Tag Archives: Makkah

Hajjatul Wida’: The Farewell Hajj of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)

[By: Shaykh al Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhlawi (rahimahullah)]

All  the  ‘ulama  are  agreed  on  this  fact  that  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam)  only  performed  Hajj  once after  the  hijrat.  That  was  during  the  10th  year  Hijri,  which  incidentally  was  the  last  year  of  his  life.  On  this Hajj  journey  such  things  were  seen  from  him  as  is  normally  seen  from  someone  who  is  about  to  take  leave. Hence  this  Hajj  has  become  known  as  the  Hajjatul-Wida‘  (the  Farewell  Hajj).  It  was  as  if  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alaihi Wassallam)  was  bidding  farewell  to  all  his  companions  present  there  with  him  before  his final departure to his Lord. 

When  initially  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  announced  his  intention  to  proceed  for  Hajj , thousands came  forward  with  the  same  intention  of  being  of  those  most  fortunate  ones  to  accompany  him.  And  whoever heard  of  it  expressed  the  desire  to  be  with  him.  A  large  number  of  them  had  gathered  in  Madinah  before  the departure  date.  Many  joined  on  the  way.  Some  awaited  him  in  Makkah  and  some  even  travelled  directly  to Arafaat  to  join  the  vast  host  of the Sahaabah  there.  According  to  Lam’aat  on  Abu  Dawud  their  total  number reached one hundred and twenty-four thousand. 

Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  performed  Zuhr  salaat  in  Madinah  on  the  24th  or  25  or  26  of  Zil-Qadah  and  said  ‘Asr  prayers  at  Zul  Hulaifa.  (According  to  the  historians  it  may  have  been  either  on  Thursday, Friday  or  Saturday.  Those  who  say  the  departure  was  on  a  Friday  seem  to  be  in  the  wrong  because  according to the  most  correct reports, they  performed  Zuhr  four rak’aats before  proceeding. So it  could not  have  been on a  Friday.  In  my  own  humble  opinion  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  and  his  companions  left  Madinah on Saturday the 25th of Zil-Qadah). 

At  Zul  Hulaifa  they  spent  the  night  and  here  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam)  consorted  with  all  his wives who were  present.  For  this reason the  ulama  say  it  is mustahab to have  sexual relations  with one’s  wife, if  she  accompanies  him,  before  putting  on  the  ihraam,  so  that  both  may  remain  chaste  during  the  period  in ihraam which often can be a long time. 

On  the  next  day  about  the  tie  of  Zuhr,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  performed  ghusl  for  the ihraam.  Then  he  donned  the  ihraam  clothes,  preformed  salaah  in  the  mosque  of  Zul Hulaifa  and  made  niyyat for  the  ihraam  of  a  Qaarin.  (The  ‘ulama  say  that  this  ihraam  as  from  the  outset  for  Qiraan).  Here  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  also  gave  the  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhum)  the  choice  of  putting  on  ihraam  for  QiraanTamattu’ or  Ifraad.  Hazrat  Jibra’il (alayhissalaam) came  to  him  at  night  and  said:  “This  valley  of  Aqeeq  is  a  blessed  one.  Perform salaah  here  and  put  on  ihraam  for  Hajj and  Umrah.”  Hence  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  chose  to be a Qaarin

Having  performed  salaah  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam)  came  from  the  mosque,  mounted  his  she-camel  and  loudly  recited  the  Labbaik (i.e Talbiyah). Many  thought  that  he  only  started  his  ihraam  at  this  moment.  This  is not  so  because  it  actually  started  in  the  mosque  and  there  only  those  near  to  him  heard  his  Talbiyah  (Labbaik). Sitting on the camel his voice reached further. 

From  Zul  Hulaifa  they  proceeded  and  climbed  the  mountain  of  Baida  near  Zul  Hulaifa.  As  we  know  it  is mustahab  for  the  Haji  in  ihraam  to  recite  the  Talbiyah  aloud  at  every  high  place,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  again  recited  it.  From  here  the  voice  reached  even  further.  Some  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhum)  were  under  the misunderstanding that the niyyat for ihraam was made here. 

The  procession  went  in  the  direction  of  Makkah.  Hadhrat  Jibra’il (alayhissalaam)  appeared  and  told  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  to  inform  the  companions  that  they  should  recite  the  Talbiyah  loudly.  This  they  did.  When they  reached  the  valley  of  Rowhaa  they  performed  salaah  there  and  he  said  to  them:  “Seventy  Nabis  have performed salaah here.” 

Rasulullah’s (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  luggage  and  Hadhrat  Abu  Bakr  (radhiyallahu anhu)  were  on  the  same  camel  which was  given  into  the  care  of  Hadhrat  Abu Bakr  (radhiyallahu anhu)’s  slave.  When  they  reached  they  valley  of  Araj  they  had  to wait  for  a  long  time  for  the  slave  to  arrive.  After  some  time  of  waiting  he  arrived  and  explained  that  the camel and  goods had been lost. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu)  was overtaken by  anger and beat the  slave. Seeing  this Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam)  smiled  and said:  “Look  at what  this muhrim is doing now.”  (See  what he  does  while  in  ihraam).  When  the  companions  came  to  know  that  Rasulullah’s  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam) goods had been lost, they quickly prepared food and brought it to him. He called Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu):  “Come, Allah has sent good food.

However, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) was still angered and Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhe Wasallam) said:  “O Abu Bakr, let your anger pass.” 

Thereafter  Hadhrat  Sa’d  and  Abu  Qais  (radhiyallahu anhum)  brought  their  camel  laden  with  goods  and  bid  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) to accept theirs but he replied:  “May Allah bless you, with Allah’s grace our camel and goods have been found.” 

At  the  valley  of  Asfaan  near  Makkah.  Hazrat  Suraaqah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  said  to  the  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam):  “O Rasulullah,  teach  us  the  way  to  perform  Hajj  as  if  we  were  born  this  day  (and  knew  nothing).”  The  Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wassallam) then told him what to do on entering Makkah. 

At  a  place  called  Sarif,  Aa’isha  (radhiyallahu anha)  started  her  menstruation.  As  a  result  of  this  she  was  greatly  troubled  and disappointed  and  started  weeping.  “Oh,  now  my  whole  journey  has  come  to  naught:  Hajj  is  near  and  I  have become  unclean.”  Rasulullah  (Sallaho  Alaihe  Wassallam)  consoled  her:  “No  Aa’isha,  this  is  indeed something  that  happens  to  every  woman.”  He  then  told  here  what  to  do  in  her  predicament.  Then  he  told those  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhum)  who  had  no  animals  to  slaughter  with  them  to  enter  Makkah,  perform  umrah  and  free themselves from the ihraam

Very  near to Makkah  at  the  valley  of  Azraq,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  said:  “I  see  before  me  now that  moment  when  Hadhrat  Musa (alayhissalaam) passed  this  way  for  Hajj,  fingers  in  the  ears,  loudly  calling  out  the Labbaik.” 

At  the  Zu-Tuwa  which  is  very  near to Makkah  they  spent  the  night.  Then  in  the  morning  he  performed  ghusl once  more  for  entrance  into  Makkah. Thereafter  at  the  time  of  Dhuhaa  on  Sunday  the  4th  of  Zil-Haj  he entered  Makkah.  (Most  historians  are  more  or  less  agreed  on  this  date.  In  my  opinion  Zil Qadah  had  29  days. Having left Madinah on a Saturday they entered Makkah on a Sunday, the 9th day of travel). 

They  went straight to  the  Masjidul  Haraam, kissed  the Hajarul  Aswad  and did tawaaf.  No Tahiyatul  Masjid salaah was performed. 

After  tawaaf  they  performed  two rak’ah  salaah  at  the  Maqaam-e-Ibrahim,  reciting  therein  Surah  Al  Kaafiroon and  Surah  Ikhlaas.  Kissing  the  Hajarul  Aswad  once  more,  they  mounted  the  hill  Safa’  until  they  could  see  the Ka’bah.  Standing  there,  they  prayed  for  a  long  while,  reciting  the  takbeer  and  tahmeed.  They  then  walked between  Safa’  and  Marwah  seven  times.  When  they  came  to  Marwah  in  the  end  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  commanded  those  without hadee (animals  for  slaughter)  to  free  themselves  from  the  ihraam. Then  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  (animals  for  slaughter)  to  free  themselves  from  the  ihraam. Then  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  went  to  his  residence  and  remained  in  Makkah  for  four  more days. 

On  the  morning  of  Zil-Hajj,  the  8th  at  the  time  of  Chasht  salaah  he  left  for  Mina.  All  the  companions  had  now put  on  ihraam  for  Hajj  and  accompanied  him  to  Mina  where  they  performed  five  salaahsSurah  Murslaat  was revealed  on  the  evening  of  this  day.  On  the  next  day  (Friday)  after  sunrise  they  proceeded  to  Arafaat,  where some  companions  had  erected  a  tent  for  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  at  the  Masjid  Nimrah. Rasulullah  (Sallaho  Alaihe  Wassallam)  stayed  in  it  for  a  short  while  and  then  mounted  his  camel  Qaswa  to go in the direction of the valley of Arafaat. There he delivered a long sermon. 
Among  the  things  he  said  were:  “O  people,  perhaps  you  shall  not  see  me  again  after  this.  After  this  we  shall not meet again at this place……..” 

After  the  sermon  Hadhrat  Bilaal  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  commanded  to  call  aloud  the  Adhan  and  they  performed  Zuhr  and ‘Asr  salaah  in  the  time  of  Zuhr.  After  salaah  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  went  onto  the  plain  of Arafaat  on  his  camel  and  from  then  until  maghrib  made  duaa  to  Allah.  During  this  period  Hazrat  Um  Fazl (radhiyallahu anha)  wanted  to  find  out  if  she  was  fasting  or  not.  She  sent  a  cup  of  milk  and  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam) drank it sitting on his camel so that all could see he was not fasting.

During  this  period  also  one  of  the  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  fell  from  his  camel  and  died.  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  commanded  that  he  be  wrapped  in  his  ihraam  clothes  for  burial  and  said  that  on  the  day  of Qiyaamah he shall be raised up still reciting the Talbiyah

During  this  period  a  group  from  Najd  arrived  and  one  of  them  asked  Rasulullah  (Sallaho  Alaihe  Wassallam): “What  is  Hajj?”  The  Rasul  (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam  Alayhi  Wassallam)  commanded  someone  to  proclaim  aloud  that  Hajj means  to  step  over  at  Arafaat  for  a  time,  “Whoever  arrives  here  before  day  break  on  the  10th  of  Zil  Hajj  had performed Hajj. [Abu Dawood] 

Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  prayed  until  the  time  of  Maghrib  for  the  forgiveness  of  his  ummat with  many  tears  with  much  humility.  Allah  promised  to  forgive  all  sins  except  injustice.  Then  he  again begged:  “O  Allah,  thou  can  forgive  that  too;  and  of  Thy  own  accord  can  Thou  right  the  wrongs  done  against the unjustly treated ones; and Thou can forgive unjust.” 

During this period was revealed the verse:  “Today have I perfected you religion for you and have completed my favor for you.” 

When  this  verse  was  revealed,  the  weight  of  revelation  became  so  great  that  the  camel  could  not  bear  it  and had to sit down. 

After  sunset  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  left  Arafaat  before  performing  Maghrib  salaah.  On  this part  of  the  journey  the  camel  moved  at  a  very  fast  pace  as  if  to  show  exceeding  happiness  and  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  had  to  hold  her  back.  Whenever  they  ascended  some  hill,  he  held  the  reins loosely  but  as  soon  as  level  ground  appeared  he  held  the  reins  tight.  At  times  he  held  the  reins  so  tight  that the cake  head was pulled  so much back that it  touched the canopy  over the  saddle.  

Hadhrat  Usaamah  bin  Zaid  (radhiyallahu anhu)  traveled  with  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  on  the  same  camel  on this  part  of  the  journey. Near  Muzdalifah  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  descended  from  his  camel in  order  to  urinate.  Afterwards  Hadhrat  Usaamah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  poured  the  water  for  him  to  perform  wudhu.  Later  it became  fixed  habit  for  Hadhrat  Ibn ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  that  whenever  he  reached  this  place  during  Hajj,  he  descended to  make  wudhu,  pointing  out  that  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  made  wudhu  there.  Having  made wudhu,  Hazrat  Usaamah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  reminded  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  about  Maghrib  salaah  but  he replied: “Let us proceed and say Maghrib prayers at Muzadalifah.” 

When  they  reached  Muzdalifah,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  once  more  performed  wudhu  and said  Maghrib  and  ‘Isha  prayers  together.  After  salaah  he  remained  busy  with  duaa.  According  to  some reports, Allah accepted his plea on behalf of the unjust ones here too.

