SERVICES OF ULAMA-E-DEOBAND IN THE REALM OF HADITH SCIENCE

By Mufti Sajjad Husain Qasmi

Abstract:   
 
The sole objective of the present study is to elucidate the remarkable contributions and luminous achievements of Deobandi scholars in an auspicious field of glorious Ahadith. As a matter of fact, there had been different schools of thought who have greatly paid full attention on the teachings of the Prophet ﷺ but the laudable work which Deobandi scholars have rendered are amazingly unparalleled and matchless in its type. They enriched the Islamic literature with their thoughtful and unique explanations of the prophetic traditions with the inference of new emerging issues in the light of the eloquent words of the Prophet ﷺ. Their handsome work made them dignified and majestic figures in their respective fields. Their excellent effort in pondering on Prophet’s ﷺ sayings is their characteristic feature which is rarely seen elsewhere. Their accomplishments and services in this regard are the focus of this present study.

Introduction:   

There is no denying the fact that the art of Hadith has enormous weight and great value in Islamic firmament as being a reliable source to guide all human beings to the straight path of success, peace and tranquility of soul and heart. It is undoubtedly believed to be second most significant source of the heavenly religion of Islam. In other words, it can be certainly said that if the teachings of the heavenly revelation is the heart in Islamic arts then the sacred Hadith is the jugular vein which circulates the fresh and energetic blood to the entire trunks and branches of Islamic science and keeps the religious orchard green, blooming and laden with ripe fruits all the time. It is Hadith that discloses the circumstances of the revelation, explanation and interpretation of the verses, exposition of ambiguity and generalization in the meaning of the words which are more confined to its sense. All the discourse, morals, and character as well as the sayings of the prophet would be in darkest layers of obscurity, if we were deprived of the blessed Ahadith that are considered to be beacons of light in intertwined occurrences of day-to-day life. The Muslim nation holds high reverence and love for what the beloved messenger has said, acted upon and approved since it possesses worthwhile significance in formulating Islamic law and being proved by the actual words of the heavenly book: “And he (the Prophet ﷺ) does not speak out of his own desire. It is not but a revelation revealed (to him)” (Qur’an 53:3). Therefore the Prophet’s ﷺ saying has been accepted as an authentic and reliable source of Islamic law and it remained unchallenged and undisputed throughout the centuries.

There have been many differences among Muslims in their juristic opinions, but the authority of Hadith was never denied by any jurist. It is Allah’s irrevocable  custom to choose the intellectuals, pious and notable figures to nurture and safeguard  both the words and meanings of the revelation for all the humanity till doomsday. On account of Deobandi scholars’ sincerity and inclination towards religious works, Allah Almighty has chosen them for this great and everlasting work which won them eternal name and fame and left their names engraved in the shining pages of the history. [Barre Sagheer Pak Wa Hind Mein Ilme Hadith, P.29]

Their multifarious services in Hadith:

Their immortal and exemplary services in the field of Hadith may be classified in the following points:

(1) Deobandi scholars’ contribution to prove the authority of Hadith
(2) Linguistic services of Deobandi scholars in regard to the meaning of Hadith
(3) Explanatory works of Ahadith (4) Deductions of hidden jurisprudential issues from Hadith (5) Reconciliation between conflicting traditions
(6) Books, lectures and dictations of Deobandi Scholars on Hadith (7) Acknowledgement of foreign scholars for their works.

The contribution of Deobandi scholars to prove the authority of Hadith:   

Before going into the depth of the subject, one should have the idea in the mind that Deobandi Ulama lived in a time when the political power of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent had been impoverished and their hegemony was thoroughly impaired from its roots. On the other hand, Muslims fell prey to the brutal attacks which orientalists waged against Islamic teachings and religious practices to extinguish the candle of love installed in the hearts of the believers with regard to the Prophet ﷺ and they attempted to plunder the legacy of worthwhile Hadith. The Islamic scholars and intellectuals of Deoband were disheartened over the decay of Islamic education and Islamic scholarly tradition. Firstly, they lit the candle of prophetic traditions by preaching and delivering speeches in the public gatherings throughout India to acquaint the Mulim community with the rich assets of Islam, inculcating the love of Prophet ﷺ, his saying and actions approved by him. They delivered pithy sermons in the gloomy society to infuse the spirit of faith and make them inclined towards the heavenly deeds, inspired by the instructive wordings and orders of the Prophet . [Abdurrahamn Al-Barni, Ulama-o- Deoband Wa Khadamt-u-Hum fi Ilm al-Hadith, p.336]

Compilations on the authority of Hadith by the Deobandi scholars

As it is earlier brought to the light that western writers, authors and men of literature have raised stern objections against the authenticity and reliability of the prophetic traditions to mislead all adherents of Islam and create falsehood and misconception regarding the legal status of Hadith in the mind of ordinary people and let them fall prey to their prosaic and dull allegations fabricated against Islam.

