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The Black Banners From Khurasan

The Bilad-e-Khurasan in Making

Research Paper by Bilal Khan, March 30th, 2008 

The Ancient Khurasan:

The ancient Khurasan was the last eastern province of the Persian Empire. Khurasan, in Persian, means the “land of the sunrise”, a natural synonym for East. The term was loosely applied to territories of Persia east and north east of Dasht-e-Kavir.
Emperor Babur wrote in his memoirs [1] that Indians used to call all non-Indians as Khurasanis. Regarding the boundary of Hindustan (India) and Khurasan, it is written: “On the road between Hindustan and Khurasan, there are two great marts: the one Kabul, the other Kandahar.

In modern day world the ancient Khurasan is divided into five central Asian countries i.e.

1. Iran
2. Afghanistan
3. Tajikistan
4. Turkmenistan
5. Uzbekistan

image

The largest part of the ancient Khurasan is in Afghanistan today.

The present day cities of these modern countries would give a better idea of the geographical map of the ancient Khurasan. These cities include:

1. Nishapur and Tus in Iran.
2. Herat, Balkh, Ghazni and Kabul in Afghanistan
3. Khujand and Panjakent in Tajikistan
4. Merv and Sanjan in Turkmenistan
5. Samarqand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan

Ghulam Mohammad Ghubar, an ethnic Tajik scholar and historian from Afghanistan, talks of Proper Khurasan and Improper Khurasan in his book titled “Khurasan”. According to him, Proper Khurasan contained regions lying between Balkh (in the East), Merv (in the North), Sijistan (in the South), Nishapur (in the West) and Herat, known as The Pearl of Khurasan, in the center. While Improper Khurasan’s boundaries extended to Kabul and Ghazni in the East, Balochistan and Zabulistan in the South, Transoxiana and Khwarezm in the North and Damaghan and Gurgan in the West.

Khurasan in Islamic Prophecies:

Khurasan plays an important role in the Islamic prophecies of end times, the wars before appearance of Dajjal and the second coming of Jesus Christ (‘Eesa alayhissalaam).

One must wonder why Afghanistan has been the centre stage of the world for more than three decades now. What is there in the barren land of rugged mountains of Afghanistan that attracted almost every super power in the course of history?

Every super power in the world, since the time of Alexander the Great till the United States, have turned to Afghanistan when it was their turn to fall from grace.

God has His own ways of making histories and turn fates.

We have already established that Afghanistan has the most land area of ancient Khurasan in it. The Islamic prophecies that speak of the appearance of Imam Mehdi also speak of an army of black flags from Khurasan that will come to help Imam Mehdi to establish his Caliphate in the Holy Ka’abah.

“ Narrated by Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood (radhiyallahu anhu) that Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: A Nation will come from the east with black flags and they will ask for some “Khair” (because of them being needy) but the people will not give them, then, they will fight and win over those people (who did not give them what they asked). Now the people will give them what they asked for but they will not accept it until they will hand it over to a person from my progeny who will fill this earth with justice just as it was previously filled with oppression and tyranny. So if anyone of you finds this nation (i.e. from the east with black flags) then you must join them even if you have to crawl over ice”  [2]

We have to keep in mind that the holy Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) lived most his life in Makkah and the last 10 years in Madinah in present day Saudi Arabia. Geographically there are only three Muslim countries, today, in exact east of Saudi Arabia i.e. Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. So it becomes easy for us to establish that whoever this army of black flags is, it belongs to one or more of these three countries.

Another Hadith says:

“Abu Huraira (radhiyallahu anhu) reported Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying: You have heard about a city; the one side of which is in the land and the other is in the sea (Constantinople). They said: Allah’s Messenger, Yes. There upon he said: The last hour would come unless seventy thousand persons from Bani Ishaq would attack it. When they would land there, they will neither fight with weapons nor would show arrows but would only say: There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest, that one side of it would fall. Thaur (one of the narrators) said: I think that he said: The part by the side of the ocean. Then they would say for the second time: There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest that the second side would also fall, and they would say: There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest, that the gates would be opened for them and they would enter therein and, they would be collecting spoils of war and distributing them amongst themselves that a noise would be heard and it would be said: Verily, Dajjal has come. And thus they would everything there and would turn to him.” [3]

Constantinople is present day Istanbul and this particular Hadith verifies that it would be either siding with Anti-Imam Mehdi forces or would be occupied by Non-Muslims in the time of Imam Mehdi. From other Ahadith we get clarified that this attack on Istanbul by seventy thousand people of Bani Ishaq or the descendants of Prophet Isaac (alayhissalaam) would be led by Imam Mehdi himself. In the language of Ahadith seventy thousand means a very large number, it may or may not be actually seventy thousand. The descendants of Prophet Isaac (alayhissalaam) have been referred with different names in religious scriptures and in different Ahadith i.e. Aal-e-Haroon, Nation of Liberated Slaves and Bani-Israel.

Israel is the alternate name of Prophet Ya’qub (alayhissalaam) (Biblical Jacob) who was the son of Prophet Ishaaq (alayhissalaam)(Biblical Isaac). Haroon (alayhissalaam) or Aaron was the brother of Musa (alayhissalaam) (Moses) and both of them were descendants of Ishaaq (alayhissalaam) and Ya’qub (alayhissalaam). So the army of Imam Mehdi will be from the descendants of Prophet Ishaq (alayhissalaam) and Ya’qub (alayhissalaam) or popularly Bani-Israel.

Now, the very term Israel itself hints of the present day Jewish nation-state of Israel and one would ask why Israel would help Imam Mehdi. No, they certainly will not. This army of Imam Mehdi that will come from the East, with black flags, will be from Bani-Israel who would already be Muslims.

One of the Ahadith further elaborate:

“Narrated by Abdur Rehman Al-Jarshi that I heard companion of Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), Hazrat Amr Bin Marra Al-Jamli (radhiyallahu anhu) that Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: Surely Black Flags will appear from the Khurasan until the people (under the leadership of this flag) will tie their horses with the Olive Trees between Bait-e-Lahya and Harasta. We asked are there any Olive trees between these places: He said, “If there isn’t then soon it will grow so that those people (of Khurasan) will come and tie their horses there.” (4)

Another of the Ahadith says:

“Abu Huraira (radhiyallahu anhu) says that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: (Armies carrying) black flags will come from Khurasan, no power will be able to stop them and they will finally reach Eela (Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem) where they will erect their flags” (5)

Interestingly, another Hadith says:

“Anas ibn Malik narrated that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: The Dajjal would be followed by seventy thousand Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls.” (6)

Now, from the above three Ahadith we can establish that the army of Mehdi will consist of Muslims from Bani-Israel from Khurasan holding black flags. No power in the world will be able to stop them till they reach Jerusalem and erect their flags where there is Aqsa Mosque standing today.

Dajjal will also have an army of Bani-Israel. Both Muslim and Christian sources (other than evangelical Christians) establish that the Anti-Christ will be a Jewish Leader. The Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) clears that the Dajjal will have an army of Persian Jews from Isfahan. Interestingly, Iran supports the largest Jewish population in the Muslim world of approximately 40,000 mainly in Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz. [7] It has already been said that in Hadith language 70 thousands mean a very large number that may or may not be actually 70 thousand.

This leaves us with the judgment that Imam Mehdi will lead an army of Muslim Bani-Israel from Khurasan and Dajjal will lead an army of Jew Bani-Israel from Isfahan.

Israel and the Lost Tribes:

In order to find out who these Muslims Bani-Israel from Khurasan are, it would be important to critically examine the history of Israelites.

Prophet Jacob or Hazrat Ya’qoob (alayhissalaam) in Arabic, was the son of Prophet Isaac or Ishaq (alayhissalaam) in Urdu and grandson of Prophet Abraham (Qur’anic Ibraheem alayhissalaam). He was popularly known by his alternate name “Israel”. All of his children were subsequently called Bani-Israel or Israelites i.e. the descendants of Israel (Jacob).

