[By: Shaykh al Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhlawi (rahimahullah)]
All the ‘ulama are agreed on this fact that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) only performed Hajj once after the hijrat. That was during the 10th year Hijri, which incidentally was the last year of his life. On this Hajj journey such things were seen from him as is normally seen from someone who is about to take leave. Hence this Hajj has become known as the Hajjatul-Wida‘ (the Farewell Hajj). It was as if Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wassallam) was bidding farewell to all his companions present there with him before his final departure to his Lord.
When initially Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) announced his intention to proceed for Hajj , thousands came forward with the same intention of being of those most fortunate ones to accompany him. And whoever heard of it expressed the desire to be with him. A large number of them had gathered in Madinah before the departure date. Many joined on the way. Some awaited him in Makkah and some even travelled directly to Arafaat to join the vast host of the Sahaabah there. According to Lam’aat on Abu Dawud their total number reached one hundred and twenty-four thousand.
Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) performed Zuhr salaat in Madinah on the 24th or 25 or 26 of Zil-Qadah and said ‘Asr prayers at Zul Hulaifa. (According to the historians it may have been either on Thursday, Friday or Saturday. Those who say the departure was on a Friday seem to be in the wrong because according to the most correct reports, they performed Zuhr four rak’aats before proceeding. So it could not have been on a Friday. In my own humble opinion the Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) and his companions left Madinah on Saturday the 25th of Zil-Qadah).
At Zul Hulaifa they spent the night and here Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) consorted with all his wives who were present. For this reason the ulama say it is mustahab to have sexual relations with one’s wife, if she accompanies him, before putting on the ihraam, so that both may remain chaste during the period in ihraam which often can be a long time.
On the next day about the tie of Zuhr, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) performed ghusl for the ihraam. Then he donned the ihraam clothes, preformed salaah in the mosque of Zul Hulaifa and made niyyat for the ihraam of a Qaarin. (The ‘ulama say that this ihraam as from the outset for Qiraan). Here Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) also gave the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) the choice of putting on ihraam for Qiraan, Tamattu’ or Ifraad. Hazrat Jibra’il (alayhissalaam) came to him at night and said: “This valley of Aqeeq is a blessed one. Perform salaah here and put on ihraam for Hajj and Umrah.” Hence Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) chose to be a Qaarin.
Having performed salaah the Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) came from the mosque, mounted his she-camel and loudly recited the Labbaik (i.e Talbiyah). Many thought that he only started his ihraam at this moment. This is not so because it actually started in the mosque and there only those near to him heard his Talbiyah (Labbaik). Sitting on the camel his voice reached further.
From Zul Hulaifa they proceeded and climbed the mountain of Baida near Zul Hulaifa. As we know it is mustahab for the Haji in ihraam to recite the Talbiyah aloud at every high place, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) again recited it. From here the voice reached even further. Some Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) were under the misunderstanding that the niyyat for ihraam was made here.
The procession went in the direction of Makkah. Hadhrat Jibra’il (alayhissalaam) appeared and told the Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) to inform the companions that they should recite the Talbiyah loudly. This they did. When they reached the valley of Rowhaa they performed salaah there and he said to them: “Seventy Nabis have performed salaah here.”
Rasulullah’s (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) luggage and Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) were on the same camel which was given into the care of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu)’s slave. When they reached they valley of Araj they had to wait for a long time for the slave to arrive. After some time of waiting he arrived and explained that the camel and goods had been lost. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) was overtaken by anger and beat the slave. Seeing this Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) smiled and said: “Look at what this muhrim is doing now.” (See what he does while in ihraam). When the companions came to know that Rasulullah’s (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) goods had been lost, they quickly prepared food and brought it to him. He called Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu): “Come, Allah has sent good food.”
However, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) was still angered and Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhe Wasallam) said: “O Abu Bakr, let your anger pass.”
Thereafter Hadhrat Sa’d and Abu Qais (radhiyallahu anhum) brought their camel laden with goods and bid Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) to accept theirs but he replied: “May Allah bless you, with Allah’s grace our camel and goods have been found.”
At the valley of Asfaan near Makkah. Hazrat Suraaqah (radhiyallahu anhu) said to the Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam): “O Rasulullah, teach us the way to perform Hajj as if we were born this day (and knew nothing).” The Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) then told him what to do on entering Makkah.
