsīr ‛Azīzī, pp. 559-563, Kutub Khānah Fayd-e-Abrār]

Hadrat Thānwī rahimahullāh writes the following points after relating the incident at the cave of Hirā’:

The angel who came to Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam was Jibra’īl ‛alayhis salām. When he asked Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam to read, it was not required of him to read something which he had learnt before. Rather, it was similar to a teacher displaying the letters a, b, c to a child and asking him to read. In other words, you must read what I show you. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam replied: “I cannot read.” This could be in the sense that his blessed mind did not go to the meaning of Iqra’. Alternatively, he assumed from the circumstances that Jibra’īl ‛alayhis salām will make him read something which – in order for him to grasp and understand it – required him to be able to read and write from before hand. No matter what, in order to receive and accept what he has been ordered to read, there was a need to strengthen and perfect his capability. It was for this reason that the angel squeezed him several times. In this way, the strength which he receives will enable his heart to focus and gain courage. The action of tawajjuh is proven from this Hadīth.

The reality of tasarruf

Imdād al-Fatāwā volume five contains a booklet of Hadrat Thānwī rahimahullāh titled at-Ta‛arruf fī Tahqīq at-Tasarruf. It has been translated by Hadrat Muftī Muhammad Shafī‛ Sāhib rahimahullāh. A few quotations from it are presented here.

The reality of tasarruf: The reality of it is for special praiseworthy feelings to be conferred on another person. This results in special effects on him. Due to the various objectives and purposes of these effects, they take on different categories and colours. In the terminology of the Sufis, it is known as tasarruf (influence), tawajjuh (focus), himmat (courage) and jam‛e khawātir (gathering of thoughts).

Further on, he writes under the heading Tanbīhāt (cautions):

First caution: Is this tasarruf which the Sufis resort to a Sunnat of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam? Whatever I have been able to gather in this regard has been explained in part two of my booklet, at-Tarā’if wa az-Zarā’if. I feel it will suffice to quote it verbatim here. It is: It is narrated from authentic Ahādīth that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam struck his hand on the chests of certain people resulting in their whisperings leaving them. He placed his blessed hand on certain sick people and their illness left them. Some people may assume that he resorted to tasarruf here. It is also not farfetched for a person to furnish these narrations as proof that resorting to tasarruf is Sunnat. However, if we ponder over this, we can conclude that this proof is incomplete. The reason for this is that in order for his action to be a tasarruf, it will have to be proven through an authentic narration that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam accumulated his spiritual powers in order to produce these results [e.g. removing whisperings, getting rid of an illness]. And this is not proven. In fact, it is possible that he resorted to these actions because he was informed via divine revelation that they will be beneficial to them without having to resort to gathering of his thoughts (concentration) and applying his tasarruf. Based on this possibility, these actions are most certainly not included in the tasarruf as defined by the Sufis. This is why all the ‛ulamā’ of the ummat list these incidents among Rasūlullāh’s miracles which are totally different from tasarruf. The most clear indication that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam never resorted to tasarruf is that he did not resort to it on the heart of Abū Tālib despite his extreme desire and wish for him to embrace Islam. Instead, he sufficed on making du‛ā’ for his īmān and inviting him to Islam. Even if the performance of tasarruf is at any time accepted with regard to him, it will not prove that it is Sunnat in the definition of the Sharī‛at. The reason for this is that for an act to be Sunnat in the definition of the Sharī‛at, it has to be practised. This is why wrestling is not referred to as Sunnat. This, notwithstanding the fact that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam wrestled against Rukānah radiyallāhu ‛anhu on one occasion. In fact, even if it is proven to be his habit, it will not be termed a Sunnat-e-Maqsūdah because it is not necessary for a habitual Sunnat to be an act of worship.

Second caution: Is tasarruf a sign of wilāyat, piety and acceptance in the sight of Allāh ta‛ālā? The answer to this is that it is definitely not. Just as other bodily powers, hands, feet, etc. are used, so is the case with tasarruf. This was explained previously. [Imdād al-Fatāwā, vol. 5, pp. 231-233]

Hadrat Thānwī’s book, Sharī‛at Aur Tarīqat contains the following:

A lengthy Hadīth of Hadrat Ubayy ibn Ka‛b radiyallāhu ‛anhu contains the following:

When Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam saw me in the condition which had overcome me, he struck my chest causing me to break out into a sweat. It was as though I was looking at Allāh ta‛ālā out of fear.

The striking of the hand which resulted in this condition is known as tasarruf. Some people are naturally qualified for tasarruf even though they may not enjoy affinity with Allāh ta‛ālā. All it requires is expending one’s courage and will. If others also have a strong courage, they can stop it. The different ways of tasarruf are dependent solely on practice.

Diyā’ al-Qulūb states:

Strange and unique forms of tasarruf are not acquired without first acquiring the bond of self-obliteration and continuity. At the same time, practice or one’s innate power is also a prerequisite for it to be beneficial in Dīn. This is because the fundamental goal of a seeker is benefit in Dīn. The strange and unique forms of tasarruf referred to are those which are connected to sulūk.

Two levels of tawajjuh and tasarruf

There are two types of tasarruf and having an effect. One is to have an effect on a murīd’s inner self through which he develops a pull towards Allāh ta‛ālā. The other is to have an effect on other things of this world, either through courage or supplication.

There are two levels of tasarruf. One is involuntary in the sense that the heart desires for enthusiasm, love for Allāh ta‛ālā, fear of Him and so on to be developed in a certain person. He must make du‛ā’ for the person. There is no harm in it. The second level is the well-known one in the terminology of the Sufis. It entails the shaykh emptying his heart of all dangers and focuses on something specific. He works his imagination with the intention of having an effect or influence. Although this is permissible it is temperamentally disliked. The doer in such a situation is the force of lightening which is placed within man. This force is also found to a large extent in the ground. The falling of a person’s gaze one someone has an effect on the person. The source of mesmerism and tawajjuh which is known to us is the same. The only difference between the two is that one is utilized for a bad purpose and the other for a good one. It is dependent on practice. This is why they practise instilling affinity into others. Some mashā’ikh resort to this practice a lot. However, its benefit does not remain. The one who seeks spiritual feeling, considers it to be beneficial and therefore feels it is enough. This is why he gives up doing good.

There are a few doubts about it: (1) It is not related in the Sunnat. (2) Most people become lazy in carrying out good works. While there is no harm in having an effect on others, the person who practises tawajjuh has no tawajjuh whatsoever towards Allāh ta‛ālā at the time when he is practising it. If someone objects and says that there is no tawajjuh towards Allāh ta‛ālā even in normal ordinary conversations, the answer to him is that this is more serious because the heart has been wilfully emptied [in order to focus on the person]. It seems shameful to have one’s tawajjuh shifted away from Allāh ta‛ālā. This is what normally happens in the circles of tawajjuh.

The prescribed method of rectification is lecturing, advising and du‛ā’. Total tawajjuh is the right of Allāh ta‛ālā. However, it has certain etiquette. (1) One is that the objective and method must be permissible. (2) There must be no external or internal ostentation. A good way of ensuring this is to accompany it with du‛ā’, as we are taught du‛ā’ in the Hadīth. (3) One must not practise it too much for it could be a  tribulation for the doer and the one on whom it is practised. This is why we do not find excessive mention of it with regard to Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam. Some people have committed excesses in this regard and the resulting tribulations bear testimony to it. The worst tribulation in this regard is that it is generally considered to be a feat of perfection, whereas this practice is solely out of necessity.

A necessity is calculated according to the level of necessity and suffice with what is necessary.

Some elders clearly stated that when dhikr does not have any effect on a murīd, the shaykh could resort to tawajjuh. The reason is the same:

Suffice with what is necessary.

Some ignorant people incorrectly assume that the conveying of blessings and benefit is in the control of the shaykh. Muslim Sharīf contains a Hadīth of Hadrat Abū Hurayrah radiyallāhu ‛anhu with reference to the verse:

You cannot guide whom you will. Rather, it is Allāh who guides whomever He wills. [Sūrah al-Qasas, 28: 56]

He says: This verse was revealed with reference to Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam. He was encouraging his uncle, Abū Tālib, towards Islam (and he was not paying heed).

This Hadīth rectifies this wrong assumption completely, viz. when Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam does not have such a power, how can it ever be possible for others!?

Bearing in mind that Dīnī benefit – which is the fundamental task of a shaykh – is totally out of his control, conveying worldly benefit will be even more out of his control. Many ignorant people are caught up in this misunderstanding. We seek refuge in Allāh ta‛ālā. They believe that the Ahlullāh have all divine powers. This belief has also been rectified by the above text of the Qur’ān. [Sharī‛at Aur Tarīqat, pp. 361-364]

Tawajjuh has a temporary effect

Another point which has to be understood is that the effect which results from tawajjuh is temporary. It is not lasting.

The following is contained in the Malfūzāt of Hadrat Thānwī rahimahullāh:

If someone thinks that notorious evil people were automatically rectified by the tawajjuh of certain Sufis, it should be understood that this is a type of tasarruf which is neither within one’s choice nor is it essential for piety. Many Sufis have no power of tasarruf whatsoever. Furthermore, tasarruf has no permanency. It is similar to a person sitting near an oven. As long as he remains there, his entire body will experience warmth. The moment he moves away from it, his body will turn cold. On the other hand, the effect which results from determination and good deeds is long lasting. It is similar to a person who consumes Kushta-e-Tilā in order to create heat within his body. Even if he were to go to the Shimlah mountain, the heat within himself will remain as it was. [Anfās-e-‛Īsā, vol. 1, pp. 14-15]

We learn from the above statement that it is not within a person’s control to bring a person onto the straight path through tawajjuh, just as it is not in the control of any person to guide someone. Tawajjuh is beneficial and effective only if Allāh ta‛ālā wills.

You cannot guide whom you will. Rather, it is Allāh who guides whomever He wills. He knows best those who are guided. [Sūrah al-Qasas, 28: 56]

Therefore, your objection that “if the tawajjuh of a shaykh is a means for rectitude and guidance, how is it that Rasūlullāh’s tawajjuh in respect of his beloved uncle, Abū Tālib, could not result in his guidance?” is baseless. If, according to you, every tawajjuh of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam is accepted as beneficial for guidance, it would mean that on whoever he applied his tawajjuh, that person most definitely ought to become a Muslim. After all, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam was commissioned for the guidance of all humanity. It was Rasūlullāh’s earnest desire for every person to be endowed with the wealth of īmān. So much so that Allāh ta‛ālā had to tell him not to be too saddened by the unbelievers’ abstention from īmān:

Would you, perhaps, destroy yourself with grief over them if they do not believe in this message? [Sūrah al-Kahf, 18: 6]

Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam had taken the names of certain unbelievers (like Abū Jahal) and made du‛ā’ for their guidance. Despite this, they were not blessed with guidance. It is obvious that to take the name of a person and make du‛ā’ for him entails focussing totally on that person (tawajjuh).

Refusal – one of the reasons for the ineffectiveness of tawajjuh

Sometimes the shaykh who is practising tawajjuh is an expert, but the murīd has no determination and confidence in the shaykh. In fact, he is refusing him. In such a case, the tawajjuh of even an expert shaykh is ineffective. Hadrat Maulānā Shāh Wasīyyullāh Sāhib Allāhābādī rahimahullāh has written two articles on this subject, ‛Āqibah al-Inkār and I‛tiqād Wa Inkār. These are contained in Ta’līfāt Muslihul Ummat. We present a quotation from it:

Bahjah an-Nufūs, a commentary of Bukhārī Sharīf relates the following incident from an erudite scholar:

A person came to an erudite shaykh with the intention of sulūk. The shaykh instructed him to remain in solitude and left him there for a few days. The shaykh then went to him and asked: “What do you make of my appearance?” The person replied: “You look like a pig.” The shaykh said: “You are right.” The shaykh left him in his solitude for a few days and went back to him and asked him the same question. The person said: “You look like a dog.” The shaykh left him and this continued until one day the person said: “You look like the full moon.” The shaykh said: “Your condition has been set right now.” He then asked him to come out of seclusion.

Look! We learn from this incident that a murīd sees his own self in the shaykh’s mirror. The shaykh was already a full moon from the first day; it is the murīd who went through changes but was attributing them to the shaykh. As his rectification was progressing, he began getting closer to the reality.

Nowadays, in addition to the mashā’ikh, there are many senior ‛ulamā’, scholars, jurists and Hadīth experts. Does every person who remains in their company come out as an expert? It is observed that the majority of those who qualify under them not only possess very little capabilities, they are in fact defective in their capabilities. In fact, they possess no capabilities. We can go to the point of saying that the ignoramuses have taken the place of the ‛ulamā’. Just one or two are worthy of doing some work. If this situation is witnessed in the external sciences, can it be said that it is actually the experts and the Hadīth specialists who are defective? Or can it be said that although their knowledge is accepted in its place, the defect and shortcomings are in the students in the sense that although they studied under such experts, they learnt nothing. When this is the case here, and everyone accepts that it is certainly not the fault of the ‛ulamā’, why is it that when it comes to the spiritual side, only the mashā’ikh are blamed? Why is it not assumed that the fault could be with the murīds, due to which they are not benefiting, and that the shaykh is an expert in his place!!