Prophet Jacob (Ya’qub alayhissalaam) had twelve sons, one of which was Prophet Joseph  or Hazrat Yousuf (alayhissalaam) in Arabic and Prophet Joseph (Yousuf alayhissalaam) had two sons. The Bani-Israel, consequently, are divided into thirteen tribes i.e. eleven from Prophet Jacob (Ya’qub alayhissalaam) and two from Prophet Joseph (Yousuf alayhissalaam). The names of these sons of Jacob (Ya’qub alayhissalaam) and Joseph (Yousuf alayhissalaam), which are in turn the names of the tribes of Bani-Israel, are:

1. Reuben
2. Simeon
3. Judah
4. Issachar
5. Zebulun
6. Dan
7. Naphtali
8. Gad
9. Asher
10. Levi
11. Benjamin
12. Ephraim (son of Joseph)
13. Manasseh (son of Joseph)

According to Bible, the descendants of Jacob (AS) united to form the first united Monarchy or Kingdom of Israel in approximately 1050 BCE. King David, or known as Prophet David  or Hazrat Dawood (alayhissalaam) to Muslims, was the second King of this Kingdom and also the father of the famous King Solomon or Hazrat Suleiman (alayhissalaam) for Muslims. David (Dawood alayhissalaam) and his son Solomon (Suleiman alayhissalaam) constructed the Temple Mount of the Jews on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. This temple is also known as the First Temple. The temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon in 597 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar II not only destroyed the temple and conquered Jerusalem but also took the Jewish people along with him as slaves to Babylon where they stayed until Cyrus the Great (the founder of ancient Persian Empire) destroyed Babylon. The Persians allowed the Jews to return to the Holy Land where they constructed the Temple Mount again in 516 BCE known as Second Temple until the Temple was destroyed again by the Romans in 70 CE.

Interestingly, in 722 BCE the Assyrians under Shalmaneser V and then under Sargon II conquered the northern Kingdom of Israel, destroyed its capital Samaria and sent the Israelites into exile and captivity in Khurasan.

In Jewish popular culture, the ten tribes disappeared from history, leaving only the tribes of Benjamin, Judah and Levi to become the ancestors of modern day Jews.

Today, many ethnic groups claim descent from the lost tribes of Israel. Let us see who among them is located in the geographical Khurasan and are Muslims as well (to keep our track to find the army of Imam Mehdi).

1. Bene-Ephraim in Southern India – are Jews.
2. Bnei-Menashe in Northeast India – are Jews.
3. Beta Israel in Ethiopia – are Jews.
4. Persian and Bukharan Jews in Isfahan, Iran – are Jews.
5. Igbo of Nigeria – are Jews.
7. Samaritans in Israel – are Jews
8. The Lemba tribe in South Africa – religious practice similar to Jews.
9. House of Israel in Ghana – are Jews
10. Pashtuns or Pathans in Afghanistan/Pakistan – are Muslims
11. Kashmiris in Indo-Pakistan – are Muslims
12. Jews of Kaifeng – are Jews

In all these ethnic groups, there are only two groups that are Muslims and only one group that is geographically present in Khurasan i.e. the Pathans of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The only group that is warlike, undefeated and untamed throughout the course of history, staunch in religious fervor, filled with honor and pride and is unforgiving of its enemy; one that will fight its enemy until one of them is dead.

One now starts to understand why Afghanistan is the center of the world and why Pakistan became Independent of United India?
God has His own ways of making histories and turn fates.

Israeli History of Pashtuns

The Pashtuns or Pathans are the world’s largest patriarchal ethnic group in existence with an estimated population of around 40 Million distributed in present day countries of Pakistan, Afghanistan, UAE, Iran, UK, USA and India with the largest population in Pakistan that is approximately 28 Million.

A lot of research has been done on the origin of Pashtuns. Taaqati-Nasiri, a book that records historical traces of Pashtuns, states that in the 7th century a people called the Bani Israel settled in Ghor, southeast of Herat, Afghanistan, and then migrated south and east. These Bani Israel references are in line with the commonly held view by Pashtuns that when the twelve tribes of Israel were dispersed the tribe of Joseph, among other Hebrew tribes, settled in the region. [8] Hence the largest tribe of Pashtuns i.e. Yousuf Zai in Pashtu translates to the ‘sons of Joseph’. A similar story is told by the Iranian historian Ferishta. [9]

The Pashtuns have been living in the Afghanistan area for over 2,000 years. Their language Pashtu/Pakhto borrows widely from the Arab-ized Persian of their neighbors (now Iran), yet it was a purely spoken dialect. There was no Pakhto/Pashtu written script whatsoever, the first Pashtu book appearing about the 1500s. Hence the traditions, customs, tribal genealogy and law orally transferred from father to son. The first book on Pashtun genealogy, the Makhzan-al-Afghani was written in 1613, and contained for the first time a printed table of descent from Abraham to the Pashtun tribes, through the tribe of Binyamin or Benjamin. While the book was not accepted initially by British historians, modern historians consider it the most accurate account as compared to the other theories proposed by classical historians.

Interestingly, the word “Zionist” is created from the mountains of Jerusalem which are called “Zion”. Similarly the language of the Pathan tribesmen is called Pashtu, and its speakers call themselves Pashtun, from the Persian word “Pasht” which means “back of the mountain” so in reality Pashtun is a person who lives in the mountains. The mountains the Pathan’s have been living in after exile are called the Suleiman (Solomon) mountains. The Jews/Bani Israel from Russia also claim to be Mountain Jews and are said to be from the same exile.

The word Pathan is a Pashto written form of the original word Pithon, the great grandson of King Saul. [10]

Kashmir was under direct control of the Durrani Afghan Empire in the 1800s, and the majority of the population there were the Yousuf Zai Pashtuns who had moved eastward from Peshawar. They were living in Kashmir in great numbers, about 600,000 families who were later forcibly subdued for about 40 years by the Sikhs. [11]

Dr. Bernier, A French traveler in the frontier villages of Kashmir around the 1880’s remarked on the striking physical similarity of the locals with Jews. [12] He noted that their expressions and manners were distinguishable from the other people in this land. He finally adds that “You are not to ascribe what I say to mere fancy, the Jewish appearance of these villagers having been remarked by our Father, the Jesuit, and some other Europeans long before I visited Kashmir”.

The Jesuit Dr. Bernier points to is Dr. Joseph Wolff who says “I was wonderfully struck with the resemblance of the Youssoufszye (sons of Joseph) and the Khyberi, two of their tribes, to the Jews”. [13] Moorcroft also says of Khyberis “They are tall, and of singularly Jewish cast of features… they have been named by themselves Beni Israel, children of Israel from time immemorial.”

Bernier was also referring to George Forster who wrote in 1808 “On first seeing the Kashmirians in their own country I imagined from their garb, the cast of their countenance which was long and of a grave aspect, and the forms of their beard, that I had come among a nation of Jews”. [14]

Colonel G. Malleson of the British Army did not believe that the Afghans were Beni Israel, but commented on the issue of physical features “This no doubt has its weight”. [15]

A British army officer summed up the emotional behavior of a Pashtun:

“Even when he leaves his native heath behind he takes his manner with him. He will come down, a stalwart manly looking ruffian with frank and open manners, rather Jewish feature… He is certain to be filthy and he may be ragged, but he will saunter into a viceregal durbar (Royal court) as proud as Lucifer and with the air and manner a diplomatist might envy. Not in the least like any Indian subject.” [16]

Pashtuns follow peculiar customs like:

1. “Passover Practice” of sacrificing an animal and smearing the doorway to avert death and calamity

2. Placing the sins of the people upon a heifer or goat which is driven out in the wilderness in the manner of the biblical scapegoat

3. Stoning to death of blasphemers

4. Periodical distribution of land by lot [17]

5. The rites of circumcision and purification

These were all given in the Book of Leviticus of the Bani Israel, and modern Muslim historians like Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan accept them as indicators, if not proof of their Israelite heritage. [18] They are the only tribes in the area to practice all of these customs, as the ancient Bani Israel did 2,300 years ago.

