For Part 1, click here➡The Authority of Hadeeth, Ijma’, Qiyaas etc and their rejection by the Deviant Sects
The Difference between Hadeeth and Sunnah
The meaning of and 4 things that constitute Hadeeth:
4 things make up Hadeeth:
1. The Aqwaal (sayings) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)
2. The Af’aal (actions) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)
3. The Taqreer i.e if a Sahaabi did something in the presence of Nabi υ and he did not express displeasure or prevent him. (consent) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)
4. The physical traits and habits of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)
The meaning of Sunnah
And Sunnat means: At-Tareeqatul Maslookah fid Deen – The followed path in Deen.
The Nisbat (link) between Hadeeth and Sunnah is Aam-Khaas min Wajhin.
i.e. they are similar (Muttafiq) in one way and different (Muftariq) in two ways:
Maaddatul Iftiraaq (differences) are two:
1. Those Ahaadeeth which deal with the Khaasiyaat (specialities) of the Nabi e.g. marrying more than 4 wives. This is Hadeeth but not Sunnah.
2. Those things which were implemented by the 4 Khaleefahs. These will be Sunnah even if there is no Hadeeth in support of it e.g. the 2nd Azaan for Jumu’ah which was implemented by Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu)
The Sunnats of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu):
Like this, there are 3 Masaa’il which came about in the time of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) when two groups of Muslims fight against each other:
1. Regarding those who are killed: will they go to Jannat or Jahannum;
2. Will the goods of the defeated party be treated as Ghaneemat (spoils of war);
3. Will the captives be treated as slaves;
4. The answers to these 3 Masaa’il were stipulated by Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). This is Sunnah even though there is no ‘Hadeeth’.
The Battle of Jamal was fought between Ali and Aa’ishah’s (radhiyallahu anhuma) parties. Ali’s (radhiyallahu anhi) group was victorious. Questions 2 and 3 came up. Some Muslims wanted to take the spoils as theirs. Ali (radhiyallahu amhu) said: “Which wretched person will take Aa’ishah (radhiyallahu anha) as a slave? There is no booty, nor any slavery!” So all the prisoners were set free and all the goods of the Shuhadaa (martyrs) was returned to their families.
Then the Battle of Siffeen came along between Ali and Mu’aawaiyah (radhiyallahu anhuma). Some people raised the first question. Ali said: “ours and theirs are in Jannah”
This is such a Mas’alah that no one could have solved since no Hadeeth was present, nor anything similar by which a Shari’ analogy could have been extracted (Qiyaas).
Ignorant people (the noisy ‘La Madh-habi’s) generally make a huge noise about the 2nd Azaan and the Rak’ats of Taraweeh. We have presented the Sunnah of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) here because their knowledge has not yet reached this level. When they come to know about this, they will have an extra Mas’alah to shout about.
The basic point is that the decrees (Fatwahs) and rulings of the Khulafaa e Raashideen are accepted as Sunnah by the Muslims even if perchance there is no Hadeeth in support thereof. This has always been the standpoint of the Ahlus Sunnah till the emergence of this group.
We will discuss the name ‘Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah’ shortly In shaa’Allaah – suffice for now that we are Ahlus Sunnah not Ahle Hadeeth.
The Similarity between Hadeeth and Sunnah (Maaddatul Ijtimaa’):
Those Ahaadeeth which are accepted as Ma’mool Bihaa (practiced upon) and are not Mansookh (abrogated) or Khaas (special) are also Sunnah.
We accept all the Ahaadeeth in this category and we practice upon them. We also follow the Sunnah of the Sahaabah.
Being ‘Ahle Hadeeth’ is not good enough for two reasons:
1. Hadeeth includes Mansookh and Khaas matters. It is not correct to practice on this even though it is Hadeeth. e.g. Marrying more than four and temporary Nikaah – both these are Baatil.