• Hujjiyyat al-Hadith by Idris Kandhlawi and Muhammad Tayyib al-Qasimi
• Nusrat al-Hadith by Habib al-Rahman al-A’zami in Urdu. This was translated into Arabic by Mas’ud al-A’zami with a forward by Muhammad Awwamah.
• Al-Intisar li Sunnat Sayyid al-Abrar Muhammad Tahir al-Murdani
• Nata’ij al-Inkar al-Hadith by Sarfaraz Khan Safdar
• Al-Madkhal ila Dirasat al-Hadith al-Nabawi al-Sharif and Dawr al-Hadith fi Takwin al-Munakh al-Islami by Abu al-Hasan al-Nadawi • Tadwin-e Hadith by Munazir Ahsan Gilani. This was later translated into Arabic by ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Iskandari and revised by Bashshar ‘Awwad Ma‘ruf
• Hujjiyyat al-Hadith by Maulana Taqi Usmani 
• Dirasat fi al-Ahadith al-Nabawiyyah by Mustafa Azami
• Al-Fawa’id al-Malakutiyyah fi ann al-Hadith Hujjah by Musa Ruhani Bazi [Muntasir Zaman, The Contribution of the Scholars of Deoband in the Field of Hadith].

Linguistic services regarding Hadith:   

There is no iota of doubt that Deobandi scholars had marvelously paid their exhaustive contribution in as many aspects as they could to clearly reveal the wonders and latent secrets of the traditions literally, analytically and rationally. As far as the linguistic and grammatical matters are concerned, Deobandi Ulama laid great emphasis on it in a bid to defend the treasure of Hadith from being distorted or plundered by the mischief-mongers as it is predicted by the Prophet in the following sound and authentic tradition:

Prophet ﷺ said: “This Knowledge will be transmitted from every just successor who will negate the distortions of the deviated, the plagiarism of the people on falsehood and the false interpretations of the unlettered” [Mishkaatul Masaabeeh, 1/82].

The above description mentioned in the Hadith expounds to us the key attributes and principles of the true Islamic scholars and it makes their bounden duty to protect Islamic fort from the bunch of crooks or transgressors. Acting upon this tradition, they put their focus on linguistic aspects of the traditions to impart the hidden rubies and pearls to the worldwide Islamic nation. They thoroughly referred to the old and reliable pre-Islamic poems and literary texts to get the actual nuances of the meaning of the words delivered by the Prophet ﷺ. If any word of Hadith looks ambiguous and equivocal in its meaning then they ponder on the context to affirm its desired sense in order to fully keep the texts safe from  fabrication or misrepresentation. This was done to fortify the ramparts of Islam for the sake of its protection from external attacks. Figurative language has been used in different ways in the Hadith e.g. use of metaphors, synecdoche, similes, proverbs and metonymy to communicate to the audience clearly. They concentrated on the figurative language used in some places of the traditions. They fully explained various figures of speech used in Hadith in such a way that can manifest the real objective of the Messenger ﷺ. Here I set one example from the most informative and thoughtful book called Attaliqussabih compiled by Maulana Idris Kandhlavi.

(Sawm (fasting) is shield; Dhamma on Meem and Tashdeed on Noon, means protection and security. And it is said that it strikes the lust and weakens it, further it is reported that the fasting is rein of the pious men, shield of the warriors and the garden of God-fearing figures. Ibn-e- Abdul Barr has averred that fasting means nothing else but to keep away from the lust and hell-fire).   

So, let us deeply ponder in this text excerpted from the lengthy and pithy volume of the above mentioned book that shows how excellently he has solved the phonetic hurdles along with linguistic explanation. He then quoted different quotations from the various trustworthy books to make the meaning peculiarly clear to the readers. Moreover, when the reader reads the word shield the encyclopedic entries and the socio-cultural norms are triggered and the mind searches for all mental representations in order to understand the meaning encoded by the word shield. The following assumptions are made:

a) Tool used to protect oneself
b) The tool is strong / made of metal
c)  It is used in places where there is war / chaos

The assumptions interact with the reader’s knowledge to yield the following contextual implications:

d) Fasting is used to protect oneself against evil
e)  For fasting he / she must be strong
f)  Fasting helps one to solve life’s problems (Al-taliqussabih, published in Hyderabad, :2/337)

Explanatory works of Ahadith rendered by Deobandi Ulama:   

The explanatory books of Hadith penned by Deobandi scholars have gripped the attention of the entire Islamic world due to its authenticity, exhaustiveness, reliability and variety of information, and instruction which other books are lacking in. They have matchless exceptionality in opening up the vast window of thoughts and views for the Hadith learners. They write down the brief elucidations in a wonderful manner that helps the reader to easily and interestingly absorb the theme of traditions and remain stimulated to put what he has learnt in his day-to-day practical life. Likewise, they objectively took stock of the transitions related to Islamic tenets, doctrines, dealings and social and financial issues as much sincerely as the honest stewards and responsible trustees of wealthy legacies deal with their antique chattels to prevent them from possible loss or extinction, keeping away themselves from personal gains.

