Tag Archives: seerah

Did Prophet Muhammad Copy And Plagiarize Bible?? Did Prophet Muhammad Author Qur’an for Worldly Gains?? – A reply to Anti-Islam Liars

Could Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) Have Read Bible And Copied??

Qur’an and the Hadith state that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was Ummi. Qur’an 7:158 states:

[007:158] Say (O Muhammad): O mankind! Lo! I am the messenger of Allah to you all – (the messenger of) Him unto Whom belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. There is no God save Him. He quickeneth and He giveth death. So believe in Allah and His messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believeth in Allah and in His Words, and follow him that happily ye may be led aright. (Pickthall Translation, Quran 7:158)

Pickthall translated the word Ummi as “who can neither read nor write”.

According to Ectaco English-Arabic Online Dictionary (http://www-old.ectaco.com), arabic word Ummi (أمي) means:

Source: http://www-old.ectaco.com/online/diction.php3?lang=3&q=1&refid=316𝔯_id=1&rqt_id=19731153&pagelang=23&word=%C3%E3%ED&direction=2&x=37&y=15

And according to Ectaco English-Arabic Online Dictionary ( http://www-old.ectaco.com), arabic words for illiterate are:

أمي ِ يقرأ وِ يكتب, جاهل,

Source: http://www-old.ectaco.com/online/diction.php3?lang=3&q=2&refid=316𝔯_id=1&rqt_id=19731153&pagelang=23&word=ILLITERATE&direction=1

Qur’an also states that Prophet Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was illiterate. Qur’an 29:048 says:

[029:048] And thou wast not (able) to recite a Book before this (Book came), nor art thou (able) to transcribe it with thy right hand: In that case, indeed, would the talkers of vanities have doubted. (Yusuf Ali Translation, Qur’an 29:48)

So until that point we can be sure that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) could not read nor write. Naturally, if prophet could read or write then Non-Muslims would have claimed  prophet Muhammed as a liar. They would have seen Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) writing or reading and used that as an evidence that he lied in Qur’an 29:48. Their reaction and refusal to use 29:48 as a proof to demonstrate that prophet Muhammad was a liar is a solid proof that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayho wasallam) could really not read nor write and nor could he consquently have read Bible personally.

Allegation that Waraqa Ibn Nawfal taught Prophet Muhammed

Waraqa was a cousin of Khatija (radhiyallahu anha), first wife of Prophet Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). He was a learned man and was well versed in New Testament. Some morons assert that Waraqa could have been teaching prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). There are several historical and logical flaws in that assertion.

Sahih bukhari Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3 states:
“…Waraqa replied in the affirmative and said, “Anyone (man) who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should remain alive till the day when you will be turned out then I would support you strongly.” But after a few days Waraqa died” (Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3)

Firstly, Waraqa died few days later after Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) recieved the first revelation of the Qur’an. Since Waraqa died after few days later then he cannot have been the source of Qur’an, since the Qur’an continued to be revealed continuously upto 23 years after his death. Naturally, since he was dead he could not have been teaching Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) or been the source of Qur’an!

Secondly, Waraqa was a pious and a wise man, who dedicated much of his life in the search of God. However, he stated in Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 605:

“Narrated ‘Aisha(radhiyallahu anha):
The Prophet returned to Khadija (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) while his heart was beating rapidly. She took him to Waraqa bin Naufal who was a Christian convert and used to read the Gospels in Arabic Waraqa asked (the Prophet), “What do you see?” When he told him, Waraqa said, “That is the same angel whom Allah sent to the Prophet) Moses. Should I live till you receive the Divine Message, I will support you strongly.” (Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 605)

Thus he was intending to support Prophet Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and accepted his prophethood. If he (Waraqa) had been the source of Qur’an then he would have exposed prophet Muhammed and refused to follow him! It must be remembered that Waraqa was a god-fearing and a noble person.

When was Bible translated into Arabic according to historian?

According to all scholarly sources Bible was not translated into Arabic during Prophet’s time. The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics admits this:

there is no evidence of any parts of the Bible having been translated into arabic before Islam. (Hastings, James. The Encyclopedia of Rleigion and Ethics. Vol. X, p. 540)

Hastings Dictionary of the Bible attributes the first arabic translation of the Bible to the tenth century (Source: Hastings, James. Dictionary of the Bible. p. 105). However, Encyclopedia Judaica attributes the first arabic translation of the Old Testament either to Hunayn Ibn Ishaq (800-873CE) or to Saadiah bin Joseph Gaon (882-942CE) (Source: Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 4, p. 863)

Paul Wegner explains that the Christian and Jewish traditions that were circulating in Arabia were oral traditions. But the Christian and Jewish groups in Arabia were not orthodox at all, and there were numerous heretical groups:

The Scriptures do not seem to have been extant in an Arabic version before the time of Muhammad (570-632), who knew the Gospel story only in oral form, and mainly from Syriac sources. These Syriac sources were marked by Docetism (believed that Jesus had only a divine nature and only appeared to be incarnate – they thought the material world and thus one’s body was inherently evil)… (Wegner, Paul D. The Journey from Texts to Translations. 1999. Grand Rapids: Baker Books. p. 250)

According to New Catholic Encyclopedia:

Neither Arabian Jews nor Arabian Christians, unfortunately, were to be classed among the better representatives of their faiths at the time. The former had lived in comparative isolation possibly since the middle of the 1st millenium B.C., although they had been mildly successful in proselytism and the latter were mainly heretical Monophysites, remote in every sense from the centers of Christian learning. (New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol 9, p.1001)

There are hadiths stating Waraqah Ibn Nawful translated and read New Testament in Arabic. Sahih Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 478 states:

…Waraqa had been converted to Christianity in the Pre-lslamic Period and used to write Arabic and write of the Gospel in Arabic as much as Allah wished him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. …” (Sahih Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 478)

There is no hadith stating that Waraqah Ibn Nawfal translated the whole bible into Arabic, including Old Testament and New Testament, which was official and available to public. As the hadith states Waraqah translated the Gospel as much as Allah willed him to write. He also became blind, which naturally would have prevented him from translating further. Furthermore, history dictates that his translation was for personal usage and not an official translation of the Bible accessible to the Public, therefore Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) getting a copy of his translation and reading it is very unlikely. He only translated fragments of the Bible, which was for his personal study. Therefore, the hadiths and history do not contradict on this issue.

Allegation that Qur’an was taught to Prophet Muhammad by a Roman Blacksmith

Some pagans accused Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) of learning the Qur’an from the Roman blacksmith, who lived in the outskirts of Makkah and was a Christian. Prophet used to go and watch him do his work often. However, Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala Himself refuted this claim by the use of logic:

[016:103] We know indeed that they say, “It is a man that teaches him.” The tongue of him they wickedly point to is notably foreign, while this is Arabic, pure and clear. (Yusuf Ali Translation, Qur’an 16:103)

That would be like stating that a Chinese immigrant, who didn’t know English well, authored Shakespere’s work; which is obviously illogical. In a same manner how could a blacksmith who didn’t know arabic well have authored Qur’an, linguistics of which exceed excellence?? Indeed, he would not have managed to even convey and explain his basic believes to the Prophet!

Accusation that ‘Hanif’ taught Prophet Muhammad the Qur’an

Hanif were the group of people at Makkah who tried to follow religion of Abraham (Qur’anic Ibraheem alayhissalaam), and therefore believed in monotheism. Before the revelation of the Qur’an, Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) himself was a Hanif.

However, the Hanifs were not learned about Christianity and Judaism. Indeed as it is demonstrated from Sahih Hadith Volume 5, Book 58, Number 169, many of the Hanif knew no background knowledge of Judaism and Christianity, and their religion seems contradicting to Hanifs beliefs. Therefore, even the Hanifs were not aware of Judeo-Christian beliefs, so there is no possibilty or proof of them teaching Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) about Judeo-Christian beliefs.

Allegation that Priest and Rabbi taught Prophet Muhammad the Qur’an

The discussions between priest and Rabbi and Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) took place in Madinah, however much of the Qur’an, especially the stories of Prophets Such as Jesus (Surah Maryam), Joseph (Surah 12) and others were revealed in Makkah. That theory would only be worth considering if the stories of Prophet and other bible-related stories were ONLY revealed in Madinah. But the bible-related stories were revealed in Makkah, where Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) did not participate in debates with priests and rabbi.

Were the occasional trips to Syria source of Prophet’s knowledge?

There are 2 recorded travel of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaalahu alayhi wasallam) to Syria. One when he was 12 years old and second when he was around the age of 25.

On his journey to Syria when he was 12, he met a monk by the name of Bahira. An immediate question arises, how can a child of 12 learn the theology of different religions in such detail at a brief visit, whilst constanly accompanied by his Uncle and other traders and yet manages to remember all this information until the age of 40?? This is a logical fallacy! Naturally a child at such an age cannot have enough intelligence to comprehend complex theology (in detail), and yet remember for more than 28 years.

Furthermore, Seerah (Biography of Prophet Muhammad) tells us that Prophet Muhammad was accompanied by his Uncle and many other traders, naturally they would not forsake a child in a totally different country; they would accompany him to every possible corner! This would minimize the time he has for learning complex theology.

Bahira himself believed in prophethood of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Indeed, the invitation to entertainment itself was in honour of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). His belief in prophethood of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam is described in many seerah texts, this visit is recorded as follows:

Bahira said that he had seen the stones and the trees prostrating to Muhammad as Muhammad had been walking by. They only do this for a prophet of Allah. He looked at the Muhammad’s back and noticed the seal of the prophet, which was an oval shape protruding just below Muhammad’s shoulder blades. He said that this was one of the signs of a great prophet to come that was taught to them in their books.

Second journey was for trade, the story is narrated here:

Khadija soon sent word to Muhammad asking him if he would take a trade caravan to Syria. She would pay him a high fee, which was double that of which she had paid any other person. She also gave Muhammad the services of a young lad by the name of Maysarah who would look after him on the journey. When Muhammad reached Basra, he was shading under a tree when a Monk saw him by the name of Nestor. Nestor asked Maysarah about the person sitting under the tree; Maysarah replied that it was Muhammad. Nestor said, that person is no other than a messenger of Allah. Maysarah soon realised that he was in the company of a very special person. He said that he noticed that the heat was extreme when he saw a clear vision of two angels shading Muhammad from the heat of the day.