On  this  same  night  he  sent  the  women,  children  and  the  aged  ones  ahead  to  Mina  because  he  feared  that  they would  find  great  difficulty  in  traveling  with  this  vast  crowd.  With  the  rest  of  the  companions  he  remained  till the  next  morning.  They  said  Fajr  salaah  and  left  Muzdalifah  for  Mina  before  the  sun  rose.  This  time  Hadhrat Usaamah  (radhiyallahu anhu)  had  taken  his  place  among  those  who  walked  and  Hadhrat  Fadhl  bin  Abbaas  (radhiyallahu anhu)  sat  with Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam)  on  the  camel.  Hadhrat  Fadhl  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  still  a  very  young  man.  On route  a  young  girl  came  to  ask  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  a  question  about  Hajj Badal  on  behalf of  her  father.  Hadhrat  Fadhl  (radhiyallahu anhu)  looked  at  the  girl  and  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  with his blessed hand turned his face away from her, so that he should not look at this ‘strange’ woman, and said: 

Today  is such  a  day, that whoever controls his  eyes, his ears and his  tongue  against  sin, shall  be  forgiven.”  Along  the  road  Hadhrat  Fadhl (radhiyallahu anhu)  picked  up  the  stones  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam) required. People  came  to ask  numerous  questions  which  were  answered.  One  person  asked:  “O  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wasallam)  my  mother  has  become  very  old  and  weak.  Even  if  we  should  tie  her  on  the  back  of  a camel,  we  fear  death  will  overtake  her.  Can  I  perform  Hajj  on  her  behalf?”  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) replied: “if your mother had an outstanding debt, would you carry the burden of settling it?” 

The  man  said:  “Certainly.”  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  then  went  on:  “So  also  should  you  take Hajj.”  Soon  the  procession  passed  Wadi-e-Muhassar.  This  was  the  place  Allah  destroyed  Abraha  and  his forces  who  came  with  a  mighty  and  elephants  to  destroy  the  Ka’bah.  As  they  passed  through  this  valley Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  drove  his  camel  through  it  with  haste,  so  as  to  pass  quickly  through  a place where the wrath of Allah had once descended. 

On  arrival  at  Mina  on  the  morning  of  the  10th  Zil  Haj  they  proceeded  straight  to  the  Jamaratul  Aqaba  and threw  stones  at  it.  The  Talbiyah  that  had  continued  up  to  this  moment  from  the  time  ihraam  was  put  on,  was now stopped. 

Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wasallam)  then  went  to  his  tent  (where  he  was  to  remain  for  the  following  two days)  and  gave  another  lengthy  sermon.  In  it  many  things  were  explained  such  things  were  said  as  is normally said at a time of farewell. 

Thereafter  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  went to the Man’har  where  animals are  slaughtered and for every  year  of  his  63  years  of  life  he  slaughtered  a  camel.  A  total  of  sixty-three  camels.  Of  these  six  or  seven came  forward  of  their  own  accord  as  if  eager  to  be  slaughtered  in  Allah’s  way.  Apart  from  these  Hadhrat  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) slaughtered the rest to complete one hundred camels.

Thereafter  an  announcement  was  made  that  whoever  desired  could  take  pieces  of  meat  to  eat.  Rasulullah (Sallallaahu  Alayhe  Wasallam)  then  commanded  Hadhrat  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu)  to  cut  a  piece  of  meat  from  each  of  the slaughtered  animals  and  boil  it  together  in  one  pot.  This  was  done  and  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  ate  from  this  gravy.  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wasallam)  also  slaughtered  a  cow  on  behalf  of the woman of his household. 

After  this  Hadhrat  Ma’mar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  or  Hadhrat  Kharash  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  called  to  cut  the  hair  of  Rasulullah.  The  head was  shaved,  nails  trimmed  and  the  hair  and  nails  distributed  among  the  Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhuma)  It  is  said  that  the  hair of  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  which  are  still  in  the  possession  of  some  people  to  this  day  were received  here  at  Mina.  Having  cut  his  hair  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  took  off  his  ihraam clothes, applied scent to himself and put on his usual clothes.

Many people  came to ask  questions on Hajj. On this day  four  things are  to be done  viz. Throwing  stones at the Jamaratul  Uqba, Qurbani, cutting  of hair and tawaaf.  These  are  to be performed in the prescribed order. Some Sahaabah  (radhiyallahu anhuma)  made  mistakes  in  not  maintaining  the  correct  order.  They  came  to  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  and explained. And to almost all  of them he said that not  having  stuck to the  correct order was no sin. “Sin is to attack the honor and respect of a Muslim.” 

At  the  time  of  Zuhr  Salaah Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wassallam)  left  with  his  procession  for  Makkah  to perform  Tawaafuz-Ziyaarah.  He  performed  Zuhr  salaah  in  Makkah  after  tawaaf  and  then  returned  to  Mina. He  also  visited  the  Bi’r-Zam-Zam  and  drank  to  his  fill  with  Zam-Zam.  According  to  some  reports  he  drew  the water himself and according to other reports he is said not to have drawn himself and to have said: 

Had  I  not feared that people will overcome  you in conquest,  I  would have  drawn water  myself to drink.”  

What  actually  could  have  taken  place  is  that  water  was  drawn  many  times.  At  some  time  when  he  was  alone Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  drew  it  up  by  himself  and  at  another  time  when  there  was  a  huge crowd  around,  he  had  it  drawn  for  him,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  drank  the  Zam-Zam  while standing. 

Then Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  performed saee’  between Safa’ and Marwah. Some reports deny  it: the Hanafi  accept it. Returning  to  Mina  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  remained  there  for  days  and  threw  stones  at  the Jamaraat  daily  after  Zawaal.  Some  reports  also  say  that  he  went  for  tawaaf  to  the  Baitullah  every  night.  Many sermons were delivered at Mina. Once again there appeared these kind of farewell words:  “Perhaps I shall not again meet you here in future.” 

Surah  Nasr  (Iza  Jaa’a  Nasrulllahi)  was  revealed.  Some  reports  say  it  was  already  revealed  in  Madinah  before this  time.  After  this  revelation  the  Rasul  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  used  to  say  that  in  this  chapter  he  was given  news  of  his  coming  death,  which  was  near  at  hand.  On  the  Tuesday  13th  of  Zil  Hajj  after  having  thrown the  last  Jamaraat  they  left  Mina  for  Makkah.  Outside  Makkah  at  Mahaab  (also  called  Bathaa  or  Khaif  Bani Kinana)  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)’s  slave  Hadhrat  Abu  Raafi’  (radhiyallahu anhu)  had  erected  a  tent  and  here Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam)  stopped  to  spend  the  night.  Here  he  performed  Zuhr‘AsrMaghrib and  ‘Isha  salaahs.  Then  he  rested  for  a  while.  This  place  was  the  one  where  in  the  6th  year  of  Islam  the Infidels  of  Makkah  had  made  an  agreement  among  themselves  to  boycott  the  Muslims  and  Banu  Haashim and  to  have  no  dealings  with  them  whatsoever.  No  buying,  selling,  marriage,  meeting  etc.  until  such  a  time that  Banu  Haashim,  the  family  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam),  delivered  him  into  their  hands  to deal  with  him  as  they  saw  fit.  Their  intention  was  to  kill  him.  At  this  spot  that  agreement  was  written  and signed.  It  is  a  well-known  story  and  all  know  what  the  outcome  was.  Now  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wassallam) was sitting at the same place as the conqueror. 

After  resting  for  a  while  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  led  his  companions  for  the  farewell  tawaaf. On  this  evening  too  he  sent  Hadhrat  Aa’isha  (radhiyallahu anha)  with  her  brother  Hadhrat  Abdur  Rahmaan  (radhiyallahu anhu)  for  an  umrah to  Tan’eem.  When  they  had  performed  that  and  returned  to  Muhasaab,  the  command  was  given  for  the  return to  Madinah.  

On  another  point  the  ulama  are  not  agreed.  Did  Rasululllah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  enter  the  Ka’bah  on this Hajj or not. We  know  definitely  that he  did  enter  but some  ulama  say  it  was at the  time of  the Conquest of Makkah.  Some  ulama  say  that  before  leaving  for  Madinah,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  performed Fajr  salaah in  Makkah,  wherein  he  recited  Surah  Toor  and  then  left  Makkah  on  the  morning  of  Wednesday 14th  Zil-Hajj  in  the  year  10  Hijri.  On  the  18th  Zil  Hajj  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)  stopped  at Ghadeer-Khum,  near  Juhfa  and  there  ascended  a  lofty  place  to  deliver  a  sermon.  In  this  sermon  he  also extolled  the  virtues  of  Hadhrat  Sayyidina  ‘Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu).  This  is  the  moment  which  the  Raafidhis  (the  Shias)  have mistakenly  called “Eid” of  Ghadeer (We will be posting about this topic Next week. In Sha Allah). Hadhrat Sayyidina  ‘Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu)  used  to say:   “With  regard  (to  their  relationship)  to  me  two  groups  had  gone  astray  viz.  Those  who  exceed  all  bounds  in their love for me and those whose excessive hatred exceeded all bounds.”  [See: Tarikh al Khulafa as reported by Haakim; reference here is to the Shias and Kharijites]. 

The  procession  spent  the  night  at  Zul  Hulaifa.  After  performing  Fajr  salaah  they  entered  Madinah from  Maaras while reading  this duaa:   “We return, seeking repentance and worshipping Allah while we indeed praise our Lord.” 

In  the  year  1342  Hijri,  I  wrote  a  booklet  on  the  Hajjatul  Widaa.  (The  farewell  Hajj)  in  Arabic  wherein  I complied  all  the  different  reports  into  one  complete  continuous  report  of  the  Hajj  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu Alayhi  Wassallam).  Therein  I  also  noted  the  source  of  each  incident,  discussed  the  fiqh  aspects  and  noted  the original  source  of  every  Hadith.  It  is  from  that  book  that  I  have  copied  this  portion  concerning  the  Hajjatul Wida’. [This book has now been printed both in Arabic and in Urdu-Translator] 

After  Hajj,  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  lived  for  two  more  months  before  he  passed  away.  Hadhrat Abi Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) became the first Khalifa.  During  his  first  year  of  Khilaafat,  he  himself  did  not  go  for  Hajj  but  appointed  Hadhrat  ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  the  leader of  pilgrims  (Ameerul-Hajj)  to  Makkah.  The  following  year  he  led  the  Muslims  himself  for  Hajj.  When  Hadhrat Abu  Bakr  (radhiyallahu anhu)  passed  away  he  was  followed  by  Hadhrat  ‘Umar  (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  the  second  Khalifah,  who  in  the  first year  sent  Hadhrat  ‘Abdur  Rahman  bin  ‘Awf  (radhiyallahu anhi)  himself  led  the  Hajis.  In  fact  during  the  last  year  of  his Khilaafat  he  went  out  of  his  way  to  take  the  women  folk  from  the  household  of  Rasulullah  (Sallallaahu  Alayhi Wasallam)  for  Hajj.  When  Hadhrat  ‘Uthman  (radhiyallahu anhu)  was  chosen  as  the  third  Khalifah, he  also  did  not  go  for  Hajj  in the  first  year  i.e.  24  Hijri  and  appointed  Hadhrat  ‘Abdur  Rahman  bin ‘Awf  (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  Ameerul  Hajj.  Then  from  25 A.H.  to  34  A.H.  he  led  them  himself.  When  he  was  imprisoned  in  his  house,  Hadhrat  ‘Abdullah  bin  ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) was appointed Ameerul-Hajj.  Although  Hadhrat  Sayyidina  ‘Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu)  performed  Hajj  on  numerous  occasions  before  his  Khilaafat,  he  was  never able  to  perform  Hajj  afterwards  as  a  result  of  his  pre-occupation  with  wars,  e.g.  Battle  of  Jamal,  Battle  of Siffeen etc. 

Did Prophet Muhammad Copy And Plagiarize Bible?? Did Prophet Muhammad Author Qur’an for Worldly Gains?? – A reply to Anti-Islam Liars

Could Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) Have Read Bible And Copied??

Qur’an and the Hadith state that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was Ummi. Qur’an 7:158 states:

[007:158] Say (O Muhammad): O mankind! Lo! I am the messenger of Allah to you all – (the messenger of) Him unto Whom belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. There is no God save Him. He quickeneth and He giveth death. So believe in Allah and His messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believeth in Allah and in His Words, and follow him that happily ye may be led aright. (Pickthall Translation, Quran 7:158)

Pickthall translated the word Ummi as “who can neither read nor write”.

According to Ectaco English-Arabic Online Dictionary (http://www-old.ectaco.com), arabic word Ummi (أمي) means:
“ILLITERATE, UNLETTERED”

Source: http://www-old.ectaco.com/online/diction.php3?lang=3&q=1&refid=316𝔯_id=1&rqt_id=19731153&pagelang=23&word=%C3%E3%ED&direction=2&x=37&y=15

And according to Ectaco English-Arabic Online Dictionary ( http://www-old.ectaco.com), arabic words for illiterate are:

أمي ِ يقرأ وِ يكتب, جاهل,

Source: http://www-old.ectaco.com/online/diction.php3?lang=3&q=2&refid=316𝔯_id=1&rqt_id=19731153&pagelang=23&word=ILLITERATE&direction=1

Qur’an also states that Prophet Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was illiterate. Qur’an 29:048 says:

[029:048] And thou wast not (able) to recite a Book before this (Book came), nor art thou (able) to transcribe it with thy right hand: In that case, indeed, would the talkers of vanities have doubted. (Yusuf Ali Translation, Qur’an 29:48)

So until that point we can be sure that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) could not read nor write. Naturally, if prophet could read or write then Non-Muslims would have claimed  prophet Muhammed as a liar. They would have seen Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) writing or reading and used that as an evidence that he lied in Qur’an 29:48. Their reaction and refusal to use 29:48 as a proof to demonstrate that prophet Muhammad was a liar is a solid proof that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayho wasallam) could really not read nor write and nor could he consquently have read Bible personally.