Likewise, if anyone travels in the local bus transport of the Pakistani Pashtun areas, he or she would see fascinating art works in their buses but strikingly all these art works have Israelite origin, these peculiar diagrams include:

1. Peacocks (Torah was written with peacock feathers)

2. The Symbolic ark

3. The Mogen David or the Star of the David – also found in the Israeli flag

4. Tree of Life of Kaballah

5. Fish of the Sabbat/Shabbos

6. The heart shape lamp of the Sabbat

7. Number of Leaf petals signifying Kaballah practices.

Similarly many Hebrew inspired names of people, tribes and places are commonly found in Pashtuns and Pashtun areas of Pakistan/Afghanistan. Some tribes with visible similarities with Hebrew names are:

1. Yousuf Zai – Sons of Joseph

2. Gadoon – Gad

3. Rabbani – Reuben

4. Abdali or Naftali – Naphtali

5. Shinwari – Simeon

6. Zamand – Zebulun

7. Levani – Levi

8. Afridi & Afandi – Ephraim

9. Pathan – Pithon

The popular places that trace their origin in Hebrew are [19]:

– Koh-e-Suleiman – Solomon Mountains

– Takht-e-Suleiman – Throne of Solomon (the highest peak in Solomon mountains)

– Afghanistan – Afghana (the grandson of King Saul)

– Kohat – a town in NWFP, Pakistan, means assembly in Hebrew and it is also the name of the second son of Levi and father of Amram.

– Zabul – A province in present day Afghanistan, in the days of Mahmood Ghaznavid the whole region of Afghanistan was known as Zabulistan – Zebulun was one of the sons of Prophet Jacob (AS).

– Khyber – A Jew Fort in Arab in the time of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and a place on Pakistan/Afghanistan border.

– Peshawar – The Capital of NWFP province of Pakistan – PESH means the Pass and HAWAR means City i.e. The City after the Pass. Peshawar is a short drive from Khyber Pass. A Place named Habor is mentioned in Torah as the place of the exile of the tribes.

– Gozan – The historical name of Amu River in Afghanistan, hence the Torah says: “The God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul King of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgath Pilnesser King of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Ruebenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought to Halah, and Habor, and Hara and to the river of Gozan to this day.” (Kings II, 17 and 18; Chronicles 1:5)

– Kerak – A City in Jordan and another in NWFP, Pakistan

– Lugar – A province in Afghanistan and a Jewish family name; the famous wrestler Lex Lugar.

– Kabul – in Hebrew Cab means dirty and Bul means city hence a dirty city

– Herat – The pearl of Khurasan – a city in Afghanistan, Hara is one of the places of the exile along with Habor and Gozan i.e. Peshawar and Amu River.

– Kash/Kish – name of numerous personalities in Chronicles of Hebrew Bible – and there is a Dasht-e-Kash north of Helmund, a City of Kash mentioned in map of Afghanistan 1912 of the Library of Congress, USA. There is also a mountain range named Hindu-Kush in Afghanistan/Pakistan and Kash Rod in Nimroz Province of Afghanistan.

– Dasht-e-Yahoodi – or the Jewish Plain – a famous place in Mardan district of NWFP, Pakistan.
– Killa Yahoodi – or Jewish town – a place on Afghanistan border of Pakistan.

The Christian Belief of End Times:

The historical Christian view of End Times and that of Jews have been different of what we see today. It was not the Muslims but the Christians who persecuted Jews ever since Constantine the Great (the founder of Constantinople) converted to Christianity. Through out the centuries Jews have been disgraced, tortured, molested and wronged not by Muslims but by Christians. It was the Christians of the Nazi Germany that allegedly mass murdered Jews and today Arabs are forced to pay for the crimes of Nazi Germany.

Christians have always thought of Jews of not only as God’s chosen people but also as God’s most hated people because of their ill-treatment of Prophets. Christians have also, in similarity with Muslims, always believed that the Anti-Christ (or Dajjal for Muslims) would be a Jewish Leader.

Christians have also always believed on the Biblical prophecy that the Jews will return to Holy Land have been fulfilled long ago when Persians allowed them to go back to Jerusalem to build the second temple.

But the rise of Dispensationalist Christianity in North America and the subsequent publication of Reverend Scofield’s Reference Bible in 1909 changed the course of history and the mindset of a major Christian power that was destined to become the super power of the world; the USA.

Dispensationalists, or evangelical Christians, or more commonly known as born again Christians stressed that Jews are God’s chosen people and Christian powers must join hands with Jews in order to bring Jesus Christ back to the world. Dispensationalism changed how Book of Daniel and Book of Revelation of the Bible were seen by Christians; these books of Bible contain the prophecies of End of times.
Reverend Scofield’s Reference Bible stressed on three important events to take place in order to bring Jesus Christ back to the world.

1. The Return of Jews to the Holy Land

2. Creation of the Kingdom of Israel

3. Destruction of the Aqsa Mosque
Reverend Scofield essentially believed that Jews will go to the Holy land again and the prophecy has not yet been fulfilled. The Jewish settlements in Palestine after the World War I was seen in the USA as the fulfillment of first pre-requisite of Christ’s return to earth. The so-called Independence of Israel in 1948 was seen as the fulfillment of second requirement by the USA and ever since the USA have been an ardent and blind supporter of Israel, as the US politics has been over shadowed by born again Christians ever since the World War II. These political born again Christians are known as Neo-Conservatives. President Ronald Reagan is famously known for his statement, about Armageddon (or the last war), made in a visit to Israel 1981-82.

The destruction of the Aqsa Mosque is the final requirement of the return of Hadhrat ‘Eesa (alayhissalaqm) and the final war. Today many born again Christians, individuals and organizations, collect and donate funds to Israel for the destruction of the Aqsa Mosque. People like late Jerry Falwell and Billy Graham are popular faces of such evangelists. Events in Jerusalem disclose that there is a current Israeli excavation project going on at the foundations of Aqsa Mosque and a recent report tells that if the project goes on for a while more the Mosque will fall.

Imagine the consequences of such a madness to destroy Islam’s third holiest shrine – a shrine revered by almost 1.5 billion humans – where are their human rights??

Rise of Neo-Cons and US’s War on Terror:

The political evangelists are called Neo-Conservatives or just neo-cons. George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld are most recognizable Neo-cons for the rest of the world.

In 1997, William Kristol and Robert Kagan co-founded a neo-con think tank named The Project for New American Century. The think tank has extra-ordinary influence on George W. Bush’s Foreign and Military Politics especially the Iraq War.

The Project for New American Century or PNAC published a review in 1999 on how the USA must reposition its strategic dominance on the world in the 21st century. The Report called for a “New Pearl Harbor” to enforce America’s military and economic dominance over the world. The New Pearl Harbor emerged in the shape of 9/11 in 2001.

“Two years ago a project set up by the men who now surround George W. Bush said what America needed was a new Pearl Harbor. Its Published aims have, alarmingly, come true. [20]

Today, many born again Christians like George ask their priests “when would Christ return”. [21]

Not very surprisingly, if one identifies US or Allied bases in the Central Asian and Middle East region, one would realize that the Allied powers have shockingly circled Syria i.e. the host of the last war of the world.

The US’s War on Terror is a deceptive game and a mind boggling riddle. The term terrorism is itself vague and un-defined and built on repetitive lies upon lies as evident in the case of 9/11. It is almost always blindly used against Muslims. The unilateral, pre-emptive extra-judicial violence by the western powers is always named as wars of democracy and freedom.

But if one makes an unbiased examination of the term and the war itself then one would realize that all these terrorists demand is the right of self-determination and self-rule and their wars of insurgencies are nothing but wars of self-defense against foreign occupational forces and aggressors against their land, sovereignty and religion.