At a place called Sarif, Aa’isha (radhiyallahu anha) started her menstruation. As a result of this she was greatly troubled and disappointed and started weeping. “Oh, now my whole journey has come to naught: Hajj is near and I have become unclean.” Rasulullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) consoled her: “No Aa’isha, this is indeed something that happens to every woman.” He then told here what to do in her predicament. Then he told those Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) who had no animals to slaughter with them to enter Makkah, perform umrah and free themselves from the ihraam.
Very near to Makkah at the valley of Azraq, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) said: “I see before me now that moment when Hadhrat Musa (alayhissalaam) passed this way for Hajj, fingers in the ears, loudly calling out the Labbaik.”
At the Zu-Tuwa which is very near to Makkah they spent the night. Then in the morning he performed ghusl once more for entrance into Makkah. Thereafter at the time of Dhuhaa on Sunday the 4th of Zil-Haj he entered Makkah. (Most historians are more or less agreed on this date. In my opinion Zil Qadah had 29 days. Having left Madinah on a Saturday they entered Makkah on a Sunday, the 9th day of travel).
They went straight to the Masjidul Haraam, kissed the Hajarul Aswad and did tawaaf. No Tahiyatul Masjid salaah was performed.
After tawaaf they performed two rak’ah salaah at the Maqaam-e-Ibrahim, reciting therein Surah Al Kaafiroon and Surah Ikhlaas. Kissing the Hajarul Aswad once more, they mounted the hill Safa’ until they could see the Ka’bah. Standing there, they prayed for a long while, reciting the takbeer and tahmeed. They then walked between Safa’ and Marwah seven times. When they came to Marwah in the end the Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) commanded those without hadee (animals for slaughter) to free themselves from the ihraam. Then Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) (animals for slaughter) to free themselves from the ihraam. Then Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) went to his residence and remained in Makkah for four more days.
On the morning of Zil-Hajj, the 8th at the time of Chasht salaah he left for Mina. All the companions had now put on ihraam for Hajj and accompanied him to Mina where they performed five salaahs. Surah Murslaat was revealed on the evening of this day. On the next day (Friday) after sunrise they proceeded to Arafaat, where some companions had erected a tent for Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) at the Masjid Nimrah. Rasulullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) stayed in it for a short while and then mounted his camel Qaswa to go in the direction of the valley of Arafaat. There he delivered a long sermon.
Among the things he said were: “O people, perhaps you shall not see me again after this. After this we shall not meet again at this place……..”
After the sermon Hadhrat Bilaal (radhiyallahu anhu) was commanded to call aloud the Adhan and they performed Zuhr and ‘Asr salaah in the time of Zuhr. After salaah Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) went onto the plain of Arafaat on his camel and from then until maghrib made duaa to Allah. During this period Hazrat Um Fazl (radhiyallahu anha) wanted to find out if she was fasting or not. She sent a cup of milk and the Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) drank it sitting on his camel so that all could see he was not fasting.
During this period also one of the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhu) fell from his camel and died. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) commanded that he be wrapped in his ihraam clothes for burial and said that on the day of Qiyaamah he shall be raised up still reciting the Talbiyah.
During this period a group from Najd arrived and one of them asked Rasulullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam): “What is Hajj?” The Rasul (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam Alayhi Wassallam) commanded someone to proclaim aloud that Hajj means to step over at Arafaat for a time, “Whoever arrives here before day break on the 10th of Zil Hajj had performed Hajj. [Abu Dawood]
Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) prayed until the time of Maghrib for the forgiveness of his ummat with many tears with much humility. Allah promised to forgive all sins except injustice. Then he again begged: “O Allah, thou can forgive that too; and of Thy own accord can Thou right the wrongs done against the unjustly treated ones; and Thou can forgive unjust.”
During this period was revealed the verse: “Today have I perfected you religion for you and have completed my favor for you.”
When this verse was revealed, the weight of revelation became so great that the camel could not bear it and had to sit down.
After sunset Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) left Arafaat before performing Maghrib salaah. On this part of the journey the camel moved at a very fast pace as if to show exceeding happiness and Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) had to hold her back. Whenever they ascended some hill, he held the reins loosely but as soon as level ground appeared he held the reins tight. At times he held the reins so tight that the cake head was pulled so much back that it touched the canopy over the saddle.
Hadhrat Usaamah bin Zaid (radhiyallahu anhu) traveled with Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) on the same camel on this part of the journey. Near Muzdalifah Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) descended from his camel in order to urinate. Afterwards Hadhrat Usaamah (radhiyallahu anhu) poured the water for him to perform wudhu. Later it became fixed habit for Hadhrat Ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) that whenever he reached this place during Hajj, he descended to make wudhu, pointing out that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) made wudhu there. Having made wudhu, Hazrat Usaamah (radhiyallahu anhu) reminded Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) about Maghrib salaah but he replied: “Let us proceed and say Maghrib prayers at Muzadalifah.”