From among the prerequisites for a shaykh to be an expert, is it also a prerequisite for every murīd of his to be an expert? This is totally against the reality because it could be that the shaykh is an expert but those who frequent him are deprived of his teachings because of their own shortcomings and wrongs. Look at the most perfect of all humans – Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam and his blessed era. Despite living in his era and being in his company, people like Abū Jahal and Abū Lahab remained deprived. Similar was the case with the hypocrites. We learn from this that there are certain prerequisites in order to derive benefit from a person. Prerequisites have to be fulfilled by both – the mentor and the mentee. As for the internal self, it is much more intricate. Thus, its prerequisites are also more intricate. In order to derive internal benefit, it is essential for a person to first fulfil those prerequisites and to remove whatever obstacles he has in its path. If the shaykh alone is an expert, what can he achieve? The seeker too has to be genuine and devoted. Now if a person did not learn under these personalities according to the prerequisites laid down, how can it be the fault of the personalities? [Ta’līfāt Muslihul Ummat, vol. 1, pp. 39-41]

The Maktūbāt of Khwājah Muhammad Ma‛sūm rahimahullāh contains the following:

The tawajjuh of a shaykh-e-kāmil is such that even if mountains of darkness and filth appear from all sides, he can repulse them from a genuine murīd and purify his internal self. This tawajjuh of a shaykh is also beneficial to a seeker when he is in a state of retraction. The shaykh can create expansion very quickly in him and open the path of progress for him.

In short, the basis for success is that companionship and tawajjuh which is accompanied by faith [in the shaykh] and complete submission. In other words, there must be love and handing over one’s self completely from the seeker, and tawajjuh from the shaykh. Love alone – without the tawajjuh of a shaykh – can be a guide. In other words, it can be beneficial and can provide progress. However, tawajjuh of the shaykh alone and no love at all from the seeker cannot be of much benefit. [Ta’līfāt Muslihul Ummat, vol. 4, pp. 153-154]

The Maktūbāt of Khwājah Muhammad Ma‛sūm states:

I received your letter. It arrived at a most opportune time. You requested tawajjuh for yourself and your murīds. We occasionally practice tawajjuh. Allāh willing, we will practise it more. However, it is essential for you to know that the basis for success is “spiritual bond”. It can also be expressed by the words love, conviction and submission. The stronger this bond with one’s mentor, the more the seeker will derive from the blessings of the shaykh’s internal self. The presence of pure love and spiritual bond is sufficient to draw blessings from an expert shaykh, even if there is no tawajjuh from him. Tawajjuh alone, without any love and spiritual bond, is not effective at all. For tawajjuh to be effective, there has to be a suitable recipient for it. Obviously, when tawajjuh is combined with the abovementioned spiritual bond, it will become most splendorous. In short, the basis is a strong spiritual bond and following the Sunnat of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam. If a person is firmly embedded in these two things, he has nothing to worry about. He will eventually succeed and he will not be deprived of the excellent qualities of the elders. But if there is a defect in either of these two, there is nothing but danger no matter how much the person may exert himself. [Maktūbāt Khwājah Ma‛sūm, p. 102]

From the above text we learn that the reason why Rasūlullāh’s perfect tawajjuh on his beloved uncle, Abū Tālib was not effective was the latter’s refusal. His refusal was not only from the heart but from the tongue as well. The Musnad Ahmad, Bukhārī, Muslim and Nasa’ī state: When Abū Tālib was on his death bed, Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam came to him. Abū Jahal and ‛Abdullāh ibn Umayyah were also present. Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam said: “O uncle! Say Lā Ilāha Illallāh just once so that I will have one proof with which I could intercede on your behalf in front of Allāh ta‛ālā.” Abū Jahal and ‛Abdullāh ibn Umayyah said: “O Abū Tālib! Are you going to leave the religion of ‛Abd al-Muttalib?” Abū Tālib refused to say the kalimah. The last words which emanated from his tongue were: “On the religion of ‛Abd al-Muttalib.” [Sīratul Mustafā, vol. 1, pp. 280-281]

Why tawajjuh is not effective on a rejecter

The reason for tawajjuh not being effective on a rejecter is that he does not demonstrate any need. His condition reflects his claim to perfection. Hadrat Thānwī rahimahullāh writes:

The effect of tawajjuh falls on a person who considers himself in need of it and does not make any claims to his own perfection. Tawajjuh is effective on the masses but not on the elite because the latter display no need and desire for it. They claim that others are in need of them. [Anfās-e-‛Īsā, vol. 1, p. 49]


Hadhrat Junaid Baghdaadi (Rahmatullah alayh) was asked about the difference between the Blood of Hadhrat Husain (Radhiyallahu anhu) and Hadhrat Mansoor Hallaaj (Rahmatullah alayh).

Background information: Hadhrat Mansoor Hallaaj Rahmatullah alayh – was among the great Auliya. In an extremely lofty spiritual state of ecstasy, he repeatedly uttered: ‘Anal Haq!’ (I am Allah!’) which of course was blasphemy (kufr) in terms of the Shariah. The punishment for such blasphemy is execution if the blasphemer refuses to repent. Hadhrat Mansoor Rahmatullah alayh – refused to retract and repent. On the contrary, he persisted with his proclamation of ‘Anal Haq’. 

He was sentenced to death. On the occasion of his execution, he continued with his utterance. His hands and feet were first cut off, and finally he was killed. Every drop of his Blood which fell to the ground exclaimed loudly: ‘Anal Haq!’and on the ground the Blood wrote: ‘Allaahu Allaahu’. His body was incinerated, and from the ashes the sound of ‘Anal Haq’ continued vociferously and vehemently……….. This is a brief introduction to the question posed to Hadhrat Junaid Bagdhaadi –Rahmatullah alayhi – who had signed the death warrant for Hadhrat Mansoor’s execution.)

The Question:

“The Blood of Al-Hallaaj, as it fell to the ground inscribed on the ground: ‘Allaahu Allaahu’. But this was not the case with the Blood of Hadhrat Husain (Radhiyallahu anhu). What was the Hikmat (wisdom) underlying the mystery?

The Answer:

Hadhrat Junaid (Rahmatullah alayh) responded:

“The accused (Al-Hallaaj in this case) required exculpation (i.e. his innocence had to be proved). He was accused of zandaqah (blasphemy/kufr) in a matter of the Deen. Thus the inscription by his Blood exculpated him from the charge of zandaqah. On the contrary, Husain Bin Ali (Radhiyallahu anhu) was not in need to be exculpated from any charge of blasphemy. Know and understand this (difference).”


[By Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng]

Maulana Rumi (Rahmatullah Alaih) states:

“It is a well known fact that the fox is noted for its cowardice.”

However, the fox that has a lion as a support behind its back saying to him: “Fear not, my hand is upon your back”, in spite of lacking courage, becomes very brave indeed. His new-found bravery is of such a nature that he will not hesitate to attack a leopard. He now has the support of a lion at his side, he will show no fear for a leopard. Similarly, is the case of the chosen servants of Allah Ta’ala. In spite of their apparent weakness and distressed position, they show no fear in the face of a multitude of evil forces. These saintly ones do experience some natural fear of physical hurt or injury, but at heart, they have no fear of anyone besides Allah Ta’ala. A Sufi says:

“O people! Look not upon my weakly countenance for I have legs of iron. Do you know that within my heart I am connected to the King of kings.”

In this regard, Maulana Rumi (Rahmatullah Alaihe) tells the story of Hazrat Jaafar. Once Hazrat Jaafar (Radhiallahu Anhu) attacked a fortress all by himself. His attack was so fierce that it seemed that the fortress would soon become a prey to the hoofs of his horse. The inmates of the fortress were so struck by awe that they closed the gates of the fortress and no one dared to come out to engage in battle with him. The king discussed with his Wazir as to what line of action to adopt. The Wazir advised him thus:

“The best line of action is to cancel all plans of making war against the man. It is best to take your shroud and your sword, go to him and lay down your weapons”. The king replied: “But this man is all alone. How is it that you give me such advice?” The Wazir informed him: “Do not underestimate his being one man only. Open your eyes and look at the fortress and see how it trembles like quicksilver. Look at the inmates of the fortress, and see how their heads are bent downwards like sheep. Even though the man is alone, the heart that he has in his bosom is not like the hearts of ordinary men. Look at his courage. In the face of a vast multitude of opponents, he challenges them into battle with a naked sword in his hand and in a confident and victorious manner, calls them to fight. It seems that all the battle forces of the East and West are with him. One man alone, but he appears like hundreds of thousands.

Do you not see that whichever soldiers are sent out to fight him are soon seen lying under the hoofs of his horse? After seeing the valor of this solitary man, O king, I have realized that the multitude of soldiers, which are with you, will not be able to do anything against him.

Do not rely upon numbers. The main thing is the unity of the heart and this is actually what is so striking about the heart of this man. In this respect, he has been endowed endlessly with it. This is a gift from Allah Ta’ala, which is attained through the acquisition of contact with Him and through rigorous spiritual exercises. This connection you will not be able to attain while you are in this state of Kufr. Hence, it is best for you to throw down your weapons in defeat before the courageous believer and to open the gates of the fortress, because your numerous soldiers are of no use.”

Then Maulana Rumi (Rahmatullah Alaihe) gives examples in which the majority becomes useless in front of minority:


Millions of stars are shining and produce light, but at the rising of the sun, their light becomes non-existent.


If a thousand mice were to attack a weak and sickly cat, it would appear that they would be victorious in their endeavor. A few of them can grab him by the neck. One or two of them can then take his eyes out. One or two of them can tear off his ears with their teeth. One or two of them can make an opening at his side, enter and begin chewing the internal organs. It would appear to be a reasonable plan. However, experience proves otherwise. As soon as the weak and sickly cat utters one “meow” the whole multitude of mice become awestruck and one by one, they flee to safety. The moment they hear the “meow” they become convinced of being vanquished and visualizing the actions of the cat’s teeth and paws makes them flee.

The main reason for this is the difference between the hearts in the breast of the mice and the heart in the breast of the cat. The unity of the heart in the cat and the courage lying in it, is not found in the mice. Hence, the mice becoming confounded and defeated in the presence of the cat, is proof thereof that the cat possesses unity of heart and courage. Otherwise, it would appear that if a large number of mice should attack the cat, it will be impossible for the cat to escape. Hence, we conclude that even if the number of mice were a hundred thousand, still, seeing a weak and sickly cat will cause all of them to run away. This proves that numbers mean nothing. The main thing is unity of the heart and courage.


Sheep and goats may be numerous in number but in the face of the knife of the butcher, that number is of no consequence.


Sleep comes along and causes many thoughts and imaginations to vanish.


The lion in the forest courageously attacks a multitude of animals with horns and he alone gets the upper hand over them. Furthermore, whichever animal he chooses from among them, he eats.


Allah Ta’ala, the King of kings, is the One who grants this unity of heart and such courage. This unity of the heart is of two kinds. One is natural, or common possessed by the non believers, polytheists, and even animals. The other form is that which is granted by Allah Ta’ala and comes about through the blessings of close contact with Allah Ta’ala. This is what the Sufis term as “Nisbat”, for which one has to strive. It is a great favor from Allah Ta’ala to have contact with Him. And there is only one way of attaining this contact and that is by following the Shari’at.

Source: Ma’aarif- e -Mathnawi


Shaikh al-Akbar, Mohiuddin ibn Arabi Rahmatullah Alaihi, in his book “FUTOOHAT AL MAKKIYA”, writes about “Rijaal ullah” (The MEN of ALLAH), and confidently states that there are only three types of them and no fourth! After detailed description of the first two types, he turns his attention to the third type, and praises them with such glorious words “Lahum tabqatul ulya” (these are the best of all). Please note that this praise is coming from Imam ul Auliya, and no less than a person who is known as “SHAIKH AKBAR” amongst sufis.

Now let us see how Shaikh al Akbar describes these people:  

1) As far as salaat is concerned, they do no more the FARA’IZ and RAWATEB (i.e. sunan-e-muakkada after farz salat). One will never find them involved in nawafil.

2) Not only salat, but even in the rest of Deeni requirements, and the rest of the Fara’iz they keep to the bare essentials, and no more.

3) The way they do these Fara’iz they try to do as the common people, no distinction can be found between them and a common Mu`min.

4) They wander in bazaars like common people, and involved in small talks common to the rest of the people, one will never find any “Arifaana Rumooz” in their discussions.

5) They deliberately try to be seen as commoners and no different than Awaam (general public)

6) Their clothing is similar to the tradition of the common working class people of the area they live in.

7) They never specify a place for themselves in the masjid, they keep themselves along with the crowd.

8) They are never known for karamat, people consider them no more than ordinary people, sometimes not even up to the level of ordinary Saliheen.


1) In the depths of their hearts they are connected to Allah Ta’ala in such a way, as if there is nothing except ALLAH in their Batin

2) In this particular Sifat, i.e. their inner connection to Allah Ta’ala, they are so firm, so concentrated and so determined, that nothing can move their attention away from Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala.

3) Their constant effort remains to keep their relation of “’Uboodiyat” with their creator fresh, evergreen, and never out of their sight.

4) They are always under the intense realization (Istihzaar) of the grandeur of Allah Ta’ala; their extreme helplessness, total dependency, complete misery in front of their creator is always in front of their eyes, resulting in utter lack of pride, a feeling of absolute nothingness and total annihilation of ego.