Important Players in Present Day Khurasan:

Now that we have analyzed what Khurasan is, what is its importance in Islamic prophecies, what is going around us and what lies behind the US’s political mentality?? Now it would be ideal to see what important Muslim players are present in the region that is historically known as Khurasan.

It is also imperative to understand that, unlike Ronald Reagan or evangelical Christians, no Muslim can be sure of End of times and the time of appearance of Imam Mehdi and second coming of Jesus Christ (‘Eesa alayhissalaam). We shall only look into these critical state or non-state players in the region considering the American and Jewish mentality of preparation of the last war, and to realize what important Muslim players are there who pose a vital threat to Western interests.

Pakistan: Pakistan is the only state player in our list of Muslims involved in the region. It is currently a frontline ally of the US in War on Terror. But the recent developments of the war, the reports of American exercises in 2006 to secure Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal, blueprint designs of possible assault by the US on Pakistani territory, an endless demand of US to do more and more, the growing uncertainty and desperation in the Pakistani masses, the political turmoil and the rebellions of Red Mosque in Islamabad, tribal Pashtuns as well as Baloch separatists may push Pakistan to re-think over its policies and shift according to its vital national interests.

Pakistan also possesses the largest Pashtun population in the world i.e. 28 Million. It is one of the world’s seven declared nuclear powers and is running a state of the art ballistic missile program with current declared capability of hitting as far as Tel Aviv, Israel. It also possesses GPS precision guided undetectable cruise missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads as far as 700 KM. It is considered militarily the strongest Islamic country with one of the most professional armies and intelligence services in the world – the fearsome ISI.

People like Gen (R) Hameed Gul (Ex-Director General of the ISI), Dr. Israr Ahmed of Tanzeem-e-Islami and Abid Ullah Jan, the writer of The Musharraf Factor: Leading Pakistan to Inevitable Demise, have, on different occasions, forecasted some sort of joint roles or alliance by Afghanistan and Pakistan in future.

Taliban: The Taliban were born from the dissent and displeasure found in Afghans on the Mujahideen Government formed after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan. They emerged from Kandahar in 1994 and occupied Kabul in 1996. By the late 1990s they were controlling more than 90 % of Afghanistan and their government was only recognized by Pakistan, UAE and Saudi Arabia.

The Taliban leadership can be described as the second tier of command of the Russian-Afghan Jihad of the 1980s. None of the now known Taliban leaders were known during the Afghan Jihad except the famous veteran Jalal-ud-Din Haqqani.

Taliban had studied in the Deobandi seminaries mostly run by Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam of Maulana Fazl-Ur-Rehman and Maulana Sami-ul-Haq before the two Maulanas created two separate factions of the JUI.

The Taliban are known for their non compromising application of the Deobandi doctrine of Sharia. They are famous for their fighting zeal, their religious fervor and their traditional Pashtun trait of hospitality that they chose a war and abandoned their government just to protect few guests.

The Taliban were blamed for, cooperating with and, harboring Osama Bin Laden and his comrades allegedly involved in 9/11. The Taliban had agreed to turn Osama Bin Laden to a neutral party if evidences were provided against him. But the evidences were never provided and so the Taliban chose for the War and abandoned Kabul to keep the war of insurgency go on. Ever since then the war of insurgency has spread in Afghanistan.

Very interestingly, the Taliban hail from the Pashtun ethnicity and have traditionally used two flags, a white flag with a black Shahada (Kalma) embossed for their government and diplomatic purposes and a reversal of this i.e. a black flag with a white Shahada embossed for their military. These types of black flags are also vividly seen across the tribal Pashtun areas that are now reportedly under the control of Pakistani Taliban.

The popular mainstream media presents a very horrible view of the Taliban whereas one alternate view is given by a “woman” journalist from Britain who was captured by the Taliban and later released on a mere promise that she will study Qur’an once she goes back home. That lady is named as Yvonne Ridley, a Muslim now, is outspoken political and journalistic personality, member of the RESPECT party and known for her unequivocal support for the freedom fights in Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan, Kashmir and elsewhere in Muslim world. Her book on Taliban “In the Hands of the Taliban: Her extra-ordinary story” is a must read for anyone who wants to see Taliban from eyes other than the western Dajjali Zionist media.

Al Qaeda: Al Qaeda is a mythical organization only known to the world of its existence through the western media. It may or may not actually exist. But has become an important player in the region since the 9/11. Every kind of explosion or sabotage activity is tirelessly blamed to Al Qaeda the next moment after it happens anywhere in the world – no investigations, no proofs nothing at all are ever needed.

Osama Bin Laden is the head of the Al Qaeda but merely a figure head now as, reportedly, his deputy Aiman al-Zawahiri is Incharge of operational affairs of Al Qaeda. A long strategic partner of the Taliban – they were actually guests of the Taliban and it was because of them that the Taliban opted for War and abandoned their government in Kabul.

Very interestingly, Al Qaeda has a black flag as well with a yellow/orange Shahada embossed on it. According to Syed Saleem Shehzad of Asia Times Online, Al Qaeda shares this belief with the Taliban that Afghanistan is the promised land of Bilad-e-Khurasan.

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan: Formed in 1998 by a Soviet paratrooper Juma Namangani and Tahir Yuldeshev, both ethnic Uzbeks. Its first objective was to overthrow the government of Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan and later on to expand to the whole of Central Asia under the banner of Islamic Movement of Central Asia.

Labeled as a militant terrorist outfit, the IMU was also a strategic partner and guests of the Taliban. And surprisingly enough, the IMU shares the identities of Black Flags and Black turbans with the Taliban.

Hizb-ut-Tahrir: Hizb-ut-Tahrir an International Sunni pan-Islamist political party whose goal is to unite all the Muslim countries to form a united Islamic state or Caliphate. Formed by Palestinian scholar named Taqiuddin Nabhani in 1953. It is active in many countries especially in the Central Asia (22). It is however viewed by an affiliate group of Al Qaeda as a moderate political party rather being strictly religious. However, interestingly, Hizb-ut-Tahrir also boasts a black flag with a white Shahada embossed on it. Though a non-military organization, it has a vast political following.

Tableeghi Jama’at: It is a Muslim missionary and revival movement. It was founded in the late 1920s by Maulana Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi (rahimahullah) in the Mewat province of India. It draws a large following from the South Asia i.e. Pakistan, India and Bangladesh but also from across the globe. The annual gathering of the followers of Tableeghi Jama’at known as Ijtimah pulls millions of Muslims from across the globe and it is confirmed to be the second largest human congregation of the world after the annual Muslim Hajj pilgrimage.

It is purely a non-political and non-violent loosely built organization with no formal structure but is known to have very high profile links and has influenced people of every walk of life from common man to popular celebrities. Former Presidents of Pakistan General Zia-ul-Haq and Rafiq Tarar, Ex-Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, Ex-Director General of ISI Javed Nasir, famous pop singers Junaid Jamshed, Abrar ul Haq and Shehzad Roy, famous cricketers Inzamam ul Haq, Shahid Afridi, Saqlain Mushtaq, Mushtaq Ahmed, Saeed Anwar and Hashim Amla of South Africa are few popular names. It was also responsible for the convert of Yousuf Youhana to Muhammad Yousuf that raised eyebrows in Washington.

Tableeghi Jama’at has no direct or indirect relations with any militant outfit or insurgencies going around the Muslim world but yet it is one of the reasons of US’s suspicion on Pakistan. It has been cited as the ideological backyard of Al Qaeda [23] by various western think tanks in their attempt to get the Jama’at banned as well that has been unsuccessful so far.

The Lawyers Movement: All of Pakistan’s nearly 70 years of life, ever since independence, the lawmakers and law-enforcers have equally manipulated the law and constitution of the country for their personal adventures and benefits ignoring public rights and sentiments. There have been four Martial Laws in the country in this short span of life. Every new dictator suspended, abrogated and amended the constitution on his very will. The power, respect and fear, of the strong armed forces of the country has produced many opportunists, civil servants, technocrats and politicians alike who committed every possible sin against the law of the land just to please and prolong the rule of a general.

