Tag Archives: Qiyas

The Authority of Hadeeth, Ijma’, Qiyaas etc and their rejection by the Deviant Sects [Part 2]

For Part 1, click here➡The Authority of Hadeeth, Ijma’, Qiyaas etc and their rejection by the Deviant Sects

The Difference between Hadeeth and Sunnah

The meaning of and 4 things that constitute Hadeeth

4 things make up Hadeeth

1. The Aqwaal (sayings) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

2. The Af’aal (actions) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

3. The Taqreer i.e if a Sahaabi did something in the presence of Nabi υ and he did not express displeasure or prevent him. (consent) of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

4. The physical traits and habits of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)

The meaning of Sunnah

And  Sunnat  means:  At-Tareeqatul  Maslookah  fid  Deen  –  The followed path in Deen.

The  Nisbat  (link)  between  Hadeeth  and  Sunnah  is  Aam-Khaas  min Wajhin.

i.e.  they  are  similar  (Muttafiq)  in  one  way  and  different  (Muftariq) in two ways:

Maaddatul  Iftiraaq  (differences)  are  two:

1.  Those  Ahaadeeth  which  deal  with  the  Khaasiyaat (specialities)  of  the  Nabi  e.g.  marrying  more  than  4  wives. This  is  Hadeeth  but  not  Sunnah.

2.  Those  things  which  were  implemented  by  the  4  Khaleefahs. These  will  be  Sunnah  even  if  there  is  no  Hadeeth  in  support of  it  e.g.  the  2nd  Azaan  for  Jumu’ah  which  was  implemented by  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu)

The Sunnats of Ali (radhiyallahu anhu):

Like  this,  there  are  3  Masaa’il  which  came  about  in  the  time  of  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu) when  two  groups  of  Muslims  fight  against  each  other:

1. Regarding  those  who  are  killed:  will  they  go  to  Jannat  or Jahannum;

2. Will  the  goods  of  the  defeated  party  be  treated  as  Ghaneemat (spoils  of  war);

3. Will  the  captives  be  treated  as  slaves;

4.  The  answers  to  these  3  Masaa’il  were  stipulated  by  Ali  (radhiyallahu anhu). This is Sunnah even though there is no ‘Hadeeth’.

The  Battle  of  Jamal  was  fought  between  Ali  and  Aa’ishah’s (radhiyallahu anhuma) parties. Ali’s (radhiyallahu anhi)  group  was  victorious.  Questions  2  and  3  came  up.  Some Muslims  wanted  to  take  the  spoils  as  theirs.  Ali (radhiyallahu amhu) said:  “Which wretched  person  will  take  Aa’ishah (radhiyallahu anha)  as  a  slave?  There  is  no  booty, nor  any  slavery!”  So  all  the  prisoners  were  set  free  and  all  the  goods of the Shuhadaa (martyrs) was returned to their families.

Then  the  Battle  of  Siffeen  came  along  between  Ali  and Mu’aawaiyah (radhiyallahu anhuma).  Some  people  raised  the  first  question.  Ali  said: “ours and theirs are in Jannah

This  is  such  a  Mas’alah  that  no  one  could  have  solved  since  no Hadeeth  was  present,  nor  anything  similar  by  which  a  Shari’  analogy could have been extracted (Qiyaas).

Ignorant  people  (the noisy ‘La Madh-habi’s)  generally  make  a  huge  noise  about the  2nd  Azaan  and  the  Rak’ats  of  Taraweeh.  We  have  presented  the Sunnah  of  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) here  because  their  knowledge  has  not  yet  reached this  level.  When  they  come  to  know  about  this,  they  will  have  an extra Mas’alah to shout about.

The  basic  point  is  that  the  decrees  (Fatwahs)  and  rulings  of  the Khulafaa e Raashideen  are  accepted  as  Sunnah  by  the  Muslims  even if  perchance  there  is  no  Hadeeth  in  support  thereof.  This  has  always been  the  standpoint  of  the  Ahlus  Sunnah  till  the  emergence  of  this group. 

We  will  discuss  the  name  ‘Ahlus  Sunnah  wal  Jama’ah’  shortly In shaa’Allaah  –  suffice  for  now  that  we  are  Ahlus  Sunnah  not  Ahle Hadeeth.        

The  Similarity  between  Hadeeth  and  Sunnah (Maaddatul Ijtimaa’):

Those  Ahaadeeth  which  are  accepted  as  Ma’mool  Bihaa  (practiced upon)  and  are  not  Mansookh  (abrogated)  or  Khaas  (special)  are  also Sunnah.

We  accept  all  the  Ahaadeeth  in  this  category  and  we  practice  upon them. We also follow the Sunnah of the Sahaabah

Being  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  is  not  good  enough  for  two  reasons:

1.  Hadeeth  includes  Mansookh  and  Khaas  matters.  It  is  not correct  to  practice  on  this  even  though  it  is  Hadeeth.  e.g. Marrying  more  than  four  and  temporary  Nikaah  –  both  these are  Baatil.

2.  Hadeeth  does  not  cover  the  Sunnah  of  the  Khulafaa.  For  this reason  the  Salafis  are  in  Dhalaalat  (error).  We  have  been clearly  commanded  to  follow  the  Sunnat  of  the  Khulafaa  in Hadeeth  just  as  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  the  Sunnah in the Qur’aan!   

The  ‘Ahle  Quraan’  rejects  Sunnah.  The  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  also  reject  it in practice yet when confronted, neither of them will admit to it. 

This  is  the  deception  of  the  Ghair  Muqallid/  Salafi/  Ahle  Hadeeth sect.

A Challenge:

We  place  a  challenge  to  all  the  self-styled  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth  –  present a  single  Hadeeth  where  we  have  been  commanded  to  follow  the Hadeeth. Hadeeth is a technical term, an academic classification.

In  the  Hadeeth,  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  the  Sunnah:  The Sunnah  of  the  Rasul  everyone  accepts  –  we  have  been  clearly ordered  by  the  Rasul  himself,  in  a  Saheeh  Hadeeth  to  follow  the Sunnah of the Khulafa as well and this too, with no distinction!

In  our  discussion,  this  is  the  matter  that  separates  the  truth  from falsehood.  We  follow  Hadeeth  –  they  claim  to  follow  Hadeeth.  A claim  that  is  

a)  false  and  

b)  deceptive.

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said: “You  must  follow  my  Sunnah and  the  Sunnah of  the  rightly guided  Khulafaa!  Hold  firmly  onto  it  and  grip  it  with  your teeth!”

In  another  Hadeeth  He  said:

Whoever  holds  on  to  my  Sunnah  during the time of evil…


I  am  leaving  behind  two  things.  You  will  never  go  astray  so long  as  you  hold  on  to  them:  The  Kitaab  of  Allaah  and  my Sunnah

There  are  great  virtues  for  memorizing  Hadeeth  and  passing  it  on  to others  –  But  we  have  been  ordered  to  follow  Sunnah.

The Sunnats of Abu Bakr (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

So  we  have  touched  on  the  Sunnah  of  the  other  Khulafaa. Sayyidinaa  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) has  also  given  us  certain  Sunnahs.  In  fact  He was  the  first  to  present  certain  Sunnahs  (since  he  was  the  first Khaleefah). 

If  any  townspeople  collectively  leave  out  any  important  command of  Islaam  (e.g.  Zakaat),  the  Ameer  can  wage  Jihaad  against  them. When  one  group  refused  to  pay  Zakaat,  He  said:  “If  they  with  hold even  one  piece  of  string  which  they  used  to  pay  in  the  time  of Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam),  I  will  fight  them!”  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  did  not  understand  this verdict.  He  felt  that  there  were  more  pressing  matters  like  dealing with the renegades and the threat against Madinah itself. 

This  was  a  very  important  decision  taken  by  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu).  The  entire stability of the Muslim nation depends on it. 

He  named  a  successor  (i.e.  Umar radhiyallahu anhu)  He  wrote  an  order  to  this  effect, and  then  told  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu)  to  gather  the  Muslims  in  the  Masjid  and take Bay’at on Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu) hand. The Sahaabah accepted this. 

These  were  two  Masaa’il  which  only  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) could  have  enacted, because  this  was  the  era  of  the  Sahaabah.  They  were  people  of understanding  and  Ita’at  (obedience).  The  very  next  generation  was one  of  turmoil.  That  is  why  we  see  that  in  the  period  of  Uthmaan (radhiyallahu anhu) and  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu),  non-Sahaabah  created  great  anarchy.  They  were  not prepared to accept the decisions of the Khaleefah

A  person  once  asked  Ali (radhiyallahu anhu)  why  the  first  2  eras  were  of  unity  and peace  while  the  2nd  two  were  of  turmoil  and  strife.  He  said: “Because  of  the  change  in  Ra’iyyat  (the  general  public)”  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) led  people  like  Ali,  Uthmaan,  Abu  Ubaidah  and  the  others (radhiyallahu anhum).  The latter  period  saw  a  death  of  men.        
The name: Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah:

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  said  that  the  Yahood  and  Nasaara  were  split  into  71 and  72  sects…  and  that  this  Ummat  will  be  split  into  73  –  all  of them  but  one  will  enter  Hell.  On  being  asked  who  they  were,  he said:  

Maa  Ana Alaihi  wa  Ashaabee” “Those who follow the path that I am on and my Sahaabah

My Path: this is the Sunnah

My  Sahaabah:  this  is  Al-Jamaa’ah.  From  this  comes  the  Ijmaa’ (consensus of the Mu’mineen)

Ibn Taymiyyah has supported this in “Minhaajus Sunnah” 

The  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  scholar  Nawaab  Waheeduz  Zamaan  in  “Nazlul Abraar”  has  also  affirmed  it.

The  group  who  are  on  Haqq  (truth)  and  that  will  gain  Najaat (salvation)  are  those  who  follow  the  Sunnah  and  accept  the  Ijmaa’ of  the  Ummat.

The 3 Usools of Deen:

The  3  principle  sources  of  Sharee’at  are:  The  Kitaab  of  Allaah;  the Sunnah; Ijmaa’.

The  fourth  Usool  is:  Qiyaas  (analogical  reasoning)  based  on  these three Usools.

The  Masaadirul  Asliyyah  (principle  sources)  are  3.  Qiyaas  is  the  4th (source) but it is not in the category of the first 3.

Qiyaas  is  Muzhir  (makes  apparent  the  hidden)  of  Sharee’at  not Muthbit  (proof  of  itself)  of  Sharee’at  i.e.  Qiyaas  is  a  means  of understanding  the  laws  of  Sharee’at  from  Qur’aan,  Sunnah  and Ijmaa’.  Qiyaas  is  not  used  to  create  laws  of  its  own  type  in  conflict of  the  3  UsoolsQiyaas  is  not  contradictory  to  them.  

Ijmaa’ is also linked to Qur’aan and Hadeeth 

These  are  now  the  4  Usools  of  Deen.  The  first  3  are  on  a  higher level.  Qiyaas  is  of  a  ‘lower’  level.  But  all  4  are  interlinked.  Deen  is the  command  of  Allaah  –  Allaah  is  the  Shaari’  (The  one  who revealed  Sharee’at).  This  Sharee’at  is  manifested  through  these Usools.  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) expounded  the  commands  of  Allah.  He conveyed  and  taught  them  to  us  in  full.  He  did  not  alter  them  in  any way  or  present  anything  on  his  own  account  [Na’oodhu  Billah].  The Sahaabah then conveyed this to us. 

Their  Ijmaa’  strengthened  the  foundation  of  Islaam  and  protected  it from  being  tampered.  They  did  not  alter  anything.  This  is  how  Deen was  established  on  a  firm  –  watertight  –  tamper-proof  foundation. The  A’immah  then  codified  it  to  its  finest  detail  through  Ijtihaad and  Qiyaas.  They  did  not  alter  Deen  or  present  anything  of  their own. This completed the matter. 

The  Shee’ahs  tried  to  alter  Deen.  The  Khawaarij  tried  to  alter  Deen. The Mu’tazilah tried.

Many  groups  have  come  and  gone.  ‘Kulluhum  fin  Naar’  –  All  are  in Hell. They are not part of us. 

Then  the  ‘Ahle  Qur’aan’;  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’;  ‘Ghair  Muqallid’; ‘Salafi’;  ‘Maudoodi’  etc.  sprang  up.  They  changed  things.  They created  confusion.  Some  of  them  went  very  far  –  right  out  of  the fold  of  Islaam;  others  will  be  classed  as  Muslim  but  not  part  of  the Ahlus  Sunnah.  Some  on  something,  others  on  something  else… All of this is nothing but Dhalaalat (waywardness) and confusion.

We  have  a  straight,  clear  road.  Our  Deen  has  come  to  us  generation by  generation  from  the  best  of  people  from  every  age.  May  Allaah keep  us  on  this  and  raise  us  on  this.

All Ahaadeeth are linked to Qur’aan:

Hadhrat  Abdullaah  ibn  Mas’ood  (radhiyallahu anhu) once,  while  delivering  a  sermon, mentioned  a  Hadeeth  that  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  cursed  the  person  who lengthens  her  hair  by  joining  other  hair  to  hers  as  well  as  the  person who  carries  this  out.  He  also  cursed  the  tattooer  and  the  person  who gets  himself  tattooed…

After  the  sermon,  a  woman  said  to  him:  “You  narrate  Ahaadeeth about such matters that we find no mention of in the Qur’aan.” 

He  said  to  her:  “If  you  recited  the  Qur’aan,  you  would  have  foundTake  that  which  the  Rasul  gives  you  and  abstain  from  all  that  he has  prohibited  you’”  [Surah  Hashr].      

Ijmaa’  (consensus  of  opinion)  is  also  linked  to Hadeeth and Qur’aan

Ijmaa’  has  to  be  Mustanad  (based  on  something  in  Qur’aan  or Hadeeth).  The  question  then  arises  that  what  is  the  need  for  Ijmaa’ then, when the Qur’aan and Hadeeth are there??