5) Their eyes are always on the Creator even for the smallest of their needs, despite that, they obey all the rules of “alam e asbab” without fail; the reality that everything been done by Allah Rabbul ‘Izzat is never hidden from their eyes

Shaikh Akbar thinks —


Hakeem-ul-Ummat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi Rahmatullah Alaih writes;

“In the terminology of Sufis a group whose physical deeds are limited only to faraez, but their “Deeds of the Heart” (A’maale qalbiya) are more, are called QALANDAR. And the deeds of the heart are those in which Qalb is constantly kept attentive to Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala,keep love of Muslims in heart, most of the time keep one’s heart busy in remembrance of Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala, for example SABAR is a batini amal, similarly SHUKR is a batini amal, RAZA BIL QAZA is a Batini amal. These are not visible, but those who practice these and other such amaal, are constantly becoming closer and more closer to Allah. Subhana wa Ta’ala”.

Similarly Niyyat (intention) is a batini amal, when one practices it his whole life become Ibadah, for example, early in the morning going to office for his duty, if one makes an intention of “Rizqe halal” plus “earning for his family” plus “service to humanity”….his whole day is spend in Ibadah, even if one is apparently involved in worldly things.

Care in observing Sunnah in daily routines with correct intention is highest Ibadah, for example, we have to wear shirt anyway, why not put right sleeve first and left sleeve second, and same with shoes; but remove the left shoe first and right second. We have to wear shoes anyway. 

These are just 2 examples. (A good reference book for similar Sunnah is Uswa-e-Rasool-e-Akram by Dr. Abdul Hayy Al Aarefi (Rahmatullah Alaih)

The purpose of writing this post is this: “If someone thinks that he is so busy that he cannot spare time for Roohani mujahidaat, the way of Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala is open to all”


[It will infuse the essence in our Ibaadaat!]


By Mujlisul Ulama



Promoting itself to be in the limelight which is in total conflict with the spirit which should imbue a khaanqah, and which is in diametric contradiction of the attitude of Ikhfaa’ and Goomnaami (concealment and being unknown) which are among the fundamental constituents of Akhlaaq-e-Hameedah (Beautiful  moral character) for which Khaanqahs had been established by the Auliya, the institution in Azaadville, dubbing itself   ‘khaanqah akhtari’, advertises such of its activities which are in stark conflict with the Maqaasid (Objectives) of Tasawwuf which are supposed to be the profession of a khaanqah.  

Among the advertised activities which are in total negation of the life of a khaanqah, the following are cause for lament:


Appealing to the public to participate in its programmes. This is absolutely revolting for a khaanqah and for personnel who operates a khaanqah. It portrays total lack of ghairat of the shaikh operating the khaanqah which is nothing but a ‘khaanqah’ in name.

The Imaani ghairat (honour) of a genuine Shaikh of Tasawwuf does not tolerate fishing for mureeds. The Mashaaikh are extremely averse and critical of a Shaikh who fishes for mureeds. The motive for increasing the circle of mureeds is nafsaani. It is motivated by hubb-e-jah (love for name and fame) and hubb-e-maal (love for wealth).

It is this despicable love which has ruined all the shaikhs and their khaanqahs of this era. It is this evil of hubb-e-dunya which prevents them from proclaiming the Haqq and which constrains them to conceal the Haqq or to deceptively adorn it with the inspirations whispered to them by shaitaan and the nafs. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The love of this dunya is the root of every evil.”

Whilst the profession of the genuine Mashaaikh of genuine khaanqahs was always the effort to expel the love of the dunya from the hearts of the mureedeen, the emphasis today of the shaikhs and their khaanqahs exercises is the very opposite. There is no resemblance between these khaanqahs of today and the Khaanqahs of the true Mashaaikh of Tasawwuf.

Since the khaanqah akhtari has taken the liberty of misconstruing Allaamah Sha’raani’s statement pertaining to thikr majaalis, we emphasize that the sheikh of this khaanqah in particular, makes an indepth study of Allaamah Sha’raani’s kitaab, Tambeehul Mughtarreen, as well as his other Kutub on the subject of Tasawwuf. If he accepts this naseehat, studies the Kitaab with ikhlaas and with the niyyat of understanding the brazen deviation of his khaanqah operation, he shall not fail to discern the lamentable folly of his methodology which is the very antithesis of Tasawwuf and in total conflict and nugatory of the Maqsad of Tasawwuf and the purpose of a khaanqah.

For the edification of all the shaikhs or so-called shaikhs of today’s so-called khaanqahs, we mention here some naseehat of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) of the 10th Islamic century. In Tambeehul Mughtarreen, the venerable Allaamah states:

“My Ghairat-e-Imaani has constrained me to write such a kitaab in which I make known those signs of Akhlaaq-e-Muhammadi (the Moral attributes of excellence of our Nabi – Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) which have been eliminated from the Ulama-e-Zaahir and Ulama-e-Baatin of this age. Therefore, this Kitaab is equally beneficial for every Faqeeh and Sufi. No one is independent of studying it.……..

What relationship does the haal (spiritual and moral condition of excellence and perfection) of these Mashaaikh (of former times) have with the mashaaikh (of this tenth century) who journey from Misr or Hijaaz or Shaam to Room and Iraq? They come requesting from the kings estate and status whereas they had ample means of sustainment in their homelands.

For them it was appropriate to have refused any gifts from a king even if he presents it of his own accord……

It is known that the very first step of the Mureed in Tareeqat (Tasawwuf) is to eliminate his wealth from his possession and to cast it in the ocean of despair.”

Commenting on the putrid state of the crank sufis, Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) says:

“Some of them link up with such people (i.e. crank shaikhs) who have not journeyed even a single step in Tareeqat. They swot of some words about fana and baqa and some shathiyaat (profane words of jaahil sufis) which have no support in either the Qur’aan or Hadith. Then they don a jubbah (cloak of the sufis) and an amaamah. Then they tour the lands of Room, etc. making a show of austerity and silence whilst expecting gifts from the rulers. Generally, a stipend is fixed for them (by the Sultans).

Thus, in this manner do they fill their bellies with haraam for they have acquired such wealth from the rulers by deception.”

Unfortunately, this is precisely the methodology of today’s shaikhs. To promote their khaanqahs. They tour the country and even foreign countries ostentatiously projecting their thikr majaalis to impress and rope in mureeds. Their public thikr majaalis and halqah thikr sessions are the chimera with which they deceive people. They have cronies who prowl around like wolves roping in mureeds for the sheikhs. Some of their moron khalifahs smoke, use profanities and even four-letter vituperations, and have no regard for even Jamaat Salaat, leave alone the Sunnah in their everyday life activities.

Some of these moron, vile khalifahs are even paedophiles and indulge in sodomy even inside the Musjid in the auspicious month of Ramadhaan, in I’tikaaf during the last Ten glorious days and nights. They seek out deceptive ways for communications with female ‘mureedahs’. Invariably they become entrapped in acts of moral turpitude and even zina with their ‘mureedahs’.

To enable themselves to maintain langar khaanahs (public kitchens), and to indulge in sumptuous feasting and merrymaking, the shaikhs of our time bootlick and flatter the wealthy fussaaq traders. They stay in their khaanqah business with their ostentatious public ‘thikr majaalis’ to advertise the idea of their ‘piety’ and having attained lofty spiritual ranks. All of this is to impress the wealthy class to ensure a regular flow of funds to sustain their wasteful and merrymaking khaanqah operations in the name of Tasawwuf.

In this manner they consume haraam, feed their mureeds and others whom they rope in with haraam thereby destroying their dunya and their Aakhirat. Whilst the Sunnah Tareeq of all the Auliya was austerity and extreme frugality, the sheikhs of today have destroyed themselves and others with their gluttonous indulgence in merrymaking, mass I’tikaafs, jalsahs, and deceptive halaqah thikr sessions which have no relationship with the Sunnah. Yet they have the naked audacity of tearing from its context a statement of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) to bolster their baatil and israaf.

Any brand of sufi’ism or tasawwuf which is in conflict with the Sunnah is Satanism. What resemblance does today’s khaanqah akhtari or khaanqah zakariyya or any other khaanqah have with the type of Khaanqah described by Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh)? There is no resemblance whatsoever. On the contrary, the khaanqahs of today are worldly institutions camouflaged with an extremely thin, see-through ‘deeni’ veneer. The reality of the deviation of these khaanqahs is not hidden from intelligent men of even the dunya. 

Addressing one jaahil sufi, such as the sufis of our age, Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“O my Brother! It is Waajib by Ijma’ to rectify Ibaadat in terms of the Zaahir of the Kitaab and Sunnah. A man who does not differentiate between haraam and makrooh is a jaahil. It is not at all permissible to follow a jaahil whether in the Zaahir or Baatin.”

This is the condition of the sheikhs of today’s khaanqahs. They argue away the haraam and makrooh ahkaam of the Shariah to accommodate their nafsaani desires and nafsaani objectives. That is precisely how they justify luring women from their homes to attend their majaalis and merrymaking functions. Truly, this sheikhs who lure females out of their homes in stark conflict with the Shariah’s prohibition are shayaateenul ins (human devils).

Continuing his naseehat, Hadhrat Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“The Salf-e-Saaliheen always stressed the imperative importance of being confined to the Qur’aan and Sunnah. They would emphasize abstention from Bid’ah, and acquit themselves with exceptional harshness in this matter. When Ameerul Mu’mineen, Hadhrat Umar Bin Khattaab (Radhiyallahu anhu) contemplated doing something, and if someone would say that Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) did not do this act in this manner nor did he instruct doing it, he (Hadhrat Umar) would then refrain from it.”

But the sheikhs of today’s khaanqahs become extremely annoyed and even offensive when their attention is drawn to the grossly un-Islamic and anti-Sunnah functions and activities which they have innovated. They seek out flimsy narrations and obscurities to bolster their bid’aat and wasteful functions. One such example is the narration of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) pertaining to thikr majaalis. They ignore the wealth of Naseehat proffered by Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) to sufis, sheikhs, quack shaikhs and bogus khaanqah operators. Not even in their wildest dreams are the present-day khaanqah personnel able to hallucinate the exceptional austerity and frugality which according to Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) are Waajib constituents of Tasawwuf.

The lifestyle of the today’s sheikhs drowned in opulence, in comparison to the advices of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh), is pure shaitaaniyat and nafsaaniyat. These sheikhs of the khaanqahs of our era do not realise that they are filling their bellies with haraam. Their attitudes are haraam. Their functions/jalsahs are haraam. Their thikr majaalis are bid’ah and haraam. They have not even smelt the fragrance of Tasawwuf, leave alone having set foot in this sacred Pathway. But they dig out a narration which they hallucinate to be in support of their bid’ah functions.

The dunya and its attractions have fossilized their brains and their hearts, hence they ignore all the advices of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) which are imperative for the cultivation of roohaaniyat and baseerat, and they gloat over a narration which tenders absolutely no support for their bid’ah halqah thikr sessions. Their khaanqah activities are underlined by worldly and nafsaani objectives, hence they require public thikr programmes, jalsahs, functions and the like to stay in the ‘khaanqah’ business which has become their source of livelihood, not only livelihood, but for amassing wealth. For adding shaitaani colour and adornment to their bid’ah and haraam functions for attracting and entrapping the ignorant and the unwary, they deem it necessary to lure the womenfolk out of their homes for participation in the shaitaaniyat they organize in the name of the Deen. And, they lure the womenfolk out despite the prohibition of the Qur’aan and Ahaadith. The Hadith: “Woman is Aurah. When she emerges, shaitaan lies in ambush for her.”, has absolutely no meaning for these sheikhs who have ruined themselves and countless others whom they have ensnared into their tentacles.

Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (Rahmatullah alayh) as well as other Mashaaikh have said that when Allah Ta’ala desires to humiliate someone, He embroils him in fitnah with women and amaarid (young lads). Both these evils are on the increase with khaanqah and madrasah personnel.

Proffering advice regarding observance of the Sunnah, Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) advises the sheikhs and the sufis: “O my Brother! Follow the Sunnah of Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) in your words and deeds. Do not contemplate doing any act as long as you have not ascertained if it complies with the Sunnah.”

It is incumbent for these sheikhs to ascertain whether their halqah-congregational thikr sessions, their merry making jalsah functions, their mass i’tikaafs, their luring women to attend their functions, etc. conform with the Sunnah or conflict with the Sunnah. For acertitude, they will find no support in the Qur’aan and Sunnah nor in the Tareeq of the Salafus Saaliheen for any of these acts of bid’ah and israaf which they have satanically innovated in this belated 14th century. 


On its website, khaanqah akhtari very ostentatiously advertises its bid’ah ‘ibaadat’ programmes. There is no conundrum underlying their motive of the advertisement. The motive is to attract the juhala to enter the circle of this khaanqah and become mureeds of the sheikh. The advert is most despicable. It has the aur’a of bootlicking and the objective of traders. It is a huge disservice for Tasawwuf and a misguidance for the laymen who will gain a lopsided, oblique understanding of the meaning of Tasawwuf.  

Khaanqah programmes are not meant for public consumption, not even Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) whom this khaanqah akhtari baselessly cites in support of its thikr activities, as well as the innumerable Auliya, never advertised their khaanqahs. They had no programmes to rope in mureeds. There is no support for khaanqah akhtari in Allaamah Sha’raani’s view regarding the Istihbaab of thikr majaalis. Insha-Allah, we shall revert to this topic further on in this Naseehat.