2. Hadeeth does not cover the Sunnah of the Khulafaa. For this reason the Salafis are in Dhalaalat (error). We have been clearly commanded to follow the Sunnat of the Khulafaa in Hadeeth just as we have been ordered to follow the Sunnah in the Qur’aan!
The ‘Ahle Quraan’ rejects Sunnah. The ‘Ahle Hadeeth’ also reject it in practice yet when confronted, neither of them will admit to it.
This is the deception of the Ghair Muqallid/ Salafi/ Ahle Hadeeth sect.
We place a challenge to all the self-styled ‘Ahle Hadeeth – present a single Hadeeth where we have been commanded to follow the Hadeeth. Hadeeth is a technical term, an academic classification.
In the Hadeeth, we have been ordered to follow the Sunnah: The Sunnah of the Rasul everyone accepts – we have been clearly ordered by the Rasul himself, in a Saheeh Hadeeth to follow the Sunnah of the Khulafa as well and this too, with no distinction!
In our discussion, this is the matter that separates the truth from falsehood. We follow Hadeeth – they claim to follow Hadeeth. A claim that is
a) false and
Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “You must follow my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafaa! Hold firmly onto it and grip it with your teeth!”
In another Hadeeth He said:
“Whoever holds on to my Sunnah during the time of evil…”
“I am leaving behind two things. You will never go astray so long as you hold on to them: The Kitaab of Allaah and my Sunnah”
There are great virtues for memorizing Hadeeth and passing it on to others – But we have been ordered to follow Sunnah.
The Sunnats of Abu Bakr (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):
So we have touched on the Sunnah of the other Khulafaa. Sayyidinaa Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) has also given us certain Sunnahs. In fact He was the first to present certain Sunnahs (since he was the first Khaleefah).
If any townspeople collectively leave out any important command of Islaam (e.g. Zakaat), the Ameer can wage Jihaad against them. When one group refused to pay Zakaat, He said: “If they with hold even one piece of string which they used to pay in the time of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), I will fight them!” Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) did not understand this verdict. He felt that there were more pressing matters like dealing with the renegades and the threat against Madinah itself.
This was a very important decision taken by Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu). The entire stability of the Muslim nation depends on it.
He named a successor (i.e. Umar radhiyallahu anhu) He wrote an order to this effect, and then told Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu) to gather the Muslims in the Masjid and take Bay’at on Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu) hand. The Sahaabah accepted this.
These were two Masaa’il which only Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) could have enacted, because this was the era of the Sahaabah. They were people of understanding and Ita’at (obedience). The very next generation was one of turmoil. That is why we see that in the period of Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu) and Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), non-Sahaabah created great anarchy. They were not prepared to accept the decisions of the Khaleefah.
A person once asked Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) why the first 2 eras were of unity and peace while the 2nd two were of turmoil and strife. He said: “Because of the change in Ra’iyyat (the general public)” Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) led people like Ali, Uthmaan, Abu Ubaidah and the others (radhiyallahu anhum). The latter period saw a death of men.
The name: Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah:
Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said that the Yahood and Nasaara were split into 71 and 72 sects… and that this Ummat will be split into 73 – all of them but one will enter Hell. On being asked who they were, he said:
“Maa Ana Alaihi wa Ashaabee” “Those who follow the path that I am on and my Sahaabah”
My Path: this is the Sunnah.
My Sahaabah: this is Al-Jamaa’ah. From this comes the Ijmaa’ (consensus of the Mu’mineen)
Ibn Taymiyyah has supported this in “Minhaajus Sunnah”
The ‘Ahle Hadeeth’ scholar Nawaab Waheeduz Zamaan in “Nazlul Abraar” has also affirmed it.
The group who are on Haqq (truth) and that will gain Najaat (salvation) are those who follow the Sunnah and accept the Ijmaa’ of the Ummat.
The 3 Usools of Deen:
The 3 principle sources of Sharee’at are: The Kitaab of Allaah; the Sunnah; Ijmaa’.
The fourth Usool is: Qiyaas (analogical reasoning) based on these three Usools.