When discussing any particular Hadith, the grand specialist in Hadith, Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri made a sterling effort to identify the narrators in the Isnad (chain of authorities reporting the Hadith) cited the names of the more unfamiliar narrators. For instance, the Isnad of the very first Hadith that appears in the most authentic book Bukhari, in the chapter entitled “The Disappearance of Religious Knowledge and the Appearance of Religious Ignorance” the name of Rabiah appears as one of the narrators. Shah Sahib explains that Rabi’ah was the teacher of Imam Abu Hanifa. Moreover, he also pointed out that Imam Malik Ibn Anas also studied Islamic jurisprudence under the same scholar, namely, Rabiah. [Faid-ul-Bari Vol. 1, p. 177]

Their commentaries give the different views of scholars from varied schools of thought but they have adopted a moderate and balanced method to fairly justify their views and deductions inferred from the two comprehensive and trustworthy sources, the Holy Qur’an and the sacred Hadith, in such remarkable way which does not reflect the least degree of bigotry and narrow-mindedness in evaluating the matter. Moreover they are inclined to bridge the ideological gap prevalent in the Muslim community. Here is one example from Fayd al-Bari, under the explanation of famous Hadith “Verily actions  are judged according to the intentions” he says: “this Hadith has been interpreted by the jurists on the basis of their own particular school of thought. For example, inferring from this Hadith, the Shafi School holds the view that intention is compulsory at the time when one begins to perform the ablution whereas the view of the Hanafi School is that it is not compulsory for one to make the intention for performing the ablution. The great Shah Sahab then explains that since intention does not form part of the Qur’anic imperative that pertains to ablution, it would be in order to conclude that it is meritorious and not compulsory to make the intention for performing the ablution. There are many more instances which give clear indication of their extensive knowledge of prophetic teachings. [Faid-ul-Bari Vol. 1, p. 2] 

Remarkable commentaries on Hadith books    

Many of Deobandi scholars have written commentaries on al-Kutub al-Sittah (six most authentic books of Hadith), and other commonly available Hadith works which are in Arabic, Urdu, and other languages. The names of some books are mentioned hereunder: 

Sahih al-Bukhari: 

⚫ Anwar al-Bari by Ahmad Rida al-Bijnori 
⚫ Fadl al-Bari fi Fiqh al-Bukhari by ‘Abd al-Ra’uf al-Hazarawi 
⚫ Tuhfat al-Qari fi Mushkilat al-Bukhari by Muhammad Idris Kandhlawi 
⚫ Farhat al-Qari an Sahih al-Bukhari by Shayr Zaman al-Hazarawi
⚫ Al-Kawthar al-Jari fi Sharh al-Bukhari by ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Murdani 
⚫ Talkhis al-Bukhari by Shams al-Duha al-Zankuni 
⚫ Is‘ad al-Bari by Siddiq Ahmad Bandawi 
⚫ Al-Abwab wa al-Tarajim by Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi

Among works written on related aspects are the following:

⚫ Nibras al-Sari fi Atraf al-Bukhari by ‘Abd al-‘Aziz Punjabi 
⚫ In‘am al-Bari fi Sharh Ash‘ar al-Bukhari by Muhammad Ashiq Ilahi 
⚫ Izalat al-Qassas-e-Wajh Qal Ba‘d al-Nas by Mujib al-Rahman al-Bangladeshi 
⚫ Ma Yanfa‘ al-Nas fi Sharh Qal Ba‘d al-Nas Muhammad Tahir al-Rahman

Sahih Muslim:    

⚫ Fath al-Mulhim fi Sharh by Maulana Shabbir Ahmad ‘Uthmani, and Mufti Taqi ‘Uthmani

Sunan al-Nasa’i:    

⚫ Faid-al-Samai by Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi  
⚫ Al-Muktafa bi Sharh al-Mujtaba by Ahmad Hasan al-Fattani

Jami’ al-Tirmidhi:     

⚫ Al-Tib al-Shadhi by Ashfaq al-Rahman Kandhlawi 
⚫ Hadiyyat al-Ahwadhi by Ibrahim Balyawi 
⚫ Tanqih al-Shadhi by Shams al-Haqq al-Afghani
⚫ Ma‘arif al-Sunan by Muhammad Yusuf Banuri.  
⚫ Khaza’in al-Sunan by Sarfaraz Khan Safdar

Sunan Abi

Badhl al-Majhud by Khalil Ahmad al-Saharanpuri 
⚫ Intibah al-Ruqud fi Hall-e-Sunan Abu Dawud by Shayr Zaman al-Hazarawi 
⚫ Zubdat al-Maqsud fi Hall-e-Qal Abu Dawud by Muhammad Tahir al-Rahimi

Muwatta’ Malik:     

⚫ Awjaz al-Masalik by Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi  ⚫ Kashf al-Mughatta fi Rijal al-Muwatta’ by Ashfaq al-Rahman Kandhlawi in respect to the narrators of the book