Whereas the constitution itself has a prescribed way for its amendment, it clearly identifies anyone who suspends or abrogates the constitution as a traitor worth a death penalty.

For close to seventy years the law and constitution was raped and, the civil society, the people silently watched this crime ruining their lives and their country over and over again until March 9th, 2007. Till date one man braved the generals who had cornered him in the Army house. First time in the history of Pakistan a bare handed Judge defied a Martial Law administrator; something changed in Pakistan that day. The year that ensued saw the occupied President and Martial Law administrator General on continuous humiliation, defeat and retreat. The whole nation either joined the lawyers or supported them. The civil society was re-born in Pakistan, lawyers, political workers, members and employees of NGOs, Media persons, and westernized Students of Pakistan who were earlier thought of as western wannabes who did not care about anything related to Pakistan fuelled the movement. The struggle grew until February 18th, 2008 the people of Pakistan gave a thrashing defeat to political allies of President Musharraf.

Ever since there is a voice demanding reversals of President Musharraf’s actions and policies including the Provisional Constitutional Order on November 3rd, 2007 and to restore the deposed 60 judges of the higher judiciary.

The United States of America has clearly opposed this to happen because they fear that the restored judiciary will reopen the cases of disappeared people, investigate the extra-judiciary violence on Jamia Hafsa (Red Mosque, Islamabad) and in Karachi on May 12th, 2007, the political imprisonments, military actions in the two provinces and the political killings of the likes of Nawab Akbar Bugti and Benazir Bhutto. This clearly means the defeat of American, lies, agenda in Pakistan as well as the end of the so called War on Terror which is filled with nothing but deceptive mantra of repetitive lies.

But the victors of February 18th elections have vowed their conviction to restore the judiciary regardless of American pressure. And to defy the American pressure strong and positive messages are being sent to Beijing as the new leadership clearly realizes that the key to the freedom from American traps lies with China’s support.

But the most interesting fact in the whole struggle of lawyers and the civil society is the symbolic presence of Black Flags and the deep aura of revolution within. It is imperative to compare the basic demand of the right wing strongholds in the country and the lawyer’s movement. The basic commonality between the two is the demand for justice and the rule of law and that clearly means freedom from American clutches that means asking for a confrontation. That reminds of the statement by President Musharraf during the Jamia Hafsa Saga that “the alliance of Black Veils and Black coats will not be allowed”.

Watch out for the Lawyer’s black flag, they are the force to reckon with in the political future of this country.

Concluding Remarks:

All these state or non-state players are, somehow or the other, on the hate list of the Western Powers due to their somewhat common interests, ideas and beliefs. These players also have a tendency to re-design their strategic partnership anytime in the future in face of a common enemy i.e. the imperialist design of the Western Powers especially the US. The solution to avoid destruction of unimaginable proportions does not lie in brute use of force against these players but to recognize their role and influence in this part of the world, to withdraw occupational forces and let them devise and evolve their own political systems. True democracy can only be evolved not enforced.

If the world does not realize this, we are all hopeless. We cannot stop the world from a head on collision. A war would be inevitable with destruction yet has never been witnessed by human kind – a war to extinct our own kind. The destruction of Aqsa Mosque will drive 1.5 billion Muslims to a dead-end street where they will be forced to fight their way back – and the world would see the Black Flags of Khurasan the day it happens.

References:

1. W.M. Jr. Thackston, The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, Modern Library; Modern Library Pbk. Ed edition (September 10, 2002)

2. Al-Asha-ah, Page 240 also Page 108 of “Islam main Imam Mehdi Ka Tassawar” by Maulana Professor Muhammad Yousuf Khan, Jamia Ashrafia, Lahore, Pakistan

3. Book 041, Number 6979, Sahih Muslim

4. Page 215, Kitab-al-Fitan and Page 108 of “Islam main Imam Mehdi Ka Tassawar” by Maulana Professor Muhammad Yousuf Khan, Jamia Ashrafia, Lahore, Pakistan

5. Sahih Trimdhi

6. Book 041, Number 7034, Sahih Muslim

7. Persian Jews, Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/

8. Afghanistan The Virtual Jewish History Tour

9. Ferishta, History Of The Mohammedan Power In India, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation
10. Chronicles I, 8:35, Book of Samuel, Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.

11. William Jesse, History of the Afghans, (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2002) p. 8. And An English translation of the French Caravan Journeys by General J. P. Ferrier (1st Regiment of Chasseurs D’Afrique, 1845).

12. François Bernier “Travels in the Moghul Empire” (Constable, London, 1891, Pg. 930-932).

13. Rev. Joseph Wolff, D.D. LL.D, Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara in the years 1843-1845, (John W. Parker, London, 1845). Vol. 1 2nd Edition. P. 17.

14. George Forster, Letters on a journey from Bengal to England. (Faulder, London, 1808) (Vol. II, page 20).

15. History of Afghanistan by Colonel G. Malleson, C.S.I. (W.H. Allen & Co, London, at the India Office, 1878), p 39.

16. Oliver, Across the frontier, Pathan and Baluch (London: Champman and Hall Ltd., 1890) p 224

17. Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan, The Durand Line-it’s Geo Strategic Importance, (Islamabad: Area Study Centre, University of Peshawar, 2000) p. 34

18. Dr. Azmat Hayat Khan, The Durand Line-it’s Geo Strategic Importance, (Islamabad: Area Study Centre, University of Peshawar, 2000) p. 30

19. Army of Mahdi: https://sites.google.com/site/armyofmahdi/

20. John Pilger, New Statesman, December 16, 2002

21. Grace Halsell, Forcing God’s Hand, Amana Publications (2002)

22. Noman Hanif, Pakistan’s Tableeghi Jamaat and Hizb-ut-Tahrir in Central Asia, ICSSA, July 24, 2007

23. http://www.rediff.com/ , Tablighi Jamaat Under US Scanner, July 14, 2003

Location and nature of Arab Tribes

[Note: This biography will be posted part by part for the convenience of the readers, after the end of each topic there will be a continuation link given below,The seerah is from the book ar-raheeq al-makhtum by Maulana Safi ur Rahman al-mubarakpuri]

Beyond  a  shadow  of  doubt,  the  biography  of  Prophet  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  manifestedly represents  an  exhaustive  embodiment  of  the  sublime  Divine  Message  that  he  communicated  in  order  to deliver  the  human  race  from  the  swamp  of darkness  and  polytheism  to  the  paradise  of light  and monotheism.  An  image,  authentic  as  well  as  comprehensive,  of  this  Message  is  therefore  only attainable  through  careful  study  and  profound  analysis  of  both  backgrounds  and  issues  of  such  a biography.  In  view  of  this,  a  whole  chapter is  here  introduced  about  the  nature  and  development  of Arab  tribes  prior  to  Islam  as  well  as  the  circumstantial  environment  that  enwrapped  the  Prophet’s mission. 

LOCATION OF THE ARABS:

Linguistically,  the  word “Arab” means  deserts  and  waste  barren  land  well-nigh  waterless  and  treeless. Ever  since  the  dawn  of  history,  the  Arabian  Peninsula  and  its  people  have  been  called  as  such.  The  Arabian  Peninsula  is  enclosed in  the  west  by  the  Red  Sea  and  Sinai,  in  the  east  by  the  Arabian  Gulf, in  the  south  by  the  Arabian  Sea,  which  is  an  extension  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  in  the  north  by  old Syria  and part  of  Iraq.  The  area  is  estimated  between  a  million  and  a  million  and  a  quarter  square miles.  Thanks  to  its  geographical  position,  the  peninsula  has  always  maintained  great  importance..