The  answer  is  that  sometimes  the  Aayat  or  Hadeeth  only  makes Ishaarah  (an  indication)  to  the  matter.  Ijmaa’  makes  it  clear.  Ijmaa’ is a Hujjate Qat’i (a definite proof) in Deen.

Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  did  not  nominate  a  successor.  In  his  last  days,  He appointed  Abu  Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu)  as  the  Imaam  for  14  days!  After  his  demise, the  Ansaar  met  at  Saqeefah  Bani  Saa’idah.  They  proposed  two Ameers  –  one  from  the  Ansaar  and  one  from  the  Muhaajireen.  Umar (radhiyallahu anhu)  said  that  this  is  the  person  who  the  Rasul  of  Allaah  appointed  as Imaam  in  his  lifetime.  All  the  Sahaabah  then  took  Bay’at  to  him. This is the 1st Ijmaa’ of this Ummat.

Abu  Bakr’s (radhiyallahu anhi)  appointment  as  Imaam  was  an  Ishaarah  (indication). Umar’s (radhiyallahu anhu) understanding  this  as  appointment  as  Khaleefah  was Istidlaal  or  Qiyaas  (extracting  a  proof/  deeper  reasoning). Sahaabah’s unanimously accepting it was Ijmaa’.

Ijmaa’  is  a  Hujjate  Qat’i.  An  absolute  proof.  To  oppose  it  is Dhalaalat  (misguidance).  If  anyone  rejects  the  Khilaafat  of  Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu),  one  will  be  in  the  wrong.

Similar  is  the  case  with  20  Rak’ats  of  Taraweeh.

How Qiyaas is linked to the 3 Usools

The  example  of  Qiyaas  is  like  3  huge  pots  of  steaming  food.  A person cannot take this food out by hand. He needs a big spoon. 

Like  this,  you  have  Qur’aan,  Hadeeth  and  Ijmaa’.  To  extract  the Masaa’il  (laws)  of  Deen,  the  Imaams  use  Qiyaas.  Call  it  Qiyaas  or Ijtihaad,  it  is  the  same  thing.  The  Qiyaas  of  the  Imaams,  contrary  to the  propaganda  of  the  ‘Ahle  Hadeeth’  is  not  personal  opinion  or reasoning  in  the  matters  of  Deen.  The  Imaams  were  people  of Allaah and were far beyond such evil.

So  now  we  have  proven  these  four  Usools  of  Deen.  The  Madh-hab of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah is based on this.

Let  us  conclude  with  the  two  Aayats  that  we  began  with:

The  first  Aayah  (115  of  Surah  Nisaa)  has  been  discussed  in  detail in Part 1.

The  2nd  Aayah  is  from  (Surah  An-Nahl  Aayah  44) in Part 1

The proof of Qiyaas from Surah An-Nahl

The  Kuffaar  of  Makkah  objected  to  the  Risaalat  of  Rasulullaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). They  reasoned  that  if  Allaah  really  wanted  to  send  a  message,  He would  have  sent  an  angel  or  some  other  supernatural  being.  In  reply, this Aayat was revealed. 

Throughout  history,  Allaah  had  sent  messengers.  All  of  them  were human  men.  No  Nabi  was  a  female  and  no  angel  was  ever  sent  for this purpose.

Allaah  Says:

“…and  We have revealed  the  Reminder  (Qur’aan)  to  you,  so that  you  may  explain  to  the  people  all  that  has  been  revealed  to them, and so that they may reflect.

The  Qur’aan  is  Allaah’s  message  to  mankind.  Allaah  has  the  power to  do  anything  He  wills.  Yet  Allaah,  by  His  wisdom,  takes  the temperament  of  man  into  account.  For  this  reason,  Allaah  did  not send  the  Qur’aan  directly.  He  sent  it  with  His  Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)  so  that  the Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) can  explain  it  to  them.  He  can  guide  them  and  assist  them. They can relate to the Nabi since the Nabi is a human among them. 

A  human  cannot  relate  to  an  Angel  or  to  any  other  supernatural being.  Allaah  took  man’s  weakness  into  account  and  sent  a  Nabi.  The actions and commands of the Nabi are an exposition of the Qur’aan. 

This  is  Hadeeth.  So  in  this  Aayah,  the  Hujjiyyat  of  the  Qur’aan  and Hadeeth  has  been  established.  Ijma’  has  not  been  mentioned  here. Ijmaa’ has been mentioned in the other Aayah.

Then  Allaah  says:  “…so  that  they  may  reflect” i.e.  so  that  they  may  ponder  on  the  deep  meanings  of  the  Qur’aan and  as  and  when  the  need  or  situation  arises,  they  may  seek guidance  from  the  Qur’aan  and  Hadeeth.  In  their  respective  periods, the  Khulafaae  Raashideen  extracted  guidance  in  this  way.  Then  in every  age,  the  Fuqahaa  have  extracted  and  will  extract  guidance  like this. 

Whenever  any  new  Mas’alah  arises,  the  Ulamaa  will  show  the  right path through Qur’aan and Sunnah

Daily  we  are  faced  with  new  questions  –  in  the  business  field,  in  the field  of  commerce  and  medicine.  As  technology  advances,  the Muslim  is  faced  with  new  conditions.  Hidaayat  (guidance)  through all of this is in Deen. The Ulamaa will show the way. 

The  work  of  the  Ulamaa  in  these  instances  is  through  Ijtihaad  and Qiyaas. There is no avoiding it. 

Here  the  big  question  arises  as  to  who  has  the  right  of  Ijtihaad  and Qiyaas.  Every  common  layman  will  not  have  the  right  to  voice  his feeling.  This  is  ‘self-opinion’,  which  is  Haraam  in  Deen.  This  is  a topic of its own.

The  last  part  off  this  verse  is  the  proof  for  Qiyaas. One  cannot  avoid  Qiyaas.  The  ‘Ghair  Muqallids’  of  our  belated  age are  allergic  to  the  word  Qiyaas.  But  just  as  in  the  Mas’alah  of Taqleed,  here  too  they  are  even  more  ‘guilty’  of  Qiyaas  than  us.  We follow  set  rules  in  Qiyaas.  They  are  free  thinkers  –  without studying  the  Usools  of  Qiyaas,  they  go  about  it.  They  have  thrown the  flood  gates  open.  All  and  sundry  are  allowed  to  decide  for themselves  what  they  wish.  They  bring  loads  of  the  strangest  types of Istimbaat (deductions) and Qiyaas.

The  safest  route  for  all  today  is  that  of  the  pious  people  gone  by. Every  new  matter  in  Deen  is  as  dangerous  as  it  is  misleading.  May Allaah protect all of us in these trying times. 

Taqleed and Salafism


Once,  Hazrat  Bahlool  (Rahmatullah  alaih)  passed  by  an  Aalim  who was  quarrelling  with  someone.  Hazrat  Bahlool  (Rahmatullahi  alaih) commented:

If  this  person  [the  Aalim]  had  ma’rifat  [real  perception]  of Allah,  he  would  not  have  squandered  his  time  by  quarrelling with an ignoramus.

Life  is  short  and  transitory.  The  goal  is  Divine  Pleasure  through obedience  to  Allah  Ta’ala  and  His  Beloved  Rasool,  Muhammad (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam).  In  view  of  the  extremely  short  stay  in  this temporary  abode,  people  who  have  come  to  realize  the  purpose  of  their creation  are  continuously  in  pursuit  of  proximity  unto  Allah  Ta’ala. They  shun  idle  talk  and  idle  pastimes.  As  much  as  an  Aalim  who  has ma’rifat  of  Allah  Ta’ala  detests  being  drawn  into  argumentation,  as  he rather  prefers  worship  of  his  True  Beloved,  Allah  Subhaanahu  wa Ta’ala,  circumstances  however  necessitate  that  he  comes  to  the  defence of  the  Deen e Haq  from  the  fabrications  and  falsities  of  the  people  of falsehood. 

Among  the  people  of  falsehood  in  these  times  are  the  modernist  Salafi Sect  who  has  nothing  to  do  in  life  other  than  to  castigate  the  Madhabs of  Haq  and  vilify  the  followers  of  the  Madhaahib  (plural  of  Madhab). They  have  set  their  whims  and  fancies  as  their  Imams  and  have  left  no stone  unturned  in  their  endeavour  to  waylay  the  Imaan  of  unknowing
and  innocent  followers  of  the  Hanafi  Madhab  in  particular,  and  other Madhabs  in  general.  In   fact,  the  modernist  Salafi  Scholars  with  their  shallow  understanding  of the  Qur’an  and  Sunnah  and  their  rigid  Taqleed  of  the  doctrine  of  Ibn Taimiyyah  are  currently  engaged  in  an  all  out  effort  to  rob  people  of their  practice  of  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  in  the  beautiful  and  most elaborate  way  outlined  in  the  Madhaahib e Arba’ah—the  Hanafi, Shaafi’i,  Maaliki  and  Hambali  Schools  of  Thought.  It  has  thus  become obligatory  upon  the  Ulama e Haq  to  expose  the  baatil  of  these  peddlers of abandonment of Taqleed.

Ignorance  and  arrogance  have  become  major  hurdles  for  the  anti-Taqleed  protagonists.  In  consequence,  they  refuse  to  dump  their  oblique understanding  of  the  Shariah  and  rather  accept  the  Shariah  as understood  and  practised  by  the  four  Schools  of  Fiqh  over  the  past fourteen  centuries  of  Islam’s  existence. This  treatise  is,  therefore,  not directed  to  the  votaries  of  abandonment  of  Taqleed.  It  is  for  the  safety and  strength  of  those  who  have  this  wonderful  path  of  Taqleed  to follow. 

This  treatise  is,  for  the  major  part,  a  condensation  of  a  lengthy  treatise on  the  subject  of  Taqleed  and  Ijtihaad  written  by  the  venerable Mujaddid  of  his  time,  Hazrat  Hakeemul  Ummat  Moulana  Ashraf  Ali Thanwi  (Rahmatullah  alayh).  Hazrat  Moulana  Thanwi  (Rahmatullahi alayh)  entitled  his  treatise  ‘Al Iqtisaad  fit  Taqleedi  wal  Ijtihaad’.  In  view of  this  compilation  and  translation  being  in  principle  a  condensation  of Hazrat  Moulana  Thanwi’s  treatise,  we  have  omitted  the  references  to the  page  numbers  from  the  original  work.  Apart  from  the  work  of Hazrat  Moulana  Thanwi  (Rahmatullahi  alayh),  quotations  have  been included  from  other  reliable  and  authoritative  works.  The  references  of these works have been provided in the footnotes. 

This  treatise  is  almost  a  pure  naql,  i.e.  it  consists  of  almost  only quotations,  extracts  and  excerpts.  We  have  only  rarely  inserted  words  of our  own.  The  reason  for  this  is  twofold.  Firstly,  what  we  have  compiled here  is  not  our  personal  opinion.  It  is  the  view  of  the  Authorities  of DeenSecondly,  the  statements  of  our  elders  and  senior  Ulama  obviate the  need  for  our  statements.  Considering  their  Ilm  and  Taqwa,  their understanding  and  commentary  of  the  Teachings  of  the  Shariat  far outweighs  whatever  we  can  produce.  And,  after  all,  we  are  only muqallideen.

Although  we  have  relied  only  on  quotations,  we  have  however, amended some texts to facilitate comprehension and/or for brevity. 

Kitaabs  and  books  on  the  subject  of  Taqleed  are  numerous.  We  are confident,  however,  that  this  treatise  will  serve  as  a  textbook  on  the subject  of  Taqleed.  It  is  only  through  educating  ourselves  in  the rudiments  of  this  Shar’i  requirement  that  we  can  thwart  the  menace  of Salafism.  And  Allah  Ta’ala  is  the  Giver  of  Towfeeq  and  He  is  the  Best Aid.
Jamia  Maseehiyyah  Ashrafiyyah


1. What is Taqleed??

Taqleed  means  to  accept  someone’s  statement  simply  on  the  basis  of  a favourable  opinion  about  him,  that  is,  he  speaks  on  the  basis  of  proof.

Hence, there is no need to question him about his proof.

The  object  of  Taqleed  is  to  practise  on  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  with ease. 

The  rejecters  of  Taqleed  whose  standard  is  held  precariously  in  these times  by  the  sect  styling  itself  ‘Salafiyyoon’ or  ‘Salafiyyah’  insolently  dub Taqleed ‘blind-following’. 

‘Blind’ bears the following connotations:

without  foresight,  discernment,  intellectual  perception,  or  adequate information not  governed  by  purpose  or  reason reckless 

The  very  nature  of  Taqleed  demands  discernment,  intellectual perception  and  adequate  information  as  a  favourable  opinion  of  an Imam  being  qualified  in  the  field  of  Shar’i  Uloom  (Islamic  Sciences) and  thus  being  worthy  of  being  followed  is  dependent  on  these  factors. Taqleed, therefore, can never be blind-following in this sense.  

The  object  and  purpose  of  Taqleed  has  been  clarified  in  1.2.  Thus  the accusation  of  Taqleed  being  blind-following  in  this  sense  is  palpably false.

When  the  muqallid  or  person  making  Taqleed  follows  an  Imam  or Madhab  he  understands  the  Imam  and  Madhab  to  be  a  trustworthy guide  and  the  safest  course  to  obedience  to  the  commands  of  Allah Ta’ala  and  the  teachings  or  Sunnah  of  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa sallam).  He  (the  muqallid)  understands  his  lack  of  competency  in understanding  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth.  For  him  to  resort  to  a  self-study of  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  and  thereby  form  his  own  opinion  is  akin  to bartering  away  his  Imaan.  He  thus  opts  for  the  safest  and  surest  path  to the  obedience  and  pleasure  of  Allah  and  His  Rasool  (Sallallahu  alayhi wa  sallam),  and  that  is  in  Taqleed.  Is  this  being  reckless?  Is  this  blind following?  May  Allah  Ta’ala  save  us  from  the  deception  of  Shaitaan and the evil schemes of the nafs, Aameen. 