Sharh Ma’ani al-Athar by al-Tahawi   

⚫ Amani al-Ahbar by Yusuf Kandhlawi. He passed away before completing one-fourth of the book 
⚫ Tabhij al-Rawi bi Takhrij Ahadith al-Tahawi by Ashiq Ilahi 
⚫ Majani al-Athmar by the above author 
⚫ Talkhis al-Tahawi by Husayn Ali Punjabi 
⚫ Nathr al-Azhar by Muhammad Amin Aurakza’i 
⚫ Al-Hawi ‘ala Mushkilat al-Tahawi by ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Kamilpuri

Mishkat al-Masabih  
⚫ Al-Ta’liq al-Sabih by Muhammad Idris Kandhlawi 
⚫ Mishalul Masabeeh by Maulana Salman Nadwi

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Deception of “Summoning the Souls”

By Mujlisul Ulama

ONE of the favourable stunts of deception and fraud perpetrated by some people with the aid of evil jinn is supposedly to summon the souls or spirits of dead persons to appear. When the ‘souls’ of the deceased appear,   they speak and convey information about the unseen realm. Such a meeting with the ‘spirits’ or ‘souls’ is called a séance.

Sometimes at the séance the ‘dead’ makes a visible appearance and speaks to those present. Sometimes the ‘souls’ of the  dead denuded of physical form, speak through a medium who is a human being in a trance. During the trance, it is said that the souls of the dead enter into the body of the person who is in the trance.

All such demonstrations are satanic stunts of deception and fraud. Neither do the deceased persons appear nor their souls. All such displays are the effects of the shayaateen. Every person has a shaitaan called Qareen who constantly accompanies that person. Sometimes after the death of a person, Qareen assumes the appearance of the deceased and appears to people. Sometimes he does not make a visible appearance, but speaks through a medium in a voice which the observer recognizes to be that of the deceased person.

This type of fraud leads people to believe that the dead truly appear on earth. The souls of the dead are either in the abode of Torment (Sijjeen) or in the abode of Bliss (Illiyeen). No human being or devil has the power to summon the deceased from these abodes. Evil jinn assume the forms of the deceased and in this way deceive and mislead people. Never be impressed with this type of seemingly supernatural fraud.

Objection on Bahishti Zewar – Response to the Article: “Wudu in Reverse”

Accusation by the La-Madhabi website Gift2Deobandis.com:

This surely isn’t Islam and this is not taught to us by the Prophet sal Allahu aleyhi wasallam. One of the virtuous acts in Islam and the virtues are such tremendous and great in number but see how this is act is being ruined. Once there was one of our brothers who just asked a Deobandi brother how it is to perform Wudu the other way around? (as mentioned in Bahishti Zewar). The Deobandi brother gave an emotional answer that “This is the Wudoo of Shias”. The Deobandi brother didn’t knew that Ashraf Ali Thanvi had the same reverse procedure of Wudoo in his book. Khair, Allaah completed His Deen 1400 years back and One of The Crucial Criterias of Allaah accepting our A’maal is that it has to be accordance to the Sunnah. If its not in accordance to the Sunnah then no matter how sugar coated the act looks like, Allaah does not accept it. This reverse method is no where in the deen of Allaah and this is an innovation in the deen of Allaah.

https://gift2deobandis.com/2013/11/29/wudu-in-reverse/amp/

LET’S REFUTE:

Objection: How a Reverse Wudu is Valid??

TEXT OF BAHISHTI ZEWAR
If someone makes wudu in reverse order e.g. washes the feet first, then the hands, or in some other order, then also his wudu will be valid. (Bahishti Zewar)

Clarification: Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (رحمة الله عليه) is clearly not encouraging to perform wudu in any way contradictory to the Sunnah. He merely says that if wudu were done in that way, it would be valid. It thus implies that if salaah were to be performed with that wudu, it would be validly discharged and not obligatory to repeat. This is something in which the mujtahid imāms (رحمة الله عليهم) differed, so how can anyone of us today criticize them for what they held?

In Short, the book IS NOT encouraging anyone to make Wudu out of order but describing a scenario WHEN it occurs out of order as to the status of the Wudu. 

There is a difference of opinion on Niyyah in the Madhahib for Taharah so lets park that aside for a moment. Hanafis have a response on the matter which we will elaborate in detailed manner further. Insha Allah

Deception: The La-Madhabi says: Once there was one of our brothers who just asked a Deobandi brother how it is to perform Wudu the other way around? (as mentioned in Bahishti Zewar). The Deobandi brother gave an emotional answer that “This is the Wudoo of Shias”.
This exposes the deceiving arts of the La-Madhabiyyah, they cut the context and present it to the layman, they want the layman to just conclude on whatever they present without giving them a chance to probe the truth. This is indeed the greatest deception, if someone from the deviates approach you with their deceptive intentions, it is important to consult the Ulama and search for the truth instead on coming under their snares of deception. Let whatever the accusations may be.