Main point to notice is that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was again followed closely by Maysarah, therefore he would have realised if Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) had been learning about Bible. And once again the monk Nestor believed in the prophethood of Prophet Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Muhammad Mohar Ali writes in his book on this topic:

Had Muhammad contacted during his trade journeys to Syria any Christian monk or layman for obtaining information or even for casual discussion, the Quraysh opponents, many of whom had accompanied him to Syria, would not have failed to make the most of it in their attack against himThat no such allegation was made by them is a decisive proof that he had not sought information about Christianity or Judaism from anyone in the course of his journey to Syria. (Sirat Al-Nabi And the Orientalists Vol. I A by Muhammed Mohar Ali, Page 266)

Did Prophet Muhammad heard Quss preach Christianity at the Ukaz fair??

In his book Sirat Al-Nabi And the Orientalists Vol. I A, Muhammad Mohar Ali writes regarding this:

It is stated that the Prophet heard Quss preach at the Ukaz fair. This tradition is unanimously classified as spurious and is rejected as such. Specially, one of its narrators, Muhammed ibn al-hallaj al-Lakhmi, is condemned as a confirmed liar (kadhdhab). And even according to this spurious report, the Prophet was only one of the audience and did not make any enquiries as such with the speaker. The orientalists’s use of this report without any indication of its weakness and untrustworthiness is indicative of how such materials are uncritically accepted and cited to support a particular assumption. (Sirat Al-Nabi And the Orientalists Vol. I A by Muhammed Mohar Ali, page 266-267)

Did Prophet Muhammad Author Qur’an for Worldly Gains?

It is very evident from Seerah (biography of Prophet’s life) that Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) could not have authored Qur’an for worldly gains.

After unsuccessful attempts of Quraysh (tribe of Makkah) they could do little to prevent islam from spreading. Therefore they tried to bribe Prophet Muhammad into leaving islam. Utbah Ibn Rabiah was sent for this task. This story is narrated in a Seerah called “Muhammed The Last Prophet”, by Sayyed Abdul hasan ‘Ali Nadwi (rahimahullah), page 43:

‘Nephew,’ he [Utbah] said, ‘you know your standing among us, but you have brought a matter of grave concern to your people. You have divided their community, made fun of their customs, criticised their gods and their religion and declared some of their ancestors to be unbelievers. Now, listen to me. I will make some proposals for you to examine and perhaps you will accept some of them.’ The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Speak, Abul-Walid. I am listening.’ ‘Nephew, ‘Utbah continued, ‘if you want money by this business, we will collect some of our property and make you the wealthiest among us. If you want honour, we will make you our chief so that every decision is yours. If you want a kingdom, we will make you our king. If you are possessed by a ghost of a jinn that you cannot drive away from yourself, we will find skilful doctors to help you. We will spend our wealth on it till you are cured.’When Utbah had finished, the Messenger of Allah asked, ‘Have you finished, Abul-Walid?’
‘Then listen to me.’‘I will,’ said Utbah. Then the Messenger of Allah recited some verses from Surah Fussilat. Utbah listened intently, putting his hands behind his back and leaning on them. When the Messenger of Allah reached the place mentioning prostration, he prostrated and then said, ‘You have heard what you have heard, Abul-Walid. It is now up to you.’ (“Muhammed The Last Prophet”, by Sayyed Abdul hasan ‘Ali Nadwi, page 43)

If Prophet Muhammed had been after money, women, kingdom or any other worldly desire then now would have been a perfect chance! But Prophet Muhammed chose Islam above all.
Furthermore, history dictates that Prophet’s financial status worsened after the Prophethood mission. “Muhammed The Last Prophet”, by Sayyed Abdul hasan ‘Ali Nadwi, page 185 narrates:

‘A’ishah has related, ‘When the Messenger of Allah left this world, there was nothing in the house that a creature could eat except a little barley on a shelf. (“Muhammed The Last Prophet”, by Sayyed Abdul hasan ‘Ali Nadwi, page 185)

Even a person considered poor by today’s standards would have had more luxuries than that. If Prophet’s intentions were to gain wealth then surely he would have had large amount of wealth and luxuries by the time of his death.



Muhammad (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam),  the  Master  of  Prophets,  was  born  in  Bani  Hashim  lane  in  Makkah  on Monday  morning,  the  ninth  of  Rabi‘  Al-Awwal,  the  same year  of  the  Elephant  Event,  and  forty  years  of the  reign  of  Kisra  (Khosru  Nushirwan),  i.e.  the  twentieth  or  twenty-second  of  April,  571  A.D.,  according to  the  scholar Muhammad  Sulaimân  Al-Mansourpuri,  and  the  astrologer  Mahmûd  Pasha. 

Ibn  Sa‘d reported  that  Muhammad’s  mother  said:  “When  he  was  born,  there  was  a  light  that  issued  out of  my  pudendum  and  lit  the palaces  of  Syria.”  Ahmad reported  on  the  authority  of  ‘Arbadh  bin  Sariya something  similar  to  this.

  It  was  but  controversially  reported  that  significant  precursors  accompanied  his  birth: fourteen  galleries of  Kisra’s  palace  cracked  and rolled  down,  the  Magians’  sacred  fire  died  down  and  some  churches  on Lake  Sawa  sank  down  and  collapsed. 