When  none  of  the  senses  of  ‘blind’  portray  true  Taqleed,  the  usage  of this  word  in  relation  to  Taqleed  is  crass  ignorance  or  malicious obstinacy.  May  Allah  Ta’ala  save  us  from  the  evils  of  the  tongue  and nafs.

2. The Taqleed of the Rejecters of Taqleed 

2.1  In  so  far  the  rejecters  of  Taqleed  are  concerned,  it  should  be understood  that  according  to  their  very  own  principle  [of  Taqleed  being haraam]  it  is  not  possible  at  all  for  them  to  practise  on  the  Hadeeth.  The reason  for  this  is  that  practising  on  the  Hadeeth  is  only  possible  through Taqleed  of  the  Ulama  in  the  matter  of  the  Hadeeth  being  Saheeh, Dha’eefWaajibul  AmalMustahab  or  impermissible.  And  this,  as  is obvious  is  strict  Taqleed  in  the  Ahkaam  [Laws  of  the  Shariah/Fiqh]. There  is  no  doubt  to  the  fact  that  a  Hadeeth  being  incumbent  for practice,  or  vice  versa,  or  disallowed  for  practice  or  vice  versa  are issues  pertaining  to  the  Ahkaam.  It  is  precisely  for  this  reason  that  the Fuqaha  discuss  the  various  laws  governing  the  Sunnah—its  acceptance, its  rejection,  its  employment,  its  relaxation  and  the  laws  pertaining  to the  narrators—in  Fiqh  and  Usool e Fiqh;  these  issues  being  the elements of the Ahkaam.

Now when  these  people  reject  Taqleed  then  what  gives  them  the  right  to make  Taqleed  of  the  Muhadditheen  in  these  issues  and  on  what  basis  do they  declare  the  views  and  ijtihaad  of  the  Muhadditheen  in  the  field  of Hadeeth categorization to be hujjat [proof] in the Shariah

3.  Taqleed  during  the  Era  of  Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)

3.1  It  is  reported  from  Aswad  Bin  Yazeed  who  says:  “Mu’aaz (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  came  to  teach  us  the  Ahkaam  of  the  Deen  and  to serve  as  governor.  We  asked  him  the  masalah  of  a  deceased  leaving behind  a  daughter  and  a  sister.  Hazrat  Mu’aaz  (Radhiyallahu  anhu) declared  half  [the  estate  of  the  deceased]  for  the  daughter  and  half  for the  sister.  This  was  in  the  lifetime  of  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa sallam).” —Bukhari and Abu Dawood 

We  learn  from  this  Hadeeth  that  during  the  blessed  lifetime  of Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  Taqleed  was  in  vogue.  The one  posing  the  question  did  not  ask  for  proof.  He  accepted  the  fatwa  of Hazrat  Mu’aaz (radhiyallahu anhu) purely  on  the  basis  of  his  Deeni  integrity. This  is Taqleed.

Then,  there  is  no  evidence  of  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam) disagreeing  with  this  fatwa  and  the  implementation  of  this  fatwa  which transpired  in  his  lifetime.  Nor  for  that  matter  is  any  difference  or rejection recorded. Thus, permissibility of Taqleed and its open and freepractice  without  rebuke  in  the  lifetime  of  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is established.

3.2  It  is  reported  from  Sulaiman  Bin  Yasaar  that  Abu  Ayyoob  Ansaari (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  went  for  Hajj.  On  the  way  to  Makkah  he  lost  his camels.  On  Yaumun  Nahr  [the  10th  of  Zul  Hijjah]  when  Hajj  was  over he  came  to  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  and  related  his  story.  Umar (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  said:  “Do  what  a  person  performing  Umrah  does and  you  will  be  released  from  your  ihraam.  Then  wait  for  the  Haj season  next  year  and  perform  Hajj.  For  now,  make  qurbaani  and slaughter  whatever  you  are  in  the  means  of.” —Maalik

From  this  Hadeeth  we  learn  that  those  Sahaabah  who  could  not  make ijtihaad  [i.e.  ascertain  the  ruling  of  a  mas’alah  directly  from  the  Qur’an or  Hadeeth],  they  would  make  Taqleed  of  the  Mujtahideen  Sahaabah. Hazrat  Abu  Ayyoob  Ansaari  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  was  also  a  Sahaabi and  he  did  not  ask  Hazrat  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  for  any  proof  for his fatwa.
3.3  Episodes  of  this  nature  among  the  Sahaabah,  and  even  during  the blessed  era  of  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa  sallam)  reports  of istiftaas  [questions]  and  fatwas  without  references  and  proofs  among  the Sahaabah  or  among  the  Taabi’een  and  Sahaabah  have  been  documented with  such  abundance  that  it  is  an  awesome  task  to  compile  all.  Those versed in Hadeeth literature are well aware of this.   

4. Following a Particular Imam or Madhab 

4.1  It  is  reported  from  Hazrat  Huthaifah  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  that Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa  sallam)  said:  “I  do  not  know  how  long I  will  be  with  you  people.  Therefore,  follow  these  two  who  will  be  after me.”  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa  sallam)  indicated  to  Hazrat  Abu  Bakr and  Hazrat  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhuma). —Tirmidhi  

The purport of  “who will be after me” is: during their reign of Khilaafat. Thus, the command is to follow them during their respective terms of Khilaafat. And, obviously, the Khaleefah is a single person. The conclusion thus is to follow Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu anhu) during his Khilaafat and Hazrat ‘Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) during his Khilaafat.  

Thus, Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) instructed that one particular person should be followed for a specific time. And nowhere did he state that proof for the Ahkaam should also be enquired. Nor was it a standard practice of ascertaining the proof for each and every masalah. This is nothing but following a particular Imam or Madhab

4.2 It is reported from Aswad Bin Yazeed who says: “Mu’aaz (Radhiyallahu anhu) came to us to teach the Ahkaam of the Deen and to serve as governor. We asked him the mas’alah of a deceased leaving behind a daughter and sister. Hazrat Mu’aaz (Radhiyallahu anhu) declared half [the estate of the deceased] for the daughter and half for the sister. This was in the lifetime of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).” —Bukhari and Abu Dawood  

Just as Taqleed being Sunnat is proven from this Hadeeth, as mentioned in its appropriate place [see 3.1], similarly this Hadeeth confirms Taqleed of an Imam or Madhab. The reason for this is that when Nabi (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent Hazrat Mu’aaz (Radhiyallahu anhu) to Yemen to teach the Ahkaam of the Deen he most assuredly gave permission to the people of Yemen to refer to him [Hazrat Mu’aaz] in all their affairs. This is Taqleed of an Imam.  

4.3 It is reported from Hazrat Huzail Bin Shurahbil that a question was posed to Hazrat Abu Musa (Radhiyallahu anhu). Then the same question was posed to Hazrat Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) and he was furthermore informed of the fatwa of Hazrat Abu Musa (Radhiyallahu  anhu).  Hazrat  Ibn  Mas’ood  gave  another  ruling.  This  was brought  to  the  notice  of  Hazrat  Abu  Musa.  Upon  listening  to  Hazrat Ibn  Mas’ood’s (radhiyallahu anhu)  answer,  he  said:  “As  long  as  this  ‘Ocean  of  Knowledge’ is in your midst, do not refer to me.’ —Bukhari, Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi

Any  person  can  understand  from  the  words  of  Hazrat  Abu  Musa (radhiyallahu anhu):  “As long  as  he  is  in  your  midst,  do  not  refer  to  me,”  that  he  instructed  them to  take  all  their  questions  to  him  [Hazrat  Ibn  Mas’ood  Radhiyallahu anhu].  And  this  is  Taqleed  of  an  Imam,  that  is,  to  refer  all  one’s questions  to  one  Aalim  due  to  some  precept  and  act  according  to  his fatwa.

5.  Why  it  is  Incumbent  to  Follow  a  Particular Imam or Madhab

5.1  It  should  be  known  that  the  incumbency  and  obligation  of something  [in  the  Shariat]  is  established  in  any  of  the  following  ways:

•  The  Qur’an  or  Hadeeth  directs  special  emphasis  to  some  act, e.g.  SalaahSaum,  etc.

Such  incumbency  is  termed  wujoob biz  zaat.

The  act  itself  has  not  been  emphasized;  however,  practically  it  is  not possible  to  carry  out  those  acts  which  have  been  emphasized  in  the Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  without  resorting  to  this  act.  In  this  case,  this  act will  also  be  considered  necessary.  This  is  the  purport  of  the  Ulama’s words:  “The  foundation  of  a  Waajib  is  also  Waajib.”  Take  as  an example  the  writing  and  printing  of  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  literature. Nowhere  in  the  Shariat  is  this  emphasized.  In  fact,  the  following Hadeeth  clearly  evinces  the  non-compulsion  of  writing.  It  is  reported from  Hazrat  Ibn  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  that  the  Rasool  of  Allah (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  said:  “We  are  an  Ummi  Nation.  We neither write nor calculate.” —Bukhari  and  Muslim

The  Hadeeth  clearly  indicates  its  purport.  Now,  when  writing  in  general is not waajib, then how can writing something in particular be waajib?

However,  there  is  emphasis  on  the  preservation  of  the  Qur’an  and Hadeeth  and  their  protection  from  loss.  And,  it  is  proven  through experience  and  observation  that  it  is  not  practically  possible  to  preserve the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  without  resorting  to  writing  and  printing. Therefore,  the  writing  and  printing  of  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  are regarded  to  be  necessary.  Accordingly,  there  is  an  implied  unanimity  of the  entire  Ummah  for  the  past  14  centuries  on  its  incumbency  in  this way. Such an incumbency is termed wujoob bil ghair

After  understanding  the  types  of  wujoob  and  their  nature,  now understand  that  when  it  is  said  that  the  Taqleed  of  a  particular  Imam  or Madhab  is  waajib,  then  it  means  wujoob  bil  ghair,  not  wujoob biz  zaat.  Thus,  there  is  no  need  to  produce  an  Aayat  or  Hadeeth which  emphasizes  this  type  of  Taqleed  in  name,  just  as  a  demand  of  an Aayat  or  Hadeeth  is  not  made  for  proof  of  the  incumbency  of  writing and  printing  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  literature,  and  regardless  of  the clear  declaration  of  the  aforementioned  Hadeeth  of  writing  not  being incumbent,  then  too  it  is  considered  to  be  waajib  and  this  is  not  viewed to  be  antithetical  to  the  Hadeeth.  In  the  same  way,  there  is  no  need  to produce  any  Nass  [explicit  Quraanic  or  Hadeeth  text]  to  show  the wujoob of Taqleed of an Imam or Madhab.

Yes,  there  is  a  need  to  prove  two  premisses,  viz.:  
What  are  those  things  which  will  be  harmed  in  our  prevailing circumstances  if  we  do  not  follow  a  particular  Imam  or  Madhab? The wujoob of those factors.

The  following  injunctions  of  the  Shariah  will  be  harmed  in  the  absence of  Taqleed  of  a  Madhab:

1.  A  sincere  niyyat  of  only  Deen  in  Ilm  and  Amal.

2.  The  Deen  governing  one’s  desires,  i.e.  to  make  one’s  desires subservient  to  the  Deen,  not  the  other  way  round.
3.  To  abstain  from  such  things  which  pose  a  real  danger  to  one’s  Deen.  

4.  Not  to  oppose  the  Ijma’  or  Consensus  of  the  Ahle-Haq
5. Not to transgress the perimeters of the Laws of the Shariah

These  being  waajib  biz  zaat  is  emphatically  proven  in  the Ahadeeth

In  so  far  as  the  harm  to  these  factors  in  the  case  of  not  following  a particular  Imam  or  Madhab  is  concerned,  it  is  connected  to  experience and  observation.  [In  other  words,  experience  teaches  and  it  can  openly be  observed  that  those  who  abandon  Taqleed  of  an  Imam  or  Madhab fall  into  the  pitfalls  of  insincerity,  Taqleed  of  their  nafs,  harm  to  their Deen,  opposition  to  the  Consensus  of  the  Ummah  and  transgression  of the  limits  of  the  Shariah.  Details  and  examples  are  too  numerous  to  cite in  this  short  treatise.  Only  someone  blind  to  reality  will  venture  to  claim the  contrary.]  And  the  reason  for  this  is  that  in  these  times  corruption and  personal  motives  have  settled  in  the  disposition  of  most  people. This  is  obvious  and  it  has  been  prophesised  in  the  Ahadeeth  on  Fitnah [trials,  mischief  and  evil  times].  Those  versed  in  Ilm  and  Hadeeth  are fully aware of this.

6.  Why  Confine  Taqleed  to  the  Four  Madhabs?

6.1  Previously  it  has  been  proven  that  Taqleed  of  a  particular  Imam  is necessary.  Furthermore,  taking  views  from  different  Imams  is  fraught with  harm.  Thus,  it  is  imperative  to  make  Taqleed  of  an  Imam  whose Madhab  has  been  compiled  and  codified  into  principles  and  detailed laws  to  such  an  extent  that  almost  all  answers  to  questions  are  found  in it  in  the  form  of  a  particular  or  a  universal  principal.  In  this  way  there remains  no  need  to  refer  to  other  views.

By  Divine  Intervention  this  attribute  is  found  only  in  the  Four  Madhabs  [Hanafi,  Shaafi’i,  Maaliki  and  Hambali].  No  other  Madhab enjoys  this  status.  Thus,  it  is  imperative  to  adopt  one  of  these  four Madhabs,  as  opting  for  a  fifth  Madhab  will  result  in  the  same problem  and  discrepancy  of  flirting  with  the  Madhabs  in  fulfilment  of the  nafs’  desire  to  remain  unfettered  from  the  Shariat.  The  corruption  of this has been clarified earlier. 