When they reached Muzdalifah, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) once more performed wudhu and said Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers together. After salaah he remained busy with duaa. According to some reports, Allah accepted his plea on behalf of the unjust ones here too.
On this same night he sent the women, children and the aged ones ahead to Mina because he feared that they would find great difficulty in traveling with this vast crowd. With the rest of the companions he remained till the next morning. They said Fajr salaah and left Muzdalifah for Mina before the sun rose. This time Hadhrat Usaamah (radhiyallahu anhu) had taken his place among those who walked and Hadhrat Fadhl bin Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) sat with Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) on the camel. Hadhrat Fadhl (radhiyallahu anhu) was still a very young man. On route a young girl came to ask Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) a question about Hajj Badal on behalf of her father. Hadhrat Fadhl (radhiyallahu anhu) looked at the girl and Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) with his blessed hand turned his face away from her, so that he should not look at this ‘strange’ woman, and said:
“Today is such a day, that whoever controls his eyes, his ears and his tongue against sin, shall be forgiven.” Along the road Hadhrat Fadhl (radhiyallahu anhu) picked up the stones Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) required. People came to ask numerous questions which were answered. One person asked: “O Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) my mother has become very old and weak. Even if we should tie her on the back of a camel, we fear death will overtake her. Can I perform Hajj on her behalf?” Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied: “if your mother had an outstanding debt, would you carry the burden of settling it?”
The man said: “Certainly.” Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) then went on: “So also should you take Hajj.” Soon the procession passed Wadi-e-Muhassar. This was the place Allah destroyed Abraha and his forces who came with a mighty and elephants to destroy the Ka’bah. As they passed through this valley Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) drove his camel through it with haste, so as to pass quickly through a place where the wrath of Allah had once descended.
On arrival at Mina on the morning of the 10th Zil Haj they proceeded straight to the Jamaratul Aqaba and threw stones at it. The Talbiyah that had continued up to this moment from the time ihraam was put on, was now stopped.
Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) then went to his tent (where he was to remain for the following two days) and gave another lengthy sermon. In it many things were explained such things were said as is normally said at a time of farewell.
Thereafter Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) went to the Man’har where animals are slaughtered and for every year of his 63 years of life he slaughtered a camel. A total of sixty-three camels. Of these six or seven came forward of their own accord as if eager to be slaughtered in Allah’s way. Apart from these Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) slaughtered the rest to complete one hundred camels.
Thereafter an announcement was made that whoever desired could take pieces of meat to eat. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhe Wasallam) then commanded Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) to cut a piece of meat from each of the slaughtered animals and boil it together in one pot. This was done and Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) ate from this gravy. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) also slaughtered a cow on behalf of the woman of his household.
After this Hadhrat Ma’mar (radhiyallahu anhu) or Hadhrat Kharash (radhiyallahu anhu) was called to cut the hair of Rasulullah. The head was shaved, nails trimmed and the hair and nails distributed among the Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhuma) It is said that the hair of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) which are still in the possession of some people to this day were received here at Mina. Having cut his hair Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) took off his ihraam clothes, applied scent to himself and put on his usual clothes.
Many people came to ask questions on Hajj. On this day four things are to be done viz. Throwing stones at the Jamaratul Uqba, Qurbani, cutting of hair and tawaaf. These are to be performed in the prescribed order. Some Sahaabah (radhiyallahu anhuma) made mistakes in not maintaining the correct order. They came to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) and explained. And to almost all of them he said that not having stuck to the correct order was no sin. “Sin is to attack the honor and respect of a Muslim.”
At the time of Zuhr Salaah Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) left with his procession for Makkah to perform Tawaafuz-Ziyaarah. He performed Zuhr salaah in Makkah after tawaaf and then returned to Mina. He also visited the Bi’r-Zam-Zam and drank to his fill with Zam-Zam. According to some reports he drew the water himself and according to other reports he is said not to have drawn himself and to have said:
“Had I not feared that people will overcome you in conquest, I would have drawn water myself to drink.”
What actually could have taken place is that water was drawn many times. At some time when he was alone Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) drew it up by himself and at another time when there was a huge crowd around, he had it drawn for him, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) drank the Zam-Zam while standing.