Considering  its  internal  setting,  it  is  mostly deserts  and  sandy  places,  which  has  rendered  it  inaccessible to  foreigners  and  invaders,  and  allowed  its  people  complete  liberty  and  independence  through  the  ages, despite  the  presence  of  two  neighbouring  great  empires.  Its  external  setting,  on  the  other  hand,  caused  it  to  be  the  centre  of  the  old  world  and  provided it  with sea  and  land  links  with  most  nations  at  the  time.  Thanks  to  this  strategic  position  the  Arabian  Peninsula had  become  the  centre for  trade,  culture,  religion  and  art.

ARAB  TRIBES: Arab kinfolks  have  been  divided  according  to  lineage  into  three groups:

Perishing  Arabs: The  ancient  Arabs,  of  whose  history little  is  known,  and  of  whom  were ‘Ad,  Thamûd, Tasam,  Jadis,  Emlaq,  and  others.

Pure  Arabs:  Who  originated  from  the  progeny  of  Ya‘rub  bin  Yashjub  bin  Qahtan.  They  were  also  called Qahtanian  Arabs.

Arabized  Arabs:  Who  originated  from  the  progeny  of  Ishmael.  They  were  also  called  ‘Adnanian  Arabs. The  pure  Arabs  –  the  people  of  Qahtan  –  originally  lived in  Yemen  and  comprised  many  tribes,  two  of which  were very famous:

1.Himyar: The  most  famous  of  whose  septs  were  Zaid  Al-JamhurQuda‘a  and  Sakasic.

2.Kahlan:  The  most  famous  of  whose  septs  were  HamdanAnmarTai’, Mudhhij  ,  KindaLakhm, JudhamAzdAwsKhazraj  and  the  descendants  of Jafna  —  the  kings  of  old  Syria.  Kahlan  septs  emigrated  from  Yemen  to  dwell  in  the  different  parts  of  the  Arabian  Peninsula  prior  to  the Great  Flood (Sail  Al-‘Arim  of  Ma’rib  Dam),  due  to  the  failure  of  trade  under  the  Roman  pressure  and domain  on  both  sea  and  land  trade  routes  following  Roman  occupation  of  Egypt  and  Syria.  Naturally enough,  the  competition  between  Kahlan  and  Himyar  led  to  the evacuation  of  the  first  and  the settlement  of  the  second  in  Yemen. 

THE  EMIGRATING  SEPTS  OF  KAHLAN  CAN  BE  INTO  FOUR  GROUPS:

1.Azd:  Who,  under  the leadership  of ‘Imran  bin  ‘Amr Muzaiqbâ’,  wandered  in  Yemen,  sent  pioneers and finally  headed  northwards.  Details  of  their emigration  can  be  summed  up  as  follows: 

2.Tha‘labah  bin  ‘Amr left  his  tribe  Al-Azd  for  Hijaz  and dwelt  between  Tha‘labiyah  and  Dhi  Qar. When  he  gained  strength,  he  headed  for  Madinah  where  he  stayed.  Of  his  seed  are  Aws  and Khazraj,  sons  of  Haritha  bin  Tha‘labah.

Haritha  bin  ‘Amr,  known  as  Khuza‘a,  wandered  with  his  folks  in  Hijaz  until  they  came  to  Mar  AzZahran.  Later,  they  conquered  the  Haram,  and  settled  in  Makkah  after  having  driven  away  its people,  the  tribe  of Jurhum. 

‘Imran  bin  ‘Amr  and  his  folks  went  to  ‘Oman  where  they  established  the  tribe  of  Azd  whose children  inhabited  Tihama  and  were  known  as  Azd-of-Shanu’a. 

Jafna  bin  ‘Amr  and  his  family,  headed  for  Syria  where  he  settled  and  initiated  the  kingdom  of Ghassan  who  was  so  named  after  a  spring  of  water,  in  Hijaz,  where  they  stopped  on  their  way  to Syria. 

1&2. Lakhm  and Judham:  Of  whom  was  Nasr  bin  Rabi‘a,  father  of  Manadhira,  Kings  of  Heerah. 

3. Banu  Tai’:  Who  also  emigrated  northwards  to  settle  by  the  so-  called  Aja  and  Salma  Mountains which  were  consequently  named  as  Tai’ Mountains.

4. Kinda:  Who  dwelt  in  Bahrain  but  were  expelled  to  Hadramout  and  Najd  where  they  instituted  a powerful government  but  not  for  long,  for  the  whole  tribe  soon  faded  away. 

Another  tribe  of  Himyar,  known  as  Quda‘a,  also  left  Yemen  and  dwelt  in  Samawa  semi-desert  on the  borders  of  Iraq. 

The  Arabized  Arabs  go  back  in  ancestry  to  their great  grandfather Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) from  a town  called “Ur”  near  Kufa  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Euphrates  in  Iraq.  Excavations  brought  to  light  great details  of  the  town,  Ibrahim’s (alaihissalaam) family,  and  the  prevalent  religions  and  social  circumstances. 

It  is  known  that  Abraham (Ibraheem Alaihissalaam)  left  Ur  for  Harran  and  then  for  Palestine,  which  he  made headquarters  for  his  Message.  He  wandered  all  over  the  area.  When  he  went  to  Egypt,  the  Pharaoh (fir’aun) tried  to  do  evil  to  his  wife  Sarah (Sara radhiyallahu anha),  but  Allâh  saved  her  and  the  Pharaoh’s  wicked  scheme  recoiled  on  him. He  thus  came  to  realize  her  strong  attachment  to  Allâh,  and,  in  acknowledgment  of  her  grace,  the Fir’aun  rendered  his  daughter  Hagar (Hajira radhiyallahu anha) at  Sarah’s  service,  but  Sarah  gave  Hagar  to  Ibrahim (alaihissalaam)  as  a  wife. 

Ibrahim (alaihissalaam) returned  to  Palestine  where  Hajira (radhiyallahu anha) gave  birth  to  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam).  Sarah (radhiyallahu anha) became  so  jealous  of  Hagar that  she with the command of Allah forced  Ibrahim (alaihissalaam)  to  send  Hajira (radhiyallah anha)  and  her baby  away  to  a  plantless  valley  on  a  small  hill in  Hijaz, by  the  Sacred  House,  exposed  to  the  wearing  of floods  coming  right  and  left.  He  chose for  them  a  place under  a  lofty  tree  above  Zam-zam  near  the  upper  side  of  the  Mosque  in  Makkah  where  neither  people nor  water  was  available,  and  went  back  to  Palestine  leaving  with  his  wife  and  baby  a  leather  case  with some  dates  and  a  pot  of  water.  Not  before  long,  they  ran  out  of  both  food  and  water,  but  thanks  to Allâh’s  favour  water  gushed  forth  to  sustain  them  for  sometime.  The  whole  story  of  Zam-zam  spring  is already known  to  everybody. 

Another  Yemeni  tribe  – Jurhum  the  Second  –  came  and  lived  in  Makkah  upon  Hajira’s (radhiyallahu anha) permission,  after being  said  to  have  lived  in  the valleys  around  Makkah.  It  is  mentioned  in  the  Sahih  Al-Bukhari  that  this tribe  came  to  Makkah  before  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam) was  a  young  man  while  they  had  passed  through  that  valley  long before  this  event. 

Ibraheem (alaihissalaam)  used  to  go  to  Makkah  every  now  and  then  to  see  his  wife  and  son.  The  number  of  these journeys  is  still  unknown,  but  authentic  historical resources  spoke  of  four  ones. 