It is indeed lamentably surprising for a khaanqah to go on an advertising campaign to promote its wares, and in this case bid’ah wares which have no origin in the Sunnah. Advertising ‘thikr’ is motivated by riya and other unwholesome objectives such as   the desire to increase the circle of mureeds, receiving contributions for the sheikh’s projects presented in ‘deeni’ hues, etc. Proffering naseehat to sheikhs of the dunya, Hadhrat Hasan Basri (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“Do not be like those who acquire knowledge as the Ulama do, but then you act like the juhala…..The punishment of the Ulama is the death of their (spiritual) hearts.”

What is the meaning of the Maut of the heart? Hadhrat Hasan Basri (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“The Maut of the heart occurs when the dunya is pursued with the Amal of the Aakhirat. By means of the Deen, he (the sheikh) seeks the taqarrub (proximity) of the people of the dunya.”

That is precisely why these khaanqahs of today are advertising themselves, bootlicking the public, luring women out of their homes to attend their bayaans and thikr majaalis, and to even enter into their circles as ‘mureedahs’. The motive for all their advertising is to gain the taqarrub of the people of the dunya. They should hang their heads in shame and scrutinize the innermost recesses of their hearts to understand the eternal damage and destruction they are causing to their dunya and Aakhirat. They are among the worst type of mudhilleen who misguide the juhala, leading them along the pathway to Jahannam.

Hadhrat Fudhail Bin Iyaadh (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “The best Ilm and Amal are those which are concealed from the people.” But these khaanqahs have made it their obligation to gain maximum publicity, hence they utilize the media for promoting themselves. It is unthinkable for people of Tasawwuf to descend to such despicable levels of nafsaaniyat.

Hadhrat Yusuf Bin Asbaat (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “Allah Ta’ala sent Wahi to one of His Nabis: ‘Instruct your people to conceal their A’maal.” 

By advertising himself and his khaanqah, the sheikh is in negation of one of the fundamentals of Tasawwuf, viz. Tark-e-Ikhtilaat (abandoning mingling with people). By advertising themselves, these khaanqah sheikhs of today are seeking the taqarrub of the wealthy. Offering naseehat to the khaanqah advertisers and promoters, Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“Of the akhlaaq of the Salafus Saaliheen was to sever ties with any of their friends who maintained an association with the wealthy without a valid Shar’i motive, e.g. Amr Bil Ma’roof Nahy Anil Munkar. They acted in this manner on the basis of the Hadith which mentions that in Jahannam there is a valley called Muheeb which Allah Ta’ala has prepared for oppressors and the mudaahin Ulama (Ulama who resort to flattering the wealthy, concealing the Haqq and compromising the Haqq for gaining worldly benefits).”

The misguided so-called ‘sufis’ and ‘sheikhs’ of this era dwell in the self-deception of them being zaahids simply because they operate khaanqahs which have in reality no relationship with   genuine khaanqahs of the Auliya of former times. Shaitaan has deceived them into this disbelief. Hadhrat Bilaal Bin Sa’d (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “When a faqeer (buzrug/sheikh of tasawwuf) makes false claims of zuhd, then shaitaan dances around him mocking and jeering him.”

Commenting on the riya of advertising ibaadat, Hadhrat Sufyaan Thauri (Rahmatullah alayh) said: “Riya’ has overwhelmed the Ulama of this age. He makes the ibaadat of people conspicuous for them whilst their baatin is saturated with malice, envy and hatred.”

It is for this reason that despite proclaiming themselves as khaanqah operators and sheikhs of Tasawwuf, they are unable to tolerate valid criticism. Any naseehat regarding their villainous conduct is misconstrued and they and their juhala mureeds who lack the faintest idea of islaah-e-nafs react vindictively and vengefully. Giving naseehat to such hypocritical sheikhs, Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“O my Brother! Examine your nafs. Is it the same inward and outward or not? Recite Istighfaar in abundance. Know that he who advertises himself in conflict with his baatin is a munaafiq. On the Day of Qiyaamat, he will be cast into the pit of the munaafiqeen.”

Whereas the Mahshaaikh of Tasawwuf incumbently adopted seclusion and despised publicity, today’s claimants of Tasawwuf are the very opposite in all fields of Tasawwuf. Publicity, projecting and advertising themselves were extremely abhorrent to the Mashaaikh of the genuine Khaanqahs. Hadhrat Sufyaan Thauri (Rahmatullah alayh) said 13 centuries ago:

“Rare are the Ulama who are able to abstain from ujub (vanity/self-esteem), whose circle of dars is large.”

He would not allow more than three persons to sit in his dars. One day, due to oblibviousness (ghaflat) in this regard, he was overcome with fear when he suddenly noticed the largeness of the gathering. Overcome with fear, he left the gathering and commented: “Alas! I have become trapped in my ignorance. Wallaah! If Ameerul Mu’mineen Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) had to see a person like me in such a gathering, he would immediately expel me and informed be of my disqualification.”

While teaching Hadith, if a cloud would pass overhead, he would become silent with fear, and would comment: “I fear that perhaps the cloud is laden with stones for raining on us.”

Once when Hadhrat Ta-oos (Rahmatullah alayh), was sitting in the Haram of Makkah imparting Hadith to a huge circle of people, Hadhrat Hasan Basri (Rahmatullah alayh) passed by. Observing this scene, he approached Hadhrat Ta-oos and whispered in his ear: “If this scene pleases you, then get up and walk away.” Hadhrat Ta-oos (Rahmatullah alayh) spontaneously rose and left. He had momentarily gazed into his heart and discerned the hidden thief of ujub to which Hadhrat Basri (Rahmatullah alayh) had alerted him, hence he ignored the huge crowd, immediately discontinued his dars without apologizing or explaining and departed. That was the demand of the Ikhlaas of an illustrious Sufi Shaikh of Tasawwuf.

Once when Hadhrat Ibraahim Bin Adham (Rahmatullah Alayh) passed by the halqah-e-dars of Hadhrat Bishr Haafi (Rahmatullah alayh), he detested the large circle of mureeds and students, and he said: “If this was the halqah of even a Sahaabi, he would have had the fear of ujub.” 

In the Qur’aan Majeed, Allah Ta’ala says:

“Verily, those who conceal the clear injunctions of guidance which We have revealed after We have explained it for the people in the Kitaab, verily they are the ones whom Allah curses and those who curse (also) curse them.”

Commenting on this Aayat, Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (Radhiyallahu anhu) said: “If this Aayat had not been in the Kitaab of Allah, I would never have narrated Hadith to you.”

The Mashaaikh of the Salafus Saaliheen as well as our Akaabireen who followed in the footsteps of the early Mashaaikh, were vehemently averse to publicity. But the sheikhs of today’s mock khaanqahs depart from even the Zaahiri dimension of Siraatul Mustaqeem to promote and advertise themselves, their khaanqahs and their bid’ah activities. They promote bid’ah as if it is the Sunnah, and this is a sign of Qiyaamah. In this regard, the Hadith states:

“Soon will there dawn an age when all the Aabideen (buzrugs such as today’s khaanqah sheikhs and khalifahs) will be jaahil, and all the Ulama will be fussaaq (such as the ulama-e-soo’ of our age.)”

Khaanqah akhtari and khaanqah zakariyya which are in the forefront of advertising and promoting themselves should resort to some sincere soul-searching in the mirror of the naseehat and lifestyle of the genuine Mashaaikh of the Salaasil which they claim to represent. We say without hesitation that they are a disgrace to the Akaabireen whom they claim to be following.

What is the affinity between Tasawwuf and publicity? From whence did they acquire the shaitaaniyat of advertising khaanqahs and ‘thikr’ activities? Personal Ibaadat and khaanqah activities are private affairs to be effected in seclusion. It is abhorrent and evil to advertise ibaadat as if it is carrion chickens advertised by SANHA, MJC and the other vile, corrupt agents of Iblees. We warn these khaanqas that they too are becoming entrapped in the tentacles of shaitaan to become his agents.

Among the outstanding characteristics of the Mashaaikh was khalwat (seclusion) and abhorrence for publicity. The desire for publicity is motivated by riya and other despicable worldly and nafsaani objectives. The ‘khaanqah’ which advertises its weekly and nightly programmes of thikr is not a true Khaanqah in the meaning of the Khaanqahs of Tasawwuf of the Auliya of former times and even of our Akaabireen. In fact, observing the absolutely lackadaisical attitude and conduct of mureeds, Hadhrat Masihullah (Rahmatullah alayh) commenting about his own Khaanqah said: “This is not a khaanqah. It is a mehmaan khaanqah. (i.e. a place for guests/visitors).”

Once when Hadhrat Masihullah (Rahmatullah alayh) went to Saharanpur, he went to meet Hadhrat Shaikh Zakariyya (Rahmatullah alayh). On this occasion, Hadhrat Shaikh was reclining on his bed with two or three khaadims at his bedside. When Hadhrat Masihullah (Rahmatullah alayh) entered the room, Hadhrat Shaikh sat up. He was ma’zoor in his legs and unable to walk. He ordered his khaadims to leave the room. Then he beckoned to Hadhrat Masihullah to come near. When Hadhrat Masihullah was close to him, Hadhrat Zakariyya grabbed him in an embrace and cried profusely, saying: “Take care of the khaanqah. Today the khaanqahs are all desolate/destroyed (weeraan).” This writer heard this episode directly from Hadhrat Masihullah (Rahmatullah alayh). Yes, today’s khaanqahs are mock ‘khaanqahs’ – a disgrace to Tasawwuf and the Akaabireen.

(3) Is the khaanqah a hotel?
The akhtari ‘khaanqah’ advertises with pride: “Many local and foreign brothers spend the entire Ramadaan at the Khaanqah…. Brothers are requested to bring their own bedding. All meals are provided. The Khaanqah also offers a laundry service weekly. Parking facilities for cars are available. Brothers that are arriving by air or by bus can also be picked up if arrangements are made prior to arrival.”

The only ‘laundry service’ a true Khaanqah offers is to purify the nafs from Akhlaaq-e-Razeelah (the evil, despicable attributes if the nafs). But this ‘khaanqah’ has been effectively converted into a type of holiday inn. People are coming for picnicking or camping to this holiday inn-khaanqah. What affinity is there between a khaanqah which has to cater for the acquisition of the Maqaasid of the Aakhirat, and all this merrymaking paraphernalia befitting only hotels and other worldly institutions?

Is there any condonation for these type of holiday-picnicking activities in any of the writings of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh), or in the writings of our Akaabireen or in the Ahaadith or Qur’aan?

The one and only activity of a khaanqah is Islaah of the Nafs. The obligation of the Shaikh who operates a khaanqah is to attend to the moral reformation of his mureeds; to cultivate zuhd in them; to weaken their worldly ties and to strengthen the bond with Allah Ta’ala. In a khaanqah the ta’leem and tarbiyat are divestment of the dunya. A khaanqah gives real meaning to Rasulullah’s description of the dunya, namely: “This dunya is jeefah (carrion).” But these khaanqahs of today are the very antithesis of the Objective for which Allah Ta’ala has sent the Ambiyaa (Alayhimus salaam). Did any Nabi ever operate a holiday inn type of ‘khaanqah’?

A khaanqah is not supposed to hanker after public funds and seeking donations to feed and house guests, and to ensure merrymaking and picnicking facilities for local and foreign brothers. It is evil to use these strategies for roping in people to become mureeds. Even their majaalis activities are designed for soothing the nafs of people, to flatter them and to gain worldly benefits from them.

The emphasis accorded to these bid’ah activities is not directed to the Masnoon acts of Ibaadat. A khaanqah has no ‘slots’ and no ‘programmes’. A khaanqah is supposed to be akin to Ghaar-e-Hirah. But under the exceptionally flimsy ‘khaanqah’ veneer, the holiday inn and worldly objectives are being pursued. Nowhere in Allaamah Sha’raani’s writings is there the slightest support for the activities which these mock ‘khaanqahs’ organize to lure men and women into their nafsaani tentacles.

The mass, mock i’tikaaf is the climax in their entertainment programme. Whereas the last ten days and nights of the Mubaarak Month of Ramadhaan are the most precious moments for total immersion in Ibaadat, the holiday-khaanqahs violate the sanctity of the Musjid and the auspicious Days and Nights with merrymaking, gluttony mock programmes which have neither origin nor sanction in the Sunnah.

All four fundamentals of Tasawwuf are insidiously discarded and despite being in a Musjid environment, the aur’a of the jeefah of the dunya preponderates. The style of operation of this holiday inn-khaanqah militates against these four fundamentals: 

• Qillat-e-Kalaam (Little/less talk) • Qillat-e-Ta’aam (Little/less food) • Qillat-e-Ikhtilaat (Little/less mingling/association with people) • Qillat-e-Manaam (Little/less sleep)

Every act advertised by khaanqah akhtari is nugatory of these fundamental requisites of Tasawwuf which khaanqahs are supposed to diligently and vigorously impart and cultivate.

The khaanqah has totally lost the direction. Instead of attending to the laundry of the nafs – of the Baatin, it has taken upon itself the profession of dhobis (washer  men) to wash the dirty clothes of people. The maudhoo of a khaanqah is to wash and purify the nafs, not the physical clothes.