The Masaadirul Asliyyah (principle sources) are 3. Qiyaas is the 4th (source) but it is not in the category of the first 3.
Qiyaas is Muzhir (makes apparent the hidden) of Sharee’at not Muthbit (proof of itself) of Sharee’at i.e. Qiyaas is a means of understanding the laws of Sharee’at from Qur’aan, Sunnah and Ijmaa’. Qiyaas is not used to create laws of its own type in conflict of the 3 Usools. Qiyaas is not contradictory to them.
Ijmaa’ is also linked to Qur’aan and Hadeeth
These are now the 4 Usools of Deen. The first 3 are on a higher level. Qiyaas is of a ‘lower’ level. But all 4 are interlinked. Deen is the command of Allaah – Allaah is the Shaari’ (The one who revealed Sharee’at). This Sharee’at is manifested through these Usools. Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) expounded the commands of Allah. He conveyed and taught them to us in full. He did not alter them in any way or present anything on his own account [Na’oodhu Billah]. The Sahaabah then conveyed this to us.
Their Ijmaa’ strengthened the foundation of Islaam and protected it from being tampered. They did not alter anything. This is how Deen was established on a firm – watertight – tamper-proof foundation. The A’immah then codified it to its finest detail through Ijtihaad and Qiyaas. They did not alter Deen or present anything of their own. This completed the matter.
The Shee’ahs tried to alter Deen. The Khawaarij tried to alter Deen. The Mu’tazilah tried.
Many groups have come and gone. ‘Kulluhum fin Naar’ – All are in Hell. They are not part of us.
Then the ‘Ahle Qur’aan’; ‘Ahle Hadeeth’; ‘Ghair Muqallid’; ‘Salafi’; ‘Maudoodi’ etc. sprang up. They changed things. They created confusion. Some of them went very far – right out of the fold of Islaam; others will be classed as Muslim but not part of the Ahlus Sunnah. Some on something, others on something else… All of this is nothing but Dhalaalat (waywardness) and confusion.
We have a straight, clear road. Our Deen has come to us generation by generation from the best of people from every age. May Allaah keep us on this and raise us on this.
All Ahaadeeth are linked to Qur’aan:
Hadhrat Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) once, while delivering a sermon, mentioned a Hadeeth that Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) cursed the person who lengthens her hair by joining other hair to hers as well as the person who carries this out. He also cursed the tattooer and the person who gets himself tattooed…
After the sermon, a woman said to him: “You narrate Ahaadeeth about such matters that we find no mention of in the Qur’aan.”
He said to her: “If you recited the Qur’aan, you would have found ‘Take that which the Rasul gives you and abstain from all that he has prohibited you’” [Surah Hashr].
Ijmaa’ (consensus of opinion) is also linked to Hadeeth and Qur’aan
Ijmaa’ has to be Mustanad (based on something in Qur’aan or Hadeeth). The question then arises that what is the need for Ijmaa’ then, when the Qur’aan and Hadeeth are there??
The answer is that sometimes the Aayat or Hadeeth only makes Ishaarah (an indication) to the matter. Ijmaa’ makes it clear. Ijmaa’ is a Hujjate Qat’i (a definite proof) in Deen.
Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) did not nominate a successor. In his last days, He appointed Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) as the Imaam for 14 days! After his demise, the Ansaar met at Saqeefah Bani Saa’idah. They proposed two Ameers – one from the Ansaar and one from the Muhaajireen. Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said that this is the person who the Rasul of Allaah appointed as Imaam in his lifetime. All the Sahaabah then took Bay’at to him. This is the 1st Ijmaa’ of this Ummat.
Abu Bakr’s (radhiyallahu anhi) appointment as Imaam was an Ishaarah (indication). Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu) understanding this as appointment as Khaleefah was Istidlaal or Qiyaas (extracting a proof/ deeper reasoning). Sahaabah’s unanimously accepting it was Ijmaa’.