His  mother immediately  sent  someone  to  inform  his  grandfather ‘Abdul-Muttalib  of  the  happy  event. Happily  he  came  to  her,  carried  him  to  Al-Ka‘bah,  prayed  to  Allâh  and  thanked  Him.  ‘Abdul-Muttalib called  the baby  Muhammad,  a  name  not  then  common  among  the  Arabs.  He  circumcised  him  on  his seventh  day  as  was  the  custom  of  the  Arabs. 

The  first  woman  who  suckled  him  after  his  mother  was  Thuyebah,  the  concubine  of  Abu  Lahab,  with  her son,  Masrouh.  She  had  suckled  Hamzah  bin  ‘Abdul-Muttalib  before  and  later  Abu  Salamah  bin  ‘Abd  AlAsad  Al-Makhzumi.


It  was  the  general  custom  of  the  Arabs  living  in  towns  to  send  their  children  away  to  bedouin  wet nurses  so  that  they  might  grow  up  in  the  free  and  healthy  surroundings  of  the  desert  whereby  they would  develop  a  robust  frame  and  acquire  the  pure  speech  and  manners  of  the bedouins,  who  were noted  both  for  chastity  of  their  language  and  for  being  free  from  those  vices  which  usually  develop  in sedentary  societies. 

The  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  was  later  entrusted  to  Haleemah  bint  Abi  Dhuaib from  Bani  Sa‘d bin Bakr.  Her  husband  was  Al-Harith  bin  ‘Abdul ‘Uzza  called  Abi  Kabshah,  from  the  same  tribe.

  Muhammad(sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  had  several foster brothers  and  sisters,  ‘Abdullah  bin  Al-Harith, Aneesah  bint  Al-Harith,  Hudhafah  or Judhamah  bint  Al-Harith  (known  as  Ash-Shayma’),  and  she  used to  nurse  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  and  Abu  Sufyan  bin  Al-Harith  bin  ‘Abdul-Muttalib,  the Prophet’s  cousin.  Hamzah  bin  ‘Abdul-Muttalib,  the  Prophet’s  uncle,  was  suckled  by  the  same  two  wet nurses,  Thuyeba  and  Haleemah  As-Sa‘diyah,  who  suckled  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam). 

Traditions  delightfully relate  how  Haleemah  and  the  whole  of  her  household  were  favoured  by successive  strokes  of  good fortune  while  the  baby  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  lived  under  her care.  Ibn  Ishaq  states  that  Haleemah  narrated  that  she  along  with  her  husband  and  a  suckling  babe, set  out  from  her  village in  the  company  of  some  women  of  her  clan  in  quest  of  children  to  suckle.  She said: 

It  was  a  year  of  drought  and  famine  and  we  had  nothing  to  eat.  I  rode  on  a  brown  she-ass.  We  also  had with  us  an  old  she-camel.  By  Allâh  we  could  not  get  even  a  drop  of milk.  We  could  not  have  a  wink  of sleep  during  the  night  for  the  child  kept  crying  on  account  of  hunger.  There  was  not  enough  milk  in  my breast  and  even  the  she-camel  had  nothing  to  feed  him.  We  used  to  constantly  pray  for  rain  and immediate  relief.  At  length  we reached  Makkah  looking  for  children  to  suckle.  Not  even  a  single  woman amongst  us  accepted  the  Messenger  of  Allâh  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  offered  to  her.  As  soon  as  they  were told  that  he  was  an  orphan,  they  refused  him.  We  had  fixed  our  eyes  on  the  reward  that  we  would  get from  the  child’s  father.  An  orphan!  What  are  his  grandfather  and  mother likely  to  do??  So  we  spurned him  because  of  that.  Every  woman  who  came  with  me  got  a  suckling  and  when  we  were  about  to depart,  I  said  to  my  husband:  “By  Allâh,  I  do  not  like  to  go  back  along  with  the  other  women  without any baby.  I  should  go  to  that  orphan  and  I  must  take  him.”  He  said,  “There is  no  harm  in  doing  so  and perhaps  Allâh  might  bless  us  through  him.”  So  I  went  and  took  him  because  there  was  simply  no  other alternative  left  for  me  but  to  take  him.  When  I  lifted  him  in  my  arms  and returned  to  my  place  I  put him  on  my  breast  and  to  my  great  surprise,  I  found  enough  milk  in  it.  He  drank  to  his  heart’s  content, and  so  did  his  foster  brother  and  then  both  of  them  went  to  sleep  although  my baby  had  not  been  able to  sleep  the  previous  night.  My  husband  then  went  to  the  she-camel  to  milk it  and,  to  his  astonishment, he  found  plenty  of  milk in  it.  He  milked it  and  we  drank  to  our fill,  and  enjoyed  a  sound  sleep  during  the night.  The  next  morning,  my  husband  said: “By  Allâh  Haleemah,  you  must  understand  that  you  have been  able  to  get  a  blessed  child.”