A khaanqah has to develop the Rooh/Baatin with spiritual nourishment by adorning mureeds with Akhlaaq-e-Hameedah which is not possible without stringent adoption of the Sunnah and the Zaahiri Shariah.  The Bid’ah, khuraafaat (nonsensical activities), the merrymaking and picnicking bloat the nafs and emaciate the Rooh.  


Among the conglomeration of baatil organized by the holiday inn-khaanqah is its diabolical luring of women out of their homes in stark contradiction with the Shariah. Under ‘deeni’ cover, the women are exhorted to participate in the picnicking activities of the mock khaanqah. The so-called ‘separate ladies facilities’ are flagrant fisq and fujoor. It is an insidious attempt to bestow ‘deeni’ acceptability and respectability to an act which is abhorrent to Allah Ta’ala and His Rasool (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam).  

The ‘separate ladies facilities’ are a disingenuous attempt to camouflage the fisq and fujoor of the haraam act of luring women out of their homes. What does the sheikh sahib of this khaanqah say regarding the question of women coming to the Musjid for Salaat. We believe that hitherto he is still of the opinion that it is not permissible. If our understanding is correct, then we ask him: By what stretch of Imaani logic do you invite women to come out of their homes in droves to attend your merrymaking khaanqah programmes? Have you eliminated every vestige of Imaani ghairat and hayaa in the pursuit of achieving your nafsaani goals?

Since the akhtari khaanqah has taken the liberty of attempting to justify its bid’ah majaalis thikr on the basis of a statement of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah), it devolves on the sheikh of this khaanqah to discover what Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) says on the issue of women attending the Musjid and on female emergence on the whole. Furthermore, it will have a salutary effect on the hearts of the khaanqah people if they study with Ikhlaas the numerous and lofty requisites of a khaanqah explained by Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) in a number of his spiritually reinvigorating kutub. It is chicanery and deception to dig out from his kutub only the view pertaining to thikr majaalis. Sufis are not supposed to conduct themselves like humbug politicians who are bereft of any principles.

The sheikh, we are sure, will accept that despite women attending the Musjid during the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam), the Sahaabah banned them. They cancelled this initial permissibility despite their age being Khairul Quroon (the Best of Ages) when the highest degree of Taqwa flourished. What satanism has now constrained the sheikh to lure women from their homes in this belated evil era of fitnah and fasaad to attend his holiday inn-khaanqah activities?

Only a veritable shaitaan will today claim that women attending these deceptive ‘deeni’ programmes and functions will emerge in the state of Tafilah (dressed like old hags, shabbily and smelly). They emerge from their homes decorated with their finery and well-perfumed, and deceiving the world with bright and sparkling abayas. So many of them simply slip in behind the driving wheel and drive to the haraam functions and programmes of the deviant sheikhs. These driving aunts are mal-oonat (on whom is Allah’s curse) according to the Hadith.

What has happened to the Aql and Imaan of a sheikh who exhorts women to emerge from their homes to attend his programmes when Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had said: “Woman is (totally) aurah. When she emerges, shaitaan lies in ambush for her.” When the Qur’aan commands: “Remain (glued) inside your homes…”, what constrains a sheikh who   advertises himself as a sheikh of Tasawwuf to flagrantly violate this prohibition and insidiously call on women to attend his programmes? Indeed the sheikh has lost the path and is following in the footsteps of shaitaan.

Every argument which this sheikh, the liberal gumrah molvis and modernists fabricate for not only condoning female emergence, but for blatantly overriding the prohibitions of the Shariah by treacherously luring and exhorting women into the public domain has been adequately   answered and refuted by us in six booklets on the topic of women attending the Musjid. Anyone interested in these books, may write for copies. The books are also available on our website.

While the emphasis of the Qur’aan and Hadith is on concealment of women, the mock khaanqahs of today advocate display and self-expression for them. Wala houla wa la quwwata…..  This trend of promoting jahl and baatil by supposedly Deeni personnel will be on the increase with the approach of Qiyaamah as predicted by Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). “All the aabideen (buzrugs/ Sufis / sheikhs of khaanqahs) will be juhala, and all the ulama will be fussaaq.”

There is no support in the writings of Allaamah Sha’raani nor in any of the writings of the Salafus Saaliheen and our Akaabireen for the convoluted view of the khaanqah sheikh regarding his exhortation to women to abandon their homes for participating in his deviant, bid’ah, haraam ‘khaanqah’ programmes.


The only shred of ‘evidence’ the akhtari khaanqah has proffered in the attempt to sustain its bid’ah thikr programmes is a view attributed to Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh). This is a flapdoodle ‘proof’ for the bid’ah thikr gatherings which the khaanqahs of today organize.

While khaanqah akhtari seeks to extravasate daleel from the view expressed by Allaamah Sha’raani in the 10th century of Islam, we present the categorical view of Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) who was one of the most senior among the Sahaabah. His Fatwa precedes and pre-empts Allaamah Sha’raani’s view by six centuries and by the authority vested in him by Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). He was among the most senior Sahaabah. He was constantly in the company of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). He was among the greatest Authorities of the Shariah.

When Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) was once informed of a thikr majlis taking place in the Musjid, he hastened to the Musjid and had the ‘khaanqah’ group of bid’atis physically expelled from the Musjid.

Once Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) was informed of a group of people engaging in a peculiar form of Thikr. The leader of the group instructed his companions to recite Laa-ilaha illaallaahu 100 times. Then in chorus the group recited. Then he instructed them to recite Subhaanallaah, then Allaahu Akbar, each 100 times. This they did in unison. Meanwhile they were counting the number with pebbles. Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu), addressing them said:

“Use the pebbles to count your sins. I guarantee that none of your virtuous deeds will be destroyed (by counting your sins). Alas! O Ummah of Muhammad! (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). How swiftly have you fallen in ruin! The Sahaabah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) are still numerous in your presence. The garments of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) have not become old and his unbroken utensils are still present. But you have opened the door of deviation.” (Musnad-e-Daarmi)

Allaamah Qaadhi Ibraahim narrates as follows:

“I am Abdullah Bin Mas’ood. I take oath by Him (Allah) besides whom there is no deity. Verily, you have produced a dark bid’ah or you have surpassed the Ashaab of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).”, i.e. in knowledge and practice” (Majaalisul Abraar)

Shaikhul Islam Ibn Daqeeq presents the riwaayat as follows: “I am Ibn Mas’ood. So, whoever knows me, knows who I am. Whoever does not know me, then know that I am Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood. Do you think that you are more guided than Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and his Ashaab? Verily, you have innovated a dark bid’ah, or you have acquired greater status in knowledge than the Ashaab of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).” Ibn Mas’ood has refuted this act notwithstanding the probability of it coming within the scope of Thikr in general.”  (Ahkaamul Ahkaam)

Allaamah Muhammad Bin Muhammad Al-Khawaarzami narrates:

“Thikr bil Jahr is haraam since it has been authentically reported that Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) had expelled a group from the Musjid. They were reciting Tahleel and Durood loudly, and he commented: ‘I deem you to be nothing but mubtadieen (bid’atis).” (Shaami)

Although the sheikh of the akhtari khaanqah is well aware of this episode, he deems it appropriate to cast a blind eye and to sweep it under the carpet. In his grossly deviant understanding, the 10th century view has greater veracity than the unequivocal Fatwa of prohibition of this illustrious Sahaabi who had given practical effect to his Fatwa with physical expulsion from the Musjid of the gang of bid’atis who sought to override the Sunnah of the Sahaabah with their newly innovated thikr majlis.
Furthermore, the Qur’aan and the Fatwa of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullah alayh) explicitly proclaim such audible / loud thikr gatherings to be haraam. Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullah alayh) ruled that it is haraam to raise the voice in the Musjid with thikr and even with Tilaawat of the Qur’aan.
Despite many Ahaadith mentioning the virtues of Thikrullaah, there is not a single episode of loud thikr gatherings in the Musjid organized by any Sahaabah. While the akhtari khaanqah seeks daleel in the 10th century, the real Daleel for a practice is in the first century in the lives of the Sahaabah and in the rulings of the Aimmah Mujtahideen.

We have, Alhamdulillah, discussed and explained the issue of Thikrullaah in great detail in our book, Thikrullah in the Mirror of the Sunnah. Whoever is interested, may write for a copy. It is also available on our website.

It should also be understood that the type of thikr mentioned by Allaamah Sha’raani was free from all the khuraafaat which khaanqah akhtari, khaanqah zakariyya and the other mock khaanqahs of today have innovated. In fact, these mock khaanqahs are merrymaking, picnicking institutions which are guilty of perpetrating flagrant fisq and fujoor with their penchant for women. They despicably lure women out of their homes to participate in public programmes. They should hang their heads in shame!

Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) did not promote these modern-day khaanqah programmes. Whoever makes a study of his kutub will know the lofty degree of austerity, Zuhd and Taqwa which he propagated. There is not a single one of his teachings which can be found in khaanqah akhtari which specializes in feasting, merrymaking, entertainment and bid’ah programmes involving even women.

The akhtari khaanqah has also quoted selectively from Raddul Muhtaar. In the very same paragraph, Shaami mentions that raising the voice with thikr is haraam. Thus, it appears:

“Raising the voice with thikr: The statement of the Author of Al-Bazaaziyah is perplexing (confusing) on this issue. Sometimes he says that it is haraam, and sometimes he says that it is permissible.

Here are two separate issues: One – Raf’us saut, i.e. raising the voice when making thikr. Two – Public thikr gatherings. On the first issue (audible thikr), the rulings are widely divergent, vacillating between Haraam and Mustahab. There are different Ahaadith on this issue, hence the conflicting rulings of the Fuqaha. But this is not our topic of discussion in this article which is intended to refute the thikr gatherings of the akhtari khaanqah.

There is valid basis in the Hadith for audible thikr, i.e. pure thikr in general without innovated paraphernalia such as the form (hayt-e-kathaaiyyah) which constrained Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) to brand the group of thaakireen as ‘bid’atis’ and expel them from the Musjid. However, there is no basis for the type of public thikr gatherings innovated by khaanqah akhtari, khaanqah zakariyya and the other mock khaanqahs of this age.

The ‘istihbaab’ mentioned by Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) in this context does not mean Sunnah. There is no basis in the Sunnah for such public gatherings even of the pure ones devoid of bid’ah accretions which Allaamah Sha’raani describes as ‘mustahab’.

An act of the Sunnah can be Mustahab in the technical meaning of the term given to it by the Fuqaha. Acts which are technically Mustahab are all Sunnah acts. There is a basis in the Sunnah for it. However, even such Sunnah acts have to be abandoned when bid’ah practices and forms have become attached. The principle of Tarkus Sunnah (abandoning Sunnah) when it is bedevilled with bid’ah, is well known. The molvis of the khaanqahs despite being aware of this principle, deliberately innovate bid’ah activities which have absolutely no basis in the Sunnah. That is precisely why khaanqah akhtari scrounges for proof in the 10th century, instead of in the 1st century, and in substantiation of its bid’ah thikr majaalis produces Allaamah Sha’raani’s view in which there is no condonation for the bid’ah types of thikr gatherings which lure women into the public domain, and which spawn merrymaking and feasting, etc.

Istihbaab’ in the context mentioned by Allaamah Sha’raani does not refer to technical Mustahab which is also Sunnah. The term regarding the thikr sessions mentioned by Allaamah Sha’raani has a literal meaning, which simply means good, preferable, meritorious. The statement: “The Ulema of former and latter times have agreed that Zikrullah in the Masjid in a gathering and other places is Mustahab….”, is not borne out by the Sunnah. The ‘Ulema of latter times” mentioned here do not include the Sahaabah nor the Ulama, Fuqaha and Aimmah Mujtahideen of the Salafus Saaliheen era (Khairul Quroon). There is simply no substantiation for claiming that the ‘Salaf’ in the context of Allaamah Sha’raani’s statement also includes the Ulama of Khairul Quroon. If it had, khaanqah akhtari would not have contented itself with a 10th century view.

There is not a single incident of the Sahaabah having engaged in the kind of public/Musjid thikr majlis programmes. On the contrary, the episode of the illustrious Sahaabi, Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) expelling the new, bid’ah form of thikr majlis, unknown to the Sahaabah, is well known. The Sahaabah – all of them – were most vehement in their rejection of the slightest form of innovation in Ibaadat and in the Deen. It will serve the khaanqahs immense Deeni benefit if they would, instead of citing the belated, ambiguous view of the 10th century Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh), to reflect on the attitude and action of Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) to enable them to bring their errant khaanqahs in line with the Sunnah. However, since these bid’ati sheikhs do not discern any nafsaani glamour in the pure and simple practices of the Sunnah, they cling like leeches to bid’ah, and worse, they mislead the people into believing that their bid’ah is Sunnah, but for which they lack even a vestige of evidence.

The attempt to present bid’ah as Sunnah has also been predicted in the Hadith. Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) narrated to a group of people (Sahaabah as well as Taabieen):

“How will you be when you are engulfed by such a fitnah which will render the elderly senile and the young ones old? The people will adopt the fitnah (bid’ah) as if it is Sunnah. If anything from it (the bid’ah) is omitted, they will say that a Sunnat has been deleted.” The people asked: “When will that happen?” He answered:

When your Ulama (the Ulama-e-Haqq) have departed (from the dunya); when your qaaris are in abundance; when your Fuqaha are few; when your rulers are numerous; when your trustworthy ones are few; when the dunya will be pursued with the amal of the Aakhirah, and when Knowledge (of the Deen) will be acquired for purposes other than the Deen.”

