Enquiry: Who amongst the scholars of the Shi’ite first proclaimed that the Qur’an was Incomplete, superfluous and distorted?
Response: It was their sheikh Hisham bin Al-Hakam (d. 190), who proclaimed exaggeration.(1) He claimed that the Qur’an was written during the era of the third rightly guided Khalifah, Uthman bin Affaan (Allah be pleased with him), and that the real Qur’an was taken up to the heavens when the companions became apostate, according to him”.(2)
The first of the Shi’ite books in which they claim incompleteness and excesses of the Qur’an Shareef
It was written by their scholar Sulaim bin Qais Al-Hilaali (d. 90). Al-Hajjaaj wanted to kill him, but he succeeded in escaping to Abbaan bin Abi ‘Ayyaash”.(3) And when Sulaim was on his death bed, he handed this book to Abu Ayyaash who later reported the book. No other person reported the book apart from him. (4)
It is the very first book to emanate for the Shiites (5), and is one of their original sources. It is also one of the oldest books written in Islam.
In fact, there is not a single controversy between the scholars of Shiites that:
“The book of Sulaim is one of their greatest fundamental books, which has been narrated by scholars and people bearing the traditions of Rasulullah’s Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam family and that it is also the earliest of their books. That everything contained in it are sayings of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam and Ali Radiallahu Anhu. That Abu Abdullah As-Saadiq (Allah be pleased with him) said: “Anyone from our Shiites and lovers who does not have with him the book of Sulaim bin Qais Al-Hilaali has nothing of our matter and he knows nothing concerning our cause. The book is the backbone of the Shiites and a secret amongst the secrets of the family of Muhammad Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam.” (7)
According to Al-Kashshi, Abbaan read the book to Ali bin Al-Husein (Allah be pleased with him) and he said: “Sulaim is correct, may Allah have mercy on him. This is a narration we know”.(8)
Inconsistencies in the Book of Sulaim and Ascribing of Partners to Allah Ta’ala
This book contains the fundamental belief of the sab’a Shiites scholars which deify Ali (Radiallahu Anhu) to have qualities which are exclusive to Allah Ta’ala:
It has in it, that whenever the Shiite scholars called upon Ali, they attribute Names of Allah to him such as “The First, The Last, The Open, The Hidden, The One Who knows everything”. These are in some editions of the book of Sulaim.
It is narrated therein, in their usual fabricating manner, that:
“Ali, the leader of the believers, in company of Abubakar, Umar and a group of Ansar and Muhaajiroon (Radiallahu Anhum), stepped out one morning to a place in Baqee’ and stood on a solid portion of the earth. As the sun rose, he said: ‘Peace be upon you, o you new and obedient creature of Allah.’ They overheard a loud voice from the sky saying in response: ‘And Peace be unto you, O The First, The Last, The Open, The Hidden, and The One Who knows everything.’ When Abubakr, Umar, the Ansar and Muhaajiroon (Radiallahu Anhum) heard this, they fainted. They regained consciousness hours later (or after a long period of time) and Ali had already left the place. They came to the Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam and said: ‘You tell us that Ali is human like us, but he has been addressed by the sun just as Allah addressed Himself. ‘” (9)
This belief has held sway in their most fundamental books and sources.
They also have another fabrication in which Allah said regarding Ali (Allah be pleased with him): “O Muhammad! Ali is The First, The Last, The Open, The Hidden, The One Who knows everything”. He replied: “O My Lord! Isn’t that You?” (11)
This was exactly what Abdulhusein Al-’Aamili, openly proclaimed in his words:
O Abu Hasan! You are the Eye of Allah
And the Eye of His Most High Ability
You encompass Knowledge of the hidden
Not even the most hidden can be hidden from you
And you are the …. of all that exist
And the reason for its remaining existence
To you belong all matters, as you save
Or punish at your own will (12)
Another poet of theirs also said concerning Ali (May Allah be pleased with him):
In him are gathered all attributes of the Lord
And only for a secret and wisdom did they gather (in him)(13)
A Mortal Blow for Shiite Scholars:
On reading through the book of Sulaim, scholars of the Twelver Shiites discovered an issue of very great importance that could put their acclaimed beliefs in shambles. The danger they discovered is that the book of Sulaim put the number of their Imams at thirteen. This continues to hunt down the foundation of the Twelver Shiites.
Source: Enquiries into Shi’ism
(1) See: Mu’jam Rijaal Al-Hadeeth vol. 20 p. 328 Discussion 3 (13361: Hishaam bin
Saalim) by Al-Khauni.