Full text of Bahishti Zewar

Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (may Allah have mercy on him) writes: 

“Sunnah is to make wudu exactly as has been mentioned above, but if anyone alters or reverses the procedure of wudu, e.g. by washing the feet first, then making masah, and then washing the hands, and thereafter washing the face, or alters the procedure in any other way – then also wudu will still be regarded as complete and valid. However, it will not be considered to be in accordance with the sunnah, and there is always the fear of having sinned…” [Bahishti Zewar, Page: 78]

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Frauds of Ahl-e-Hadith:

First fraud is that they quote a masa’lah with the omission of starting and ending texts and present only a part of the masa’lah, as you can see in the objection. 

Second fraud is that they overlook the Sunnah way of wudu mentioned in Bahishti Zewar. 

Sunnah Way of Wudu Mentioned in Bahishti Zewar: 

Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (may Allah have mercy on him) has mentioned the procedure of complete and Sunnah wudu under a title, wherein he says:

(1) The person making wudu should face the qiblah and sit on an elevated place so that the water does not splash on him.

(2) When commencing wudu, Bism Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim should be recited.

(3) First of all, the hands should be washed up to the wrists three times.

(4) Thereafter, rinse the mouth three times and use a miswak. If there is no miswak, a thick cloth or even the fore-finger could be used so that all the dirt is removed. If the person is not fasting, he should gargle the mouth thoroughly. However, if he is fasting, he should not gargle thoroughly because there is a possibility that water will go down the throat. 

(5) Thereafter, rinse the nose three times and clean it with the left hand. However, the fasting person should not allow the water to go beyond the soft-bone of the nose. 

(6) Then wash the face three times: from the hair-line till below the chin, and from one earlobe to the other. Water must reach all these places and no place should remain dry. 

(7) Wash the right hand up to and including the elbows. Thereafter wash the left hand up to and including the elbows. And make khilal of the fingers by passing the fingers of one hand through the fingers of the other hand. If there is a ring or any bangles etc on the fingers, it should be re-adjusted so that no part is left dry. 

(8) Thereafter make masah of the head (passing wet hands over the head). Then make masah of the ears by inserting the forefingers into the ears and making masah of the back of the ear-lobes with the thumb of each hand. Thereafter, make masah of the neck with the back of the fingers of both hands, but masah of the fore-neck i.e. throat should not be made as this is prohibited. 

(9) Thereafter wash the right foot up to and including the ankles. Do the same for the left foot. Make khilal of the toes of the feet with the little finger of the left hand. When making khilal, commence with the little toe of the right foot and end with the little toe of the left foot. This is the correct method of performing wudu.  

[Bahishti Zewar – Wudu Ka Bayan, Page: 75-76 (Maktabah Al-Bushrah, Karachi)]

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Enmity of Ahl-e-Hadith Toward Sunnah

Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (may Allah have mercy on him) says that wudu should be according to Sunnah in perfect order, but if someone makes wudu in other way, it will be against Sunnah and he may be sinful.

The Sunnah way of wudu is prevalent among all Hanafis, the sect of Ahl-e-Hadith presents the text from this book in a fraudulent way and invites the Hanafis to do wudu against the Sunnah way. This is in fact a clear proof of their enmity towards Sunnah.

Enmity of Ahl-e-Hadith Toward Hadith

Sunnah is called an act narrated from the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and many of the Companions have narrated his wudu in the same order. However, sometimes he did otherwise to just to show that it is also lawful.

This is the reason that Miqdam bin Ma’dikarib (may Allah be pleased with him) reported in a Hadith that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) performed wudu in a different order. 

Ghair-Muqallid scholar Sub’hi bin Hasan has written under the title: Making Wudu in Order:

”The evidence of performing wudu in order is that the majority of Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them) who narrated the wudu of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) narrate it the same order and procedures, except Miqdad bin Ma’dikarib (may Allah be pleased with him), he narrates that water was brought to the Prophet (may  Allah bless him and grant him peace) for wudu, so he performed wudu by washing his hands thrice, his face thrice, his hands (up to elbows) thrice, then he rinsed his mouth thrice and rinsed the nose thrice, then he did masah of the head along with ears inside and outside. [Fiqh Kitab-o-Sunnat, Urdu translation, Page: 132; Hukm-e-Hadith: SAHIH]

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Text of the Hadith:  

