The Takbirs of Eid – From the Fajr on the 9th of Dhu’l Hijjah to ‘Asr on the 13th
In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate. All praise is to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. And the blessings and peace of Allah be upon His Chosen Messenger, the Prophet Muhammad, his family, companions, and followers.
Allah Most High commanded us to, “Remember Allah through the appointed days.” [Qur’an, 2.203]
The Qur’anic exegetes explain this as referring to the takbirs of these days.
There are numerous hadiths that have been mentioned on the this, as the great Hanafi hadith expert (and teacher of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani) Jamal al-Din al-Zayla`i expounded in his Nasb al-Raya [2.266-269]
This has been established by consensus of the Companions of the Beloved of Allah, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). [Mawaffaq Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni 2.126 #1431]
· It is necessary (wajib) for every Muslim (male or female, whether praying in congregation or alone) to make the following takbir (declaration of the greatness of Allah) immediately after each obligatory (fard) prayer.
· From: the Fajr Prayer on the 9th of Dhu’l Hijjah (the Day of `Arafah)
· To: the ‘Asr Prayer on the 13th of Dhu’l Hijjah.
Thus, these takbirs last 5 days, and 23 prayers.
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illa Llahu.
Wa Llahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa lillahi Lhamd.
(Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, there is no god but Allah. And Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest and to Allah belongs all praise.)
Rulings related to this:
1. The wajib is to recite this takbir once. If done more than this, it is good. [Haskafi, Durr, quoting `Ayni]
2. The position related above that it is obligatory for 23 prayers, whether in congregation or alone, for every Muslim, is the position of Abu Hanifa’s students, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan, and it is the position acted upon and chosen for fatwa, because of the strength of their evidence and the inherited practice being on it, and because it is more cautious. [Durr and Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, quoting al-Zahidi]
Imam Abu Hanifa’s position, that it lasts only 8 prayers, is supported by evidence, too, though, including the practice of some major Companions such as Ibn Mas`ud (Allah be pleased with him), and was taken by some major Hanafi imams, though a minority, such as Ibn al-Humam in his Fath al-Qadir.
3. It is not wrong (rather, it is recommended) to also perform it after the Eid prayer itself because the Muslims have performed it generation after generation, so it is proper to follow their inherited practice (that has been accepted by generation after generation of scholars). [Durr and Radd al-Muhtar]
4. The followers must perform it, even if the imam leaves it. [Durr]
5. Latecomers [=those who missed one or more rakat of the congregational prayer] must perform it, but after completing their prayer.
6. It is necessary for the congregation to perform it out loud. [Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar, quoting Quhustani]
7. It is necessary to make the takbirs immediately after the salams. If one talks, loses one’s wudu, or performs other actions completely foreign to the prayer, one has missed the wajib. [al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya; Durr]
And Allah alone gives success.