Allegation that Waraqa Ibn Nawfal taught Prophet Muhammed

Waraqa was a cousin of Khatija (radhiyallahu anha), first wife of Prophet Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). He was a learned man and was well versed in New Testament. Some morons assert that Waraqa could have been teaching prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). There are several historical and logical flaws in that assertion.

Sahih bukhari Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3 states:
“…Waraqa replied in the affirmative and said, “Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly.” But after a few days Waraqa died” (Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3)

Firstly, Waraqa died few days later after Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) recieved the first revelation of the Qur’an. Since Waraqa died after few days later then he cannot have been the source of Qur’an, since the Qur’an continued to be revealed continuously upto 23 years after his death. Naturally, since he was dead he could not have been teaching Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) or been the source of Qur’an!

Secondly, Waraqa was a pious and a wise man, who dedicated much of his life in the search of God. However, he stated in Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 605:

“Narrated ‘Aisha(radhiyallahu anha):
The Prophet returned to Khadija (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) while his heart was beating rapidly. She took him to Waraqa bin Naufal who was a Christian convert and used to read the Gospels in Arabic Waraqa asked (the Prophet), “What do you see?” When he told him, Waraqa said, “That is the same angel whom Allah sent to the Prophet) Moses. Should I live till you receive the Divine Message, I will support you strongly.” (Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 605)

Thus he was intending to support Prophet Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and accepted his prophethood. If he (Waraqa) had been the source of Qur’an then he would have exposed prophet Muhammed and refused to follow him! It must be remembered that Waraqa was a god-fearing and a noble person.

When was Bible translated into Arabic according to historian?

According to all scholarly sources Bible was not translated into Arabic during Prophet’s time. The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics admits this:

there is no evidence of any parts of the Bible having been translated into arabic before Islam. (Hastings, James. The Encyclopedia of Rleigion and Ethics. Vol. X, p. 540)

Hastings Dictionary of the Bible attributes the first arabic translation of the Bible to the tenth century (Source: Hastings, James. Dictionary of the Bible. p. 105). However, Encyclopedia Judaica attributes the first arabic translation of the Old Testament either to Hunayn Ibn Ishaq (800-873CE) or to Saadiah bin Joseph Gaon (882-942CE) (Source: Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 4, p. 863)

Paul Wegner explains that the Christian and Jewish traditions that were circulating in Arabia were oral traditions. But the Christian and Jewish groups in Arabia were not orthodox at all, and there were numerous heretical groups:

The Scriptures do not seem to have been extant in an Arabic version before the time of Muhammad (570-632), who knew the Gospel story only in oral form, and mainly from Syriac sources. These Syriac sources were marked by Docetism (believed that Jesus had only a divine nature and only appeared to be incarnate – they thought the material world and thus one’s body was inherently evil)… (Wegner, Paul D. The Journey from Texts to Translations. 1999. Grand Rapids: Baker Books. p. 250)

According to New Catholic Encyclopedia:

Neither Arabian Jews nor Arabian Christians, unfortunately, were to be classed among the better representatives of their faiths at the time. The former had lived in comparative isolation possibly since the middle of the 1st millenium B.C., although they had been mildly successful in proselytism and the latter were mainly heretical Monophysites, remote in every sense from the centers of Christian learning. (New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol 9, p.1001)

There are hadiths stating Waraqah Ibn Nawful translated and read New Testament in Arabic. Sahih Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 478 states:

…Waraqa had been converted to Christianity in the Pre-lslamic Period and used to write Arabic and write of the Gospel in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. …” (Sahih Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 478)

There is no hadith stating that Waraqah Ibn Nawfal translated the whole bible into Arabic, including Old Testament and New Testament, which was official and available to public. As the hadith states Waraqah translated the Gospel as much as Allah willed him to write. He also became blind, which naturally would have prevented him from translating further. Furthermore, history dictates that his translation was for personal usage and not an official translation of the Bible accessible to the Public, therefore Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) getting a copy of his translation and reading it is very unlikely. He only translated fragments of the Bible, which was for his personal study. Therefore, the hadiths and history do not contradict on this issue.

Allegation that Qur’an was taught to Prophet Muhammad by a Roman Blacksmith

Some pagans accused Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) of learning the Qur’an from the Roman blacksmith, who lived in the outskirts of Makkah and was a Christian. Prophet used to go and watch him do his work often. However, Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala Himself refuted this claim by the use of logic:

[016:103] We know indeed that they say, “It is a man that teaches him.” The tongue of him they wickedly point to is notably foreign, while this is Arabic, pure and clear. (Yusuf Ali Translation, Qur’an 16:103)

That would be like stating that a Chinese immigrant, who didn’t know English well, authored Shakespere’s work; which is obviously illogical. In a same manner how could a blacksmith who didn’t know arabic well have authored Qur’an, linguistics of which exceed excellence?? Indeed, he would not have managed to even convey and explain his basic believes to the Prophet!

Accusation that ‘Hanif’ taught Prophet Muhammad the Qur’an

Hanif were the group of people at Makkah who tried to follow religion of Abraham (Qur’anic Ibraheem alayhissalaam), and therefore believed in monotheism. Before the revelation of the Qur’an, Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) himself was a Hanif.

However, the Hanifs were not learned about Christianity and Judaism. Indeed as it is demonstrated from Sahih Hadith Volume 5, Book 58, Number 169, many of the Hanif knew no background knowledge of Judaism and Christianity, and their religion seems contradicting to Hanifs beliefs. Therefore, even the Hanifs were not aware of Judeo-Christian beliefs, so there is no possibilty or proof of them teaching Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) about Judeo-Christian beliefs.

Allegation that Priest and Rabbi taught Prophet Muhammad the Qur’an

The discussions between priest and Rabbi and Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) took place in Madinah, however much of the Qur’an, especially the stories of Prophets Such as Jesus (Surah Maryam), Joseph (Surah 12) and others were revealed in Makkah. That theory would only be worth considering if the stories of Prophet and other bible-related stories were ONLY revealed in Madinah. But the bible-related stories were revealed in Makkah, where Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) did not participate in debates with priests and rabbi.

Were the occasional trips to Syria source of Prophet’s knowledge?

There are 2 recorded travel of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaalahu alayhi wasallam) to Syria. One when he was 12 years old and second when he was around the age of 25.

On his journey to Syria when he was 12, he met a monk by the name of Bahira. An immediate question arises, how can a child of 12 learn the theology of different religions in such detail at a brief visit, whilst constanly accompanied by his Uncle and other traders and yet manages to remember all this information until the age of 40?? This is a logical fallacy! Naturally a child at such an age cannot have enough intelligence to comprehend complex theology (in detail), and yet remember for more than 28 years.

Furthermore, Seerah (Biography of Prophet Muhammad) tells us that Prophet Muhammad was accompanied by his Uncle and many other traders, naturally they would not forsake a child in a totally different country; they would accompany him to every possible corner! This would minimize the time he has for learning complex theology.

Bahira himself believed in prophethood of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Indeed, the invitation to entertainment itself was in honour of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). His belief in prophethood of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam is described in many seerah texts, this visit is recorded as follows:

Bahira said that he had seen the stones and the trees prostrating to Muhammad as Muhammad had been walking by. They only do this for a prophet of Allah. He looked at the Muhammad’s back and noticed the seal of the prophet, which was an oval shape protruding just below Muhammad’s shoulder blades. He said that this was one of the signs of a great prophet to come that was taught to them in their books.

Second journey was for trade, the story is narrated here:

Khadija soon sent word to Muhammad asking him if he would take a trade caravan to Syria. She would pay him a high fee, which was double that of which she had paid any other person. She also gave Muhammad the services of a young lad by the name of Maysarah who would look after him on the journey. When Muhammad reached Basra, he was shading under a tree when a Monk saw him by the name of Nestor. Nestor asked Maysarah about the person sitting under the tree; Maysarah replied that it was Muhammad. Nestor said, that person is no other than a messenger of Allah. Maysarah soon realised that he was in the company of a very special person. He said that he noticed that the heat was extreme when he saw a clear vision of two angels shading Muhammad from the heat of the day.

Main point to notice is that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was again followed closely by Maysarah, therefore he would have realised if Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) had been learning about Bible. And once again the monk Nestor believed in the prophethood of Prophet Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Muhammad Mohar Ali writes in his book on this topic:

Had Muhammad contacted during his trade journeys to Syria any Christian monk or layman for obtaining information or even for casual discussion, the Quraysh opponents, many of whom had accompanied him to Syria, would not have failed to make the most of it in their attack against himThat no such allegation was made by them is a decisive proof that he had not sought information about Christianity or Judaism from anyone in the course of his journey to Syria. (Sirat Al-Nabi And the Orientalists Vol. I A by Muhammed Mohar Ali, Page 266)

Did Prophet Muhammad heard Quss preach Christianity at the Ukaz fair??

In his book Sirat Al-Nabi And the Orientalists Vol. I A, Muhammad Mohar Ali writes regarding this:

It is stated that the Prophet heard Quss preach at the Ukaz fair. This tradition is unanimously classified as spurious and is rejected as such. Specially, one of its narrators, Muhammed ibn al-hallaj al-Lakhmi, is condemned as a confirmed liar (kadhdhab). And even according to this spurious report, the Prophet was only one of the audience and did not make any enquiries as such with the speaker. The orientalists’s use of this report without any indication of its weakness and untrustworthiness is indicative of how such materials are uncritically accepted and cited to support a particular assumption. (Sirat Al-Nabi And the Orientalists Vol. I A by Muhammed Mohar Ali, page 266-267)

Did Prophet Muhammad Author Qur’an for Worldly Gains?

It is very evident from Seerah (biography of Prophet’s life) that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) could not have authored Qur’an for worldly gains.

After unsuccessful attempts of Quraysh (tribe of Makkah) they could do little to prevent islam from spreading. Therefore they tried to bribe Prophet Muhammad into leaving islam. Utbah Ibn Rabiah was sent for this task. This story is narrated in a Seerah called “Muhammed The Last Prophet”, by Sayyed Abdul hasan ‘Ali Nadwi (rahimahullah), page 43:

‘Nephew,’ he [Utbah] said, ‘you know your standing among us, but you have brought a matter of grave concern to your people. You have divided their community, made fun of their customs, criticised their gods and their religion and declared some of their ancestors to be unbelievers. Now, listen to me. I will make some proposals for you to examine and perhaps you will accept some of them.’ The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Speak, Abul-Walid. I am listening.’ ‘Nephew, ‘Utbah continued, ‘if you want money by this business, we will collect some of our property and make you the wealthiest among us. If you want honour, we will make you our chief so that every decision is yours. If you want a kingdom, we will make you our king. If you are possessed by a ghost of a jinn that you cannot drive away from yourself, we will find skilful doctors to help you. We will spend our wealth on it till you are cured.’When Utbah had finished, the Messenger of Allah asked, ‘Have you finished, Abul-Walid?’
‘Yes.’ 
‘Then listen to me.’‘I will,’ said Utbah. Then the Messenger of Allah recited some verses from Surah Fussilat. Utbah listened intently, putting his hands behind his back and leaning on them. When the Messenger of Allah reached the place mentioning prostration, he prostrated and then said, ‘You have heard what you have heard, Abul-Walid. It is now up to you.’ (“Muhammed The Last Prophet”, by Sayyed Abdul hasan ‘Ali Nadwi, page 43)

If Prophet Muhammed had been after money, women, kingdom or any other worldly desire then now would have been a perfect chance! But Prophet Muhammed chose Islam above all.
Furthermore, history dictates that Prophet’s financial status worsened after the Prophethood mission. “Muhammed The Last Prophet”, by Sayyed Abdul hasan ‘Ali Nadwi, page 185 narrates:

‘A’ishah has related, ‘When the Messenger of Allah left this world, there was nothing in the house that a creature could eat except a little barley on a shelf. (“Muhammed The Last Prophet”, by Sayyed Abdul hasan ‘Ali Nadwi, page 185)

Even a person considered poor by today’s standards would have had more luxuries than that. If Prophet’s intentions were to gain wealth then surely he would have had large amount of wealth and luxuries by the time of his death.