ﻗﺎﻝ : ﺣَﺪَّﺛَﻨَﺎ ﺃَﺣْﻤَﺪُ ﺑْﻦُ ﻣُﺤَﻤَّﺪِ ﺑْﻦِ ﺣَﻨْﺒَﻞٍ ﺣَﺪَّﺛَﻨَﺎ ﺃَﺑُﻮ ﺍﻟْﻤُﻐِﻴﺮَﺓِ ﺣَﺪَّﺛَﻨَﺎ ﺣَﺮِﻳﺰٌ ﺣَﺪَّﺛَﻨِﻰ ﻋَﺒْﺪُ ﺍﻟﺮَّﺣْﻤَﻦِ ﺑْﻦُ ﻣَﻴْﺴَﺮَﺓَ ﺍﻟْﺤَﻀْﺮَﻣِﻰُّ ﺳَﻤِﻌْﺖُ ﺍﻟْﻤِﻘْﺪَﺍﻡَ ﺑْﻦَ ﻣَﻌْﺪِ ﻳﻜَﺮِﺏَ ﺍﻟْﻜِﻨْﺪِﻯَّ ﻗَﺎﻝَ “: ﺃُﺗِﻲَ ﺭَﺳُﻮﻝُ ﺍﻟﻠﻪِ ﺑِﻮَﺿُﻮﺀٍ ﻓَﺘَﻮَﺿَّﺄَ ، ﻓَﻐَﺴَﻞَ ﻛَﻔَّﻴْﻪِ ﺛَﻼَﺛًﺎ ﺛُﻢَّ ﻏَﺴَﻞَ ﻭَﺟْﻬَﻪُ ﺛَﻼَﺛًﺎ ، ﺛُﻢَّ ﻏَﺴَﻞَ ﺫِﺭَﺍﻋَﻴْﻪِ ﺛَﻼَﺛًﺎ ﺛَﻼَﺛًﺎ ﺛُﻢَّ ﻣَﻀْﻤَﺾَ ﻭَﺍﺳْﺘَﻨْﺸَﻖَ ﺛَﻼَﺛًﺎ ﺛُﻢَّ ﻣَﺴَﺢَ ﺑِﺮَﺃْﺳِﻪِ ﻭَﺃُﺫُﻧَﻴْﻪِ ﻇَﺎﻫِﺮِﻫِﻤَﺎ ﻭَﺑَﺎﻃِﻨِﻬِﻤَﺎ ﻭَﻏَﺴَﻞَ ﺭِﺟْﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﺛَﻼَﺛًﺎ ﺛَﻼَﺛًا

[Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 121] 

Sunan Abu Dawud, published with the notes of Shuaib al-Arnaut, carries this Hadith with a footnote saying: 

صحيح لغيره، وهذا اسناد حسن، عبدالرحمن بن ميسرة الحضرمي روى عنه جمع، ووثقه العجلي، وقال أبو داود: شيوخ حريز ثقات كلهم، وذكره ابن حبان في الثقات، وباقي رجاله ثقات

This Hadith is Sahih li Ghairih and its sanad is Hasan, this was narrated by several persons from Abdur Rahmān bin Maysarah and he was declared thiqah (reliable) by Shaikh Ijli. Abu Dawud said: All the shuyukh of Harir are thiqah and Ibn Hibban mentioned him among reliable ones, and the other narrators are also thiqah.

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Another version of Sunan Abu Dawud, published with the notes of Ghair Muqallid scholar Zubair Ali Zai, also says in the footnote: Sanad Hasan.

Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani (may Allah have mercy on him) regarded the Hadith as Hasan: 

حديث المقدام بن معد يكرب وإسناده حسن

[Al-Talkhis Al-Habir bi Tahqiq Sayyid Abdullah Hashim Al-Yamani, Vol:1/ Page: 89, No. 94]

It is widespread trend among the Ahl-e-Hadith people that if their opponents misquote an Ayat or Hadith mistakenly, they bluntly call it Tahrif (distortion), not mistake. 

In the version of  Abu Dawud published with the notes of Zubair Ali Zai, the Arabic text of the Hadith and its translation has been misplaced; the text of rinsing mouth and nose (ثم مضمض واستنشق) was placed after the text of washings the wrists apparently to make the order correct. 

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But Imam Abu Dawud (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated this Hadith from Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (may Allah have mercy on him) and this Hadith is recorded in his Musnad too…

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Apart from Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (may Allah have mercy on him), this Hadith was reported by two more Muhaddithin from whom Imam Tabrani (may Allah have mercy on him) has narrated the Hadith: 

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو زَيْدٍ الْحَوْطِيُّ، حَ
وَحَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْوَهَّابِ بْنِ نَجْدَةَ، قَالَا: ثَنَا أَبُو الْمُغِيرَةِ، ثَنَا حَرِيزُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ مَيْسَرَةَ الْحَضْرَمِيِّ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ الْمِقْدَامَ بْنَ مَعْدِي كَرِبٍالْكِنْدِيَّ يَقُولُ: »أُتِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِوَضُوءٍ ,فَتَوَضَّأَ فَغَسَلَ كَفَّيْهِ ثَلَاثًا , ثُمَّ غَسَلَ وَجْهَهُ ثَلَاثًا , ثُمَّ غَسَلَ ذِرَاعَيْهِ ثَلَاثًا , وَمَضْمَضَ ثَلَاثًا , وَاسْتَنْشَقَ ثَلَاثًا , ثُمَّ مَسَحَ بِرَأْسِهِ وَأُذُنَيْهِ ظَاهِرِهِمَا وَبَاطِنِهِمَا , وَغَسَلَ رِجْلَيْهِ ثَلَاثًا

[Musnad Al-Shamiyin, Vol: 2/ Page: 146-147, (Muassasa Risaala)]