Allâh,  the  Sublime,  stated  in  the  Noble  Qur’ân  that  He  had  Ibrahim (alaihissalaam)  see,  in  his  dream,  that  he slaughtered  his  son  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam),  and  therefore  Ibraheem  stood  up  to  fulfill  His  Order:

Then,  when  they  had  both  submitted  themselves  (to  the  Will  of  Allâh),  and  he  had  laid  him prostrate  on  his  forehead  (or  on  the  side  of  his  forehead for  slaughtering);  and  We  called  out  to him: “O  Abraham!  You  have fulfilled  the  dream (vision)!” 
Verily!  Thus  do  we  reward  the Muhsinûn  (good-doers,  who  perform  good  deeds  totally  for  Allâh’s  sake  only,  without  any  show off  or  to  gain  praise  or fame,  etc.  and  do  them in  accordance  to  Allâh’s  Orders).  Verily,  that indeed  was  a  manifest  trial  —  and  We  ransomed  him  with  a  great  sacrifice  (i.e.  a  ram)”  [Qur’an 37:103-107]

It  is  mentioned  in  the  Genesis  that  Ishmael (Qur’anic Isma’eel) was  thirteen  years  older  than  his  brother  Isaac (Qur’anic Ishaaq).  The sequence  of  the  story  of  the  sacrifice  of  Ishmael (Isma’eel)  shows  that  it  really  happened  before  Ishaq’s  birth,  and that  Allâh’s  Promise  to  give  Abraham  another  son,  Ishaq (alaihissalaam),  came  after  narration  of  the  whole  story. 

This  story  spoke  of  one  journey  –  at  least  – before  Ishmael became  a  young  man.  Al-Bukhari,  on  the authority  of  Ibn  ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu),  reported  the  other  three  journeys;  a  summary  of  which  goes  as  follows: 

When  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam)  became  a  young  man,  he  learned  Arabic  at  the  hand  of  the  tribe  of Jurhum,  who  loved him  with  great  admiration  and  gave  him  one  of  their  women  as  a  wife,  soon  after  his  mother passed away. Having  wanted  to  see  his  wife  and  son  again,  Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) came  to  Makkah, Isma’eel’s (alaihissalaam)marriage,  but  he didn’t  find  him  at  home.  He  asked  Isma’eel’s (alaihissalaam) wife  about  her  husband  and  how  they  were  doing.  She complained  of  poverty,  so  he  asked  her  to  tell  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam)  to  change  his  doorstep.  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam)  understood  the message,  divorced  his  wife  and  got  married  to  the  daughter  of  Mudad  bin  ‘Amr,  chief  of  the  tribe  of Jurhum. 

Once  more,  Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) came  to  see  his  son,  but  again  didn’t  find  him  at  home.  He  asked  his  new  wife  the same  previous  question,  to  which  she  thanked  Allâh.  Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) asked  her  to  tell  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam) to  keep  his doorstep  (i.e.  to  keep  her  as  wife)  and  went  back  to  Palestine.  A  third  time,  Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) came  to  Makkah  to  find  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam) sharpening  an  arrow  under  a  lofty  tree  near Zam-zam.  The  meeting,  after  a  very  long  journey  of  separation,  was  very  touching  for  a  father  so affectionate  and  a  so  dutiful  and  righteous  son.  This  time,  father  and  son  built  Al-Ka‘bah  and raised  its pillars,  and  Abraham,  in  compliance  with  Allâh’s  Commandment,  called  unto  people  to  make  pilgrimage to  it. 

By  the  grace  of  Allâh,  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam) had  twelve  sons  from  the  daughter  of  Mudad,  whose  names  were  Nabet, Qidar,  Edbael,  Mebsham,  Mishma’,  Duma,  Micha,  Hudud,  Yetma,  Yetour,  Nafis  and  Qidman,  and  who ultimately  formed  twelve  tribes  inhabiting  Makkah  and  trading  between  Yemen,  geographical  Syria  and Egypt.  Later  on,  these  tribes  spread  all  over,  and  even  outside,  the peninsula.  All  their  tidings  went  into oblivion  except  for  the  descendants  of  Nabet  and  Qidar. 

The  Nabeteans  –  sons  of  Nabet  – established  a  flourishing  civilization  in  the  north  of  Hijaz,  they instituted  a  powerful  government  which  spread  out  its  domain  over  all  neighbouring  tribes,  and  made Petra  their  capital.  Nobody dared  challenge  their  authority  until  the  Romans  came  and  managed  to eliminate  their kingdom.  After  extensive research  and painstaking  investigation,  Mr.  Sulaiman  An-Nadwi came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  Ghassanide kings,  along  with  the  Aws  and  Khazraj  were  not  likely  to  be Qahtanians  but  rather  Nabeteans.  Descendants  of  Qidar,  the  son  of  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam),  lived long  in  Makkah  increasing in  number,  of  them  issued ‘Adnan  and  son  Ma‘ad,  to  whom  ‘Adnanian  Arabs  traced  back  their  ancestry.  ‘Adnan  is  the  twenty-first grandfather  in  the  series  of  the  Prophetic  ancestry.  It  was  said  that  whenever  Prophet  Muhammad  ﻰﻠﺻ ﻢﻠﺳو  ﻪﯿﻠﻋ  ﷲا  spoke  of  his  ancestry  he  would  stop  at  ‘Adnan  and  say:  “Genealogists  tell lies”  and  did  not  go farther  than  him.  A  group  of  scholars,  however,  favoured  the  probability  of  going  beyond  ‘Adnan attaching  no  significance  to  the  aforementioned  Prophetic  Hadith.  They  went  on  to  say  that  there  were exactly  forty  fathers  between  ‘Adnan  and  Ibraheem  (alaihissalaam). 

Nizar,  Ma‘ad’s  only  son,  had four  sons  who  branched  out  into  four great  tribes;  Eyad,  Anmar,  Rabi‘a and  Mudar.
These  last  two  sub-branched  into  several  septs.  Rabi‘a  fathered  Asad,  ‘Anazah,  ‘Abdul  Qais, and  Wa’il’s  two  sons  (Bakr  and  Taghlib),  Hanifa  and  many  others. 

Mudar  tribes  branched  out  into  two  great  divisions:  Qais  ‘Ailan  bin  Mudar  and  septs  of  Elias  bin  Mudar. Of  Qais  ‘Ailan  were  the  Banu  Saleem,  Banu  Hawazin,  and  Banu  Ghatafan  of  whom  descended ‘Abs, Zubyan,  Ashja‘  and  Ghani  bin  A‘sur.  Of  Elias  bin  Mudar  were  Tamim  bin  Murra,  Hudhail  bin  Mudrika, Banu  Asad  bin  Khuzaimah  and  septs  of  Kinana  bin  Khuzaimah,  of  whom  came  Quraish,  the  descendants of  Fahr  bin  Malik  bin  An-Nadr  bin  Kinana.

  Quraish  branched  out  into  various  tribes,  the  most  famous  of  whom  were  Jumah,  Sahm,  ‘Adi, Makhzum,  Tayim,  Zahra  and  the  three  septs  of  Qusai  bin  Kilab:  ‘Abdud-Dar bin  Qusai,  Asad  bin  ‘Abdul ‘Uzza  bin  Qusai  and  ‘Abd  Manaf  bin  Qusai. 

‘Abd  Manaf  branched  out  into  four  tribes:  ‘Abd  Shams,  Nawfal,  Muttalib  and  Hashim.  It  is,  however, from  the family  of  Hashim  that  Allâh  selected  Prophet  Muhammad  bin  ‘Abdullah  bin  ‘Abdul-Muttalib  bin Hashim (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam). 

Prophet  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  said:  “Allâh  selected  Ishmael from  the  sons  of  Abraham,  Kinana  from  the  sons  of  Ishmael,  Quraish from  the  sons  of  Kinana,  Hashim  from  the  sons  of  Quraish  and  He  selected  me  from  the  sons  of Hashim.” 

Al-‘Abbas  bin  ‘Abdul-Muttalib (radhiyallahu anhu) quoted  the  Messenger  of  Allâh  (sallallaahu alaihivwasallan)  as  saying:  “Allâh  created  mankind  and  chose  me  from  the  best  whereof,  He  chose  the  tribes  and  selected me  from  the best  whereof;  and  He  chose families  and  selected  me  from  the  best  whereof.  I  am the  very  best  in  person  and  family.” 

Having  increased  in  number,  children  of ‘Adnan,  in  pursuit  of  pastures  and  water,  spread  out  over various  parts  of  Arabia.