Tafsir of Surah al-Baqarah | Verses 8 to 20

Previous: Tafsir of Surah Al Baqarah | Verses 1 to 7

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                        TRANSLATION

And  among men  there  are some  who  say, ‘We  believe  in Allah  and  in  the  Last  Day”,  Yet  they  are  no  believers. They  try  to  deceive  Allah  and  those  who  believe,  when they  are  deceiving  none  but  their  ownselves, and  they are  not  aware.  In  their  hearts  there  is  a  malady,  so  Allah  has  made  them  grow  in  their  malady;  and  for them  there  lies  a  grievous punishment,  for  they  have been  lying.  And  when  it  is  said  to  them,  ‘Do  not  spread disorder  on  the  earth”,  they  say,  ‘We  are  nothing  but reformers!’  Beware,  it  is,  in  fact,  they  who  spread disorder,  but  they  are  not  aware.  And  when  it  is  said  to them, ‘Believe  as people  have  believed,”  they  say, “Shall we  believe  as  fools  believe?”  Beware,  it  is,  in  fact,  they who  are the  fools,  but  they  do  not  know.  And  when  they meet  those  who  believe,  they  say,  ‘We  have  entered Faith;”  but  when  they  are  alone  with  their  Satans,  they say,  ‘Tndeed,  we  are  with  you;  we  were  only  mocking!’ It  is  Allah  who  mocks  them,  and  lets  them  go  on wandering  blindly  in  their  rebellion.  These  are  the people  who  have  bought  error  at  the  price  of  guidance; so  their  trade  has  brought  no  gain,  nor  have  they  found guidance.  Their  case  is  as  if  a  man  kindles  a  fire,  and when  it illuminates  everything  around  him, Allah  takes away  their, lights  and  leaves  them  in  layers  of  darkness —  they  see  nothing.  Deaf,  dumb  and  blind,  they  shall not  return.  Or  (it  is)  like  a  rainstorm  from  the  sky carrying  darkness,  thunder  and  lightning;  they  thrust their  fingers  in  their  ears  against  thunderclaps  for  the fear  of  death,  and  Allah  encompasses the  disbelievers  — and  lightning  (all but)  snatches  away  their  eyes;  every time  a  flash  gives  them  light,  they  walk  by  it; and  when darkness  grows  upon  them,  they  stand  still.  And  if Allah  willed,  He  would  certainly  take  away  their hearing  and  their  eye:  surely  Allah  is  powerful  over 120 everything. (Surah Baqarah 2: Verses 8 –  20)

As  we  have  seen,  the  Surah  Al-Baqarah  opens  with  the  declaration that  the  Holy  Qur’an  is  beyond  all  doubt, a guidance for Mankind.  The  first  twenty  verses  of  the Surah  delineate  the  features  of  those  who  believe  in  the  Holy  Qur’an
and  of  those  who  do  not  —  the  first  five  dealing  with  the  former,  under the title  of  Al-Muttaqun  (the  God-fearing);  the  next  two  with  those disbelievers  who  were  quite  open  and  violent  in  their  hostility  —  that is,  Al-Kafirun  (the  disbelievers  or  the  infidels),  and  the  following thirteen  with  those  crafty  disbelievers  who  claimed  to  be  Muslims  but, in  reality,  were  not  so.  This  second  variety  of  the  disbelievers  has received  from  the  Holy  Qur’an  the  name  of  Al-Munafiqun  (the hypocrities). Of  these  thirteen  verses,  the  first  two  define  the  characteristic behaviour  of  the  hypocrites  thus:

And  among  men  there  are  some  who  say,  ‘We  believe  in  Allah and  in  the  Last  Day’, yet  they  are  no  believers.  They  try  to  deceive  Allah  and  those  who believe,  when  they  are  deceiving  none  but  their  ownselves,  and  they are  not  aware. 

These  verses  expose  their  claim  to  be  Muslims  as false and  deceitful,  and  show  that  they  are  only  trying  to  be  clever. Obviously,  no  one  can  deceive  Allah  –  probably  they  themselves  could not  have  had  such  a  delusion.  But  the  Holy  Qur’an  equates,  in  a  way, their  attempt  to  deceive  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and  the Muslims  with  the  desire  to  deceive  Allah  Himself  (Qurtubi)

Such  a  desire,  the  Holy  Qur’an  points  out,  can  have  only  one consequence  –  they  end  up  by  deceiving  no  one  but  themselves,  for Allah  Himself  cannot  possibly  be  deceived,  and  Divine  Revelation protects  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) from  all  trickery  and  deceit,  so that  the  hypocrites  themselves  will  have  to  bear,  in  the  other  world  as well  as in this,  the  punishment  for  their  presumptuousness.

The  third  verse  indicates  why  the  hypocrites  behave  so  foolishly and  why  they  fail  to  see  the  folly  of  their  course:

In  their  hearts  there  is  a  malady,  so  Allah  has  made  them grow  in  their  malady.

Now,  illness  or  disease,  in  the  general  medical  sense,  is  a  state  in which  a  man  has  lost  the  balanced  proportion  of  the  elements  within him  necessary  to  keep  him  healthy,  so  that  his  body  can  no  longer function  properly,  which  may  finally  lead  to  his  total  destruction.  In the  terminology  of  the  Holy  Qur’an  and  the  hadith, the  word  ‘disease’ is  also  applied  to  certain  mental  or  psychic  states  (we  are  using  the two  terms  in  the  original  and  more  comprehensive  sense) which  hinder man  from  attaining  any  degree  of  spiritual  perfection,  for  they gradually  deprive  him  of  the  ability to  perform  good  deeds,  and  even  of ordinary  human  decency,  till  he  meets  with  his  spiritual  death.  The great  spiritual  master,  Junaid  of  Baghdad (rahimahullah),  has  said  that  just  as  the diseases  of  the  body  arise  from  an imbalance  among  the  four  humours, the  diseases  of  the  heart  arise  from  a  surrender  to  one’s  physical desires.  According  to  the  present  verse,  the  disease  hidden  in  their hearts  is  unbelief  and  rejection  of  the  truth,  which  is  as  much  a physical  sickness  as  a  spiritual  one.  It  is  all  too  obvious  that  being ungrateful  to  one’s  creator  and  nourisher  and  going  against  His commandments  is  to  be  spiritually  sick.  Moreover,  to  keep  this disbelief  concealed  for  the  sake  of  petty  worldly  gains  and  not  to  have the  courage  to  speak  out  one’s  mind  is  no  less  a  disease  of  the  soul. Hypocrisy  is  a  physical  disease  too  in  so  far  as  the  hypocrite  is  always shuddering for  fear  of  being  exposed.  Jealousy  being  a  necessary ingredient  of  hypocrisy,  he  cannot  bear  to  see  the  Muslims  growing stronger  in  the  world,  and  yet  the  poor  hypocrite  cannot  even  have  the satisfaction  of  unburdening  his  heart  of  the  venom.  No  wonder  that  all this  tension  should  express  itself  in  physical  ailment.

As  for  Allah  making  them  grow  in  their  malady,  it  means  that  they are  jealous  of  the  growing  strength  of  the  Muslims,  but  it  is  Allah’s will  to  make  the  position  of  the  Muslims  even  stronger,  as they  can  see for  themselves,  which  feeds  their  bile  and  keeps  the  disease  of  their hearts  growing.

The  fourth  and  the  fifth  verses  expose  the  sophistry  of  the hypocrites  –  their  activities  threatened  to  produce  a  general  chaos  and disorder,  and  yet,  in  their  mealy-mouthed  way,  they  pretended  to  be men  of  good  will  and  to  be  serving  the  cause  of  peace  and  order.  The Holy  Qur’an  makes  it  clear  that  oral  claims  alone  do  not  decide  the question  whether  one  is  working  for  order  or  disorder,  for  what  thief would  call  himself  a  thief?  It  depends  on  what  one  does,  not  on  what one  says.  If  a  man’s  activities  do  result  in  mischief,  he  will  be  called  a mischief-maker,  even  if  he  had  no  such  intention.

These  two  verses,  thus,  describe  the  state  of  their  insensitivity  and ignorance  –  they  regard  their  defects  as  merits.  The  sixth  verse  shows the  other  aspect  of  this  depravity  –  the  merit  of  others  (that  is,  the unalloyed  faith  of  the  Muslims)  changes  into  a  defect,  and  even becomes  contemptible  in  their  eyes.

This  verse  also  places  before  the  hypocrites  a  criterion  of  true faith  (‘Iman) :”Believe  as  people  have  believed”. According  to  the  consensus  of  commentators,  the  Arabic  word  Naas (people)  in  this  verse  refers  to  the  blessed  Companions  of  the  Holy Prophet  (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) because  it  is  just  these  ‘people’  who  had  embraced  the Faith  and  had  accepted  the  Holy  Qur’an  as  the  word  of  Allah  while  it was  being  revealed.  So,  the  verse  indicates  that  the  only  kind  of  ‘Iman (faith)  acceptable  to  Allah  is  the  one  which  should  be  similar  to  that  of the  blessed  Companions,  and  that  the  ‘Iman  of  others  would  be  worthy of  the  name  only  when  they  believe  in  the  same  things  in  the  same way  as  the’  Companions  did.  In  other  words,  the  ‘Iman  of  the Companions  is  a  touchstone  for  testing  the  ‘Iman  of  all  the  other Muslims;  any  belief  or  deed  which  departs  from  their  faith  and practice,  however  pleasing  in  its  looks  or  good  in  its  intention,  is  not valid  according  to  the  shariah.  There  is  a  consensus  of  commentators on  this  position.  One  should  also  notice  that  the  hypocrites  used  to  call the  blessed  Companions  ‘fools’  (Sufaha‘). This  has  always  been  the way  of  those  who  go  astray  –  anyone  who  tries  to  show  them  the  right path  is,  in  their  eyes,  ignorant  and  stupid.  But  who  could,  the  Holy Qur’an  points  out,  be  more  stupid  than  the  man  who  refuses  to  see clear  signs?

In  the  seventh  verse,  we  see  the  double-facedness  and  trickery  of the  hypocrites.  In  the  company  of  the  Muslims,  they  would vociferously  declare their  faith  in  Islam;  but,  going  back  to  their  own people,  would  reassure  them  that  they  had  never  left  the  way  of  their ancestors,  and  had  been  meeting  the  Muslims  only  to  make  fun  of them.

The  eighth  verse  is  a  comment  on  this  attitude  of  complacency  and self-congratulation  on  the  part  of  the  hypocrites.  They  are  mightily pleased  with  themselves  in  the  belief  that  they  can  so  easily  make  a fool  of  the  Muslims  and  get  away  with  it,  while  they  are,  in  fact,  only making  a  fool  of  themselves.  For  Allah  has,  in  His  forbearance  and mercy,  given  them  a  long  rope,  but  this  is  a  provision  for  their  being thrown  into  ridicule.  It  took  place  like  this.  Since  the  hypocrites  saw no  apparent  signs  of  divine  punishment  descending  on  themselves, they  were  encouraged  in  their  complacency  and  rebellion,  so  that  the cup  of  their  iniquity  was  full,  and  one  day  they  were  caught.  Allah acted  like  this  in  response  to  their  mockery;  so,  the  Holy  Qur’an describes  this  divine  action  too  as  a  mockery  on  the  part  of  Allah.

The  ninth  verse  shows  the  basic  denseness  of  the  hypocrites  –  how they  failed  to  make  use  of  the  ordinary  sense  of  discrimination.  They had  grown  up  in  a  pagan  society,  and  knew  very  well  what  the  way  of the  infidels  was.  Now  they  had  become  familiar  enough  with  Islam  too, and  could  easily  see  the  difference.  But,  in  their  greed,  and  for  the sake  of  petty  worldly  profit,  they  still  chose  disbelief  as  against  Islam, and  bartered  away  something  as  invaluable  as  ‘iman (faith)  for something  as  worthless,  and  even  harmful  as  kufr  (infidelity).  In giving  the  name  of  ‘trade’  or  ‘commerce’ to  this  action,  the  Holy  Qur’an suggests  that  these  worldly-wise  men  had  no  understanding  even  of the  art  of  trading.

The  last  four  verses  bring  out  the  miserable  plight  of  the hypocrites  with  the  help  of  two  extended  similes.  The  choice  of  two examples  is  meant  to  divide  the  hypocrites  into  two  kinds  of  men.  On the  one  hand  were  those  in  whom  disbelief  had  taken  deep  roots,  so that  they  had  little  inclination  towards  Islam,  but  pretended  to  be Muslims  for  worldly  motives  –  the  Holy  Qur’an  compares  them  to  the man  who,  having  found  light,  again  loses  it,  and  is  left  in  darkness.  On the  other  hand  were  those  who  did  recognize  the  truth  of  Islam,  and sometimes  wished  to  be  genuine  Muslims,  but  worldly  interests  would not  allow  them  to  do  so,  and  they  remained  in  a  perpetual  state  of hesitation  and  doubt  –  they  have  been  likened  to  the  men  caught  in  a thunderstorm  who  move  forward  a  step  or  two  when  there  is  a  flash  of lightning,  but,  when  it  is  over,  again  get  stuck.  In  the  course  of  these parables,  the  hypocrites  have  also  been  warned  that  they  are  not beyond  the  power  of  Allah,  and  that  He  can,  as  and  when  He  likes, take  away  their  sight  and  hearing,  and  even  destroy  them.