What has been predicted in this Hadith as well as in many other narrations is what is transpiring today. The Madaaris, the khaanqahs and the Deeni institutions such as the Tabligh Jamaat, are all pursuing nafsaani and worldly objectives under the deception of a ‘deeni’ veneer.

It should be understood that the target of our criticism is not Raf’us saut bith Thikr (audible thikrullaah). That is an entirely different topic which we have explained in detail in our book, Thikrullaah In The Mirror Of The Sunnah. However, for total lack of Shar’i evidence to substantiate their bid’aat and khuraafaat, the khaanqah miscreants seek to pull wool over the eyes of the ignorant and unwary with the audible thikr red herring. Since there is some scope for bolstering the argument in this regard, they create the erroneous idea of us propagating the view of the total prohibition of audible thikr, and of the thikr practices of the genuine Auliya of former times. But this idea is baseless.

The thrust of our criticism is directed to the forms of merrymaking, bid’ah programmes which these lifeless khaanqahs bereft of roohaaniyat (spirituality) are advertising in the same way as the modernist, deviant zanaadaqah are advertising their many baatil and haraam functions of fisq, fujoor, bid’ah and kufr, using the media for such haraam promotion. The life of a khaanqah is one of seclusion and privacy in which the spirit and ethos of Ghaar-e-Hira should be diffused. We advise the sheikhs of these modern ‘khaanqahs’ to study the kutub of the Auliya, e.g. Qasaul Auliya, Tadhkaratul Auliya, etc. Insha-Allah, they will gain considerable Islaahi advice and direction from such Mutaala-ah.

Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) was of the Shaafi’ Math-hab. Among the Shaafis there is some inclination to group forms of thikr. Thus, such thikr pertaining to Takbeer Tashreeq (The Eid Takbeers) is valid whereas it is bid’ah for the Ahnaaf, hence not permissible. Whereas this type of Thikr is valid for Shaafis and Hambalis even in the roads and in the bazaars on the occasion of Eid, it is not permissible for Hanafis. It is therefore, unbecoming and improper for the akhtari khaanqah to present the view of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh). Daleel should be presented from the Sahaabah and the Fuqaha of the Ahnaaf.

For Hanafi consumption, it is not permissible to proffer the view of the Shaafi Fuqaha for congregational and loud Thikr inside the Musjid pertaining to the Takbeer on the Day of Eid. The muqallid will be acting perfidiously if he resorts to this line of baseless argument in his abortive attempt to substantiate a practice which according to our Math-hab is bid’ah.

Furthermore, the congregational forms of Thikr of the Shaafis and Hambalis are not a basis for the merrymaking programmes which these miscreant khaanqahs organize. In the thikr majaalis of the Shaafis, the haraam activities of luring women from their homes, the feasting and merrymaking do not feature. Also, the audible thikr practice of the Auliya of our Chishti Silsilah pertain to individual thikr, not thikr in group form. Thus the Rafu’us Saut permitted by the genuine Khaanqahs of our Silsilah, has absolutely no resemblance to the group bid’ah which these wayward khaanqahs of today are practising. These are two widely different practices.

For direction in Ibaadat, it is not permissible to search for guidance in practices which even the Auliyaa had introduced ages and centuries after Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Collective/congregational forms of thikr as practiced by the deviated khaanqahs did not constitute part of the Ibaadat of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahaabah. Is the example of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) inadequate for us? By the implication of the innovations the khaanqahs of today, the Sunnah is indeed insufficient and needs to be ‘adorned’ and ‘improved’, and this is precisely the meaning of bid’ah dhalaalah (deviant innovation) which leads to the Fire. We again stress that the objection is not against Thikrullaah. Objection against Thikrullah is kufr. The objection is against the bid’ah forms of thikr.

Describing the reprehensibility of the bid’ah kind of congregational forms of thikr in the Musaajid, Tafseer Ruhul Ma’aani states:

“You will see numerous from the people of your age screaming in dua, specially in the Jawaami’ (public Musjids where the masses at large attend). So much so that there prevails much noise and the ears are deafened. However, they do not know that they have combined two bid’ahs – raising the voice in dua and doing that in the Musjid.”

Regarding the khaanqah type collective forms of loud thikr which have degenerated into Bid’ah, Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (Rahmatullah alayh) offers the following advice: “In their letters, even men who have a high degree of sincerity mention their constancy in Thikr (i.e. the prescribed forms of Thikr). They request for dua. It seems that to them islaah of the nafs is insignificant. They regard Thikr (khaanqah-type Thikr) and shaghl to be the actual aim (maqsood) to be pursued. On the contrary, Islaah is the true objective. Thikr facilitates the achievement of Islaah of the Nafs. – Malfoothaat

Criticizing the degeneration of the khaanqahs of this era, Hakimul Ummat states: “Our Haji Sahib (rahmatullah alayh) said: ‘A principle of the Mashaaikh of former times was the impartation of ta’leem to persons in accordance with their ability. For some, they devised domestic work, and on others they imposed some different type of activity. (It is not always these specific forms of Thikr). Now it has become the norm to instruct everyone with the Thikr of Ism-e-Zaat (Allaahu) 24,000 times, whether the poor soul survives or perishes. In fact, they do not even confine themselves to this form of Thikr. They dole out whatever comes to mind.”

“Even with regard to Dalaail-e-Khairaat, I draw the attention of my friends to the considerable time required to recite a lengthy manzil (chapter). Instead of this, the same amount of time should be spent rather reciting the Durood Shareef which the entire Ummah recites in Salaat. Furthermore, this Durood was prescribed by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).” – Malfoothaat

On the issue of the lifeless, innovated forms of congregational and loud thikr programmes of the miscreant khaanqahs of the age, Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“Sometimes when one suffers from spiritual ailments, e.g. ujub, takabbur, riya, etc., then abundance of athkaar and auraad (the type of non-Masnoon Thikr practices of the khaanqahs) worsens the diseases. The need is for mujaahadah (struggling against the nafs) so that one does not become the victim of show and pride after having rendered a good deed. Islaah (reformation) has priority over athkaar and auraad.

The Mutaqaddimeen Sufiya paid particular heed to moral reformation. However, nowadays people are not concerned with this essential requisite. Despite staying in the company of Mashaaikh and devoting time to Thikr and shaghl, moral reformation is not achieved. The spiritual diseases remain uncured. The mureed on seeing some dreams considers himself to be a wali. It should be well understood that the habit of sinning cannot co-exist with wilaayat (sainthood).

In every halqah (group) when customs become overwhelming, haqaaiq (truths and realties) are overshadowed. The Maqsood of Sulook (Tasawwuf) is not auraad and ashghaal. Although these acts facilitate the obtainal of the Maqsad, the objective is self-reformation. As long as moral reformation has not been achieved, the full efficacy of auraad and ashghaal will not be attained. In fact, sometimes, on account of ujub and kibr, these (khaanqah) auraad and ashghaal constitute dangers.” – Malfoothaat

“Alas! Nowadays people (i.e. the mashaaikh) are unaware of the Maqsood. Khilaafat (appointing a khalifah) no longer has a standard. What service (i.e. of guiding mureeds) can they render? In fact, they (these unqualified dumb khalifahs) come within the scope of the Hadith: “They are astray and they lead others astray.” On account of their fossilized minds, they lack discernment.”

“When Tasawwuf becomes corrupt, it is transformed into either insanity or hereticism (zindaqah). When a delicate object decomposes, its stench is intense.”

“The Mashaaikh generally instruct their mureeds to engage more in (certain forms of) Thikr than in tilaawat of the Qur’aan Majeed although tilaawat is superior. The reason for this is that in the initial stage the emphasis is on cultivating concentration. This is the special effect of Thikr.

The prescription of Thikr is in fact the preliminary step of tilaawat. When the ability of concentration has been acquired, the mureed will be able to recite the Qur’aan Majeed with perfection. The ultimate aim of Thikr is tilaawat of the Qur’aan Shareef. Once the necessary concentration has been developed, the mureed will engage more in tilaawat. What the unqualified spiritual guides do and teach, is beyond the scope of this discussion.”  – Malfoothaat

“The Mashaaikh of former times paid great attention to reformation of moral character. They underwent intense struggles and hardships to achieve this goal. Some worked for years in bathrooms; some spent years in the wilderness. During those times they did not pay much attention to (khaanqah-type) Thikr and shaghl. Their courage and resolve were great. They could bear the severest hardship. The Baarah Tasbeeh Thikr (the 12 prescribed tasbeehs – non-Sunnah) was considered to be very advanced while nowadays this is the elementary instruction issued to mureeds.”

The following is an extract from a lengthy Fatwa of Hadhrat Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (Rahmatullah alayh) regarding the bid’ah hait (form) fabricated by the deviant so-called ‘sufis; who have no understanding of Tasawwuf and its objectives:

It is mentioned in Aalamgheeriyah (Fataawa Hindiyyah): ‘The practice which is done after Salaat is Makrooh because the juhhaal (ignoramuses) will believe it to be Sunnat or even Waajib. Every Mubah (permissible practice) which leads to this is Makrooh. So is it reported in Az-Zaahidi.’

Thus, it is bid’at to make Thikr in this manner despite Thikr per se of Kalimah Tayyibah with jahr being permissible. However, at this occasion this hai’t is not proven from Quroon-e-Thalaathah. On the contrary, this is an occasion of Ikhfa’, hence it is bid’at. Furthermore, in this practice there is the danger of corrupting the Aqeedah (belief) of the masses. And Allah knows best.” – End of Hadhrat Gangohi’s dissertation. (Tazkiratur Rasheed)

The actual purpose of these bid’ah thikr gatherings in the Musaajid nowadays, is roping in the ignoramuses to become mureeds. This is a contemptible disease of the khaanqah sheikhs of our era. 

The corruption is intense among the sheikhs and their khalifahs in our day. Loud collective Thikr programmes are promoted. The sheikh goes on tours campaigning for collective Thikr performances in the Musaajid, and canvassing for mureeds. Indeed they are astray and mislead others as the Hadith says. Commenting on the despicable campaigning of the ‘sufis’ of this age, Hakimul Ummat said:

“In this age there exists the disease of canvassing for mureeds. A mureed strives to rope in others to become the disciples of his sheikh.”

Commenting on the bid’ah forms of thikr gatherings in the Musaajid, Hadhrat Maulana Mahmudul Hasan Gangohi (Rahmatullah alayh), whom the wayward, unqualified sheikhs of the mock khaanqahs love to quote, says in response to a question:

Question: There is a practice of reciting Durood Shareef jahran after Jumuah Namaaz and also in other neighbourhoods this practice is observed. Durood Shareef, Tasbeeh, Tahleel and Takbeer are recited in Ijtimaai (congregational) form, jahran (audibly). One Faadhil (Aalim) of Deoband explained to me that according to Shaami this practice is not bid’at. This person (the Deobandi Molvi) said by way of objection (i.e. objecting to the claim that it is bid’ah) that the Thikr which Naazim Saahib makes in Mazaahirul Uloom after Asr is a form and a time which he has himself fixed. Why is that not bid’ah? He also says that it has been the practice of the buzrugs of the recent past and now of their khulafa to gather their mureedeen in the Musjid to make Thikr-e-jali (audible Thikr). They instruct and exhort their mureedeen to do this. How is this?

(N.B  This is exactly the methodology of the venerable Mufti Radhaaul Haq Sahib’s argumentation. He has argued in similar style in support of loud collective Thikr in the Musaajid.)

Answering this question, Hadhrat Mufti Mahmudul Hasan Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) states in his Fataawa:

“Durood Shareef in both ways – sirran and jahran – is permissible and a medium of spiritual progress and divine proximity. Reciting it (Durood Shareef) on Friday is specifically emphasised. But, to recite it jahran in Ijtimaai’ form (loud collective form) is not substantiated by the Hadith and Fiqh. The Sahaabah Kiraam would congregate five times a day in the Musjid. Besides the Salaat times, they found abundant opportunities to congregate in both safar (journey) and hadhr (i.e. not on a journey). But, nowhere is it proven that it was their ma’mool (practice) to recite ijtimaa-an jahran (collectively and loudly).

Even if one recites infiraadan (alone), then too when reciting audibly, it is necessary to refrain from disturbing anyone. For example, someone may be engaging in performing Salaat or he may be sleeping. Furthermore, there should be no (worldly or nafsaani) motive for reciting audibly. The motive should also  not be riya and aggrandizement. The greatest ibaadat is unacceptable if the niyyat is corrupt…………

If in some place there is a practice to recite a fixed number at specific times, then that will be the amal of the Mashaaikh. It will not be Hujjat e-Shar’iyyah (Proof of the Shariah). Following it is not incumbent. However, since the Mashaaikh were followers of the Shariah, their practice should be appropriately interpreted to avoid it being in conflict with the Shariah and within the confines of bid’ah. The interpretation for this is:

A doctor prescribes a fixed amount of medicine to be taken at fixed times by a patient. This is not a command or ibaadat. It is a remedy based on the experience of the practitioner. Anyone who does not follow this, is not sinful by Allah Ta’ala. If he follows the guidance of the practitioner, he will, Insha’Allah, be cured. The special form of Thikr in which there is a fixed amount and a specific form of dharb (striking head movements) is of this category. With changing conditions (of mureedeen), the form of this Thikr too changes. Sometimes, this jahr and dharb are completely abandoned. The condition of specific forms of khatam is the same.” (Fataawa Mahmudiyyah, Vol.15)

There is no difference of opinion among our Akaabireen on the issue of specific forms of thikr innovated in the Musaajid being Bid’ah. The crank sheikhs of these khaanqahs have made their bid’ah forms of congregational thikr the Maqsood of Tasawwuf. Their understanding in this regard is absolutely corrupt and portrays their incompetence for operating khaanqahs. All of them are person’a non grata according to the Shariah. They are themselves astray and mislead others.