Then Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) performed saee’ between Safa’ and Marwah. Some reports deny it: the Hanafi accept it. Returning to Mina Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) remained there for days and threw stones at the Jamaraat daily after Zawaal. Some reports also say that he went for tawaaf to the Baitullah every night. Many sermons were delivered at Mina. Once again there appeared these kind of farewell words: “Perhaps I shall not again meet you here in future.”
Surah Nasr (Iza Jaa’a Nasrulllahi) was revealed. Some reports say it was already revealed in Madinah before this time. After this revelation the Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) used to say that in this chapter he was given news of his coming death, which was near at hand. On the Tuesday 13th of Zil Hajj after having thrown the last Jamaraat they left Mina for Makkah. Outside Makkah at Mahaab (also called Bathaa or Khaif Bani Kinana) Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam)’s slave Hadhrat Abu Raafi’ (radhiyallahu anhu) had erected a tent and here Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) stopped to spend the night. Here he performed Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib and ‘Isha salaahs. Then he rested for a while. This place was the one where in the 6th year of Islam the Infidels of Makkah had made an agreement among themselves to boycott the Muslims and Banu Haashim and to have no dealings with them whatsoever. No buying, selling, marriage, meeting etc. until such a time that Banu Haashim, the family of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), delivered him into their hands to deal with him as they saw fit. Their intention was to kill him. At this spot that agreement was written and signed. It is a well-known story and all know what the outcome was. Now Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) was sitting at the same place as the conqueror.
After resting for a while Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) led his companions for the farewell tawaaf. On this evening too he sent Hadhrat Aa’isha (radhiyallahu anha) with her brother Hadhrat Abdur Rahmaan (radhiyallahu anhu) for an umrah to Tan’eem. When they had performed that and returned to Muhasaab, the command was given for the return to Madinah.
On another point the ulama are not agreed. Did Rasululllah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) enter the Ka’bah on this Hajj or not. We know definitely that he did enter but some ulama say it was at the time of the Conquest of Makkah. Some ulama say that before leaving for Madinah, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) performed Fajr salaah in Makkah, wherein he recited Surah Toor and then left Makkah on the morning of Wednesday 14th Zil-Hajj in the year 10 Hijri. On the 18th Zil Hajj Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) stopped at Ghadeer-Khum, near Juhfa and there ascended a lofty place to deliver a sermon. In this sermon he also extolled the virtues of Hadhrat Sayyidina ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). This is the moment which the Raafidhis (the Shias) have mistakenly called “Eid” of Ghadeer (We will be posting about this topic Next week. In Sha Allah). Hadhrat Sayyidina ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) used to say: “With regard (to their relationship) to me two groups had gone astray viz. Those who exceed all bounds in their love for me and those whose excessive hatred exceeded all bounds.” [See: Tarikh al Khulafa as reported by Haakim; reference here is to the Shias and Kharijites].
The procession spent the night at Zul Hulaifa. After performing Fajr salaah they entered Madinah from Maaras while reading this duaa: “We return, seeking repentance and worshipping Allah while we indeed praise our Lord.”
In the year 1342 Hijri, I wrote a booklet on the Hajjatul Widaa. (The farewell Hajj) in Arabic wherein I complied all the different reports into one complete continuous report of the Hajj of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam). Therein I also noted the source of each incident, discussed the fiqh aspects and noted the original source of every Hadith. It is from that book that I have copied this portion concerning the Hajjatul Wida’. [This book has now been printed both in Arabic and in Urdu-Translator]
After Hajj, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) lived for two more months before he passed away. Hadhrat Abi Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) became the first Khalifa. During his first year of Khilaafat, he himself did not go for Hajj but appointed Hadhrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) as the leader of pilgrims (Ameerul-Hajj) to Makkah. The following year he led the Muslims himself for Hajj. When Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) passed away he was followed by Hadhrat ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) as the second Khalifah, who in the first year sent Hadhrat ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf (radhiyallahu anhi) himself led the Hajis. In fact during the last year of his Khilaafat he went out of his way to take the women folk from the household of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) for Hajj. When Hadhrat ‘Uthman (radhiyallahu anhu) was chosen as the third Khalifah, he also did not go for Hajj in the first year i.e. 24 Hijri and appointed Hadhrat ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf (radhiyallahu anhu) as Ameerul Hajj. Then from 25 A.H. to 34 A.H. he led them himself. When he was imprisoned in his house, Hadhrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) was appointed Ameerul-Hajj. Although Hadhrat Sayyidina ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) performed Hajj on numerous occasions before his Khilaafat, he was never able to perform Hajj afterwards as a result of his pre-occupation with wars, e.g. Battle of Jamal, Battle of Siffeen etc.