This  is  the  reason  for  confining  Taqleed  to  these  Four  Madhabs  and hence  for  centuries  this  has  been  the  standard  practice  of  the  Jumhoor Ulama  of  the  Ummat.  Some  Ulama  have  even  recorded  Ijma’  that  the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah is confined to these Four Madhabs.         

6.2  For  Taqleed  it  is  necessary  that  the  Mujtahid’s  Madhab  be compiled.  Taqleed  of  the  illustrious  Sahaabah  is  difficult,  because  none of  their  Madhabs  are  fully  compiled  and  codified.  However,  through the  medium  of  Taqleed  of  the  Aimmah e Arba’ah  [the  Four  Imams],  we follow  the  Sahaabah.  

7. Why the Hanafi Madhab?

7.1  We  reside  in  a  place  where  the  Madhab  of  Imam  Abu  Haneefah (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  is  prevalent  without  any  endeavour  on  our  part. Ulama  and  Kitaabs  on  this  Madhab  are  to  be  found  in  abundance.  Had we  adopted  another  Madhab,  then  it  would  have  been  difficult  for  us to  find  out  the  laws  applicable  to  day today  circumstances.  This  is  due to  the  fact  that  the  Ulama  do  not  possess  that  insight  and  deep understanding  of  another  Madhab  as  they  possess  in  their  own  Madhab.  In  view  of  their  occupation  and  excessive  study  and  teaching  the degree  of  expertise  and  understanding  they  have  of  their  own  Madhab cannot  be  achieved  with  another  Madhab,  although  study  of  the Kitaabs  of  another  Madhab  is  possible.  This  point  is  self-evident  and obvious  to  the  Ahle-Ilm.       

8.  The  Question  of  Taqleed  Being  Prohibited in the Qur’an

8.1  Question: The  Qur’an  censures  Taqleed  in  this  Aayat:  “When  it is  said  to  the  kuffaar:  ‘Follow  the  laws  which  Allah  Ta’ala  has revealed,’  then  they  answer:  ‘No!  In  fact,  we  will  follow  the  path  of  our forefathers.’  (Dismissing  their  response  Allah  Ta’ala  declares):  What! Will  they  keep  to  the  path  of  their  forefathers  regardless  of  their forefathers  lacking  understanding  of  Deen  and  them  being  astray?”   This  shows  that  it  is  evil  to  follow  the  way  of  one’s  predecessors  when we have the Qur’an and Hadeeth.

Similarly,  it  is  stated  in  another  Aayat  that  when  you  have  a  dispute, then  refer  the  matter  to  Allah  and  His  Rasool.  From  this  we  can understand that we should not refer to an Imam or Mujtahid.

Response:  The  mere  translation  of  the  former  Aayat  reveals  that  the Taqleed  of  the  kuffaar  has  no  affinity  with  the  Taqleed  under discussion.  The  Taqleed  of  the  kuffaar  has  been  denounced  for  two reasons. 

The  first  is  that  they  would  reject  the  Aayaat  and  Ahkaam  saying:  “We do not accept it. We would rather prefer to follow our elders.

Secondly,  their  elders  lacked  intelligence  in  the  Deen  and  they  lacked guidance. 

These  two  are  non-existent  in  the  Taqleed  we  are  discussing.  Neither does  any  muqallid  say  that  he  rejects  the  Aayaat  and  Ahadeeth.  In  fact, he  [the  muqallid]  says:  “Our  Deen  is  the  Quraan  and  Hadeeth. However,  I  am  ignorant”  or  “lacking  knowledge”  or  “am  totally incompetent  in  the  field  of  ijtihaad  and  istimbaat.  I  do,  however,  have  a favourable  opinion  and  faith  in  soandso  Aalim”  or  “Imam.  He  was thoroughly  versed  in  the  words  and  meanings  of  the  Aayaat  and Ahadeeth.  Thus,  I  consider  the  purport  which  he  understood  [from  the Qur’an  and  Hadeeth]  to  be  correct  and  the  stronger  view.  Therefore,  I am acting on the Hadeeth, albeit in accordance to his guidance.” 

In  short,  no  muqallid  rejects  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth.  And  the  Imam whom  he  follows  did  not  lack  knowledge  and  guidance,  as  is  proven through  reliable  transmission  from  generation  to  generation  (tawaatur) that they possessed intelligence and guidance. 

Thus,  in  view  of  both  reasons  [for  the  denouncement  of  the  Taqleed  of the  kuffaar]  being  nonexistent  here,  this  Taqleed  [of  the  Madhabs]  is beyond the ambit of the censure in the Qur’an. 

And  how  can  Taqleed  on  the  whole  be  the  purport  of  the  Aayat? Otherwise,  the  Aayat  will  be  in  clear  contradiction  to  all  those  Ahadeeth which  establish  the  validity  of  Taqleed.

9. The  Accusation  of  the  Muqallids Discarding Ahadeeth 

9.1  Just  as  it  is  permissible  to  deduce  a  law  through  ijtihaad,  similarly,  it is  also  permissible  to  regard  a  Hadeeth  to  be  subject  to  rationale  and  act in  accordance  to  the  rationale.  This  entails  specifying  the  sphere  of  the Ahkaam  or  placing  it  on  one  of  several  possibilities  or  restricting  a general  rule  or  acting  on  the  inner  meaning  rather  than  the  external meaning.  This  is  not  antithetical  to  or  discarding  of  the  Hadeeth. Therefore,  such  an  ijtihaad  is  permissible  and  furthermore  Taqleed  of such an ijtihaad is also perfectly permissible.

9.2  In  Bukhari  it  is  reported  from  Ibn  Umar  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  that Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  said  to  the  Sahaabah  after  the Battle  of  Ahzaab:  “None  of  you  shall  read  Asr  Salaah  before  reaching the  Bani  Quraithah.”  ‘Asr  time  came  whilst  some  Sahaabah  were  still  on the  way.  They  were  split  on  what  to  do.  Some  said:  “No,  we  are  going to  read  our  Salaah.  That  was  not  the  purport  of  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu alaihi  wa  sallam).  —His  purport,  rather,  was  to  emphasize  speed  and haste  in  reaching  there  before  Asr.”  —  This  incident  was  brought  to Rasoolullah’s  notice.  He  did  not  reprimand  or  mete  out  punishment  to anyone.           

In  the  above  episode  some  understood  the  actual  purport  by  virtue  of quwwat e ijtihaadiyyah  [power  of  ijtihaad].  The  purport  they understand  was  one  of  the  two  possibilities  and  they  performed  the Salaat.  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  did  not  reprimand them  by  saying:  “Why  do  you  discard  the  apparent  meaning.”  And  nor did he declare them discarders of the Hadeeth

9.3  To  aver  in  relation  to  any  masalah  that  it  is  in  conflict  to  the Hadeeth depends on three things:

The  purport  of  the  masalah  is  correctly  understood.

Its  daleel  is  known.

The procedure of the inference is known.

If  any  of  these  three  factors  remain  obscure  to  the  opposing  party,  their judgement will be erroneous. 

For  instance,  Imam  Abu  Haneefah’s  (rahimahullah) statement  of  Salaatul  Istisqa  not being  Sunnat  is  well known.  The  apparent  meaning  of  this  statement seems  to  be  in  conflict  with  the  Hadeeth  because  it  is  mentioned  in  the Ahadeeth  that  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  performed Istisqa  Salaat.  However,  the  purport  of  this  statement  [of  Imam  Abu Haneefah]  is  that  it  is  not  sunnat e mu’akkadah.  Accordingly, sometimes  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  would  perform Salaah  and  make  du’a  for  rain,  and  occasionally  he  would  make  du’a without  performing  this  Salaah.  Thus,  we  find  the  following  Hadeeth  in Bukhari:  

“It  is  reported  from  Anas  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  that Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  was  delivering  the Khutbah  on  Jumu’ah  day  when  a  person  stood  up  and  said: ‘Yaa  Rasoolallah!  Horses  and  goats  have  perished.  Make  du’a
unto  Allah  Ta’ala  for  rain.’  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa sallam) stretched out both his hands and made du’a.”

The  above  purport  of  Imam  Abu  Haneefah  (Rahmatullah  alaih)  is furthermore  revealed  by  the  following  text  of  Hidaayah:  

“We [the  Ahnaaf]  say  that  he  [Rasoolullah  Sallallahu  alayhi  wa sallam]  did  it  on  one  occasion  and  omitted  it  on  another occasion. It, therefore, is not sunnat.” —Awwalain         

Thus,  once  the  correct  purport  surfaces  the  question  of  opposition  is dispelled. 

Similar  is  the  case  when  the  daleel  remains  obscure.  For  instance, varying  Ahadeeth  are  reported  in  regard  to  one  masalah.  Now  it  will  be incorrect  to  aver  that  a  Mujtahid  has  opposed  the  Hadeeth  merely  by looking  at  one  of  the  Hadeeths.  The  Mujtahid  has  drawn  a  ruling  for  the other  Hadeeth  and  he  presents  a  valid  interpretation  for  this  one.  An example  of  this  is  the  masalah  of  Qiraatul  Faatihah  khalfal  Imam [Reciting  Soorah  Faatihah  behind  the  Imam].  The  Ahadeeth  in  this regard differ.

Or  a  single  Hadeeth  holds  scope  for  several  varying  possibilities.  The Mujtahid  understands  a  certain  possibility,  on  the  basis  of  his  quwwat-e-ijtihaadiyyah,  to  be  stronger.  He  thus  infers  this.  This  too  is  not opposition  to  the  Hadeeth.  An  example  of  this  is  that  it  appears  in  the Hadeeth  that  if  a  person  passes  in  front  of  you  whilst  you  are  reading Salaah  then  you  should  ward  him  off.  The  one  possibility  is  that  the literal  meaning  applies.  The  other  possibility  taking  into  account  other principles  and  rules  is  that  this  Hadeeth  is  by  way  of  warning  and  a deterrent  from  passing  in  front  of  a  Musalli.  If  a  Mujtahid  takes  the second  possibility  then  it  cannot  be  averred  that  he  has  discarded  the Hadeeth. In fact, his practice is precisely on the Hadeeth.

And  similarly,  if  the  procedure  of  inference  is  obscure,  then  too  the judgement  of  conflict  will  be  erroneous.  For  instance,  Imam  Abu Haneefah  (Rahmatullah  alayh)  states  that  the  period  of  breastfeeding extends  to  2  ½  years.  The  daleel,  i.e.  the  Aayat:  “Its  carrying  and weaning…”  is  wellknown.  However,  the  popular  explanation  of  the inference  is  exceptionally  faulty.  In  Madaarik,  however,  the  tafseer  of ‘hamluhu’  [its  carrying]  is  reported  from  Imam  Abu  Haneefah  as  ‘bil akuf’  [with  hands].  By  virtue  of  this  tafseer,  all  objections  are  dispelled. In  this  case,  the  Aayat  means:  After  birth,  the  maximum  period  of  the baby  being  carried  around  in  arms  and  its  weaning  is  30  months.  There is  no  problem  in  this  tafseer  and  the  view  of  Imam  Abu  Haneefah (rahimahullah)  is easily substantiated. 

In  conclusion,  judging  a  masalah  to  be  in  conflict  with  the  Hadeeth  is the  prerogative  of  such  a  person  who  is  thoroughly  versed  in  the Traditions  and  he  possesses  keen  insight  and  strong  mental  perception. One  who  possesses  one  attribute  and  lacks  the  other  is  not  competent  to pass off a masalah to be in violation of the Hadeeth.

It  is  proven  in  the  Hadeeth  [refer  to  10.3]  that  merely  being  a  Hafiz  of the  Hadeeth  does  not  qualify  one  to  be  a  Mujtahid.  Any  unbiased  reader can  understand  from  this  that  when  a  Hafiz  of  Hadeeth  can  be  oblivious to  the  forms  and  procedure  of  inference  then  how  on  earth  can  the ignoramuses  of  today  fathom  all  the  various  ways  a  Mujtahid  employs in  his  deduction  of  the  Masaail?  Thus,  how  audacious  it  is  on  their  part to  stupidly  call  the  Muqallid  ‘discarder  of  Hadeeth’.  May  Allah  Ta’ala reform their condition.  In  this  regard,  whenever  experts  have  found  any  statement  in  conflict with  a  Daleel-e-Shar’i  they  omitted  the  statement  at  once.  Examples  of this  are  the  masalahs  of  the  prohibition  of  consuming  even  a  small quantity  of  an  intoxicant  and  muzaara’at  [farming  on  a  profit-share basis].  There  is  clarity  in  the  Kutub  of  the  Hanafiyyah  that  in  these  two issues  the  view  of  Imam  Abu  Haneefah (rahimahullah)  is  discarded.  However,  the number  of  such  [discarded]  views  probably  does  not  even  reach  ten. 

In this  regard  this  lowly  servant  [Hazrat  Moulana  Thanwi  Alaihir  Rahmah] investigated  and  besides  five  or  six  Masaail  in  which  I  had  some reservations  not  a  single  masalah  was  found  to  be  against  the  Hadeeth.

I  even  recorded  the  various  ways  the  Masaail  correspond  to  the Ahadeeth in a treatise. By coincidence, however, the treatise was lost. 

Nevertheless,  it  is  Haraam  to  revile  a  Mujtahid  because  the  Mujtahid’s error  is  not  intentional.  His  error  is  ijtihaadi  [i.e.  an  error  in  judgement]. In the light of the Hadeeth he is rewarded for this too. 

We  have  said  this  according  to  our  knowledge,  otherwise  it  is  possible that  Imam  Abu  Haneefah (rahimahullah)  had  access  to  a  Hadeeth  which  we  are unaware of.     