  And  I  replied:  “By  the  grace  of  Allâh,  I  hope  so.”  The  tradition  is  explicit  on  the  point  that  Haleemah’s  return  journey  and  her  subsequent  life,  as  long  as the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) stayed  with  her,  was  encircled  with  a  halo  of good  fortune.  The  donkey that  she rode  when  she  came  to  Makkah  was  lean  and  almost  foundered;  it  recovered  speed  much  to the  amazement  of  Haleemah’s  fellow  travellers.  By  the  time  they reached  the  encampments  in  the country  of  the  clan  of  Sa‘d,  they found  the  scales  of fortune  turned  in  their  favour.  The  barren  land sprouted  forth  luxuriant  grass  and  beasts  came  back  to  them  satisfied  and  full  of  milk.  Little Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  stayed  with  Haleemah  for  two  years  until  he  was  weaned  as  Haleemah  said: 

We  then  took  him  back  to  his  mother requesting  her  earnestly  to  have  him  stay  with  us  and benefit  by the  good  fortune  and  blessings  he  had  brought  us.  We  persisted  in  our request  which  we  substantiated by  our  anxiety  over  the  child  catching  a  certain  infection  peculiar  to  Makkah.  At  last,  we  were  granted our  wish  and  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  stayed  with  us  until  he  was  four  or five  years  of  age.

  When,  as  related  by  Anas  in  Sahih  Muslim, (Jibreel Alaihissalaam) Gabriel  came  down  and  ripped  his  chest  open  and  took  out the  heart.  He  then  extracted  a  blood-clot  out  of  it  and  said:  “That  was  the  part  of  Satan  in  thee.”  And then  he  washed  it  with  the  water  of  Zamzam  in  a  gold  basin.  After  that  the  heart  was  joined  together and restored  to  its  place.  The  boys  and  playmates  came running  to  his  mother,  i.e.  his  nurse,  and  said: “Verily,  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  has  been  murdered.” They  all rushed  towards  him  and  found him  all right  only  his  face  was  white.


After  this  event,  Haleemah  was  worried  about  the  boy  and returned  him  to  his  mother  with  whom  he stayed  until  he  was  six. 

In  respect  of  the  memory  of  her  late  husband,  Amina (radhiyallahi anha) decided  to  visit  his  grave in  Yathrib (Madinah). She  set  out  to  cover  a  journey  of  500  kilometers  with  her  orphan  boy,  woman  servant  Umm  Ayman  and her father-in-law  ‘Abdul-Muttalib.  She  spent  a  month  there  and  then  took  her  way  back  to  Makkah.  On the  way,  she  had  a  severe  illness  and  passed away  in  Abwa  on  the  road  between  Makkah  and  Madinah. 


‘Abdul-Muttalib  brought  the  boy  to  Makkah.  He  had  warm  passions  towards  the  boy,  his  orphan grandson,  whose  recent  disaster (his  mother’s  death)  added  more  to  the  pains  of  the  past.  ‘AbdulMuttalib  was  more  passionate  with  his  grandson  than  with  his  own  children.  He  never  left  the  boy  a prey  to  loneliness,  but  always  preferred  him  to  his  own  kids.  Ibn  Hisham  reported:  A  mattress  was  put in  the  shade  of  Al-Ka‘bah  for  ‘Abdul-Muttalib.  His  children  used  to  sit  around  that  mattress  in  honour  to their father,  but  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  used  to  sit  on  it.  His  uncles  would  take  him  back,  but if ‘Abdul-Muttalib  was  present,  he  would  say:  “Leave  my  grandson.  I  swear by  Allâh  that  this  boy  will hold  a  significant  position.”  He  used  to  seat  the  boy  on  his  mattress,  pat  his  back  and  was  always pleased  with  what  the boy  did. 

When Prophet  Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  was  eight  years,  two  months  and  ten  days  old,  his  grandfather ‘Abdul-Muttalib  passed  away in  Makkah.  The  charge  of  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  was  now passed  on  to  his  uncle  Abu  Talib,  who  was  the  brother  of  the  Prophet’s  father. 

Abu  Talib  took the  charge  of  his  nephew  in  the  best  way.  He  put  him  with  his  children  and  preferred  him to  them.  He  singled  the  boy  out  with  great  respect  and  high  esteem.  Abu  Talib remained  for forty years cherishing  his  nephew  and extending  all  possible  protection  and  support  to  him.  His  relations  with  the others  were  determined  in  the  light  of  the  treatment  they  showed  to  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam). 

Ibn  ‘Asakir reported  on  the  authority  of  Jalhamah  bin  ‘Arfuta  who  said: “I  came  to  Makkah  when  it  was a  rainless  year,  so  Quraish  said ‘O  Abu  Talib,  the  valley  has  become  leafless  and  the  children  hungry, let  us  go  and  pray for rain-fall.’  Abu  Talib  went  to  Al-Ka‘bah  with  a  young  boy  who  was  as  beautiful  as the  sun,  and  a  black  cloud  was  over  his  head.  Abu  Talib  and  the  boy  stood by  the  wall  of  Al-Ka‘bah  and prayed  for  rain.  Immediately  clouds  from  all  directions  gathered  and  rain  fell  heavily  and  caused  the flow  of  springs  and  growth  of  plants  in  the  town  and  the  country. 