The  tribe  of ‘Abdul  Qais,  together  with  some  septs  of  Bakr  bin  Wa’il  and Tamim,  emigrated  to  Bahrain where  they dwelt. 

Banu  Hanifa  bin  Sa‘b bin  Ali bin  Bakr  went  to  settle  in  Hijr,  the  capital  of  Yamama.  All  the  tribes  of  Bakr bin  Wa’il  lived  in  an  area  of  land  which  included  Yamama,  Bahrain,  Saif  Kazima,  the  sea  shore,  the outer  borders  of  Iraq,  Ablah  and  Hait. 

Most  of  the  tribe  of  Taghlib  lived in  the  Euphrates  area  while  some  of  them  lived  with  Bakr. Banu  Tamim  lived in  Basra  semi-desert.

Banu  Saleem  lived  in  the vicinity  of  Madinah  on  the  land  stretching  from  Wadi  Al-Qura  to  Khaibar onwards  to  the eastern  mountains  to  Harrah.

Thaqif dwelt  in  Ta’if  and  Hawazin  east  of  Makkah  near  Autas  on  the road  from  Makkah  to  Basra. Banu  Asad  lived  on  the  land east  of  Taimâ’  and  west  of  Kufa,  while  family  of Tai’ lived  between  Banu Asad  and  Taimâ’.  They  were  five-day-walk  far from  Kufa. 

Zubyan  inhabited  the  plot  of  and  between  Taimâ’  and  Hawran. 

Some  septs  of  Kinana  lived  in  Tihama,  while  septs  of  Quraish  dwelt  in  Makkah  and  its  suburbs.  Quraish remained  completely  disunited  until  Qusai  bin  Kilab  managed  to  rally  their ranks  on  honourable  terms attaching  major prominence  to  their  status  and  importance.

Continue reading further by clicking the link: Rulership and Kingship among the Pre-Islamic Arabs

Clearing the Confusion regarding the Location of Masjid Al Aqsa

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We occasionally get asked why we show the image of the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat as Sukhra) when we are discussing or promoting the issue of Masjid al-Aqsa. It is asserted that this causes confusion in people’s minds about what Masjid al-Aqsa actually refers to. This response intends to help resolve the confusion:

Q. What is Masjid Al Aqsa??

A. There is a common misconception that Masjid Al Aqsa refers specifically to the black/grey domed masjid within the Al Aqsa Sanctuary, however this is incorrect. Allah (swt) reminds us in the Holy Qur’an that He has blessed the land for us therefore according to Islamic teachings,
ALL the buildings within al-Aqsa Sanctuary and the entirety of the land are sacred right down to every single grain of sand within it and when we refer to ‘Masjid al-Aqsa’ it is not to any of the specific buildings upon the land, but rather, the land itself upon which the Dome of the Rock and the black/grey domed masjid stand.

Thus, references to the al-Aqsa Sanctuary/Masjid al-Aqsa are interchangeable terms, and neither refers to the grey/black domed building within the land which is routinely referred to as Masjid al-Aqsa but should be Masallah al-Aqsa (Qibly). It is this common usage of terms that has confused people.

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There are 44 buildings within the Al Aqsa Sanctuary, including the black/grey domed masjid and the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat as Sukhra). These buildings have historic significance for Muslims, however, they were built some time after the passing of the beloved Prophet (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam).

Evidence from the Qur’an

Our love and dedication to the heritage of Masjid al-Aqsa is inspired by verses of the Holy Qur’an, from numerous ahadith and historical events that took place there.

Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem

Limitless is He (Allah) Who took His servant for a journey by night from the Sacred Masjid (in Makkah) to al-Aqsa Masjid (in Jerusalem), whose precincts We have blessed, in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who hears and sees (all things).
[Al-Isra 17:1]

The relevant text in the passage is “Whose precincts We have blessed” . It is clear from this verse that Allah (swt) has blessed the land of Masjid al-Aqsa.

Understanding the term ‘Blessed Land’

“Blessed land” under the Islamic ethos means land associated with barakah –land Allah (swt) has endowed spiritual and physical blessings from which all of humanity can derive benefit. The barakah also extends to the people who reside within this land, on condition that they confirm to the commands of Allah (swt), i.e., practice Islam.

The Boundaries of the Blessed Land

The boundaries of this “blessed land” are not clear and there are differences of opinion about its exact extent. Some classical Islamic scholars of the Qur’an and a hadith including Ibn Kathir, al-Qurtubi and Ibn al-Jawzi consider the whole area of al-Sham (modern day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine) as blessed. Other interpreters believe that the blessed land is contiguous from the Hijaz (Saudi Arabia) through al-Sham to Egypt. A further, and maybe a more logical opinion, is that within the area of the modern Middle East, there are pockets of “blessed land” like the compound of al-Aqsa Sanctuary, the Prophet’s (saw) Masjid in Madinah and the Holy Masjid in Makkah. However, in all the opinions on the extent of the “blessed land”, al-Aqsa Sanctuary is included.
The city of al-Quds (Jerusalem) now extends over a 45 square kilometre area. Within al-Quds, there is the ‘old city’ where major historical events took place and within the old city on the southeast corner is the area referred to as al-Haram al-Sharif or al-Aqsa Sanctuary.

Al-Aqsa Sanctuary covers an area of approximately 35 acres and within this area, at the southern end, is the black/grey domed Masjid the Masallah al-Aqsa (Qibly); in the centre lies the golden domed Masjid, Qubbat al-Sakhrah (Dome of the Rock) and there are within al-Aqsa Sanctuary 42 other monuments and buildings. It has become common practice to refer to the whole area simply as al-Haram al-Sharif (al-Aqsa Sanctuary) and the black domed Masjid as ‘Masjid al-Aqsa’.

Who constructed or commissioned the buildings within the Al-Aqsa Sanctuary?

Masjid al-Aqsa

When the first Caliph ‘Umar (ra) entered al-Quds (Jerusalem) he requested first to be taken to al-Haram al-Sharif (al-Aqsa Sanctuary). When he arrived there, he was laden with sorrow to see that the Romans had been using the Holy Sanctuary as a rubbish tip. He immediately began clearing of the site, and once cleared, he ordered the construction of a Masjid at the southern end of the sanctuary. This was originally a wooden structure and was later re-built as a solid structure by ‘Abd al-Malik’s son al-Walid (Caliph 705-715). Today, the black dome of Masallah al-Aqsa (Qibly) stands there.

Qubbat al-Sakhrah (Dome of the Rock)

The Umayyad Caliph, ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan commissioned the building of the Qubbat al-Sakhr
ah (Dome of the Rock) in 72-73 AH (691-692). The reason for building this architectural wonder of the world has drawn many hypotheses. However, to most Muslims it is logical for such an endeavour of magnificence to have taken place in al-Quds (Jerusalem). As it is the site of the most miraculous event in the life of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) – al-Isra wa al-Mi‘raj –
coupled with the many ahadith exalting the virtues of al-Aqsa Sanctuary and the fact that it is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an. ‘Abd al-Malik, himself a renowned jurist, being aware of all these great virtues, decided to commemorate the Islamic heritage of the area, and undertook the grand project of building the magnificent dome over the rock.

In Conclusion

It is extremely important to appreciate that it is the land of al-Haram al-Sharif (al-Aqsa Sanctuary) that is the most precious and blessed. When the Holy Qur’an (in Surah al-Isra’) refers to Masjid al-Aqsa (meaning a place of prostration), it is this land of al-Haram al-Sharif (al-Aqsa Sanctuary) that is implied and not any of the buildings. Therefore, all the buildings that stand within the al-Aqsa Sanctuary are all of equal worth and importance, including the black domed Masallah al-Aqsa (Qibly) and golden Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhrah), however, one must understand it is the land that is Holy and Blessed and not the bricks and mortar.

Source: http://www.islam21c.com/campaigns/14559/