(2) At-Tanbeeh wa Ar-Radd pp. 25-26 by Al-Malti; Wasf Shuyookh Al-Shee’ah Hishaam bin Al-Hakam bi annahu ‘thiqah fee Ar-Riwaayaat, Hasan At-Tahqeeq’ jawaabaat Ahl Al-Mousil by Al-Mufeed, p. 45 footnote No. 5. The reason for this fabrication was that the Qur’an never mentioned their Imams and Hishaam was the first to mention Imamate. Shiite scholars said regarding Hishaam:”He opened discussion about the Imamate and also rectified the thought of Shiites. Among his books is ‘The Imamate’. Al-Fahrasat vol.1 p. 170 (The second Art from the Fifth Article in Al-Fahrasat on Information about scholars and names of books they wrote) by Muhammad bin Ishaaq An-Nadeem (d. 380)
(3) He is Abbaan bin Abi “Ayyaash Fairooz Abu Ismaa’eel (d. 138). Al-Hasan bin Ali Al-Hulli (d. 726) said that Abbaan bin Abi Ayyaash is weak narrator. It was said he fabri- cated the book of Sulaim bin Qais. Rijaal Ibn Dawood Al-Hulli p. 226 (The Second Part, Chapter of Hamzah No. 2).
Also see: Jaami’ Ar-Ruwaat wa Izaahat Al-Ishtibaahaat ‘an At-Turq wa Al-Isnaad vol. 1 p. 9 (Chapter of Alif ); Rijaal At-Tousi p. 126 No. 1264 (Companions of Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Ali bin Al-Husein Allah be pleased with them).
(4) Ar-Rijaal pp. 3-4 by Abu Ja’far Ahmad bin Muhammad Al-Barqi (d. 274); Al-Fahrasat by Ibn An-Nadeem vol. 1 p. 219 (Scholars of Shiites and their Hadeeths Narrators. The Fifth Art from the Sixth Article in Al-Fahrasat on information about scholars and names of books they wrote. It contains reports on Shiites Jurisprudents and names of books they wrote); Rijaal Ibn Dawood Al-Hulli p. 249 (The Second Part: Chapter of As-seen Al-Muh- malah No. 226); Al-Dharee’at ilaa Tasaaneef Al-Shee’ah vol. 2 p. 154 No. 590. But Sulaim bin Qais is nowhere mentioned in any of the books of bibliographies of Ahlus-sunnah.
(5) Al-Fahrasat by Ibn An-Nadeem vol. 1 p. 219 (Scholars of Shiites and their Hadeeths Narrators. The Fifth Art from the Sixth Article in Al-Fahrasat on information about scholars and names of books they wrote. It contains reports on Shiites Jurisprudents and names of books they wrote); Bihaar Al-Anwaar vol. 108 p. 8 (Fee Al-Bihaar wa maa feehi wa ta’reefuhu: al-muqaddimah ath-thaaniyyah fee taraajim mu’allifee masaadir al-kitaab); Al-Dharee’at ilaa Tasaaneef Al-Shee’ah vol. 2 p. 153 No. 590.
(6) Bihaar Al-Anwaar vol. 108 p. 8 (Fee Al-Bihaar wa maa feehi wa ta’reefuhu: al-muqad- dimah ath-thaaniyyah fee taraajim mu’allifee masaadir al-kitaab).
(7) Al-Dharee’at ilaa Tasaaneef Al-Shee’ah vol. 2 p. 152 No. 590.
(8) Rijaal Al-Kashshi vol. 2 p. 184 Discussion No. 167 (Sulaim bin Qais Al-Hilaali). Also see: Tahdheeb Al-Ahkaam vol. 9. P. 2174 Discussion No. 14 (Chapter: Al-Wasiyyah wa wujoobuha); Wasaa’il Al-Shee’ah vol. 18 p. 353 Discussion 78 (Chapter: It is compulsory to work with the ahaadeeth of the prophet (PBUH) and the Imams reported in approved books, their authenticity and confirmation); Bihaar Al-Anwaar vol. 1 p. 79 (Chapter Five: Inevitable Quotations from those cited by Authors of books…).
(9) The bookof Sulaim bin Qais pp. 453-454 (The leader of the believers speaking to the sun with the instruction of the Prophet (PBUH)).
(10) The Book of Virtue p. 70 (The Sun Speaking with Ali (Allah be pleased with him)) by
Shaadhaan bin Jibraa’eel Al-Qummi(d. 660).
(11) Basaa’ir Ad-Darajaat Al-Kubraa vol. 2 p. 475 Discussion 37 (Chapter of rare reports about the Imams and their miracles); Bihaar Al-Anwaar vol. 18 p. 377 Discussion 82 (Chap- ter: Confirming ascension, its manner, what happened in it and describing Al-Barraaq).
(12) Diwaan Shu’araa Al-Husein, Part 1 of the Second Section for Arabic Literature, p. 48. Published by Muhammad Baaqir Al-Arwaani, Tahran Ed. 1374.
(13) Daa’irat Al-Ma’aarif Ash-Shee’iyyah vol. 1 p. 153 by Muhammad Husein Al-A’lami Al-Haa’iri.