9.4  Ibn  Taymiyyah  states  that  the  forms  of  inferences  from  a  Hadeeth  or Aayat  are  so  many  that  no  Mujtahid  can  be  assailed  for  his  inference. This  he  stated  in  his  kitaab  ‘Raf’ul  Malaam  anil  Aimmatil  A’laam.  This kitaab is worthy of perusal.

9.5  Even  if  we  had  to  assume  that  some  Ahadeeth  did  not  come  to  the notice  of  Imam  Abu  Haneefah,  we  nevertheless  find  that  Imam Muhammad,  Abu  Yusuf  Bin  Huthail,  Ibnul  Mubaarak,  Hasan  Bin Ziyaad  and  other  eminent  students  of  Imam Abu Haneefah (rahimahumullah) living  to  the era of Hadeeth Compilation.

Following  them  came  Imam  Tahaawi,  Karkhi,  Haakim  the  author  of Kaafi,  Abdul  Baaqi  Bin  Qaani’,  Mustaghri,  Ibnush  Sharaqi,  Zaila’i  and other  Huffaaz  and  Nuqqaad  [Examiners]  of  Hadeeth  among  the  Ahnaaf  who  flourished  during  the  age  of  the  perfection  of  the  standards  in examining  the  Ahadeeth  from  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam).  They were  fully  cognizant  of  the  SaheehDha’eefMashhoor  and  Aahaad Ahadeeth

Thus,  they  omitted  any  qiyaas  [analogical  deduction]  of  Imam  Abu Haneefah they perceived to be in conflict with the Ahadeeth

Thus,  the  likes  of  Imam  Muhammad,  Imam  Abu  Yusuf,  Zufar  and Hasan  differed  [with  Imam  Abu  Haneefah]  in  a  significant  portion  of his  Madhab.  The  Hanafi  Madhab  again  is  the  collective  statements  of Imam  Abu  Haneefah (rahimahullah) and  these  students  and  associates  of  his. (Rahimahumullah  Ta’ala).

10.  The  Averment:  “The  Quraan  and  Hadeeth are  before  us.  We  can,  therefore,  refer directly to it.”
10.1  One  who  does  not  possess  quwwat-e-ijtihaadiyyah  [refer  to  no.  11] holds no right to resort to ijtihaad.  

10.2  It  is  reported  from  Hazrat  Adi  Bin  Haatim  (Radhiyallahu  anhu) that  when  the  Aayat:  “And  eat  and  drink  until  the  white  thread  becomes noticeable  from  the  black  thread,”  was  revealed,  he  took  a  white  thread and  a  black  thread  and  kept  it.  During  the  night  he  looked  at  it. However,  the  two  threads  were  not  distinguishable  from  each  other.  In the  morning  he  informed  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam). Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  responded:  “Your  pillow  is exceptionally  huge  for  the  white  and  black  threads  (which  actually imply  the  dawn  light  and  darkness  of  the  night)  to  be  under  your pillow.”

Notwithstanding  the  fact  the  this  Sahaabi  was  a  native  who  spoke  the Arabic  language,  he  erred  in  understanding  the  purport  of  the  Qur’anic Aayat  in  view  of  him  not  possessing  quwwat e ijtihaadiyyah. Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa  sallam)  brought  his  mistake  to  his notice  in  a  humorous  way.  In  some  other  Ahadeeth  Nabi  (Sallallahu alaihi  wa  sallam)  did  not  voice  his  disapproval  of  ijtihaad  from  certain Sahaabah.  This  indicates  that  the  Sahaabi  here  did  not  possess  quwwat e ijtihaadiyyah  and  hence  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa  sallam)  did  not credit him for his opinion and perception.

10.3  It  is  reported  from  Hazrat  Ibn  Mas’ood  (Radhiyallahu  anhu)  that Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa  sallam)  said:  “May  Allah  Ta’ala  keep that  person  happy  and  prosperous  who  listens  to  my  Hadeeth,  retains  it, remembers  it  and  delivers  it  to  others.  Indeed,  many  of  those  who  pass on  knowledge  are  not  themselves  versed  in  knowledge,  and  often  a person  passes  on  knowledge  to  someone  who  understands  it  more  than the one who delivered to him.” —Shaafi’i,  Baihaqi  in  Madkhal,  Ahmad,  Tirmithi,  Abu Dawood,  Ibn  Maajah  and  Daarimi  who  reports  from  Hazrat  Zaid  Bin Thaabit (radhiyallahu anhu).

There  is  clarity  in  this  Hadeeth  that  some  Hafizes  of  Hadeeth  do  not understand  the  meanings  of  the  Hadeeth  or  possess  little  understanding of it.      

10.4  The  simple  and  straightforward  test  in  this  matter  is  to  take  a hundred  by-laws  from  a  Fiqhi  kitaab  in  which  the  dalaail  [proofs]  are not  mentioned,  at  random  from  various  chapters  and  trace  their  sources in  the  Qur’an  and  Hadeeth.  Furthermore,  the  principles  governing  the by laws  should  be  proven  from  the  text  or  indications  of  the  Qur’an  and Hadeeth  or  with  sound  rational  arguments.  Once  this  assignment  is complete  it  should  be  compared  to  the  answers  and  proofs  of  the Fuqaha.  Then  one  will  wake  up  to  the  limit  of  one’s  intelligence  and  the worth  of  the  Fuqaha’s  intelligence.  In sha  Allah,  this  will  become evident to one and in future one will not venture to make such a claim. 

10.5  Hazrat  Abdullah  Bin  Mubaarak  (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  furthermore said:   “Had  it  not  been  for  the  fact  that  Allah  Ta’ala  rescued  me through  the  medium  of  Abu  Haneefah  and  Sufyaan,  I would have been just like the others.”

In  other  words,  Allah  Ta’ala  saved  him  through  Imam  Abu  Haneefah and  Imam  Sufyaan  Thawri (rahimahumullah) from  the  perplexity  and  confusion  which  a raawi  [narrator  of  Hadeeth]  is  embroiled  in  when  seeing  the  conflicting Ahadeeth  and  opposing  narrations.  The  two  Imams  (Radhiyallahu anhuma)  would  show  him  how  the  two  [conflicting  Hadeeths]  are reconciled,  which  narration  enjoys  first  preference  and  they  would explain the meanings of the two to him. 

Indeed,  this  [perplexity  and  confusion]  was  the  case  with  not  one,  but many  ruwaat  [plural  of  raawi].  They  were  rescued  by  none  other  than the  Fuqaha-e-Muhadditheen;  those  who  were  experts  in  riwaayat  and diraayat [Traditions and reasoning powers].  Qazi  Iyaadh (rahimahullah)  related  the  following  in  Tadreebul  Madaarik  under  the biography  of  Abdullah  Bin  Wahb  Quraishi  Misri,  the  pupil  of  Imam Maalik  (Rahmatullahi  alaih)  —V.3  pp.  231/6:  

Yusuf  Bin  Adi  said:  ‘I  found  some  people  to  be  faqeehs, not  Muhadditheen  and  some  to  be  muhaddiths,  not faqeehs.  Only  Abdullah  Bin  Wahb  did  I  find  to  be  a Faqeeh, Muhaddith and a zaahid [Buzrug, saint, recluse].’

Ibn  Wahb  said:  ‘Had  it  not  been  that  Allah  Ta’ala  saved  me through  Maalik  and  Laith,  I  would  have  gone  astray.’  He was  asked:  ‘How  is  that?’  He  replied:  ‘I  immersed  myself in  Hadeeth  and  in  consequence  I  became  perplexed.  I would  then  present  my  doubts  to  Maalik  and  Laith  who would  tell  me  which  Hadeeth  to  take  and  which  to  discard [on  account  of  its  unreliability,  abrogation  or  other  factor warranting  its  nonapplication].”  The  end  of  Qazi  Iyaadh’s (rahimahullah) quote.

Hafiz  Ibn  Abdul  Barr (rahimahullah) documented  this  in  Intiqa  with  a  similar  text.  Our Shaikh,  Muhaqqiq  Kawthari  (Rahimahullahu)  annotated  it  with  the following  words:

Ibn  Asaakir’s  text  with  his  chain  to  Ibn  Wahb  is:  ‘Had  it  not been  for  Maalik  bin  Anas  and  Laith  bin  Sa’d,  I  would  have perished.  I  was  under  the  impression  that  everything  reported from  Nabi  (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam)  had  to  be  carried  out.’ In  one  narration  it  appears:  ‘…  I  would  have  gone  astray,’  i.e. in view of the conflict between the Ahadeeth, which happens to many ruwaat who are strangers to Fiqh; who cannot distinguish between a Hadeeth with which practice is associated from one unlike the previous.”

10.6 Qazi Bishr Bin Waleed said: “We would be by Sufyaan Bin Uyainah. When a problematic masalah would come to us, he [Imam Sufyaan] would ask: ‘Is there anyone here from the Ashaab [students, associates] of Imam Abu Haneefah?’ My name would be taken. He [Imam Sufyaan] would say [to me]: ‘Answer.’ I would then answer. He would then remark: ‘Safety in Deen is to turn to the Fuqaha.’

11. What is Quwwat-e-Ijtihaadiyyah

11.1 Now listen to the Hadeeths from which the nature of quwwat-e-ijtihaadiyyah will become manifest.  

Hadeeth One: It is reported from Hazrat Abdullah Bin Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) stated: “The Qur’an was revealed in seven dialects. Every Aayat has an apparent meaning and an inner meaning. And for every horizon there is a view. (In other words: the external purport of the Aayaat can be understood through Arabic linguistics and the hidden purport through intellectual and reasoning powers.) —Mishkaat Shareef from Sharhus Sunnah 

Hadeeth Two: Urwah Bin Zubair reports: “I enquired from Aishah (Radhiyallahu anha) about this Aayat: ‘Verily Safa and Marwah are among the salient signs of [the Deen of] Allah Ta’ala. Thus, whoever performs Haj or Umrah there is no sin on him if he makes sa’ee between the two.’ I said: ‘This Aayat teaches that there is no sin  on a person who does not make sa’ee of Safa and Marwah (which is the apparent purport of the Aayat because when there is no sin in making sa’ee the apparent meaning is that sa’ee is permitted. If one does not make sa’ee then too it will be permissible.)’ Hazrat Aishah (Radhiyallahu anha) replied: ‘O Nephew! You have made a big mistake. If this Aayat meant what you have understood from it then it would have read: ‘There is no sin in not making sa’ee between the two.”—Maalik, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmithi and Nasaai. 

Hadeeth Three: Speaking on the virtues of the Sahaabah Hazrat Ibn Mas’ood (Radhiyallahu anhu) said: “They are the most virtuous of the entire Ummah; their hearts are pure, they possessed the deepest knowledge and they were very open and informal.”—Razeen. 

Hadeeth Four: Hazrat Ibn Juhaifah reports: “I asked Ali (Radhiyallahu anhu): ‘Do you have some knowledge which is not found in the Qur’an?’ He responded: ‘I take an Oath in that Being Who split the seed and created life! We do not have any knowledge, except for a distinct perception which Allah Ta’ala grants to whomever He wishes in [understanding] the Quraan.” —Bukhari, Tirmidhi and Nasaai.
Hadeeth Five: Hazrat Zaid Bin Thaabit (Radhiyallahu anhu) reports: “During the occasion of the battle with the people of Yamaamah, Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu anhu) sent someone to call me. When I came to him, I saw Umar (Radhiyallahu anhu) sitting by him. Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu anhu) spoke to me and said: ‘Umar came to me and advised me that many Qurra of the Quraan fell. He said: ‘I fear that if this continues then a major portion of the Quraan will be lost to us. Therefore, my advice is that you instruct the compilation of the Quraan.’ I responded: ‘How can I do something which Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) never did?’ Umar replied: ‘Wallah! There is  only  good  in  this.’  He  repeated  this  over  and  over  again  until  I  was contented and I understood what he had understood.” —Bukhari and Tirmidhi.

From  the  aforementioned  Five  Hadeeths  collectively,  the  following points  are  clear:

Some  meanings  of  the  Nusoos  [Qur’an  and  Hadeeth  texts]  are  apparent and  some  of  the  purports  are  hidden  and  subtle.  The  latter  are  mysteries, reasons  and  wisdom.  

The  level  of  understanding  the  Nusoos  vary  among  individuals.  Some only  understand  the  apparent  meanings,  whilst  others  penetrate  the hidden  meanings.

In  this  disparity  in  comprehension,  virtue  and  merit  is  not  due  to  mere difference  in  comprehension  as  this  is  the  case  with  any  two individuals.  Rather,  this  virtue  and  merit  is  exclusive  to  a  special  level of  depth  and  penetration  and,  this  is  the  level  of  knowledge  worth  of consideration.  

This  special  level  of  understanding  is  not  the  product  of  human  effort.  It is Allah given.
Thus,  the  summary  of  its  [quwwat e ijtihaadiyyah’s]  nature  as concluded  from  the  above  Ahadeeth  is  that  it  is  an  exclusive  Allah given  proficiency  and  power  of  comprehension  and  deduction  by  virtue of  which  those  who  possess  this  power  discover  the  hidden  purport  and subtle  meanings  of  the  Nusoos  and  the  mysteries  and  reasons  for  the Ahkaam  pertaining  to  practice  and  belief  in  such  a  matter  that  they  are contented. Others cannot penetrate where they have penetrated.

Sometimes,  however,  their  hearts  are  contented  with  another  view.  In such a case they retract their first view.

This  power  is  called  fehmfiqhraaiijtihaadistimbaat  and  other  terms also  are  used  to  refer  to  it  in  the  Aayaat  and  Ahadeeth.

12.  The  Question  of  the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen Prohibiting their Taqleed  

12.1  Question:  The  Aimmah e Mujtahideen  have  themselves  said that  it  is  not  lawful  to  practice  on  their  statements  until  the  proof  is know.  Thus,  those  whom  you  make  Taqleed  of,  prohibit  this  self same Taqleed.