When  the  Messenger  of  Allâh  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  was  twelve years  old,  he  went  with  his  uncle  Abu Talib  on  a  business  journey  to  Syria.  When  they reached  Busra  (which  was  a  part  of  Syria,  in  the vicinity  of  Howran  under  the  Roman  domain)  they met  a  monk  called  Bahira  (his  real  name  was Georges),  who  showed  great  kindness,  and  entertained  them lavishly.  He  had  never  been  in  the  habit of  receiving  or entertaining  them  before.  He  readily enough  recognized  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  and  said  while  taking  his  hand: “This  is  the  master  of  all  humans.  Allâh  will  send  him  with  a Message  which  will  be  a  mercy  to  all  beings.”  Abu  Talib  asked:  “How  do  you  know  that?”  He replied: “When  you  appeared  from  the direction  of  ‘Aqabah,  all  stones  and  trees  prostrated  themselves,  which they  never  do  except  for  a  Prophet.  I  can  recognize  him  also  by  the  seal  of  Prophethood  which  is  below his  shoulder,  like  an  apple.  We  have  got  to  learn  this  from  our  books.”  He  also  asked  Abu  Talib  to  send the  boy back  to  Makkah  and  not  to  take  him  to  Syria  for fear  of  the Jews.  Abu  Talib  obeyed  and  sent him  back  to  Makkah  with  some  of  his  men  servants. 


Prophet  Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  was  hardly fifteen  when  the  ‘sacrilegious’  wars  —  which  continued with  varying  fortunes  and  considerable  loss  of  human  life for  a  number  of  years  — broke  out  between Quraish  and  Banu  Kinana  on  the  one  side  and  Qais  ‘Ailan  tribe  on  the  other.  It  was  thus  called  because the  inviolables  were  made  violable,  the  prohibited  months  being  included.  Harb  bin  Omaiyah,  on account  of  his  outstanding  position  and  honourable  descent,  used  to  be  the leader  of  Quraish  and  their allies.  In  one  of  those  battles,  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  attended  on  his  uncles  but  did  not  raise arms  against  their  opponents.  His  efforts  were  confined  to  picking  up  the  arrows  of  the  enemy  as  they fell,  and  handing  them  over  to  his  uncles. 


At  the  conclusion  of  these  wars,  when  peace  was  restored,  people felt  the  need for forming  confederacy at  Makkah  for  suppressing  violence  and  injustice,  and vindicating  the  rights  of  the  weak  and  the destitute.  Representatives  of  Banu  Hashim,  Banu  Al-Muttalib,  Asad  bin  ‘Abd  Al-‘Uzza,  Zahrah  bin  Kilab and Taim  bin  Murra  were  called  to  meet  in  the  habitation  of  an  honourable  elderly  man  called  ‘Abdullah bin  Jada‘an  At-Taimy  to  enter  into  a  confederacy  that  would  provide  for  the  above-mentioned  items. The  Messenger  of  Allâh  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  shortly  after  he  had  been  honoured  with  the  ministry  of Prophethood,  witnessed  this  league  and  commented  on  it,  with  very  positive  words: “I  witnessed  a confederacy in  the  house  of  ‘Abdullah  bin  Jada‘an.  It  was  more  appealing  to  me  than  herds  of  cattle. Even  now  in  the  period  of  Islam  I  would respond  positively  to  attending  such  a  meeting  if  I  were invited.” 

In  fact,  the  spirit  of  this  confederacy  and  the  course  of deliberations  therein  marked  a  complete departure from  the  pre-Islamic  tribal-pride.  The  story  that  led  to  its  convention  says  that  a  man  from Zubaid  clan  came  as  a  merchant  to  Makkah  where  he  sold  some  commodities  to  Al-‘As  bin  Wail  AsSahmy.  The  latter by  hook  or  by  crook  tried  to  evade  paying  for  the goods.  The  salesman  sought  help from  the different  clans  in  Quraish  but  they  paid  no  heed  to  his  earnest  pleas.  He  then  resorted  to  a mountain  top  and  began,  at  the  top  of  his  voice,  to  recite  verses  of  complaint  giving  account  of  the injustices  he  sustained.  Az-Zubair  bin  ‘Abdul-Muttalib  heard  of  him  and  made  inquiries  into  the  matter. Consequently,  the  parties  to  the  aforesaid  confederacy  convened  their meeting  and  managed  to  force Az-Zubaidy’s  money  out  of  Al-‘As  bin  Wa’il. 


The Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam),  had  no  particular  job  at  his  early  youth,  but  it  was  reported  that  he worked  as  a  shepherd  for  Bani  Sa‘d  and  in  Makkah.  At  the  age  of  25,  he  went  to  Syria  as  a  merchant for  Khadijah  (radhiyallahu anha)   Ibn  Ishaq reported  that  Khadijah,  daughter  of  Khwailid was  a  business-woman  of great  honour  and  fortune.  She  used  to  employ  men  to  do  her  business  for  a certain  percentage  of  the  profits.  Quraish  people  were  mostly  tradespeople,  so  when  Khadijah (radhiyallahu anha)  was informed  of  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam),  his  truthful  words,  great  honesty  and  kind  manners,  she sent  for  him.  She  offered  him  money  to  go  to  Syria  and  do  her business,  and  she  would  give  him  a higher rate  than  the  others.  She  would  also  send  her  hireling,  Maisarah,  with  him.  He  agreed  and  went with  her  servant  to  Syria  for  trade. 