These khaanqah programmes advertised so ostensibly are a disingenuous scheme for promoting nafsaaniyat and worldly objectives – “for gaining the dunya with the amal of the Aakhirat” as predicted by Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

Before ending this Naseehat, we urge all sincere seekers of the Haqq to study with an open mind and a heart desirous of gaining Allah’s Proximity, our book, THIKRULLAH IN THE MIRROR OF THE SUNNAH. This subject has been explained in detailed from every angle and all aspects have been elaborately presented.


The presentation of Allaamah Sha’raani’s statement as the basis for the bid’ah and baatil structure which the akhtari khaanqah has attempted to raise, is actually a red herring to divert attention from the Dalaa-il of the Shariah. Since the khaanqah personnel lack in entirety in valid Shar’i Daleel, they seek refuge in a saying of the 10th century Shaafi’ Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh).

Even minus the many other Shar’i arguments which we have presented in this brief treatise, it will suffice to scale the issue of the khaanqah bid’ah on the view, statements and action of Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu). This very senior Sahaabi was so close to Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) that the senior Sahaabi, Hadhrat Musa Ash’ari (Radhiyallahu anhu) and others thought that he (Ibn Mas’ood) was a member of Nabi’s household. It was his beloved task to carry the sandals and the wudhu jug of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). On the night when Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) visited the abode of the Jinn to deliver the Deen to them, Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) had been with our Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

About Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu), Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:    

* “If I had to appoint a Khalifah without consulting anyone, I would certainly appoint over them (the people) Abdallah Ibn Mas’ood.”

* “Acquire the Qur’aan from four (Sahaabah): Ibn Umm Abd (i.e. Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood. Of the four, the first one mentioned is Ibn Mas’ood)…….”

* “Whatever Ibn Mas’ood narrates to you, acknowledge it (as the truth).”

* “I am pleased for my Ummah with that with which Ibn Umm Abd is pleased.”

While the khaanqah, bereft of valid Shar’i evidence for their innovated practices, have presented the red herring of Allaamah Sha’raani’s statement, we proffer, among the array of our Dalaa-il, Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) who strides the loftiest stations of Ilm, Taqwa and Divine Proximity heavens above Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh). Whereas khaanqah akhtari has flaccidly cited the 10th Century statement which is not a Shar’i daleel, we present the Fatwa of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) who had practically implemented it by expelling the halqah thikr bid’atis from the Musjid.  

It should also be understood that Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) had expelled the group of halqah thikr bid’atis, not because they were engaging in Thikrullah. They were branded Bid’atis and expelled on account of the innovated form (hait) which they had fabricated and for which there was neither origin nor sanction in the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahaabah.

As for Thikrullah, Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) said: “The Majaalis of Thikr are the Revivers of Ilm and for creating humility in the heart.”

Now, whatever he meant by ‘Majaalis of Thikr’, it never refers to halqah thikr in the Musjid which has no origin in the Sunnah. It is quite obvious his branding those who had   engaged in halqah thikr in the Musjid as ‘bid’atis’, and had them expelled, negates any suggestion of permissibility for akhtari khaanqah-type bid’ah thikr in the Musjid.

Some molvis bent on promoting their bid’ah even venture the extremely corrupt notion of the Hadith of Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) being decrepit, weak and unfit for daleel. These molvis are in fact influenced by shaitaan to disgorge such ghutha. The illustrious Fuqaha of Islam have accorded the Hadith authenticity and have utilized it as their mustadal for prohibiting bid’ah forms of thikr.

We have published a complete booklet on the issue of the authenticity of this Hadith. Those interested, may write for copies. It is also available on our website:


Once Hadhrat Sufyaan Thauri (Rahmatullah alayh) sought naseehat from Hadhrat Fudhail Bin Iyaadh (Rahmatullah alayh). He offered the following naseehat:

“O Assembly of Ulama! What advice should I give you? Once you were Lanterns for the people and the cities dazzled with your Light. But now you have become complete darkness. Before, you were Stars (of Guidance). By means of you (Ulama), people would find the Path (leading them out of the) darkness of ignorance. But now you yourselves have become lost in confusion.

You go to the doors of the rulers. You sit on their carpets. You consume their food, and you accept gifts from them. Then you sit in the Musjid narrating Ahaadith from Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam). By Allah! Ilm is not acquired for these acts.”

Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh), commenting on the above Naseehat, said: “It is narrated that on hearing this naseehat, Sufyaan Thauri lapsed into convulsive sobbing.”

We trust that the khaanqah molvis will ponder and derive lesson from this advice. It is of imperative importance for the khaanqah molvis to engage in an in-depth study of the kutub of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) and of Hakimul Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (Rahmatullah alayh) to gain a true understanding of Tasawwuf and its Maqaasid. These two Walis were Mujaddids in the sphere of Tasawwuf. The knowledge acquired from their kutub, if pursued with Ikhlaas, will enable the khalifahs to operate true khaanqahs for the Islaah of people. 

Presently, the khaanqah molvis are all astray and in conflict with both the Zaahiri and Baatini dimensions of the Shariah. Since they are vastly lacking in the understanding of Tasawwuf, they seek to remain in the khaanqah business with ostentatious bid’ah practices such as halqah thikr, public thikr, khatm-e-khwaajgaan, congregational recitation of Durood, congregational recitation of Yaaseen, jalsahs, mass i’tikaaf, feasting and merrymaking in general. These practices have no affinity with the Sunnah. Wird/ thikr practices introduced by the Auliya are spiritual remedies to be restricted to the privacy of the khaanqah, and not advertised and promoted as Sunnah or part of the Shariah or among the Objectives of Tasawwuf.

If they fail to set their houses in order, they will degenerate further and end up in the gutter and sewer rot as all the other bogus ‘sufi tariqas’ found today in West Africa, North Africa, India and the U.S. Men and women indulge in so-called dervish dancing and singing. The bid’ah, kufr and shirk are the fundamentals of these shaitaani ‘sufi’ tariqas. Understand well that any brand of tasawwuf which is in conflict with the Zaahiri Shariah is satanism. 

The khaanqahs in South Africa are slipping into the same cesspool of evil as the other bid’ati, shaitaani tariqas. So while they will be dubbing themselves as ‘akhtari’, ‘thanvi’, ‘chisti’, naqshabandi’, etc., they will in reality be Shaitaani.


Raf’ut Saut (raising the voice) is the fundamental and incumbent basis of all public thikr gatherings and programmes in the Musaajid innovated by the crank sheikhs of the mock khaanqahs. This fundamental requisite is in stark conflict with the Ijma’ (Consensus) of the Ummah. From the age of the Sahaabah there has always existed Ijma’ on the superiority of Thikr-e-Ikhfa, and on the Bid’ah of loud thikr. The confusion in this regard has developed centuries after the era of Khairul Quroon.

The following evidences will confirm the veracity of our claim and show that Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) despite his extremely lofty status, has erred in claiming consensus of the Salf and Khalf on thikr majaalis in the Musaajid. The only valid interpretation to sustain the claim of Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) is that by ‘thikr majaalis’ he was not referring to the heaving, swooning and deceptive displays of ecstacy of innovated thikr sessions of the sufis. He simply meant Muslims gathering in the Musaajid, sitting in Nafl I’tikaaf and individually engaging in their own thikr practices silently. Everyone recites silently on his own whether it be Tilaawat, Tahleel, Tasbeeh, Istighfaar, Dua, Nafl Salaat, etc. The Musaajid are the best abodes on earth, hence the imperative importance of Thikr Majaalis in the Musjid. But by Thikr Majaalis is never meant bid’ah practices which are in violation of the Shariah.

If it is argued that he did in fact refer to group form of audible thikr, then it will incumbently be set aside as an error. It is haraam to use the error of a senior even if he is the greatest authority of the age, to violate the Ijma’ of the Ummah. The view of the Aalim shall be set aside, not the established Law of the Shariah.     Confirming this fact, Allaamah Sha’raani (Rahmatullah alayh) said:

“Whoever adopts the obscure rarities of the Ulama, verily he has made his exit from Islam.”

The following is a summary of the Ijma’ on this issue – Ijma’ on the superiority of silent thikr, and Ijma’ on the bid’ah of loud thikr – the loudness which characterizes the ostentatious majaalis programmes of these deviated khaanqahs.

(1) “It is Makrooh to make dua during the month of Ramadhaan when making Khatam of the Qur’aan, as well as when a group makes khatam of the Qur’aan (i.e. at any other time). Faqeeh Abul Qaasim As-Sifaar (rahmatullah alayh) said: “If it was not for the fear that the people of this city would say: ‘He prevents us from dua’, then most assuredly, I would have prevented them from it.” (Al-Muheetul Burhaani)

The reference is to congregational dua after khatam of the Qur’aan Majeed has been made.

Al-Muheetul Burhaani is a voluminous kitaab (25 Volumes) occupying a very lofty pedestal in Hanafi Fiqh. It was compiled by the fifth century Imaam Burhaanuddeen Abil Ma-aali Mahmood (rahmatullah alayh). It is an elevated compilation consisting of the Masaa-il and their Dalaa-il of the Fuqaha-e-Mutaqaddimeen such as Imaam Abu Hanifah, Imaam Abu Yusuf, Imaam Muhammad (rahmatullah alayhim) and others.

While the Compiler is of the fifth Islamic century, the Masaa-il are those of the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen and Fuqaha-e-Mutaqaddimeen of the first Islamic century. Nothing can supersede the Rulings of these Ulama belonging to the highest echelon of Fuqaha after the Sahaabah.

(2) “If the Muthakkir (the lecturer) on the mimbar recites Ma’thoor (Masnoon) duas, (audibly) and the people follow him in reciting these (Masnoon) duas, then if the purpose is to teach them (how to recite the duas), there is nothing wrong. However, if the purpose is not for the ta’leem of the people, then it is Makrooh, for verily, doing so is bid’ah.” (Al-Muheetul Burhaani)

The khutbah here does not refer to the Jumuah Khutbah. It refers to a lecture/bayaan.

(3) “Imaam Muhammad (rahmatullah alayh) narrated in As-Siyarul Kabeer from Imaam Hasan (rahmatullah alayh) that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) abhorred (regarded as Makrooh) raising the voice at the time of reciting the Qur’aan and at the time of the Janaazah.

Qais Ibn Ubaadah narrates that Ubaadah said: ‘Verily, the Ashaab of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) detested (regarded as Makrooh) raising the voice by the Janaa-iz and at the time of Thikr.’ In the Hadith of Hasan, instead of Thikr, the word, qiraa’t of the Qur’aan is used. There is no conflict between the two because, verily, the term Thikr includes dua, tasbeeh, tahleel, wa’z and qiraa’t of the Qur’aan. In fact, qiraa’t of the Qur’aan is the noblest of Athkaar. Allah Ta’ala says: ‘And, the Thikr of Allah is the Greatest.’” (Al-Muheetul Burhaani)

(4) “Verily, the Sunnah in duas is Ikhfa’”. (Al-Muheetul Burhaani)

(5) “If the meaning of raising the voice at the time of Thikr means dua, then most certainly is Makrooh, for verily, the Asal in duas is Ikhfa’, and also because in it (audibility) is riya (show/ostentation). Precisely for this is it Makrooh to raise the voice with tasbeeh and tahleel.”

And, if the meaning of the word Thikr (in this context) is wa’z (lecture), then it does not mean the raising of the voice of the waa-iz (lecturer). It will mean the raising of voices by the audience with tahleel, tasbeeh and durood when the lecturer mentions the name of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Verily, it has been authentically narrated that it was reported to Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) that a group of people had gathered in the Musjid, and they were reciting tahleel and durood on Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) while raising their voices. Then Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) went up to them and said: “We did not practise this during the time of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi  wasallam). I deem you to be mubtadieen (innovators).’ He continued repeating this until he expelled them from the Musjid.”

And if the meaning of the word, Thikr (in this context) is reciting the Qur’aan, then verily, it is Makrooh to raise the voice with qiraa’t.” (Al-Muheetul Burhaani)

(6) “Jahr with Takbeer is known by (the Nass of) the Shariah which is in conflict with the primary principle viz. ‘Verily, the Asal in athkaar and ad-iyyah (duas) is Ikhfa’.

(7) “It is narrated from Ash-Shaikh Imaam Faqeeh Abi Ja’far (rahmatullah alayh): ‘I heard that verily our (i.e. the Ahnaaf) Mashaaikh regarded Takbeer Tashreeq (i.e. its recitation audibly) in the market-places bid’ah. And Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala knows best.” (Al-Burhaanul Muheet)

(8) Allaamah Kaasaani (rahmatullah alayh) records in his Badaaius Sanaai’: “According to Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayh), raising the voice with takbeer is bid’ah, for verily it is a Thikr, and the primary principle in athkaar is Ikhfa’ by virtue of Allah’s qaul: “Call unto your Rabb with humility and in silence”, and by virtue of the qaul of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam): “The best dua is the silent dua.”