Response:  The  audience  of  the  above  statement  of  the  Mujtahideen is  not  those  people  who  do  not  possess  quwwat e ijtihaadiyyah, otherwise,  this  statement  of  theirs  will  firstly  clash  with  those  Ahadeeth which  permit  Taqleed  which  we  have  mentioned  earlier,  and  secondly, it will clash with their practice and other statements of theirs. 

The  clash  with  their  practice  is  that  it  is  not  documented  anywhere  that the  Mujtahideen  would  furnish  proof  when  answering  each  and  every person’s  question.  Similarly,  there  was  no  strict  adherence  to  record dalaail  [proofs]  with  their  Fataawa  which  they  compiled,  as  is  evident  in the  Kitaabs  such  as:  Jaami’  Sagheer,  etc.  It  is  an  obvious  fact  that  an answer  is  given  for  the  sake  of  practice,  whether  the  answer  is  verbal  or recorded in a book. Thus, this practice of theirs is Taqleed per se. 

The  clash  [of  the abovementioned statement]  with  their  other  statements is  that  it  is  reported  in  Hidaayah  Awwalain,  etc.  from  Imam  Abu  Yusuf (Rahmatullah  alayh)  that  if  a  person  has  blood  removed  from  his  body in  the  state  of  fasting  and  thereafter  he  intentionally  eats  or  drinks thinking  that  his  fast  had  broken  on  the  basis  of  the  Hadeeth:  “The  fast of  both,  the  cupper  and  the  one  who  was  cupped  is  broken,’  then  such  a person  will  have  to  necessarily  keep  kaffaarah.  Presenting  the  argument for  this  masalah  Imam  Abu  Yusuf  says:  “It  is  obligatory  on  a  layman [i.e.  a  non-Aalim]  to  explicitly  follow  the  Fuqaha  as  he  has  no understanding of the Ahadeeth.”

This  statement  clearly  shows  that  the  former  statement  of  the Mujtahideen  is  addressed  to  those  who  possess  quwwat e ijtihaadiyyah, not to those who lack this power. Accordingly, reflecting on that statement reveals this restriction. This is due to the fact that the words: “until the proof is not known,” evinces that they were speaking to people who had the potential to comprehend the dalaail. One who lacks quwwat e ijtihaadiyyah may be able to listen to the proof; he cannot however comprehend the proof.  

It is takleefemaa laa yutaaq [imposing the unbearable] which is Shar’i wise baatil [null and void], for a person who lacks the power to comprehend the proofs to try to comprehend the proofs. Thus, it is evident that this address [i.e. the statement of the Mujtahideen in the question] is directed to a Saahib e Ijtihaad, not to a non-Mujtahid.  

12.2 Ibn Taymiyyah states: “The Aimmah barring Taqleed is only in relation to one who has the power to draw Ahkaam from the dalaail.”—Fataawa Ibn Taymiyyah.

13.  The  Error  of  Judging  the  Ahadeeth  of  the Fuqaha on the Criteria of the Muhadditheen 

13.1  In  so  far  as  those  Ahadeeth  are  concerned  which  are  dha’eef according  to  the  Muhadditheen,  firstly  all  those  rules  and  principles  are presumptive  on  which  the  Muhadditheen  have  based  the  strength  and weakness  of  the  Ahadeeth  and  in  which  the  major  factor  is  the credentials  of  the  raawi  [narrator].  Accordingly,  in  certain  principles, the Muhadditheen themselves are split. 

Similarly,  a  raawi  being  thiqah  [reliable]  or  ghair-thiqah  [unreliable]  is also  presumptive  [i.e.  speculative,  not  categorical].  Hence,  the Muhadditheen  differ  in  regard  to  many  narrators.  Furthermore, preference  for  declaring  a  narrator  unreliable  over  his  reliability  is conditional  to  many  restrictions  and  it  is  not  accepted  that  all  the conditions  are  found  everywhere.  The  books  on  this  subject  reveal  the veracity of this point.

When  these  rules  and  principles  are  presumptive  then  how  can  they  be binding  on  all?  When  the  Fuqaha  have  formulated  other  principles  to judge  the  strength  and  weakness  of  the  Ahadeeth  on  the  basis  of  dalaail, as  appears  in  the  Usool e Fiqh  Kitaabs,  there  is  no  reason  then  for objection.  Thus,  it  is  quite  possible  that  a  certain  Hadeeth  is  unreliable in  the  light  of  the  Muhadditheen’s  standards,  but  according  to  the standards  of  the  Fuqaha  the  same  Hadeeth  is  worthy  of  being  a  basis  for formulating Ahkaam

Secondly,  dhu’f  or  weakness  is  not  an  inherent  quality  of  a  Hadeeth. Dhu’f  is  due  to  the  raawi.  Thus,  it  is  quite  possible  that  a  Mujtahid received  a  Hadeeth  with  a  Saheeh  sanad  [authentic  chain]  and  later  on the  sanad  was  tarnished  by  the  addition  of  a  weak  narrator.  Therefore, the  later  dhu’f  does  not  harm  the  earlier  contention  and  proof  of  the Mujtahid

Once  the  Mujtahid  has  employed  a  Hadeeth  in  his  argument—bearing in  mind  that  employing  a  Hadeeth  for  this  purpose  is  dependent  on  the authenticity  of  the  Hadeeth—then  the  Mujtahid  has  actually authenticated  the  Hadeeth.  This  is  the  purport  of  the  Ulama’s  statement: “When  a  Mujtahid  advances  a  Hadeeth  in  his  argument  it  is  his authentication  of  the  Hadeeth.”  Thus,  regardless  of  its  sanad  being doubtful,  according  to  the  muqallid  the  Hadeeth  will  be  judged  to  be Saheeh,  as  is  the  case  with  the  Ta’leeqaat  of  Imam  Bukhari (Rahmatullahi  alayh).  Therefore,  there  is  no  disadvantage  to  the Mujtahid’s argument on account of such a Hadeeth.      

13.2  It  is  only  befitting  to  mention  here  that  the  Thulaathiyyaat [Ahadeeth  in  which  there  are  only  3  links  to  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu alayhi  wa  sallam).  These  Ahadeeth  are  much  prized  by  the Muhadditheen]  by  Imam  Bukhari  and  other  Muhadditheen  are  very  few. You  can  judge  from  this  that,  in  the  entire  Bukhari  Shareef  there  are  not more  than  2022  Thulaathiyyaat.  Imam  Abu  Haneefah,  on  the  other hand,  by  virtue  of  him  being  earlier,  and  a  Taabi’i,  his  narrations  are predominantly  Thulaathiyyaat.  In  fact,  there  are  even  Thunaaiyyaat [Ahadeeth  with  only  2  links  to  Rasoolullah  (Sallallahu  alayhi  wa  sallam) to  his  credit].  Hence,  Imam  Shar’aani  Shaafi’i  has  written:  “I  have studied  authentic  copies  of  Imam  Abu  Haneefah’s  3  Masaaneed [Hadeeth  works  with  chains  that  are  linked  to  Rasoolullah  Sallallahu alaihi  wa  sallam]  endorsed  by  the  Huffaaz  of  Hadeeth.  I  found  every Hadeeth  to  be  the  report  of  excellent  and  righteous  Taabi’een,  the  likes of  Aswad,  Alqamah,  Ataa,  Ikrimah,  Mujaahid,  Makhool,  Hasan  Basri and others.

Thus,  between  Imam  Abu  Haneefah  and  the  Office  of  Risaalat (Sallallahu  alaihi  wa  sallam),  all  the  narrators  were  honest  and  up righteous  Aalims,  and  they  were  eminent  Buzrugs  [Saints].  None  of them  was  a  liar  or  one  accused  of  mendacity.  It  is  for  this  reason  that the  Aimmah e Hadeeth  and  the  Ulama  have  concluded  that  the Ahadeeth  with  which  the  Aimmah e Matboo’een e Mujtahideen  have formulated  Fiqh,  are  much  more  reliable  and  accredited  than  the  later Ahadeeth,  because  those  illustrious  Fuqaha  were  the  Asaatizah

The Schools of Islamic Fiqh (Jurisprudence): A Brief Introduction

[Translated and partly prepared by: Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi]

Meaning of Fiqhi Schools

Fiqhi School is basically the name of different trends which have been adopted to derive solution of matters from the principal Shariah sources. The concept of Fiqhi schools was not prevalent in the period of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and the companions as it is today, but the basis of these trends was found and they were known in the period of the companions. These trends turned in to the form of Fiqhi schoos in the last period of the Sahaba (companions) and their successors. These trends got more accurate and new building erected at the foundation of separate rules and regulations.

Background of Fiqhi Schools

In the previous lines, it has been mentioned that at the time of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) sometimes two different companions used to differ in understanding the saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). In these examples, there was possibility of taking different meanings since these examples were related to non-principal and partial matters. There is no place for such difference of understanding in the basic principles of religion. Therefore, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) held right two opposite meanings of a guidance. Even, in the Glorious Qur’an, at many places there was possibility of taking various meanings. This difference of understanding sometimes was based on the word having two opposite meanings. Sometimes, the word had two meanings; one real and the other metaphor.

Sometimes, the outer condition of the word gave a meaning and after contemplating the word or looking in to the context it gave another meaning. Some of the companions have adopted the first trend, so they used to stick to the outer meaning of the verses and Hadith. While some others tried to go in to the depth of the matter keeping the spirit of the Shariah and context in their view, and they used to issue orders accordingly. There is a famous account that once the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) ordered a group of the companions to offer the prayer of Asr in the locality of the Banu Quraizah. The companions went out and the time of ‘Asr approached in the mid way. A group of the companions said that the Prophet meant that we reach quickly, so they offered ‘Asr prayer in the mid way. While the rest, acting upon the outer meaning of the order, first reached to Banu Quraizah and they could only offer ‘Asr prayer after Isha. When the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was apprised of the incident, he objected none of the two.
When the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) left for his heavenly abode, the companions faced new issues about which there were no clear orders in the Glorious Quran and Hadith. So, the companions contemplated in to those matters in the light of the Quran and Hadith. As before, this contemplation was of two kinds and their opinions differed because of the difference in trends. The Tab’een (those who followed the companions) learnt the knowledge of Islam from the companions and thus theses trends shifted to them. The new issues and matters came up in abundance and they solved them according to their trends. Basically, it was this difference of trends which was associated with some other reasons that caused the formation variant jurisprudential interpretations. These Fiqhi scholars were in different cities of the Muslim rule and each had a circle of students and followers around him. Thus, their interpretations got the shape of a Fiqhi Maslak.

Logic of the Prevalent Fiqhi Schools

In the beginning, there were many Fiqhi schools and their followers. But as the time passed by, the followers of some schools, under various reasons, got lesser and lesser. All of their Fiqhi opinions and interpretative judgments were not compiled, and they became a part of the history. Only some of their opinions are found in few books and writings of the early authors. The other Fiqhi schools succeeded to win such scholars and jurists who compiled all the opinions and findings the particular school. They set up the rules and regulations and propagated them. Later, these Fiqhi schools enjoyed such scholars of Fiqh who transferred this asset to their successors and rendered a marvelous service to safeguard this treasure. These schools survived. In Ahlus Sunnah, there are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali Fiqhi schools, while in the Shiites there are Ja’fariyah and Zaidiyah Fiqhs.


Introduction of Hanafi School of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)

Fiqh Hanafi is the oldest of all four Sunni Fiqhi schools. The Fiqhi rules and matters were first compiled in this school. This school spread the most in the Islamic world and it is followed by a majority of the Muslims. This Fiqh is attributed to Imam Abu Hanifah and therefore is called Hanafi. It came in to being at Kufa and the compilation was carried out by collective research and interpretations. This Fiqh is originally based on the opinions, fatwas, judgments and thinking methods of the outstanding Companion Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) and fourth Caliph Hadhrat Ali bin Abu Talib (radhiyallahu anhu). These opinions, fatwas, judgments and thinking methods reached Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) by the channel of Hammad bin Abi Sulaiman, Hadhrat Ibrahim Nakh’ee and Hadhrat Alqamah. (Rahimahumullah) Imam Muhammad bin Hasan Shaibani (rahimahullah), the renowned disciple of Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah), recorded the thousands of mas’alas (issues or cases) in to form of a book which were derived and compiled by a panel of forty ablest students and friends of Imam Abu Hanifah. Imam Abu Yusuf Ya’qub bin Ibrahim Ansari, the other student of Imam Abu Hanifah, played a prominent role in compiling and spreading Fiqh Hanafi.

Imam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayh)

The name of Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) is Nu’man bin Sabit. Abu Hanifah is his nickname. He was born in 80 Hijri in Kufa, a city of present day Iraq. As a profession, his family was cloth merchant and he also took in the same profession. A famous scholar of Kufa, Sha’bi apprehended his sharp-mindedness and sought him to achieve education. So, he joined the prominent circle of Hadhrat Hammad bin Abi Sulaiman (rahimahullah) and remained in his company till his demise. He benefited from all the scholars of Hadith in Kufa. He traveled Hijaz many a times and learned from the scholars and other educated ones. He benefited from Imam Malik (rahimahullah) in Madinah and Imam Malik (rahimahullah) also benefited from him. He had so many teachers; among them are senior Tab’een (the successor of the companions of Prophet) from Makkah, Madinah, Iraq and Syria. He himself was a Tab’ee, since he had the honour of visiting some companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), though he did not narrate from them. After the demise of Hadhrat Hammad (rahimahullah) , all of his students agreed that Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) , the youngest of them, is ablest among them to succeed their Shaikh. So they forced him to take over his position. This circle had the grand collection of the derivation method of Hadhrat Umar Farooq (radhiyallahu anhu), traditions and fatwas of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu), rulings and thoughts of Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) and the Hadiths and traditions of scholars of Hadith in Kufa. Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) was bestowed matchless mind, power of understanding and derivation, expansion and depth in knowledge. He had good moral characters and held a high position in fearing Allah, piety, righteousness and nobility. He was prosperous, so he used to spend wealth wholeheartedly in the path of Allah. He was famous in honesty in dealings and business. Because of these virtues, his circle of teaching earned fame far and wide and prominent scholars started to attend his classes where this generous teacher encouraged them and discussed the academic matters openly. He observed the Umayyad sultanate and witnessed its decline. The Abbasid caliphate was established before his eyes. Some Alvis also made armed efforts to gain power. Realizing them as able for the position, he extended oral and financial support to them. When the Abbasid caliphate was established the Caliph Mansoor offered him the post of Qazi, most probably, in order to test his loyalty to his government. He denied it and as a punishment was whipped lashes at public place and was put in to prison. He was then about seventy years old. He continued teaching while he was in prison and the punishment of whips also continued. Ultimately, he died in prison in 150 H in the month of Rajab and was buried in the graveyard of Khaizuran.