Injunctions  and  related  considerations

(1) It  has  sometimes  been  debated  as  to  whether  the  distinction between  Kufr  (infidelity  or  disbelief)  and  Nifaq (hypocrisy)  still  holds good  even  after  the  days  of  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). The  correct position  with  regard  to  this  question  is  this.  At  that  time,  there  were two  ways  of  identifying  a  hypocrite  and  declaring  him  to  be  one  – either  Allah  Himself  informed  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) through revelation  that  such  and  such  a  man  was  not  a  Muslim  at  heart  but  a hypocrite,  or  a  man  through  some  word  or  deed  overtly  repugnant  to the  Islamic  creed  or  practice  showed  himself  up  as  a  hypocrite,  thus providing  a  clear  evidence  against  himself.  Divine  revelation  having ceased  with  the  departure  of  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) from  this world,  the  first  way  of  identifying  a  hypocrite  is  no  longer  available, but  the  second  way  is  still  valid.  That  is  to  say,  if  a  man  is  found,  on certain  evidence,  to  be  guilty,  in  word  or  deed,  of  rejecting  or  opposing or  distorting  or  holding  in  scorn  the  basic  doctrines  of  Islam undeniably  established  by  the  Holy  Qur’an,  the  Hadith and  ijma‘ (consensus), he  would  be  regarded  as  a  Munafiq  (hypocrite) in  spite  of his  claim  to  be  a  true  Muslim.  The  Holy  Qur’an gives  such  a  hypocrite the  name  of  a  mulhid  or  heretic:  “Those  who  distort Our  verses”,  41:40,  and  the  Hadith calls  him  a  zindiq.  One  must  also add  that  since  the  kufr  (infidelity) of  such  a  man  has  been  proved  by clear  and  definite  evidence,  the  shari’ah will  not  put  him  in  a  separate category,  but  deal  with  him  as  it  would  deal  with  any  other  kafir (infidel).  That  is  why  the  authentic  scholars  are  unanimous  in concluding  that  after  the  departure  of  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) the  question  of  hypocrites  ceased  to  be  a  relevant  one  –  now  anyone who  is  not  a  genuine  Muslim  will  be  regarded  as  kafir.  The  famous author, Al-‘Aini,  in  his  commentary  on  al-Bukhari, reports from Imam Malik (rahimahullah) that  after  the  days  of  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  this  is  the only  available  means  of  identifying  ‘hypocrisy’,  and  that  a  man  who carries  this  mark  could  be  called  a  hypocrite.

(2)  A  little  reflection  on  these  verses  would  reveal  the  true  nature of  Islam  and  ‘Iman  (faith) and  also  that  of  kufr  (disbelief), for  the  Holy Qur’an reports  the  claim  of  the  hypocrites  to  be  Muslims: “we believe  in Allah” (2:8), forthwith  refutes  this  claim: ‘yet  they are no  believers”.  In  order  to  understand  fully  the  implications  of  these verses,  one  should  bear  in  one’s  mind  the  fact  that  the  hypocrites  in question  were  actually  Jews.  Now,  belief  in  Allah  and  in  Hereafter  is, no  doubt,  an  essential  part  of  their  creed  as  well;  what  was  not included  in  their  creed,  as  defined  by  their  religious  scholars,  was  the belief  in  the  prophethood  of  Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  In  declaring their  faith  in  Islam,  the  Jews  very  cleverly  used  to  leave  out  the  belief in  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and  mention  only  two  elements:  belief  in  Allah  and  belief  in  the  Hereafter.  So  far  as  such  a  declaration goes,  they  cannot  be  called  liars,  and  yet  the  Holy  Qur’an  refutes  their claim  to  be  Muslims,  and  regards  them  as  liars. 

Why?? The  fact  is  that,  for  one  to  be  a  Muslim,  it  is  not  sufficient  merely to  declare  one’s  faith  in  Allah  and  the  Hereafter  in  any  form  or manner  which  suits  one’s  individual  or  collective  fancy.  As  for  that, associators  of  all  kinds  do,  in  one  way  or  another,  believe  in  Allah  and consider  Him  to  be  omnipotent6  but  the  Holy  Qur’an  does  not  allow any  of  these  things  to  pass  for ‘Iman (faith). ‘iman or  faith  in  Allah must,  in  order  to  be  valid  and  worthy  of  the  name,  conform  to  what  the Holy  Qur’an  specifically  lays  down  with  regards  to  the  divine  names and  attributes;  similarly,  belief  in  the  Hereafter  can  be  valid  only when  it  is  true  to  the  specifications  of  the  Holy  Qur’an  and  the hadith.’

In  the  light  of  this  explanation  one  can  see  that  the  Jews  who pretended  to  be  Muslims  believed  neither  in  Allah  nor  in  the  Hereafter according  to  these  definite  requirements.  For,  on  the  one  hand,  they regarded  the  Prophet  ‘Uzair  or  Ezra (alayhissalaam) as  the  son  of  God,  and,  on the  other,  cherished  the  fond  belief  that  the  progeny  of  the  prophets, no  matter  how  it  acted,  would  always  remain  ‘the  chosen  of  God’,  and would  not  be  called  to  account  on  the  Day  of  Judgment,  or  at the  worst receive  only  a  token  punishment.  These  being  their  beliefs,  the  Holy Qur’an  rightly  rejects  their  claims  to  faith  in Allah  and  the  Hereafter.

(3)  As  we  have  already  said,  verse  13 defines  what  ‘Iman  (faith) really  is : “Believe  as  other  men  have  believed”.  In  other words,  the  criterion  for judging  one’s  claim  to ‘Iman  is  the  ‘Iman  of  the blessed  Companions (Sahaaba Alayhim al ridhwan) of  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and  any  claim  to  Iman which  does  not  conform  to  it  is  not  acceptable  to  Allah  and  to  the  Holy Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).  If  a  man  has  the  presumption  to  interpret  an  Islamic doctrine  or  verse  of  the  Holy  Qur’an  in  a  way  which  departs  from  the explicit  and  clear  explanation  provided  by  the  Holy  Qur’an  itself  or  by the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), his  individual  opinion  and  belief,  no  matter  how much  it  titillates  the  palate  of  his  contemporaries  or  feeds  their  fancy, will  have  no  value  or  validity  in’  the  eyes  of  the  shari’ah. For  example, the  Qadiyanis  claim  that  like  Muslims  they  too  believe  in  the  doctrine of the  Finality  of  the  Prophethood  of  Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) but  in  this respect  they  deviate  from  what  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  has  himself stated,  and  what  the  Companions  believed  in and  distort  the  doctrine so as  to  make  room  for  the  prophethood  of  Mirza  Ghulam  Ahmad  of Qadian;  so,  according  to  the  indication  of  the  Holy  Qur’an,  they  come under  this  indictment :“They  are  no  believers.”

In  short,  if  a  man  interprets  an  Islamic  doctrine  in  a  way  which  is repugnant  to  the  ‘Iman of  the  blessed  Companions,  and  yet  claims  to be  a  Muslim  on  the  basis  of  his  adherence  to  this  doctrine  and  also performs  ‘his  religious  duties  exactly  like  Muslims,  he  will  not  be considered  a  Mu’min  (true  Muslim)  until  and  unless  he  agrees  to conform  to  the  criterion  of  ‘Iman  laid  down  by  the  Holy  Qur’an.

Removal  of  a  doubt

We  may  also  dispel  a  misunderstanding  which  often  arises  –  and  is more  often  made  to  arise  with  an  ulterior  motive  –  with  regard  to  the famous  dictum  in  the  hadith and  Fiqh  (Islamic  Jurisprudence)  that the  ‘people  of  the  Ka’bah’  (Ahl  al-Qiblah),  that  is,  those  who  turn towards  the  Ka’bah  in  offering  prescribed  Salah  cannot  be  branded  as infidels.  The  verse  under  discussion  clearly  defines  the  meaning  of  the phrase, Ahl al-Qiblah. The  term  pertains  only  to  those  who  do  not  deny any  of  the  basic  essential  doctrines  and  commandments  of  Islam  which are  called  the  Daruriat  (essentials).  For  that  matter  even  the hypocrites  mentioned  in  the  Holy  Qur’an  used  to  offer  their  prayers exactly  as  the  Muslims  did;  but  turning  towards  Ka’bah  while  praying was  not  taken  to  be  sufficient  to  make  them  acceptable  as  true Muslims,  simply  because  they  did  not  have  faith  in  all  the  essentials  of Islam  as the  blessed  Companions  did.

Lying  is  contemptible

(4)  The  verse: “We  believe  in  Allah  and  in  the  Last Day” shows  us  how  disgusting  it  is  to  tell  a  lie  –  even  the  hypocrites, with  all  their  hostility  to  Islam,  tried  to  refrain  from  it  as  far  as possible.  In  claiming  to  be  Muslims,  they  used  to  mention  only  their faith  in  Allah  and  in  the  Day  of  Judgment,  but  left  out  the  faith  in  the Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) for  fear  of  telling  a  lie.

Misbehaving Prophets is  to  misbehave  with  Allah

(5)  These  verses  denounce  the  hypocrites  for  trying  to  be  clever with  Allah  Himself  and  to  deceive  Him,  although  no  one  among  them could  probably  have  had  such  an  intention  or  even  thought  of  such  a possibility.  What  they  were  actually  doing  was  to  try  to  deceive  the Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and  the  Muslims.  Allah  has  equated  this  effort  with an  attempt  to  deceive  Him,  and  has  thus  indicated  that  a  man  who  is in  any  way  impertinent  to  a  prophet  or  a  man  of  Allah  is  ultimately guilty  of  being  impertinent  to  Allah  Himself  –  this  should  be  true  above all  in  the  case  of  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  who  stands  in  his  station  at  the head  of  all  created  beings.

The  curse  of  telling  lies

(6) There  is  another  subtle  and  very  significant  point  here. According  to  these  verses,  the  hypocrites  would  meet  with  a  grievous punishment  for  having  told  lies.  Now,  their  greatest  crime  was disbelief  and  hypocrisy  in  matters  of  faith,  and  they  had  been committing  other  crimes  as well,  like  nursing  envy  and  malice  against Muslims  in  their  hearts  and  actually  conspiring  against  them.  And  yet here  the  grievous  punishment  has  been  connected  with  their  habit  of telling  lies.  This  is  an  indication  that  basically  this  nefarious  habit was  their  real  crime,  which  gradually  led  them  to  hypocrisy  and disbelief.  In  other  words,  although  hypocrisy  and  disbelief  are  much greater  crimes, yet  they  arise  from  the  habit  of  telling  lies.  That  is  why the  Holy  Qur’an  combines  the  sin  of  lying  with  the  sin  of  idol  worship in  the  same  phrase:

“Guard yourselves  against  the  filth  of  idols  and  against  telling lies”  (Qur’an 22:30)

Who  are  reformers  and  mischief-makers

(7) As  these  verses  report,  when  the  hypocrites  were  asked  not  to spread  disorder  in  the  land  through  their  prevarication  and  double dealing,  they  used  to  reply  emphatically :”We are  nothing but  reformers.”  The  word  Innuma  (nothing  but),  used  in the  Arabic text,  indicates  not  merely  emphasis  but  exclusivity.  So,  their  reply would  mean  that  they  were  nothing  but  reformers,  the  servants  of order,  and  that  their  activities  could  have  nothing  to  do  with  disorder. Commenting  on  their  reply,  the  Holy  Qur’an  says:

“Beware, it  is,  in  fact,  they  who  spread  disorder,  but  they  are not  aware.”

Now,  we  learn  two  things  from  this  comment.  Firstly,  the  activities of  the  hypocrites  did  actually  produce  disorder  in  the  land.  Secondly, they  did  not  indulge  in  these  activities  with  the  express  intention  or design  of  creating  ‘disorder  –  they  were  not  even  aware  of  the possibility  that  their  actions  could  be  the  cause  of  disorder.  For,  among the  things  which  spread  disorder  in  the  world,  there  are  some  which are  commonly  recognized  to  be  mischievous  and  disorderly  activities, and  hence  every  sensible  and  conscientious  man  refrains  from  them e.g.,  theft,  robbery,  murder,  rape  etc.;  on  the  other  hand,  there  are some  which  in  their  external  aspect  do  not  appear  to  be  mischief  or
disorder,  but,  working  unseen,  they  have  the  necessary  consequence  of destroying  the  morals  of  men  which,  in  its  turn,  opens  the  door  to  all kinds  of  disorder.

This  is  exactly  what  the  hypocrites  were  doing.  No  doubt,  they refrained  from  theft,  robbery  etc.;  it  was  on  this  count  that  they  denied their  being  mischievous,  and  emphatically  asserted  that  they  were serving  the  cause  of  order.  But  all  this  while  they  had  been  freely giving  vent  to  their  malice  and  envy  by  conspiring  with  the  enemies  of the  Muslims.  These  are  things  which  finally  bring  man  down  to  the level  of  beasts.  Once  he  has  lost  his  awareness  of  ethical  values  and human  decency,  even  an  average  man  becomes  an  agent  of  social disorder  –  of  a  disorder  much  greater  than  that  released  by  thieves  or robbers,  or  even  beasts  are  capable  of  producing.  For,  the  mischief  of robbers  and  beasts  can  be  controlled  by  the  physical  power  of  law  and government.  But  laws  are  made  and  enforced  by  men.  What  happens to  laws,  when  man  has  ceased  to  be  man,  can  easily  be  witnessed  all around  us  in  the  world  of  today.  Everyone  takes  it  for  granted  that humanity  is  on  the  march  and  the  modern  man  is  so  far. the  ultimate in  civilization;  the  network  of  educational  institutions  covers  every hamlet  on  the  face  of  the  earth;  legislative  bodies  keep  buzzing  night and  day;  organizations  for  the  promulgation  of  laws  spend  billions, and  circumlocution  offices  proliferate.  And  yet  crime  and  disorder  keep in  step with  the  march  of  civilization.  The  reason  is  simple.