Allaamah Alaauddeen Abu Bakr bin Mas’ood Kaasaani (rahmatullah alayh) was a Faqeeh of the fifth Islamic century.

(9) “Verily, jahr with takbeer is bid’ah.” (Hidaayah)

(10) “Ibn Humaam said: ‘The Asal in Athkaar is Ikhfa’ and jahr is bid’ah.” (Fathul Qadeer)

(11) “Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayh) said: ‘Raising the voice with Thikr is bid’ah because it is in conflict with the qaul of Allah Ta’ala, viz., ‘Make the Thikr of your Rabb in your heart with humility and silence, and with a voice less than jahr.” (Al-Khulaasah)

(12) “The takbeer shall not be recited audibly. The reason for this being: “Verily, the Asal in Thikr is Ikhfa.’, on the basis of the qaul of Allah Ta’ala, viz., ‘Call unto your Rabb with humility and in silence’, and because of the qaul of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam): ‘The best Thikr is Thikr-e-Khafi.’………..Verily jahr is in conflict with the Asal (Principle of Imaam Abu Hanifah).” (Ghaayatul Bayaan)

(13) “Raising the voice with Thikr is haraam. Verily, it has been authentically reported that Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) heard that a group of people had gathered in the Musjid……. (the same narration of innovators and their expulsion).” (Fataawa Qaadhi Khaan)

(14) “Jahr with takbeer is bid’ah at all times except on occasions of exceptions (made by the Shariah). And Qaadhi Khaan has categorically declared jahr with takbeer to be Makrooh, and the Author of Al-Musaffa has concurred (with him).” (Al-Bahrur Raai-q)

(15) “Tabari said: ‘In it (the Hadith) is the Karaahat of raising the voice with Thikr and dua. And this is what the generality of the Sahaabah and Taabieen say.’” (Irshaadus Saari of Qustulaani)

(16) “And according to what has been reported by As-Suyuti, Ibn Majah and Nisaai’ have also narrated this. This Hadith indicates that it is Makrooh to raise the voice with Thikr. Now even if it is not haraam, then at least it will not be less than Makrooh.” (Sabaahatul Fikr)

(17) “Imaam Maalik and his Ashaab said that all these acts (of jahr and congregation in the Musjid) are Makrooh because the Salaf (Sahaabah and Taabieen) did not practise these acts. (These practices are also Makrooh) so that the avenue and means for bid’ah remains closed to ensure that there be no excess in the Deen, and abandonment of the clear Haqq. Verily, that which Imaam Maalik and his companions had feared has assumed reality in our time.” (Sabaahatul Fikr)

(18) “In this Hadith is the indication for the permissibility of jahr without doubt although Ikhfa’ is afdhal.”  –  Shaikh Dahlawi in Sharhul Mishkaat. (Sabaahatul Fikr)

(19) “There is no doubt in the fact that Sirr (silence) is superior (afdhal) to jahr…….’ The Mustahab according to us (the Ahnaaf) is silence in  Athkaar.”  –  An-Nihaayah (Sabaahatul Fikr)

(20) “The Hadith: “The best Thikr is Khafi (silent Thikr)”, indicates the afdhaliyyat of silent Thikr, and there is no dispute in this fact.” (Sabaahatul Fikr)

(21) “When the people recite takbeer (audibly) after Salaat, verily, it is Makrooh and bid’ah. When they recite takbeer (audibly) in the Musaajid of the Ribaat when there is no fear (of the enemy), then it is Makrooh.”  (Fataawa Hindiyyah)

(22) Qur’aanic recitation is Mustahab only if one person recites after another person has recited, not collectively as the Egyptians and Syrians have innovated. (One person should recite while the others should listen. Then another person should recite, and the others should listen.). Verily, Ibnudh Dhiyaa’ from our Ulama has explicitly said that raising the voice in the Musjid even with Thikr is haraam.” (Irshaadus Saari – Manaasik Mulla Ali Qaari)

(23) The aayat of the Qur’aan (in Surah A’raaf) is Nass for Ikhfa’ being Mustahab. (Jaami’ Li Ahkaamil Qur’aan of Qurtibi)

(24) Silent Dua is afdhal. Thikr-e-Khafi is afdhal. (Ma-aariful Qur’aan)

(25) Thikr jahr is permissible, but Thikr Khafi is Aula. (Kifaayatul Mufti)

(26) Ikhfa’ in Dua is preferable (Mustahab). (Al-Mabsoot)

(27) “It has been deducted on the basis of this aayat that Ikhfa’ in Thikr is afdhal. The Hadith narrated by Imaam Ahmad supports this. (Ruhul Ma-aani)


The plethora of differences which has created a quagmire in which many Ulama flounder, unable to arrive at a conclusion, exist among the Ulama who came many centuries after the age of the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen. The unequivocal and unanimous view of hurmat (prohibition) has cast the later Ulama into a quandary. In the endeavour to be extricated from the quagmire, a variety of interpretations has been produced. Most, if not all, of these interpretations only serve to complicate the quagmire.

Most of the interpretations are untenable, both rationally and irrationally (Aqlan wa Naqlan). Some interpretations, e.g. the assertion that Imaam Abu Hanifah’s principle refers to jahr-e-mufrit, are absolute drivel irrespective of who fabricated it.

There exists an incontrovertible consensus (Ijma’) on the afdhaliyyat (superiority) of Thikr-e-Khafi. Whoever has ventured a contrary opinion has failed to crack or dent the Consensus. The contrary opinion of the stragglers is pure opinion devoid of Shar’i substance.

All the Sufi Mashaaikh of the Four Silsilahs, despite their remedial and perculiar practices of jahr in their khaanqahs, are unanimous in upholding the afdhaliyyat of Jahr-e-Khafi.


It will be appropriate and very salubrious to apprize the khaanqahs of the view and fatwa of the Chief of all the Khaanqas of our Akaabir Chishti Mashaaikh. The following question was posed to Qutubul Aalam Hadhrat Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh):

Question: “In Ramadhaan Shareef, in the Musjid during Taraaweeh Namaaz after performing four raka’ts, if all the musallis collectively recite Tasbeeh and make Dua, and with the niyyat of proclaiming the glory, grandeur and glitter of Islam, they recite the Kalimah ‘Laa ilaha illallaah’ with jahr (loudly), will this be permissible or not?”

Hadhrat Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi responded:

“To make Thikr in this manner after the jalsah (sitting) during the Taraaweeh has not been narrated from the Sahaabah and Taabieen. Therefore, this ha’it (specific form) is bid’at. It is mentioned in Al-Waaqiaat: ‘Reciting Surah Faatihah after the Fardh Salaat on occasions of events of upheaval (such as calamity, fear and disaster, etc.) is Makrooh (Tahrimi) because it is Bid’at in view of the fact that it has not been narrated from the Sahaabah and Taabieen.’

It is also stated in Bahrur Raa-iq that it has been narrated from Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) that he heard a group of people had gathered in the Musjid and were reciting Lailaha illal laah and Durood on Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) audibly (jahran). Then he went to them and said: “During the age of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) we did not practise in this manner. I do not consider you except as mubtadieen (innovators).’ He continued saying so until he expelled them.”

On the basis of these two evidences, even though Thikr is mutlaqan jaa-iz, but to change a special form which had prevailed during Quroon-e-Thalaathah (the three noble eras of Islam) is bid’at. Hence, despite Kalimah Tayyibah being permissible jahran on its occasions of permissibility, but during the sitting of Taraaweeh this practice is not proven, hence to do so is bid’at. In addition the masses will think that this practice is Sunnat. A mubah (permissible practice) which the masses believe to be Sunnat is bid’at.

It is mentioned in Aalamgheeriyah (Fataawa Hindiyyah): ‘The practice which is done after Salaat is Makrooh because the juhhaal (ignoramuses) will believe it to be Sunnat or even Waajib. Every Mubah (permissible practice) which leads to this is Makrooh. So is it reported in Az-Zaahidi.’

Thus, it is bid’at to make Thikr in this manner despite Thikr per se of Kalimah Tayyibah with jahr being permissible. However, at this occasion this hai’t is not proven from Quroon-e-Thalaathah. On the contrary, this is an occasion of Ikhfa’, hence it is bid’at. Furthermore, in this practice there is the danger of corrupting the Aqeedah (belief) of the masses. And Allah knows best.”  –  End of Hadhrat Gangohi’s dissertation. (Tazkiratur Rasheed)

The Qur’aan Majeed says: “And, none takes lesson except the People of Intelligence.” From the aforementioned faqeehaanah (juridical and wise) exposition of Hadhrat Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh), every unbiased, intelligent seeker of the Haqq will observe the following salient aspects which clinches the whole dispute in which the venerable Mufti Sahib has become mired:

(a) Despite Hadhrat Gangohi being a Khaanqah Shaikh, who engaged in khafeef (very light) Thikr bil Jahr, he unequivocally branded the specific form of collective loud Thikr as being bid’at.

(b) The collective loud Thikr is bid’at because this practice did not exist in the initial three noble eras of Islam.

(c) The validity of the Abstention argument is confirmed by Hadhrat Gangohi, namely, this practice did not exist in the Sunnah, hence it is bid’ah.

(d) The authenticity of the narration of Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) is vindicated. Hadhrat Gangohi did not argue away the act of Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) with any of the defective interpretations which the votaries of bid’ah attribute to the said narration. On the contrary, he cited it from an authentic Kitaab of Fiqh, Bahrur Raa-iq, as evidence in refutation of bid’ah. Despite being a Chishti Shaikh practising Thikr bil Jahr in his Khaanqah, he upheld the Hadith of Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu), and did not lamely argue it away in order to justify and vindicate the practices of the khaanqah. He was a Man of Ilm and Taqwa. Hadhrat Gangohi (rahmatullah alayh) along with being an Aashiq and an Aarif Billaah, was a Faqeeh whose primary function was to guard the Shariah and the beliefs of the masses.

(e) When the masses see Ulama and Sulaha engaging in Thikr practices, they will naturally infer that such acts are Sunnat, and when they see the iltizaam with which these practices are observed by the Ulama, then they naturally and justifiably begin to believe that these acts of ‘ibaadat’ are Waajib.

(f) The principle of existence and non-existence of an ibaadat practice during Khairul Quroon is an important and a necessary determinant and criterion for all practices of Thikr which are executed in the full view of the masses. 

(g) Khaanqah practices should not be cited as a basis for justifying acts of Thikr which have no basis in the Sunnah.

(h) There is a stark difference in Thikr bil jahr conducted in the privacy of the khaanqah and in Thikr bil jahr collectively executed in public Musaajid frequented by the masses. While the former does not corrupt the beliefs of the masses nor develop into bid’ah in which the masses become entrapped, the latter undoubtedly corrupts the Aqeedah of the masses and develops into bid’ah.

(i) It is imperative that collective loud Thikr practices which were not in vogue during the era of the Noble Ages, not be advertised in public Musaajid. Any khaanqah practice should be confined to the four walls of the khaanqah or to private homes of the mureedeen who engage in such practices.



“After every Namaaz or after Fajr and Asr, all the Namaazis collectively and jahran (audibly) recite Lailaha illallaah. They furthermore, observe this practice with regularity whereas the Buzrugs did not order this practice for all and sundry. It is designed for only special persons. However, the juhala (ignoramuses) have made this practice universal (aam) and incumbent. It is for this reason that the Ulama have proclaimed this practice bid’ah. Now they accuse the Ulama of branding Thikrullah as bid’ah.

Although no one may be pleased with the Ulama (on account of their Amr Bil Ma’roof), the Muhaqqiq Sufiya are pleased with them. They appreciate the Ulama. Allaamah Sha’raani (rahmatullah alayh) who was a very great Muhaqqiq Sufi, said that the acts of the Sufiyah are extremely subtle (Daqeeq) which are beyond the comprehension of the masses. Hence, it is incumbent for the masses not to follow the Sufiyah in Uloom.

On the contrary, they should follow the Jamhoor Ulama because they (the Ulama) are the supervisors and administrators of the Shariah. In fact, the universe can remain in an orderly state only by following the Ulama………..These Ulama (of the Haqq) are the Guards who protect the Imaan of the masses. If they abandon their office, then the Sufi Sahib will have to abandon his cloister and execute this duty. Then all his tasawwuf, states and ecstasies will be forgotten.

The duty of Islaah-e-Khalq is Fardh Kifaayah. If the Molvies abandon this duty, then it will devolve on the Sufis. Therefore, O Sufi! You and your cloister will remain safe as long as this Guarding Jamaa’t (of Ulama-e-Haqq) subsists on earth. You sleep in comfort during the night. When your eyes open, you engage in namaaz and Thikr while the Ulama………….” End of Hadhrat Thaanvi’s exposition.

We hope and we make dua that this Naseehat of Hakeemul Ummat strikes a responsive chord in the hearts of those who are in search of the Truth – those who seek to emerge from the dark tunnel of confusion which the miscreant sheikhs of today’s commercial khaanqahs have created with their bid’ah thikr gatherings, feasting and merrymaking programmes.

“Upon us is to only deliver the Message” (Qur’aan)