Method & Characteristics

The Fiqh of Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) bears this characteristic that it was collectively formulated. Hadhrat Umar Farooq (radhiyallahu anhu) populated the city of Kufa with keen interest and sent Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) as teacher and Qazi with this letter: “O people of Kufa! I prefer you on myself by sending Ibn Mas’ood.” So much of the companions turned to Kufa that it accommodated more than one thousand companions. Hadhrat Ali Murtaza (radhiyallahu anhu), the fourth Caliph of Islam, made it his capital. Later, this city competed the cities of Makkah and Madinah in Hadith and Islamic sciences. This city was newly built, therefore the new coverts, who were from urban background and brought with them an asset of Greek and Persian sciences and philosophy, inhabited there in a big number. The mixing of Arabs with Iranian culture created countless many new problems and issues. On the other side, there came up so many sects due to political differences and amalgamation of religions and nations. Some of them were secretly involved in anti-Islamic efforts. One of these phenomena was to forge false Hadith. Every sect forged Hadith to support its view. The cities of Hijaz; Makkah and Madinah, were secure from such kinds of special cases to an extent.

Hadhrat Umar Farooq (radhiyallahu anhu) had a special relation with Iraq. He himself sent Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) to Kufa. Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was given the title of Muhaddith from the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) i.e. ‘his tongue and heart spoke according to the revelation‘. There were several verses in the Glorious Quran which were revealed according to his opinion. Hadhrat Umar Farooq (radhiyallahu anhu) prevented the companions to go out of Madinah in his time of caliphate. He formed two groups among the companions. He used to consult smaller group of the elder companions in special cases. And, whenever there happened to occur any important matter he used to assemble all of the companions for consultations. His style of derivation was that he used to deliberate in the depth of the Qur’an and Hadith, used to keep the objectives of Shariah and the interest of the Muslims before his eyes, observed the circumstances and used to reach a conclusion by collective decision. His interpretative judgments and Awwaliyaat (pioneering judgments) are well known, and they not only played a key role to enliven the Islamic Shariah in the wide Islamic caliphate but also provided a firm basis for his successors. This style of derivation was circulated in Kufa by Hadhrat Ali and Abdullah bin Mas’ood (rashiyallahu anhum). Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu)and his disciples, Alqamah and Ibrahim Nakh’ee (rahimahumullah), on one hand applied strict laws in accepting narrations so that no false Hadith is accepted. On the other hand, they avoided attributing Hadith directly to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and liked to narrate attributing to companions and Tab’eens lest an incorrect meaning is associated to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Thirdly, they applied their reasons and issued fatwas. These were the characteristics and styles that Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) inherited.

Collective Compilation of Fiqh

When Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) formed his penal to compile Fiqh he selected forty people from among his students. They were experts of Qur’anic exegesis, Hadith, Asma ur Rijal (complete record of the narrators), language, literature, logic, philosophy, analogy, history, mathematics and several other sciences. He himself had the experience of trade and marketing. He started this noble mission of compiling Fiqh. It was thus that a matter was presented before the panel and each member used to express his view, and he himself put his opinion. Sometimes, the discussion continued till a month on a single matter. When a decision was reached on he ordered to record it down. The matter was discussed in the light of Quran and Hadith. If they did not find any evidence in any of them, they turned to the sayings of the companions. Having failed they used to apply analogy. All the members also sometimes discussed analogy and some times discrete in legal matters. The conclusions of the discussion were written down in registers. Thus, the Mas’alas of Fiqh were compiled in a new order. This order was known as Fiqhi order; starting from chapter of prayers, dealings and ending at inheritance. It is said that thus 500,000 matters were compiled and 38000 matters of them were related to prayers.

Method of Derivation

Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) himself describes his method of derivation: “First of all I look in to the Noble Quran, then search the matter in the Hadith of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and take the narrations of the Faqeeh (jurist) narrators. If the matter is not found in the Quran and Hadith, then I turn to the sayings of the companions. If their opinions differ then I prefer any of them. If the opinions of the companions contradict the opinions of others I never go against the opinions of the companions. And, when it come to the opinions of Ibrahim Nakh’ee, Hasan Basari, Ibn Seereen, Saeed bin Musayyib and others then I also apply mind and interpret as they do.

Principle Books

After the collective compilation of the Fiqh matters, some companions of Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) wrote books. There is no book recorded on Fiqh by Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) . But, the books of his disciple Imam Muhammad Shaibani (rahimahullah) are considered to the first and foremost source of Hanafi Fiqh. In Fiqh Hanafi there are three types of books:

(1) Books of ‘Zahir Al-Riwayah’
(2) Books of ‘Nawadir’
(3) Fatawa and Waqiaat.

The contents of Zahir Al-Riwayah are most trusted ones. Zahir Al-Riwayah is a collection of six books written by Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah).

1. Al-Jami’ Al-Sageer: Eesa bin Aban and Muhammad bin Sama’ah narrated this book from Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah). In this book, Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah) narrated from Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) through Imam Abu Yusuf (rahimahullah) . But, this book does not contain proofs.

2. Al-Jami’ Al-Kabeer: This book is like the previous one, but it deals with the subjects in details.

3. Ziyadaat: This is the complementary of Al-Jame’ Al-Kabeer.

4. Al-Mabsoot: This is also known as ‘Al-Asl’. In this book, Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah) has collected the thousands of Mas’alas that were derived by Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah) . This book deals with Ahadith that is followed by Mas’alas and the variant opinions of the contemporary Ulama.

5. Al-Siyar Al-Sageer: This book deals with the subject of Jihad and international laws.

6. Al-Siyar Al-Kabeer: This is his last Fiqhi book that was narrated by Abu Sulaiman Jauzjani.

Muhammad bin Ahmad Marwazi, known as Hakim Shahid, amassed all of Imam Muhammad’s (rahimahullah) books with the name of ‘Al-Kafi’ after the deletion of repeated matters.
Imam Sarkhasi has written its detailed commentary named as ‘Al-Mabsoot’.

Nawadir comprises the matters that are found in books other than the books of Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah) or in the books of Imam Abu Yusuf (rahimahullah) or Imam Hasan bin Ziyad (rahimahullah) . The collection of Nawadir consists of:

1. Harooniyaat: Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah) dictated it in the reign of Caliph Haroon Al-Rashid, this book is attributed to the Caliph.

2. Kisaniyaat: The narrations of his student Shoaib bin Sulaiman Kisani.

3. Ruqyaat: These are the matters that he expressed while he was Qazi in Ruqa area.

4. Kitabul Mujarrad: It is written by Hasan bin Ziyad.

5. Kitabul Amali: It is attributed to Imam Abu Yusuf (rahimahullah).

Nawazil were the Mas’alas about which there was no mention in the aforementioned books and the succeeding scholars of Fiqh derived solutions keeping these books before them. Kitab Al-Nawazil of Abul Lais Samarqandi, Majmoo’un Nawazil wal Waqi’aat of Natifi and Al-Waqi’aat of Sadr Shahid are well known among scholars.

                     MALIKI FIQH

Introduction of Maliki School of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)

Fiqh Maliki came in to being after the Fiqh Hanafi in historical order. This was a good mixture of Hadith and reason. It was founded in the city of the Prophet Madinah and was called Maliki after the name of Imam Malik bin Anas (rahimahullah) . Madinah was the holy city where each and every house was enlightened with the rays of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). The citizens of Madinah had the honour to accompany the Prophet for a long time and they were directly addressed in the revelations and the matters of Shariah. When the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) left for his heavenly abode, there were a many companions who stayed at Madinah. Specially, the environment of Madinah was resounding with the traditions, narrations and fatawa of Hadhrat Umar, Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar, Hadhrat Aaishah, Hadhrat Zaid bin Sabit, Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhum) and so on. The Fiqh Maliki is based on the traditions and opinions of these companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).

Imam Malik (rahimahullah)

Imam Malik bin Anas bin Malik bin Abu Aamir Asbahi (rahimahullah) was born in Madinah in 93 Hijra. His father, uncle and grandfather were great scholars of Hadith. His great grandfather Abu Aamir (radhiyallahu anhu) was a companion of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) who embraced Islam in second year of Hijra and participated all the battles with the Messenger except Badr. The environment of Madinah was resonating with the voices of Hadith when Imam Malik (rahimahullah) was born. The elder Tab’een and their students were busy in teaching and learning Hadith. Imam Malik (rahimahullah) obtained the knowledge of Hadith from senior Tab’een and their successors. First of all, he attended Abdur Rahman bin Hurmuz and benefited from him for a long period. From among his prominent teachers is Hadhrat Nafe’ (rahimahullah) , (the freed slave of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar and his academic heir), Muhammad bin Shihab Zuhri, Imam Jaffar bin Sadiq, Muhammad bin Yahya Ansari (rahimahumullah) etc. He gained the knowledge of Fiqh exclusively by Rabi’ah bin Abdur Rahman (rahimahullah) who is known as Rabi’atur Rai. Apart from these scholars of Hijaz, selected Ulama, Scholars of Hadith and sheikhs would come from every nook and corner of the Islamic world to Madinah at the time of Hajj and there would hold circles and classes of learning and narration. Imam Malik (rahimahullah) benefited greatly from these occasions and attended the circles of great scholars. When he reached the scholarly position that, according to Sufyan bin Uyainah (rahimahullah) , the foretelling of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) befitted him that ‘people will travel the world for knowledge and they will not find any scholar greater than that of Madinah’ and seventy other sheikhs certified that he became able to start his own circle, then he started his circle in the Mosque of the Prophet with a elegance that his circle was an ideal of staidness and sedateness. He would take bath and put on best of dresses, apply perfume and then would go to class. Scented woods and perfumes also were incensed occasionally. He used to give lectures with such an elegance that no noise was heard when the pages were turned. He would not tolerate even a petty improper movement or noise. When anyone posed him a question he used to answer him. Generally, his students used to read out and he would rectify the mistakes. His lectures were attended by many of his significant teachers as well.

Imam Malik (rahimahullah) was bestowed with special privileges. On one hand, he was a great Muhaddith and has a high and authentic chain of narration. Those who narrated from him were Rabi’atur Rai, Yahya bin Sa’eed and Musa bin Uqbah (from among his teachers), Imam Abu Hanifah, Sufyan Sauri, Lais bin Sa’d, Awza’ee, Imam Abu Yusuf etc (from among his coetaneous). Among his prominent students are Imam Shafi’i, Abdullah bin Mubarak, Imam Muhammad bin Hasan Shaibani (rahimahumullah) and so on. His second characteristic was that he was a great scholar of Islamic Jurisprudence and Mujtahid (authority to interpret in Islamic matters). Outstanding Ulama and Imams of Fiqh have benefited from his Fiqhi views. The Caliphs Haroon Al-Rasheed, Abu Jaffar Mansoor and Mahdi and Mamoon also attended his lectures. In the beginning of Abbasid period he also had to pass through troubled conditions. In the reign of Caliph Mansoor, when Nafs Zakiyyah raised the claim of caliphate, Imam Malik supported him. Mansoor disliked it and tried to look for a pretext to catch him. Imam Malik (rahimahullah) was of the opinion that forced Bay’ah (pledge of allegiance) conditioned with divorce is unacceptable. The Governor of Mansoor in Madinah asked him to avoid issuing such fatwas. When he did not stop he was so lashed at his naked arms that it was disjointed.

He stayed throughout of his life in Madinah. He was so conscious about the honour of Prophet’s city that he did not even like to ride at places where the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) set his steps. He died in Madinah in 179 Hijra and was buried in Jannat-ul Baqee, the famous graveyard of Madinah.

Characteristics & Salient Features

Fiqh Maliki has acquired this prominence that it is a beautiful composite of narration and reason. Imam Malik (rahimahullah) , on one hand, was a great Muhaddith and has absorbed the Ahadith of the companions of Madinah. He himself compiled the pioneering Hadith book named ‘Muwatta’. While, on the other hand, he is a torchbearer of Fiqh. He has recorded his Fiqhi views with the views and opinions of the companions and their successors. He derived Mas’alas keeping the commonweal and objective of Shariah in view. He gave commonwealth so importance that it is counted one of the characteristics of Fiqh Maliki.

The Style of Derivation

Imam Malik (rahimahullah) obtained knowledge staying in Madinah and there he started teaching. He benefited fully from the Ahadith and fatwas of companions in Madinah and get enlightenment from them. He was well aware of the Ahadith of the companions of Madinah and he used to trust them more. So this impression seems to overshadow Fiqh Maliki. The people of Medina witnessed the life of Prophet very closely and were directly trained by the Prophet. Hence, a general practice of people of Madinah was very important to him and he used to consider their practice as Ijma (consensus). He gave it such importance that if Khabr-e-Wahid (narration of single person) contradicted their practice he would not trust the Hadith of the single narrator.