Law  is  not  an automatic  machine;  it  requires  men  to  make  it  work. If  man  ceases  to  be  man,  neither  laws  nor  bureaucratic  agencies  can provide  a  remedy  for  the  all-pervading  disorder.  It  is  for  this  that  the greatest  benefactor  of  mankind,  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) concentrated  all his  attention  on  making  men  real  men  –  in  all  the  plenitude  of  the term.  Once  this  has  been  achieved,  crime  or  disorder  comes  to  an  end of  itself  without  the  help  of  enormous  police  forces  and  extensive system  of  law-courts.  As  long  as  people  acted  upon  his  teachings  in certain  parts  of  the  world,  man  saw  a  kind  of  peace  and  order  prevail the  like  of  which  had  never  been  witnessed  before  nor  is  likely  to  be witnessed  when  these  teachings  are  abandoned  or  disregarded.

In  so  far  as  actual  practice  is  concerned,  the  essence  of  the
teachings  of  the  Holy  Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is  fear  of  Allah  and solicitude  for  the  assessment  of  one’s  deeds  on  the  Day  of  Judgment.  If these  are  absent,  no  constitution  or  legal  code,  nor  administrative  body or  university  can  force  or  induce  man  to  keep  away  from  crime.  Those who  run  the  world  in  our  day  invent  ever-new  administrative measures  to  prevent  crime,  but  they  not  only  neglect  the  very  soul  of administration,  the  fear  of  Allah,  but  even  deploy  the  means  of destroying  it  –  all  of  which  has  the  necessary  consequence  that  the remedy  only  helps  to  feed  the  malady.

To  another  aspect  of  the  question,  it  is  easy  enough  to  find  a  cure for  thieves  and  robbers  and  for  all  those  who  create  disorder  openly. But  the  miscreants  who  have  been  described  in  these  verses  always appear  in  the  garb  of  reformers,  brandishing  colourful  schemes  of social  amelioration  which  are  only  a  mask  for  personal  interests,  and for  raising  the  slogan : “We  are  nothing  but  reformers.” Hence  it  is  that  Allah,  while  asking  men  not  to  spread  disorder  on  the earth,  has  also  said  in  another  place:

“And  Allah  knows  the  one  who  makes  mischief  distinct  from him  who  promotes  good.” (Qur’an 2:220)

This  is  an  indication  that  Allah  alone knows  the  states  of  men’s hearts  and  their  intentions,  and  He  alone  knows  the  nature  and consequences  of  each  human  deed  as  to  whether  it  would  help  the cause  of  order  or  of  disorder.  So,  to  serve  the  cause  of  order,  it  is  not sufficient  merely  to  possess  such  an  intention;  much  more  essential than  that  is  to orient  oneself  in  thought  and  deed  in  harmony  with  the Shari’ah, for  an  action  may,  in  spite  of  the  best  intentions,  sometimes result  in  mischief  and  disorder,  if  it  is  not  guided  by  the  shari’ah.

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Phases and Stages of the Prophetic Call to People towards Islam

The  Muhammadan  Call  could be  divided  into  two  phases  distinctively  demarcated: 

1. The  Makkan  phase:  nearly  thirteen  years. 

2. The  Madinese  phase:  fully  ten  years.  Each  of  the  two  phases  included  distinctive features  easily discernible  through  accurate  scrutiny  into  the circumstances  that  characterized each  of  them. 

The  Makkan  phase  can  be  divided  into  three  stages: 

1. The  stage  of  the  secret  Call:  three  years. 

2. The  stage  of  the  proclamation  of  the Call  in  Makkah: from  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  year  of Prophethood  to  almost  the  end  of  the  tenth  year. 

3. The  stage  of  the  call  to  Islam  and  propagating it  beyond  Makkah:  it  lasted  from  the  end  of  tenth year  of  the  Prophethood  until  Muhammad’s     (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  emigration  to  Madinah.

The  Madinese  phase  will  be  considered  later  in  its  due  course.

Continue reading the seerah: THE FIRST STAGE OF THE PROPHET’S CALL TO PEOPLE TOWARDS ISLAM

Location and nature of Arab Tribes

[Note: This biography will be posted part by part for the convenience of the readers, after the end of each topic there will be a continuation link given below,The seerah is from the book ar-raheeq al-makhtum by Maulana Safi ur Rahman al-mubarakpuri]

Beyond  a  shadow  of  doubt,  the  biography  of  Prophet  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  manifestedly represents  an  exhaustive  embodiment  of  the  sublime  Divine  Message  that  he  communicated  in  order  to deliver  the  human  race  from  the  swamp  of darkness  and  polytheism  to  the  paradise  of light  and monotheism.  An  image,  authentic  as  well  as  comprehensive,  of  this  Message  is  therefore  only attainable  through  careful  study  and  profound  analysis  of  both  backgrounds  and  issues  of  such  a biography.  In  view  of  this,  a  whole  chapter is  here  introduced  about  the  nature  and  development  of Arab  tribes  prior  to  Islam  as  well  as  the  circumstantial  environment  that  enwrapped  the  Prophet’s mission. 

LOCATION OF THE ARABS:

Linguistically,  the  word “Arab” means  deserts  and  waste  barren  land  well-nigh  waterless  and  treeless. Ever  since  the  dawn  of  history,  the  Arabian  Peninsula  and  its  people  have  been  called  as  such.  The  Arabian  Peninsula  is  enclosed in  the  west  by  the  Red  Sea  and  Sinai,  in  the  east  by  the  Arabian  Gulf, in  the  south  by  the  Arabian  Sea,  which  is  an  extension  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  in  the  north  by  old Syria  and part  of  Iraq.  The  area  is  estimated  between  a  million  and  a  million  and  a  quarter  square miles.  Thanks  to  its  geographical  position,  the  peninsula  has  always  maintained  great  importance..

Considering  its  internal  setting,  it  is  mostly deserts  and  sandy  places,  which  has  rendered  it  inaccessible to  foreigners  and  invaders,  and  allowed  its  people  complete  liberty  and  independence  through  the  ages, despite  the  presence  of  two  neighbouring  great  empires.  Its  external  setting,  on  the  other  hand,  caused  it  to  be  the  centre  of  the  old  world  and  provided it  with sea  and  land  links  with  most  nations  at  the  time.  Thanks  to  this  strategic  position  the  Arabian  Peninsula had  become  the  centre for  trade,  culture,  religion  and  art.

ARAB  TRIBES: Arab kinfolks  have  been  divided  according  to  lineage  into  three groups:

Perishing  Arabs: The  ancient  Arabs,  of  whose  history little  is  known,  and  of  whom  were ‘Ad,  Thamûd, Tasam,  Jadis,  Emlaq,  and  others.

Pure  Arabs:  Who  originated  from  the  progeny  of  Ya‘rub  bin  Yashjub  bin  Qahtan.  They  were  also  called Qahtanian  Arabs.

Arabized  Arabs:  Who  originated  from  the  progeny  of  Ishmael.  They  were  also  called  ‘Adnanian  Arabs. The  pure  Arabs  –  the  people  of  Qahtan  –  originally  lived in  Yemen  and  comprised  many  tribes,  two  of which  were very famous:

1.Himyar: The  most  famous  of  whose  septs  were  Zaid  Al-JamhurQuda‘a  and  Sakasic.

2.Kahlan:  The  most  famous  of  whose  septs  were  HamdanAnmarTai’, Mudhhij  ,  KindaLakhm, JudhamAzdAwsKhazraj  and  the  descendants  of Jafna  —  the  kings  of  old  Syria.  Kahlan  septs  emigrated  from  Yemen  to  dwell  in  the  different  parts  of  the  Arabian  Peninsula  prior  to  the Great  Flood (Sail  Al-‘Arim  of  Ma’rib  Dam),  due  to  the  failure  of  trade  under  the  Roman  pressure  and domain  on  both  sea  and  land  trade  routes  following  Roman  occupation  of  Egypt  and  Syria.  Naturally enough,  the  competition  between  Kahlan  and  Himyar  led  to  the evacuation  of  the  first  and  the settlement  of  the  second  in  Yemen. 

THE  EMIGRATING  SEPTS  OF  KAHLAN  CAN  BE  INTO  FOUR  GROUPS:

1.Azd:  Who,  under  the leadership  of ‘Imran  bin  ‘Amr Muzaiqbâ’,  wandered  in  Yemen,  sent  pioneers and finally  headed  northwards.  Details  of  their emigration  can  be  summed  up  as  follows: 

2.Tha‘labah  bin  ‘Amr left  his  tribe  Al-Azd  for  Hijaz  and dwelt  between  Tha‘labiyah  and  Dhi  Qar. When  he  gained  strength,  he  headed  for  Madinah  where  he  stayed.  Of  his  seed  are  Aws  and Khazraj,  sons  of  Haritha  bin  Tha‘labah.

Haritha  bin  ‘Amr,  known  as  Khuza‘a,  wandered  with  his  folks  in  Hijaz  until  they  came  to  Mar  AzZahran.  Later,  they  conquered  the  Haram,  and  settled  in  Makkah  after  having  driven  away  its people,  the  tribe  of Jurhum. 

‘Imran  bin  ‘Amr  and  his  folks  went  to  ‘Oman  where  they  established  the  tribe  of  Azd  whose children  inhabited  Tihama  and  were  known  as  Azd-of-Shanu’a. 

Jafna  bin  ‘Amr  and  his  family,  headed  for  Syria  where  he  settled  and  initiated  the  kingdom  of Ghassan  who  was  so  named  after  a  spring  of  water,  in  Hijaz,  where  they  stopped  on  their  way  to Syria. 

1&2. Lakhm  and Judham:  Of  whom  was  Nasr  bin  Rabi‘a,  father  of  Manadhira,  Kings  of  Heerah. 

3. Banu  Tai’:  Who  also  emigrated  northwards  to  settle  by  the  so-  called  Aja  and  Salma  Mountains which  were  consequently  named  as  Tai’ Mountains.

4. Kinda:  Who  dwelt  in  Bahrain  but  were  expelled  to  Hadramout  and  Najd  where  they  instituted  a powerful government  but  not  for  long,  for  the  whole  tribe  soon  faded  away. 

Another  tribe  of  Himyar,  known  as  Quda‘a,  also  left  Yemen  and  dwelt  in  Samawa  semi-desert  on the  borders  of  Iraq. 

The  Arabized  Arabs  go  back  in  ancestry  to  their great  grandfather Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) from  a town  called “Ur”  near  Kufa  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Euphrates  in  Iraq.  Excavations  brought  to  light  great details  of  the  town,  Ibrahim’s (alaihissalaam) family,  and  the  prevalent  religions  and  social  circumstances. 

It  is  known  that  Abraham (Ibraheem Alaihissalaam)  left  Ur  for  Harran  and  then  for  Palestine,  which  he  made headquarters  for  his  Message.  He  wandered  all  over  the  area.  When  he  went  to  Egypt,  the  Pharaoh (fir’aun) tried  to  do  evil  to  his  wife  Sarah (Sara radhiyallahu anha),  but  Allâh  saved  her  and  the  Pharaoh’s  wicked  scheme  recoiled  on  him. He  thus  came  to  realize  her  strong  attachment  to  Allâh,  and,  in  acknowledgment  of  her  grace,  the Fir’aun  rendered  his  daughter  Hagar (Hajira radhiyallahu anha) at  Sarah’s  service,  but  Sarah  gave  Hagar  to  Ibrahim (alaihissalaam)  as  a  wife. 

Ibrahim (alaihissalaam) returned  to  Palestine  where  Hajira (radhiyallahu anha) gave  birth  to  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam).  Sarah (radhiyallahu anha) became  so  jealous  of  Hagar that  she with the command of Allah forced  Ibrahim (alaihissalaam)  to  send  Hajira (radhiyallah anha)  and  her baby  away  to  a  plantless  valley  on  a  small  hill in  Hijaz, by  the  Sacred  House,  exposed  to  the  wearing  of floods  coming  right  and  left.  He  chose for  them  a  place under  a  lofty  tree  above  Zam-zam  near  the  upper  side  of  the  Mosque  in  Makkah  where  neither  people nor  water  was  available,  and  went  back  to  Palestine  leaving  with  his  wife  and  baby  a  leather  case  with some  dates  and  a  pot  of  water.  Not  before  long,  they  ran  out  of  both  food  and  water,  but  thanks  to Allâh’s  favour  water  gushed  forth  to  sustain  them  for  sometime.  The  whole  story  of  Zam-zam  spring  is already known  to  everybody. 