HIS  MARRIAGE  TO  KHADIJAH (radhiyallahu anha:

When  he  returned  to  Makkah,  Khadijah  noticed,  in  her money,  more  profits  and  blessings  than  she  used to.  Her  hireling  also  told  her  of  Muhammad’s (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  good  manners,  honesty,  deep  thought,  sincerity  and  faith. She realized  that  she  homed  at  her  target.  Many  prominent  men  had  asked  for  her  hand  in  marriage but  she  always  spurned  their  advances.  She  disclosed  her  wish  to  her friend  Nafisa,  daughter  of  Maniya, who  immediately  went  to  Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  and  broke  the good  news  to  him.  He  agreed and requested  his  uncles  to  go  to  Khadijah’s (radhiyallahu anhu) uncle  and  talk  on  this  issue.  Subsequently,  they  were married.  The  marriage  contract  was  witnessed  by  Bani  Hashim  and  the  heads  of  Mudar.  This  took  place after  the  Prophet’s (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  return  from  Syria.  He  gave  her  twenty  camels  as  dowry.  She  was,  then,  forty years old  and  was  considered  as  the  best  woman  of  her  folk in  lineage,  fortune  and  wisdom.  She  was  the first woman  whom  the  Messenger  of  Allâh  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  married.  He  did  not  get  married  to  any  other until  she  had died. 

Khadijah (radhiyallahu anha)  bore  all  his  children,  except  Ibrahim:  Al-Qasim,  Zainab,  Ruqaiyah,  Umm  Kulthum,  Fatimah and ‘Abdullah (radhiyallau anhum) who  was  called  Taiyib  and Tahir.  All  his  sons  passed away in  their  childhood  and  all  the  daughters except  Fatimah (radhiyallahu anha) died  during  his  lifetime.  Fatimah (radhiyallahu anha)  died  six  months  after  his  death.  All  his  daughters witnessed  Islam,  embraced  it,  and  emigrated  to  Madinah. 


When  the  Messenger  of  Allâh  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  was  thirty five,  Quraish  started rebuilding  Al-Ka‘bah. That  was  because  it  was  a  low  building  of  white  stones  no  more  than  6.30  metres  high,  from  the  days of  Ishmael.  It  was  also  roofless  and  that  gave  the  thieves  easy  access  to  its  treasures  inside.  It  was also  exposed  to  the  wearing  factors  of  nature  — because it  was  built  a  long  time  ago  —  that  weakened and  cracked  its  walls.  Five  years  before  Prophethood,  there  was  a  great  flood in  Makkah  that  swept towards  Al-Ka‘bah  and  almost  demolished  it.  Quraish  was  obliged  to  rebuild  it  to  safeguard  its  holiness and  position.  The  chiefs  of Quraish  decided  to  use  only licit  money in  rebuilding  Al-Ka‘bah,  so  all  money that  derived  from  harlotry,  usury  or  unjust  practices  was  excluded.  They  were,  at  first,  too  awed  to knock down  the  wall,  but  Al-Waleed  bin  Al-Mugheerah  Al-Mukhzumi  started  the  work.  Seeing  that  no harm  had  happened  to  him,  the  others  participated  in  demolishing  the  walls  until  they reached  the basis  laid  by  Abraham (Ibraheem alaihissalaam).  When  they  started rebuilding its  walls,  they  divided  the  work  among  the  tribes. Each  tribe  was  responsible  for rebuilding  a  part  of  it.  The  tribes  collected  stones  and  startwork.  The man  who  laid  the  stones  was  a  Roman  mason  called  Baqum.  The  work  went  on  in  harmony  till  the  time came  to  put  the  sacred  Black  Stone  in  its  proper place.  Then  strife  broke  out  among  the  chiefs,  and lasted  for  four  or  five  days,  each  contesting  for  the  honour  of  placing  the  stone  in  its  position.  Daggers were  on  the  point  of being  drawn  and  great  bloodshed  seemed  imminent.  Luckily,  the  oldest  among  the chiefs  Abu  Omaiyah  bin  Mugheerah  Al-Makhzumi  made  a  proposal  which  was  accepted  by  all.  He  said: “Let  him,  who  enters  the  Sanctuary first  of  all,  decide  on  the  point.”  It  was  then  Allâh’s  Will  that  the Messenger  of  Allâh  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  should  be  the  first  to  enter  the  Mosque.  On  seeing  him,  all  the people  on  the  scene,  cried  with  one  voice: “Al-Ameen  (the  trustworthy)  has  come.  We  are  content  to abide  by  his  decision.” Calm  and  self-possessed,  Muhammad ( sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) received  the commission  and  at  once  resolved  upon  an  expedient  which  was  to  conciliate  them  all.  He  asked  for  a mantle  which  he  spread  on  the  ground  and  placed  the  stone in  its  centre.  He  then  asked  the representatives  of  the  different  clans  among  them,  to  lift  the  stone  all  together.  When  it  had reached the  proper  place,  Muhammad  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) laid  it  in  the proper position  with  his  own  hands. This  is  how  a  very  tense  situation  was  eased  and  a  grave  danger  averted  by  the  wisdom  of  the  Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam).