The style of his derivation was that first of all he looked in to the Qur’an, then in the traditions of the Prophet. In traditions he used to rely more on the scholars of Hadith from Hijaz and practice of Madinite citizens. He preferred the fatwas and rulings of Hadhrat Umar and Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), then the fatwas of the other companions of Madinah and then those of the seven Scholars of Fiqh in Madinah. When he did not find any proof in Hadith he would turn to analogy. Also, he tried his level best to shut the door of evil sources. Instead of looking in the incident he would look in to the cause of the matter and prevent the causes that may lead to Haram or evil.

Fundamental Books

The first and foremost of Fiqh Maliki books is Muwatta of Imam Malik (rahimahullah) in which he collected Hadith with Fiqhi views. The second book is ‘Al-Mudawwnatul Kubra’ that contains matters that were answered by Imam Malik (rahimahullah) . First, his pupil Asad bin Furat (rahimahullah) recorded it from Abdur Rahman bin Qasim (rahimahullah) . But, Abdus Salam Saeed Sahnoon (rahimahullah) prepared a copy of it and presented it to bin Qasim (rahimahullah) who made corrections. This manuscript was known as Mudawwanah. Among the early books of Fiqh Maliki are ‘Al-Waziha’ of Abdul Malik bin Habib, ‘Utaibah’ of Muhammad bin Abu Bakr and ‘Muwaziyah’ of Muhammad bin Muwazi Misri. Among his promninent pupils are Abdullah bin Wahab, Abdur Rahman bin Qasim, Ashhab bin Abdul Aziz and Abdul Malik bin Majishoon.

                    SHAFI’I FIQH

Introduction of Shafi’i School of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)

Fiqh Shafi’i is the third Fiqhi school of Islamic Jurisprudence attributed to Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah). Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah), on one hand, is a student of Imam Malik (rahimahullah) , he learnt the Fiqh Maliki and Hijazi thoughts from him. On the other hand, he attended Imam Muhammad bin Hasan Shaibani (rahimahullah) and learnt Fiqh Hanafi and Iraqi style of Fiqh. Apart from having acquired these two Fiqhs, he directly benefited from other Fiqhi trends and the Imams. So, he benefited from Umar bin Abu Salma (rahimahullah) , a disciple of Imam Awzai (rahimahullah) whose Fiqh was prevalent in Syria. In Egypt, the Fiqh of Imam Lais bin Sa’d (rahimahullah) was followed so he benefited from his disciple Yahya bin Hassaan (rahimahullah). Thus, the Fiqh Shafi’i accumulated all the virtues of all known Fiqhi schools and trends. Being a towering Islamic Jurist, Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) was a great Muahaddith. He had aquired the narrations of the Muhaddith of Makkah Sufyan bin Unainah (rahimahullah) and the narrations of Muhaddith of Madinah, Imam Malik bin Anas (rahimahullah). The Fiqh of Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) was founded at Makkah. Then, passing from Madinah, Iraq and Baghdad it arrived in Egypt. There it reached its peaks. As the Fiqh Hanafi is greatly impressed by the views of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ood and Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallah anhum)and the Fiqh Maliki has heavily benefited from the opinions of Hadhrat Umar and Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar (radhiyallahu anhum), the Fiqh Shafi’i has drew inspiration from the views of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu).

Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah)

The name of Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) is Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Idrees. His family tree joins that of the Prophet at his ninth great-grandfather Muttalib bin Abd Munaf. He was a member of Quraish tribe. He was born in 150 Hijra in Gaza city of Palestine. This was not his native place but his father happened to visit that place and expired there. At the age of two, his mother took him to his ancestral home at Makkah. He learnt the eloquence and nuance of Arabic language in the tribe of Huzail and memorized the Holy Qur’an. Then, he associated himself with Muslim bin Khalid Zanji (rahimahullah), the Sheikh and Mufti of Haram, and completed his education. Then, he came in Madinah to Imam Malik (rahimahullah) to learn the Qur’an and Hadith. He had already memorized the Muwatta of Imam Malik. Imam Malik (rahimahullah) was very impressed by him. Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) was not financially well so he looked for a source of income. Eventually he was given the governorship of Najran. He went to Najran and discharged his duties with much honesty and trustworthiness. Haroon Al Rashid was then Caliph and he was disturbed on the account of Alvis’ uprisings. Somebody complained him that Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah)  tends to the Alvis. As a result, he was summoned to Baghdad and later discharged after clarification and some recommendations. Utilizing his presence in Iraq, he joined the circle of Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah) and learnt Hanafi Fiqh. He held discussions with Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah) and studied the books of Hanafi Fiqh. Then, he returned to Hijaz and stayed there for nine more years. In this span of time, he busied himself in learning and teaching. He used to meet the selected scholars of Islamic world who visited Makkah at the time of Hajj. He would narrate from them as they narrate from him. Again, he visited Baghdad. Till this time his method of derivation and interpretation had been set up. So, many scholars joined him and he dictated some of his books to them. These opinions are called ‘Old Maslak’ or Iraqi Views. After about two years, he left Baghdad and till that time there came up a team of scholars who followed his Fiqh. Thrice, he returned to Baghdad and after a few months’ stay proceeded to Egypt. Here, he reviewed his previous opinions and in many matters he retracted and adopted new opinions. In Egypt, he authored his new books and with the power of his interpretations spread his school of Islamic Jurisprudence. Previously, the Maliki School of Fiqh was prevailing in Egypt, but with the advent of Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) his Fiqhi School dominated there. The new books he compiled in Egypt and the new ideas which he expressed there are called ‘New Maslak’. He died in Egypt in 204 Hijri and was buried therein.

Characteristics & Distinguishing Qualities

Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) was luckiest among all the Imams that he was bestowed ‘comprehensiveness’. Due to stay in Hijaz. He gathered a pile of Ahadith and traditions. Makkah was his native place; he attended Imam Malik (rahimahullah) in Madinah. Then, he explored Iraq and Egypt. Thus, he became a great scholar of Hadith in his age. In the field of Fiqh, he learnt the derivation style of Hadhrat Abdullah bin Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) in Makkah and that of Hadhrat Umar and Abdullah bin Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) in Madinah from Imam Malik (rahimahullah) . Then, in Iraq he learnt Hanafi Fiqh from Imam Muhammad (rahimahullah) , in Syria he learnt the Fiqh of Imam Awza’ee (rahimahullah) and in Egypt the Fiqh of Imam Lais bin Sa’d (rahimahullah) . Besides, he was conferred with a tremendous power of imagination and accumulation and best of interpretative styles. So he absorbed the virtues of all the Fiqhi schools and avoided the positions that were not up to his standard. Till his age, the compilation of Hadith had begun and he himself had collected Ahadith exploring different cities. He observed that the other schools of Fiqh have applied analogy in matters about which Hadith is found so he extracted rulings according to Hadith. So, the tendency to support and defend Hadith overpowered him. The scholars of Fiqh in Iraq had conditioned that only the Ahadith will be accepted that are narrated by a number of people, and the scholars of Madinah were of the opinion that only the Ahadith will be accepted that match the practice of Madinite citizens. He opposed them and did not allow widening the area of analogy.

The Fiqh Shafi’i bear this characteristic that the founder of this Fiqh himself compiled a big part of his School. Thus, he recorded the rules and regulations and the derivation method of his Fiqhi School in the shape of a book. And, with his best power of interpretation he proved his methods and styles. The other distinct feature of this Fiqh is that the founder himself spread and publicized his Fiqh traveling in different cities. This was the reason that great Islamic scholars were among his followers and students. Great scholars of Hadith and compilers of Hadith books tended to this Fiqh and genius personalities of Islamic history followed it.

Principle Books

Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) himself authored the principle books of his Fiqh. His master piece of work is “Al-Umm‘ which he wrote in Baghdad and made some modifications while his stay in Egypt. His second famous book is ‘Al-Risalah‘ that deals with the rules of derivation and inference. It is the first book on the subject. This book contains the complete compiled principles of Fiqh Shafi’i. There are some other books that are attributed to him but the aforementioned two books are well known. The other significant books on Fiqh Shafi’i are ‘Mukhtasar‘ of Imam Buwaiti (student of Imam Shafi’i) and the book of Imam Muzani (rahimahullah) . Among his distinguished students are Rabi bin Sulaiman Muradi (rahimahullah) who narrated and propagated his books, Ismail bin Yahya Muzani (rahimahullah) whose books are considered base for Fiqh Shafi’i and Yusuf bin Yahya Buwaiti (rahimahullah) . The trio benefited from him in Egypt. His students in Iraq were Ibrahim bin Khalid Kalbi, Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Hasan bin Muhammad bin Sabbah bin Zafrani and Ahmad bin Yahya bin Abdul Aziz Baghdadi (rahimahumullah).

Derivation Method

Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) has described his derivation method in his book ‘Al-Umm‘ in detail. Concisely, it is that first of all he looked in to the Glorious Qur’an and took the outer meaning unless there is a proof that the outer meaning is not intended. Then, he would turn to Hadith. In Hadith, he used to take Khabr Wahid (traditions narrated by one to one person). Then, he would opt for Ijma (consensus) and finally he would go for analogy.

                  HANBALI FIQH

Introduction of Hanbali School of Fiqh

This is fourth Fiqhi school of Ahlus Sunnah attributed to Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullah) . Fiqh Hanbali falls in the last in historical order. The personality of Imam Ahmad (rahimahullah) is more Muhaddith than Faqeeh, therefore this aspect seems to dominate his Fiqh. Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) who accumulated all the Fiqhi trends and interpretations, was his main teacher. He paid most of his attention to Hadith. So he became a genius Muahaddith and compiled the great encyclopedia of Hadith ‘Al-Musnad‘. Despite the fact that he was enjoying the virtues of Fiqh and Ijtehad, he did not like to compile his opinions and interpretations. But, it was destined that his Fiqhi School not only survived but also developed in the Islamic world as one of the dominant Fiqhi schools of Ahlus Sunnah. The Hanbali Fiqh was evolved and passed through all the stages of development in Iraq.

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullah)

His name is Ahmad bin Hanbal bin Hilal Zuhli Shaibani (rahimahullah). He was born in 164 Hijri in Baghdad and grew up in orphan-hood. His father was a prominent soldier, but he died in Imam Ahmad’s (rahimahullah) childhood. He was not financially strong, so he inherited hard work, determination and firmness against troubles. To begin with, he memorized the Glorious Qur’an. Then, he busied himself in learning in Baghdad and paid special attention to Hadith. He attended the famous Muhaddith of Baghdad Hushaim bin Bashir (rahimahullah). Then, he started traveling from place to place in search of Hadith. He journeyed five times to Basra and five times to Hijaz. He learnt from Imam Shafi’i (rahimahullah) in Baghdad and acquired the knowledge of Fiqh and Hadith. When Imam Shafi’i was leaving Baghdad he said that Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullah) has a leading position in seven things: Quran, Hadith, Fiqh, Linguistics, asceticism, dispense with the world and piety. Similarly, he learnt from Sufyan bn Uyainah, Abu Bakr bin Ayyash, Waki bin Jarrah, Abdur Rahman bin Mahdi and Saeed bin Qattan (rahimahumullah) .The historic incident of his life is the matter of ‘Khalq-e-Quran‘ which he faced with determination and courage. The Caliph, Mamoon asked him to believe that Qur’an is a creation of Allah’ with so strictness that the most valorous people were shaken. But, Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullah) demanded proof from the Qur’an and Hadith. He was given severest of punishments and put in trouble for a long period, but he stood firm. This incident was written with golden ink in the History of safeguarding the beliefs and faith of Muslims.

Characteristics & Important Features

Fiqh Hanbali owns some characteristics as other Fiqhi schools have special qualities. Though, Imam Ahmad (rahimahullah) was expert of Hadith and Fiqh, but Hadith was his favourite subject. Therefore, instead of compiling his Fiqhi views and fatwas he took interest in compiling Hadith. From his early age, he started compiling Hadith. His ‘Musnad‘ consists of more than forty thousand traditions. His interest in Sunnah was so established that it dominated his school of Fiqh. So, he regarded the Holy Qur’an and Hadith as basic source and benefited from the fatwas of the companions. Then, he would refer to Weak and Mursal Ahadith (that were not directly narrated by the Prophet). Finally, he resorted to analogy.

The main characteristic of Fiqh Hanbali is that they, unlike other Fiqhi Schools, have regarded wisdom (Hikmat) more important than reason (Illat). They have utilized the rule of ‘Isteshab‘ which means that the already proved matter will be maintained until there happens something contradictory. Then, they have the principles of ‘public interest’ and ‘shutting down the door of evils’.

Principle Books

As mentioned above, Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullah) did not like to compile his Fiqhi opinions and interpretative judgments. But, his able students, among whom are his two sons as well; Salih bin Ahmad and Abdullah bin Ahmad (rahimahumullah) , who recoded it. The most brilliant among his students are Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hani, Ahmad bin Hajjaj Marwazi and Ishaq bin Ibrahim known as Ibn Rahwaih (rahimahumullah) . The trio have authored ‘Kitabus Sunan‘ in Fiqh. But, the credit of recording and compiling all the fatwas and views of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal goes to Abu Bak Khallal who compiled his fatwas in two hundred parts. This was later summarized by Abul Qasim Kahrqi and Abdul Aziz bin Jaffar Ghulam Khallal. The summary of Kharqi earned so popularity that three hundred commentaries were written on it, among which the ‘Al-Mughni‘ of Ibn Qudamah (rahimahullah) stands out as most distinguished one.

Style of Derivation

Imam Ahmad’s (rahimahullah) style of derivation was so that he used to put the Qur’an and Hadith foremost. Thereafter, he preferred the fatwas of the companions. Then, he would turn to Weak and Mursal Ahadith (that were not directly narrated by the Prophet). At last, he resorted to analogy. To him analogy was the last option in unavoidable circumstances. He used to state: I like Weak Hadith in comparison to applying reason.