Another  Yemeni  tribe  – Jurhum  the  Second  –  came  and  lived  in  Makkah  upon  Hajira’s (radhiyallahu anha) permission,  after being  said  to  have  lived  in  the valleys  around  Makkah.  It  is  mentioned  in  the  Sahih  Al-Bukhari  that  this tribe  came  to  Makkah  before  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam) was  a  young  man  while  they  had  passed  through  that  valley  long before  this  event. 

Ibraheem (alaihissalaam)  used  to  go  to  Makkah  every  now  and  then  to  see  his  wife  and  son.  The  number  of  these journeys  is  still  unknown,  but  authentic  historical resources  spoke  of  four  ones. 

Allâh,  the  Sublime,  stated  in  the  Noble  Qur’ân  that  He  had  Ibrahim (alaihissalaam)  see,  in  his  dream,  that  he slaughtered  his  son  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam),  and  therefore  Ibraheem  stood  up  to  fulfill  His  Order:

Then,  when  they  had  both  submitted  themselves  (to  the  Will  of  Allâh),  and  he  had  laid  him prostrate  on  his  forehead  (or  on  the  side  of  his  forehead for  slaughtering);  and  We  called  out  to him: “O  Abraham!  You  have fulfilled  the  dream (vision)!” 
Verily!  Thus  do  we  reward  the Muhsinûn  (good-doers,  who  perform  good  deeds  totally  for  Allâh’s  sake  only,  without  any  show off  or  to  gain  praise  or fame,  etc.  and  do  them in  accordance  to  Allâh’s  Orders).  Verily,  that indeed  was  a  manifest  trial  —  and  We  ransomed  him  with  a  great  sacrifice  (i.e.  a  ram)”  [Qur’an 37:103-107]

It  is  mentioned  in  the  Genesis  that  Ishmael (Qur’anic Isma’eel) was  thirteen  years  older  than  his  brother  Isaac (Qur’anic Ishaaq).  The sequence  of  the  story  of  the  sacrifice  of  Ishmael (Isma’eel)  shows  that  it  really  happened  before  Ishaq’s  birth,  and that  Allâh’s  Promise  to  give  Abraham  another  son,  Ishaq (alaihissalaam),  came  after  narration  of  the  whole  story. 

This  story  spoke  of  one  journey  –  at  least  – before  Ishmael became  a  young  man.  Al-Bukhari,  on  the authority  of  Ibn  ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu),  reported  the  other  three  journeys;  a  summary  of  which  goes  as  follows: 

When  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam)  became  a  young  man,  he  learned  Arabic  at  the  hand  of  the  tribe  of Jurhum,  who  loved him  with  great  admiration  and  gave  him  one  of  their  women  as  a  wife,  soon  after  his  mother passed away. Having  wanted  to  see  his  wife  and  son  again,  Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) came  to  Makkah, Isma’eel’s (alaihissalaam)marriage,  but  he didn’t  find  him  at  home.  He  asked  Isma’eel’s (alaihissalaam) wife  about  her  husband  and  how  they  were  doing.  She complained  of  poverty,  so  he  asked  her  to  tell  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam)  to  change  his  doorstep.  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam)  understood  the message,  divorced  his  wife  and  got  married  to  the  daughter  of  Mudad  bin  ‘Amr,  chief  of  the  tribe  of Jurhum. 

Once  more,  Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) came  to  see  his  son,  but  again  didn’t  find  him  at  home.  He  asked  his  new  wife  the same  previous  question,  to  which  she  thanked  Allâh.  Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) asked  her  to  tell  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam) to  keep  his doorstep  (i.e.  to  keep  her  as  wife)  and  went  back  to  Palestine.  A  third  time,  Ibraheem (alaihissalaam) came  to  Makkah  to  find  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam) sharpening  an  arrow  under  a  lofty  tree  near Zam-zam.  The  meeting,  after  a  very  long  journey  of  separation,  was  very  touching  for  a  father  so affectionate  and  a  so  dutiful  and  righteous  son.  This  time,  father  and  son  built  Al-Ka‘bah  and raised  its pillars,  and  Abraham,  in  compliance  with  Allâh’s  Commandment,  called  unto  people  to  make  pilgrimage to  it. 

By  the  grace  of  Allâh,  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam) had  twelve  sons  from  the  daughter  of  Mudad,  whose  names  were  Nabet, Qidar,  Edbael,  Mebsham,  Mishma’,  Duma,  Micha,  Hudud,  Yetma,  Yetour,  Nafis  and  Qidman,  and  who ultimately  formed  twelve  tribes  inhabiting  Makkah  and  trading  between  Yemen,  geographical  Syria  and Egypt.  Later  on,  these  tribes  spread  all  over,  and  even  outside,  the peninsula.  All  their  tidings  went  into oblivion  except  for  the  descendants  of  Nabet  and  Qidar. 

The  Nabeteans  –  sons  of  Nabet  – established  a  flourishing  civilization  in  the  north  of  Hijaz,  they instituted  a  powerful  government  which  spread  out  its  domain  over  all  neighbouring  tribes,  and  made Petra  their  capital.  Nobody dared  challenge  their  authority  until  the  Romans  came  and  managed  to eliminate  their kingdom.  After  extensive research  and painstaking  investigation,  Mr.  Sulaiman  An-Nadwi came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  Ghassanide kings,  along  with  the  Aws  and  Khazraj  were  not  likely  to  be Qahtanians  but  rather  Nabeteans.  Descendants  of  Qidar,  the  son  of  Isma’eel (alaihissalaam),  lived long  in  Makkah  increasing in  number,  of  them  issued ‘Adnan  and  son  Ma‘ad,  to  whom  ‘Adnanian  Arabs  traced  back  their  ancestry.  ‘Adnan  is  the  twenty-first grandfather  in  the  series  of  the  Prophetic  ancestry.  It  was  said  that  whenever  Prophet  Muhammad  ﻰﻠﺻ ﻢﻠﺳو  ﻪﯿﻠﻋ  ﷲا  spoke  of  his  ancestry  he  would  stop  at  ‘Adnan  and  say:  “Genealogists  tell lies”  and  did  not  go farther  than  him.  A  group  of  scholars,  however,  favoured  the  probability  of  going  beyond  ‘Adnan attaching  no  significance  to  the  aforementioned  Prophetic  Hadith.  They  went  on  to  say  that  there  were exactly  forty  fathers  between  ‘Adnan  and  Ibraheem  (alaihissalaam). 

Nizar,  Ma‘ad’s  only  son,  had four  sons  who  branched  out  into  four great  tribes;  Eyad,  Anmar,  Rabi‘a and  Mudar.
These  last  two  sub-branched  into  several  septs.  Rabi‘a  fathered  Asad,  ‘Anazah,  ‘Abdul  Qais, and  Wa’il’s  two  sons  (Bakr  and  Taghlib),  Hanifa  and  many  others. 

Mudar  tribes  branched  out  into  two  great  divisions:  Qais  ‘Ailan  bin  Mudar  and  septs  of  Elias  bin  Mudar. Of  Qais  ‘Ailan  were  the  Banu  Saleem,  Banu  Hawazin,  and  Banu  Ghatafan  of  whom  descended ‘Abs, Zubyan,  Ashja‘  and  Ghani  bin  A‘sur.  Of  Elias  bin  Mudar  were  Tamim  bin  Murra,  Hudhail  bin  Mudrika, Banu  Asad  bin  Khuzaimah  and  septs  of  Kinana  bin  Khuzaimah,  of  whom  came  Quraish,  the  descendants of  Fahr  bin  Malik  bin  An-Nadr  bin  Kinana.

  Quraish  branched  out  into  various  tribes,  the  most  famous  of  whom  were  Jumah,  Sahm,  ‘Adi, Makhzum,  Tayim,  Zahra  and  the  three  septs  of  Qusai  bin  Kilab:  ‘Abdud-Dar bin  Qusai,  Asad  bin  ‘Abdul ‘Uzza  bin  Qusai  and  ‘Abd  Manaf  bin  Qusai. 

‘Abd  Manaf  branched  out  into  four  tribes:  ‘Abd  Shams,  Nawfal,  Muttalib  and  Hashim.  It  is,  however, from  the family  of  Hashim  that  Allâh  selected  Prophet  Muhammad  bin  ‘Abdullah  bin  ‘Abdul-Muttalib  bin Hashim (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam). 

Prophet  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  said:  “Allâh  selected  Ishmael from  the  sons  of  Abraham,  Kinana  from  the  sons  of  Ishmael,  Quraish from  the  sons  of  Kinana,  Hashim  from  the  sons  of  Quraish  and  He  selected  me  from  the  sons  of Hashim.” 

Al-‘Abbas  bin  ‘Abdul-Muttalib (radhiyallahu anhu) quoted  the  Messenger  of  Allâh  (sallallaahu alaihivwasallan)  as  saying:  “Allâh  created  mankind  and  chose  me  from  the  best  whereof,  He  chose  the  tribes  and  selected me  from  the best  whereof;  and  He  chose families  and  selected  me  from  the  best  whereof.  I  am the  very  best  in  person  and  family.” 

Having  increased  in  number,  children  of ‘Adnan,  in  pursuit  of  pastures  and  water,  spread  out  over various  parts  of  Arabia.

The  tribe  of ‘Abdul  Qais,  together  with  some  septs  of  Bakr  bin  Wa’il  and Tamim,  emigrated  to  Bahrain where  they dwelt. 

Banu  Hanifa  bin  Sa‘b bin  Ali bin  Bakr  went  to  settle  in  Hijr,  the  capital  of  Yamama.  All  the  tribes  of  Bakr bin  Wa’il  lived  in  an  area  of  land  which  included  Yamama,  Bahrain,  Saif  Kazima,  the  sea  shore,  the outer  borders  of  Iraq,  Ablah  and  Hait. 

Most  of  the  tribe  of  Taghlib  lived in  the  Euphrates  area  while  some  of  them  lived  with  Bakr. Banu  Tamim  lived in  Basra  semi-desert.

Banu  Saleem  lived  in  the vicinity  of  Madinah  on  the  land  stretching  from  Wadi  Al-Qura  to  Khaibar onwards  to  the eastern  mountains  to  Harrah.

Thaqif dwelt  in  Ta’if  and  Hawazin  east  of  Makkah  near  Autas  on  the road  from  Makkah  to  Basra. Banu  Asad  lived  on  the  land east  of  Taimâ’  and  west  of  Kufa,  while  family  of Tai’ lived  between  Banu Asad  and  Taimâ’.  They  were  five-day-walk  far from  Kufa. 

Zubyan  inhabited  the  plot  of  and  between  Taimâ’  and  Hawran. 

Some  septs  of  Kinana  lived  in  Tihama,  while  septs  of  Quraish  dwelt  in  Makkah  and  its  suburbs.  Quraish remained  completely  disunited  until  Qusai  bin  Kilab  managed  to  rally  their ranks  on  honourable  terms attaching  major prominence  to  their  status  and  importance.

Continue reading further by clicking the link: Rulership and Kingship among the Pre-Islamic Arabs

False Allegation: Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) brutally killed Banu Qurayza

The claim by enemies of Islam is often made:

Mohammed’s bloodthirsty slaughter of the Jews at Banu Qurayza, leaving only the women and children to be sold into slavery shows Islam is false and Muhammad was a warlord
from Abu Da’ud

Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi:
I was among the captives of Banu Qurayza. They (Mohammed’s followers) examined us, and those who had begun to grow (pubic) hair were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair.

Response:

Ok lets look at this incident, which is quite often used as an example by Islam-haters of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) being a butcher.
Rather then the anti islamic sites, let us look at the true historical context behind the incident.

At the beginning of the seventh century A.D., there were three Jewish tribes living in Madinah (Yathrib). They were Banu Qainuka’a, Banu Nadhir and Banu Qurayza. All three tribes were rich and powerful, and also, they were more civilized than the Arabs. Whereas the Arabs were all farmers, the Jews were the entrepreneurs of industry, business and commerce in Arabia, and they controlled the economic life of Madinah (Yathrib). The two Arab tribes – Aus and Khazraj – were debt-ridden to the Jews perennially.

The migration of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam), from Makkah to Madinah (then Yathrib), brought him into contact with the Jews for the first time. At the beginning they were friendly to him. He granted them the famous Charter of Madinah, and they acknowledged him the ruler of their city, and agreed to abide by his decisions in all disputes.

They also agreed to defend the city in the event of an invasion by an enemy.

But, unfortunately, this friendship did not last long. It soon became obvious that the Jews had given their friendship to Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) with many reservations. In their own interest, they ought to have acted their part of the agreement faithfully but they did not. For this change in their attitude, there were many reasons, among them:

1. When the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) arrived in Madinah, he reformed the life of whoever became a Muslim. He taught them to be temperate and moderate in everything, and taught them the value of discipline in life. They stopped drinking and gambling both of which were the causes of their ruin in the past; and they gave up taking loans at high rates of interest from the Jews. When the Arabs stopped taking loans and paying interest on them, a rich source of revenue suddenly dried up for the Jews, and they bitterly resented this. They could now see that their grip on the economic life of Madinah was beginning to loosen.