  Quraish  ran  short  of  the  licit  money,  they  collected,  so  they  eliminated  six yards  area  on  the  northern side  of  Al-Ka‘bah  which  is  called  Al-Hijr  or  Al-Hateem.  They  raised  its  door  two  metres  from  the  level ground  to  let  in  only  the  people  whom  they desired.  When  the  structure  was  fifteen  yards  high  they erected  the roof  which  rested  on  six  columns. 

When  the  building  of  Al-Ka‘bah  had finished,  it  assumed  a  square  form  fifteen  metres  high.  The  side with  the  Black  Stone  and  the  one  opposite  were  ten  metres  long  each.  The  Black  Stone  was  1.50  metre from  the  circumambulation  level ground.  The  two  other  sides  were  twelve  metres  long  each.  The  door was  two  metres  high  from  the  level ground.  A  building  structure  of  0.25  metre  high  and  0.30  metre wide  on  the  average  surrounded  Al-Ka‘bah.  It  was  called  Ash-Shadherwan,  originally  an  integral  part  of the  Sacred  Sanctuary,  but  Quraish  left  it  out. 


Prophet  Muhammad   (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  was,  in  his  youth,  a  combination  of  the  best  social  attributes. He  was  an  exemplary  man  of  weighty  mind  and  faultless  insight.  He  was  favoured  with  intelligence, originality  of  thought  and  accurate  choice  of  the  means  leading  to  accurate  goals.  His  long  silence helped favourably in  his  habit  of meditation  and  deep  investigation  into  the  truth.  His  vivid  mind  and pure  nature  were  helpfully  instrumental  in  assimilating  and  comprehending  ways  of  life  and  people, individual  and  community-wise.  He  shunned  superstitious  practices  but  took  an  active  part  in constructive  and  useful  dealings,  otherwise,  he  would  have recourse  to  his  self-consecrated  solitude.  He kept  himself  aloof from  drinking  wine,  eating  meat  slaughtered  on  stone  altars,  or  attending  idolatrous festivals.  He  held  the  idols  in  extreme  aversion  and  most  abhorrence.  He  could  never  tolerate  someone swearing  by  Al-Lat  and  Al-‘Uzza.  Allâh’s  providence,  no  doubts,  detached  him  from  all  abominable  or evil  practices.  Even  when  he  tried  to  obey  his  instinct  to  enjoy  some  life  pleasures  or follow  some irrespectable  traditions,  Allâh’s  providence  intervened  to  curb  any  lapse  in  this  course.  Ibn  Al-Atheer reported  Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  as  saying: “I  have  never  tried  to  do  what  my people  do except  for  two  times.  Every  time  Allâh  intervened  and  checked  me  from  doing  so  and  I  never did  that again.  Once  I  told  my fellow-shepherd  to  take  care  of  my  sheep  when  we  were  in  the  upper  part  of Makkah.  I  wanted  to  go  down  to  Makkah  and  entertain  myself  as  the young  men  did.  I  went  down  to the  first  house  of  Makkah  where  I  heard  music.  I  entered  and  asked:  ‘What  is  this?’  Someone answered: ‘It  is  a  wedding  party.’  I  sat  down  and  listened  but  soon  went  into  deep  sleep.  I  was awakened  by  the  heat  of  the  sun.  I  went  back  to  my  fellow-shepherd  and  told  him  of  what  had happened  to  me.  I  have  never  tried  it  again.”

  Al-Bukhari  reported  on  the  authority  of  Jabir  bin  ‘Abdullah  that  he  said: “While  the  people  were rebuilding  Al-Ka‘bah,  the  Prophet  Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  went  with  ‘Abbas  to  carry  some stones.  ‘Abbas  said:  ‘Put  your  loincloth  round  your  neck  to  protect  you  from  the  stones.’ (As  he did that)  the  Prophet  (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) fell  to  the  ground  and  his  eyes  turned  skyward.  Later  on  he woke  up  and  shouted: ‘My  loincloth…  my  loincloth.’  He  wrapped  himself in  his  loincloth.”  In  another report: “His  loins  were  never  seen  afterwards.” 

The  authorities  agree  in  ascribing  to  the  youth  of Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam)  modesty  of deportment,  virtuous  behaviour  and  graceful  manners.  He  proved  himself  to  be  the  ideal  of  manhood, and  to  possess  a  spotless  character.  He  was  the  most  obliging  to  his  compatriots,  the  most  honest  in his  talk  and  the  mildest  in  temper.  He  was  the  most  gentle-hearted,  chaste,  hospitable  and  always impressed  people  by  his  piety-inspiring  countenance.  He  was  the  most  truthful  and  the  best  to  keep covenant.  His  fellow-citizens,  by  common  consent,  gave  him  the  title  of  Al-‘Ameen  (trustworthy).  The Mother  of believers,  Khadijah  (radhiyallahu anha)  once  said:  He  unites  uterine  relations,  he helps  the  poor  and  the  needy,  he  entertains  the  guests  and  endures  hardships  in  the  path  of truthfulness.

Continue reading further here: In the Shade of Message and Prophethood