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ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺑﻦ ﻧﺠﺪﺓ ، ﻭﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﻃﻴﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻻ : ﺛﻨﺎ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻴﺮﺓ ، ﺛﻨﺎ ﺣﺮﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ، ﺣﺪﺛﻨﻲ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻴﺴﺮﺓ ، ﻗﺎﻝ : ﺳﻤﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﻱ ﻛﺮﺏ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ : ” ﺃﺗﻲ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺀ ” ﻓﺘﻮﺿﺄ ﻓﻐﺴﻞ ﻛﻔﻴﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ ، ﺛﻢ ﻏﺴﻞ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ ، ﺛﻢ ﻏﺴﻞ ﺫﺭﺍﻋﻴﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ ﻓﻤﻀﻤﺾ ، ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸﻖ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ ، ﺛﻢ ﻣﺴﺢ ﺑﺮﺃﺳﻪ ﻭﺃﺫﻧﻴﻪ : ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻃﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻏﺴﻞ ﺭﺟﻠﻴﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺎ ﺛﻼﺛا

[Mu’jam al-Kabir Tabrani, Vol: 20/ Page: 276-277 (Maktabah Ibn Taymiyyah)]

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In a similar Hadith, Abdullah bin Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) stated:  

“The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) performed wudu, he took water from the vessel and rinsed his nose and then his mouth once.”

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما، قال: توضا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فادخل يده فى الاناء، فاستنشق ومضمض مرة واحدة

[Musnad Imam Shafi’i, Kitāb: al-Taharah]

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Athār of the Sahabah: 

Hadhrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said: I have no problem while doing wudu whether to start it with any of the parts:

حَدَّثَنَا مُعْتَمِرُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ، عَنْ عَوْفٍ، عَن ْعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ هِنْدٍ، قَالَ : قَال َعَلِيٌّ:” مَا أُبَالِي إِذَا أَتْمَمْتُ وُضُوئِي بِأَيِّ أَعْضَائِي بَدَأْتُ “.

Hadhrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said: I have no problem while doing wudu to start it left before washing the right:

حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصٌ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبِي خَالِدٍ، عَن ْزِيَادٍ، قَالَ : قَالَ عَلِيٌّ:” مَا أُبَالِي لَوْ بَدَأْتُ بِالشِّمَالِ قَبْلَ الْيَمِينِ إِذَا تَوَضَّأْتُ “.

Hadhrat Abdullah bin Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said: There is no problem if you start wudu by washing your feet before your hands:

حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، عَن ْسُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ مُوسَى، عَن ْمُجَاهِدٍ، قَالَ : قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ:” لَا بَأْسَ أَنْ تَبْدَأَ بِرِجْلَيْكَ قَبْلَ يَدَيْكَ فِي الْوُضُوءِ “.

[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah]

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It is nowhere mentioned in a Hadith or in an Athar that doing wudu in non-Sunnah order makes it invalid.  

Enmity of Ahl-e-Hadith towards the Salaf:

Imam Tirmidhi (may Allah have mercy on him) says: the scholars have difference of opinion regarding one who leaves rinsing mouth and nose, so some say if one leaves them in wudu and then performed Salah, he will have to re-offer Salah and the ruling is same for both wudu and (ghusl of) Janabah (impurity). This is the opinion of Ibn Abi Layla, Abdullah bin al-Mubarak, Ahmad and Ishaq. Imam Ahmad says that rinsing nose is more required than rinsing mouth. Imam Tirmidhi says that a group of scholars says: he will have to reoffer in case of Janabah, but not in wudu, and this is the opinion of Sufyan al-Thauri and some scholars of Kufa. While, another group of scholars says that he neither has to reoffer wudu nor ghusl of Janabah as these acts are Sunnah and there is no need to re-offer Sunnah if it is left. This is the opinion of Imam Malik, and the last opinion of Imam Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on them). 

قال أبو عيسى : حَدِيثُ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ قَيْسٍ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ، وَاخْتَلَفَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ فِيمَنْ تَرَكَ الْمَضْمَضَةَ وَالِاسْتِنْشَاقَ ، فَقَالَتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ : إِذَا تَرَكَهُمَا فِي الْوُضُوءِ حَتَّى صَلَّى ، أَعَادَ الصَّلَاةَ وَرَأَوْا ذَلِكَ فِي الْوُضُوءِ وَالْجَنَابَةِ سَوَاءً وَبِهِ . يَقُولُ ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى , وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ , وَأَحْمَدُ , وَإِسْحَاق , وقَالَ أَحْمَدُ : الِاسْتِنْشَاقُ أَوْكَدُ مِنَ الْمَضْمَضَةِ . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى : وَقَالَتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ : يُعِيدُ فِي الْجَنَابَةِ وَلَا يُعِيدُ فِي الْوُضُوءِ , وَهُوَ قَوْلُ سُفْيَانَ الثَّوْرِيِّ وَبَعْضِ أَهْلِ الْكُوفَةِ ، وَقَالَتْ طَائِفَةٌ : لَا يُعِيدُ فِي الْوُضُوءِ وَلَا فِي الْجَنَابَةِ لِأَنَّهُمَا سُنَّةٌ مِنَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، فَلَا تَجِبُ الْإِعَادَةُ عَلَى مَنْ تَرَكَهُمَا فِي الْوُضُوءِ وَلَا فِي الْجَنَابَةِ , وَهُوَ قَوْلُ مَالِكٍ , وَالشَّافِعِيِّ فِي آخِرَةٍ .