2. The Jews also realized that Islam was an enemy of the system of exploitation, and of the capitalist system. They began to see Islam as a threat to their economic interests.

3. The Jewish priests hated Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) as much as the Jewish money-lenders. He had shown to the Jews how their priest followed deviant interpretations of their scriptures, and how they distorted their text. The priests, on their part, tried to convince their flocks that Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)did not have knowledge of their scriptures, and they tried to point out to them the “errors” in the Qur’an.

The Jews also believed that they were safe only as long as the two Arab tribes of Madinah, the Aus and the Khazraj, were fighting against each other. Peace between the Aus and the Khazraj, they thought, would pose a threat to their survival in Arabia. For this reason, they were always fomenting trouble between them.

Of the three Jewish tribes of Madinah, the Banu Qainuka’a and the Banu Nadhir had already been expelled after the battles of Badr and Uhud respectively, and they had left with all their baggage, and herds of animals, and had resettled in Khyber.

The third and the last tribe of the Jews in Madinah was the Banu Qurayza. According to the terms of the Charter of Madinah, it was their duty to take an active part in defending the city during the siege of A.D. 627. But not only they did not contribute any men or materials during the siege but were actually caught conspiring with the enemy to compass the destruction of the Muslims. Some Jews even attacked a house in which many Muslim women and children had taken refuge as it was considered a safer place for them than their own houses.

Between the pagans of Makkah and the Jews of Madinah, the Muslims would have been massacred. It was only the presence of mind of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) that averted such a disaster.

R.V.C. Bodley writes:

The Jews were not at first inclined to listen to Abu Sufyan’s proposal (to attack Muslims from the rear), but after a while they compromised and agreed to betray the Moslems when the time seemed opportune. (The Messenger – the Life of Mohammed)

The reason for the campaign goes back to Banu Qurayzah’s breaking of the treaty between themselves and the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam). This has been proved from different reports which, when taken together, could be used as valid evidence. Huyayy ibn Akhtab al Nadari incited them to break the treaty at a critical time when the Muslims were being besieged by 10,000 warriors from the various tribes. There is a strong report that the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) sent al Zubayr ibn al Awwam (radhiyallahu anhu) to check on Banu Qurayzah, then he sent Sad ibn Mu’adh, Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah, Abd Allah ibn Rawahah and Khawwat ibn Jubayr (radhiyallahu anhuma)to check whether the rumors about the treachery of Banu Qurayzah were true. These four confirmed the rumors, and this news distressed the Muslims.

Ibn Ishaq gave a detailed report — without isnad — of the treachery of Banu Qurayzah and their breaking of the treaty. Most of the Seerah writers also reported it without isnad

Musa ibn ‘Uqbah mentions — also without isnad — that Qurayzah asked Huyayy ibn Akhtab to take 90 men from the nobles of Quraysh and Ghatafan as hostages, so the Quraysh would not leave Madinah before they had destroyed the Muslims. Huyayy agreed to that, so they announced their breaking of the treaty.

The conduct of the Jews during the siege of Madinah was high treason against the State.

Therefore, when the confederate army broke up and the danger to Madinah was averted, the Muslims turned their attention to them.

The Jews shut themselves up in their forts and the Muslims besieged them. But some days later, they requested the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) to raise the siege, and agreed to refer the dispute to arbitration.

The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)allowed the Jews to choose their own arbitrator. Here they made a very costly blunder. They should have chosen Prophet  Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) himself – the embodiment of mercy – to be their judge. If they had, he would have allowed them to depart from Madinah with their baggage and their animals, and the incident would have been closed.

But the Jews didn’t choose the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) as their judge. Instead, they chose Sa’ad ibn Muadh, the leader of their former allies, the Aus. Sa’ad was a man who was utterly reckless with life – his own as well as that of others.

Sa’ad had received a mortal wound during the battle of the Trench, and in fact died soon after he had passed judgment on the fate of the Jews. HE declared treason to be an unpardonable offense, and his verdict was inexorable. He invoked the Torah, the Scripture of the Jews, and sentenced all men to death, and women and children to slavery.

The number of WARRIORS who were executed was 400. Three of Banu Qurayzah were spared because they entered Islam and they kept their wealth; three others may have been spared because they were protected by some of the companions because of their loyalty to the treaty during the siege. There are many reports dealing with this, but they cannot be taken as valid evidence. The prisoners were detained in the house of Bint al Harith.

Only one of their women was killed, she had killed one of the companions — Khalid ibn Suwayd(radhiyallahu anhu) — by dropping a millstone on him. Boys below the age of puberty were released.

Behold the evidence:

Saheeh Bukhari
Volume 5, Book 58, Number 148:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
Some people (i.e. the Jews of Bani bin Quraiza) agreed to accept the verdict of Sa’d bin Muadh so the Prophet sent for him (i.e. Sad bin Muadh). He came riding a donkey, and when he approached the Mosque, the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wadallam) said, “Get up for the best amongst you.” or said, “Get up for your chief.” Then the Prophet said, “O S’ad! These people have agreed to accept your verdict.” S’ad said, “I judge that their WARRIORS should be killed and their children and women should be taken as captives.” The Prophet said, “You have given a judgment similar to Allah’s Judgment (or the King’s judgment).”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 280:
Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri:
When the tribe of Bani Quraiza was ready to accept S’ad’s judgment, Allah’s Apostle sent for S’ad who was near to him. S’ad came, riding a donkey and when he came near, Allah’s Apostle said (to the Ansar), “Stand up for your leader.” Then S’ad came and sat beside Allah’s Apostle who said to him. “These people are ready to accept your judgment.” S’ad said, “I give the judgment that their WARRIORS should be killed and their children and women should be taken as prisoners.” The Prophet then remarked, “O Sad! You have judged amongst them with (or similar to) the judgment of the King Allah.”

Volume 5, Book 59, Number 447:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
The people of (Banu) Quraiza agreed to accept the verdict of S’ad bin Mu’adh. So the Prophet sent for S’ad, and the latter came (riding) a donkey and when he approached the Mosque, the Prophet said to the Ansar, “Get up for your chief or for the best among you.” Then the Prophet said (to S’ad).” These (i.e. Banu Quraiza) have agreed to accept your verdict.” S’ad said, “Kill their WARRIORS and take their offspring as captives, “On that the Prophet said, “You have judged according to Allah’s Judgment,” or said, “according to the King’s judgment.”

Volume 8, Book 74, Number 278:
Narrated Abu Said:
The people of (the tribe of) Quraiza agreed upon to accept the verdict of Sa’d. The Prophet sent for him (Sa’d) and he came.

The Prophet said (to those people), “Get up for your chief or the best among you!” Sa’d sat beside the Prophet and the Prophet said (to him), “These people have agreed to accept your verdict.” Sa’d said, “So I give my judgment that their WARRIORS should be killed and their women and children should be taken as captives.” The Prophet said, “You have judged according to the King’s (Allah’s) judgment.” (See Hadith No. 447, Vol. 5)

As for the others:

The siege continued for twenty-five days, during which the Muslims allowed the Jews who had refused to betray the Prophet (peace be upon him) during the Battle of the Ditch to leave and go wherever they wished as a reward for their faithfulness.
(Muhammad Al Ghazali, Fiqh-Us-Seerah: Understanding the Life of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), International Islamic Publishing House, p346)

The severe punishments were only given because of the acts of high treason which Banu Qurayzah committed when they betrayed the Muslims and broke the treaty, instead of participating with them in defending Madinah, in accordance with the treaty between the two sides. In this day and age, nations still execute traitors who cooperate with the enemy.

The punishment of Banu Qurayzah fitted their crime, because they had exposed the Muslims to the threat of being killed, their wealth to the threat of being seized, and their women and children to the threat of being taken prisoner; therefore, their punishment was a fitting recompense. Fact is Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) was not even the one who gave the order for the people to be killed, the decision was made by the arbitrator who the Jews themselves chose. He applied their own law on them, from the Torah. There is no need to avoid historical facts or to deny authentic reports.

Summary:

They broke a treaty which was agreed between both parties to defend the state of Madinah. They were residents of Madinah and they plotted against other residents of Madinah, clearly violating the treaty they agreed to. Hence it was treason. They plotted against the defending Muslim forces and formed alliances with the enemy. They accepted the verdict because they were guilty.

In the Battle of the Trenches, the Madinan Jews had made a secret alliance with the superior Makkan forces. They planned a rear attack. When the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) found out about this plot, he took the essential action both politically and for the sake of justice to punish the great betrayal. Its quite clear that if someone agrees to defend you but then betray you, this is a crime.

They didnt physically attack the Muslims because the Muslims discovered their plan. According to anti-islamist logic, action against them would only be justified if there plan worked?? bearing in mind they were going to attack the Muslims from the rear, that would mean all the Muslims would be killed and there would be no one left to administer the punishment for the Jews betrayal. The correct action was taken just in the nick of time.

The historical account is recorded by the people who were there at the time, even the hadith used to form attacks on Islam was recorded by someone who was one of the Jews at the time. It is as accurate as you can get, one thing that you can’t hold against Islam is the degree to which history has been recorded. People against Islam have been using it for years to base there attacks on Islam, so its a bit rich when people now try and claim the historical account is pro Muslim. They think its reliable when they want, and then they claim it aint when it proves there allegations are false

It is certainly more reliable then the evidence presented by anti islamists, which is a mish-mash of conjecture and a re hash of historical events from a number of anti -islamic sites all of whom i have visited. Half quoting hadiths and not giving the full context is there speciality, and obviously someone who is not exposed to the whole truth will be easily swayed. Its simple, the predetermined agenda of all these sites is that Muhammad was a butcher who wanted power, and Islam is false. They then interpret any hadith, historical incident or Quranic verse to fit this hypothesis. When you get down to the nitty gritty and look at each of the incidents which are cited as evidence, you find that they are all twisted and based on falsehoods.

How Idols found place in the Ka’aba during Pre-Islamic Era??

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Most of the Pre-Islamic Arabs complied with the call of Prophet Isma’il Alaihissalaam and professed the Islam of his father Nabiyana Ibraheem Alaihissalaam, They had worshipped Allah, Professed Allah’s Oneness and followed the religion of Truth for a long time until they forgot a part of the message of what they had been reminded of.

However, they still maintained such fundamental beliefs such as true monotheism as well as various aspects of Prophet Ibraheem Alaihissalaam’s Islam.

Until the time when a chief of the Tribe of Khuza’a named ‘Amr bin
Luhay, who was renowned for righteousness,charity, reverence and care for religion, and was granted unreserved love and obedience by his tribesmen.

One Day he came back from a trip to Syria where he saw people worship Idols. This is a phenomenon he approved of and believed it to be righteous since Syria was a locus of Messengers and Scriptures.

And then he brought with him back an Idol named ‘Hubal‘ which he placed in the middle of Al-Ka’aba Shariff and summoned people to worship it.

Readily enough, Paganism spread all over the city of Makkah and then whole of Hijaz, People of Makkah being Custodians of not not only the Sacred House but the whole Haram as Shareef as well, As a result of this, many idols, bearing different names were introduced into the area

[Mukhatasar Seerat-ar-Rasool Part-12]

An Idol called ‘Manat‘ for example was worshipped in a place known as Al-Mushallal near Qadid on the shores of Red Sea, Another named ‘Al-Lat’ in Ta’if, a third, ‘Al-‘Uzza in the valley of Nakhlah, and so on and so forth, Polytheism prevailed and the number of Idols increased
everywhere in Hijaz.

It is also narrated that ‘Amr bin Luhay, with the help of an evil
Devil-Jinn companion who informed him that the idols of the Ignorant People of Nooh Alaihissalaam- Wadd, Suwa, Yaguth, Ya’uk and Nasr- were buried in Jeddah, he dug them out and took them to Ka’aba, Upon Pilgrimage time the idols were distributed among the tribes to take back home.

Every Tribe, and house, had their own idol, and the Sacred House Kaaba was overcrowded with them. On the Prophet Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam’s conquest of Makkah, 360 Idols were found inside Al-Ka’aba. He [Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam] broked them down and purified the Holy House of Allah

Polytheism and worship of Idols became the most prominent feature of Pre-Islamic Arabs despite alleged profession of following Prophet Ibraheem Alaihissalaam’s Islam.

Traditions and ceremonies of the worship of their idols had been mostly created by ‘Amr Bin Luhay and were deemed as ‘Good Innovations’ rather than deviations from the Prophet Ibraheem Alaihissalaam’s Islam.

SubhanAllah!, Let us read now what Happened to Amr bin Luhay as told by Nabi-e- Kareem Sallallaahu Alaihi Wasallam Himself:

”I saw Amr Bin Luhay dragging his intestines in Jahannam (Hell), He
was the first to introduce the religion of Al-Saa’ibah (Idol
Worship)”_ [Al-Bukhari, Hadith Number 4623]

Lesson from this Post: Strengthen your Aqeedah and know about your Fundamentals which you have been following, Since Islam only Supports Truth it becomes very important to keep checking our Aqeedah and fundamentals whether it abides by Truth or not. If not then its our own
responsibility to investigate and correct ourselves and be on What Islam Agrees.