Ijmaa’ is a Hujjate Qat’i. An absolute proof. To oppose it is Dhalaalat (misguidance). If anyone rejects the Khilaafat of Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu), one will be in the wrong.
Similar is the case with 20 Rak’ats of Taraweeh.
How Qiyaas is linked to the 3 Usools
The example of Qiyaas is like 3 huge pots of steaming food. A person cannot take this food out by hand. He needs a big spoon.
Like this, you have Qur’aan, Hadeeth and Ijmaa’. To extract the Masaa’il (laws) of Deen, the Imaams use Qiyaas. Call it Qiyaas or Ijtihaad, it is the same thing. The Qiyaas of the Imaams, contrary to the propaganda of the ‘Ahle Hadeeth’ is not personal opinion or reasoning in the matters of Deen. The Imaams were people of Allaah and were far beyond such evil.
So now we have proven these four Usools of Deen. The Madh-hab of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah is based on this.
Let us conclude with the two Aayats that we began with:
The first Aayah (115 of Surah Nisaa) has been discussed in detail in Part 1.
The 2nd Aayah is from (Surah An-Nahl Aayah 44) in Part 1
The proof of Qiyaas from Surah An-Nahl
The Kuffaar of Makkah objected to the Risaalat of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). They reasoned that if Allaah really wanted to send a message, He would have sent an angel or some other supernatural being. In reply, this Aayat was revealed.
Throughout history, Allaah had sent messengers. All of them were human men. No Nabi was a female and no angel was ever sent for this purpose.
“…and We have revealed the Reminder (Qur’aan) to you, so that you may explain to the people all that has been revealed to them, and so that they may reflect.”
The Qur’aan is Allaah’s message to mankind. Allaah has the power to do anything He wills. Yet Allaah, by His wisdom, takes the temperament of man into account. For this reason, Allaah did not send the Qur’aan directly. He sent it with His Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) so that the Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) can explain it to them. He can guide them and assist them. They can relate to the Nabi since the Nabi is a human among them.
A human cannot relate to an Angel or to any other supernatural being. Allaah took man’s weakness into account and sent a Nabi. The actions and commands of the Nabi are an exposition of the Qur’aan.
This is Hadeeth. So in this Aayah, the Hujjiyyat of the Qur’aan and Hadeeth has been established. Ijma’ has not been mentioned here. Ijmaa’ has been mentioned in the other Aayah.
Then Allaah says: “…so that they may reflect” i.e. so that they may ponder on the deep meanings of the Qur’aan and as and when the need or situation arises, they may seek guidance from the Qur’aan and Hadeeth. In their respective periods, the Khulafaae Raashideen extracted guidance in this way. Then in every age, the Fuqahaa have extracted and will extract guidance like this.
Whenever any new Mas’alah arises, the Ulamaa will show the right path through Qur’aan and Sunnah.
Daily we are faced with new questions – in the business field, in the field of commerce and medicine. As technology advances, the Muslim is faced with new conditions. Hidaayat (guidance) through all of this is in Deen. The Ulamaa will show the way.
The work of the Ulamaa in these instances is through Ijtihaad and Qiyaas. There is no avoiding it.
Here the big question arises as to who has the right of Ijtihaad and Qiyaas. Every common layman will not have the right to voice his feeling. This is ‘self-opinion’, which is Haraam in Deen. This is a topic of its own.
The last part off this verse is the proof for Qiyaas. One cannot avoid Qiyaas. The ‘Ghair Muqallids’ of our belated age are allergic to the word Qiyaas. But just as in the Mas’alah of Taqleed, here too they are even more ‘guilty’ of Qiyaas than us. We follow set rules in Qiyaas. They are free thinkers – without studying the Usools of Qiyaas, they go about it. They have thrown the flood gates open. All and sundry are allowed to decide for themselves what they wish. They bring loads of the strangest types of Istimbaat (deductions) and Qiyaas.
The safest route for all today is that of the pious people gone by. Every new matter in Deen is as dangerous as it is misleading. May Allaah protect all of us in these trying times.