[Sunan Tirmizi]

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According to Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (may Allah have mercy on him), it is Wajib to rinse mouth as well as nose in both wudu and ghusl, while according to Imam Abu Hanifah (may Allah have mercy on him) it is Wajib in ghusl and Sunnah in wudu. Imam Malik and Imam Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on them) it is Sunnah in wudu as well as ghusl.

It makes clear that even by leaving Sunnah act a wudu remains valid… 

The Hadith books contain both types of the narrations; wudu with order and wudu without order, but Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (may Allah have mercy on him) has made it clear that the Sunnah way of wudu is to perform it in correct order, but if one makes wudu against the order, then also the wudu will be valid and the Salah will be alright, but one will be deprived of the reward of acting upon Sunnah. However, if one makes it a habit to do wudu in reverse order, then it is sinful.  

So, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (may Allah have mercy on him) says: “There are several acts of wudu if they are left, the wudu will still be valid, but if all these acts are performed it will fetch reward and the Shari’ah has emphasized to do so. However, if someone makes habit of missing these acts he will be sinful, and these acts are called Sunnah……”

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May Allah grant us correct understanding the religion, Aameen! 

By Sameer Al-Hindi

Translated by: M Khalili Qasmi.

Hadhrat Khidr (Alayhis Salaam) – About Him Being Alive

By Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ Usmani (rahimahullah)

About al-Khidr (Alayhis Salaam) and the issue of his Prophethood

Though the name of the person concerned in this event [between Khidr and Musa (alayhis salaam) in Suratul-Kahf] has not been mentioned in the Qur’an – in fact, he has been called: عبدا من عبادنا (a servant from among Our servants) but, in the Hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari, his name has been given as: الخضر (al-Khadir). Literally, it means green, verdant. Giving the reason for his name being al-Khidr (alayhissalaam), commentators at large say that grass would grow at the spot where he would sit, no matter what the nature of the land. It would just turn green. The Qur’an has also not made it clear whether al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) was some Prophet, or was one of the men of Allah. But, in the sight of the majority of religious scholars, the proof of his being a prophet is embedded within the events mentioned in the Qur’an. There is a reason for it. Some of the proved events during this journey that issued forth from al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) are absolutely counter to the Shari’ah and there can be no exemption from an injunction of the Shari’ah except under the authority of a Divine revelation, something restricted to a prophet and messenger of Allah. A waliyy (man of  Allah) could also come to know something either through Kashf (illumination) or Ilham (inspiration). But, that is not an authority to prove a rule of Shari’ah. No injunction of the externally codified Shari’ah can be changed on that basis. Therefore, it stands established that al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) was a prophet and messenger of Allah. Given to him were some of those particular injunctions, injunctions that were counter to the codified Shari’ah. Whatever he did, he did under the authority of this excepted injunction. He himself has attested to that in the sentence of the Qur’an saying: “and I did not do it under my authority,”  that is, did it under Divine authority.

In short, according to the majority of religious scholars of the Muslim community, al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) too is a Prophet and Messenger. But, it was an imperative of creation that some duties were assigned to him from Allah. The knowledge given to him related to these very duties. Of this Sayyidina Musa (alayhissalaam) had no information, therefore, he objected. This subject has been dealt with in Tafsir al-Qurtubi, al-Bahr al-Muhit of Abu Hayyan and in most commentaries variously.

To understand this type of duties aasigned by the Divine Authority in a detailed manner, one may read: 1. The System of Takween & Tashri’ – The Secrets Of Divine Operations

2. The System of Takween and Tashri’ – The Secrets of Divine Operations [Part 2]

Is al-Khidr alive, or is he dead?

The event related to al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) mentioned in the Qur’an has nothing to do with the question of his life or death after it. Therefore, no clear statement in this regard is present in the Qur’an, and Sunnah. Some reports suggest his being alive till now while others tell us otherwise. Thus, scholarly opinion has always been at variance in this matter. Those who hold that he is alive argue on the basis of  the narrative from Sayyidina Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) carried by al-Hakim in his al-Mustadrak. It says, ‘When the Holy Prophet ﷺ left this mortal world, there came a person in black and white beard. Tearing the crowd of people, he reached inside and started weeping. Then, turning to the noble Companions, he said the following words:

Indeed, in Allah there is endurance against all distress, and recompense of everything taken away, and He is the real care-taker for He alone survives after everyone is dead. So, return to Allah, turn to Him passionately and long for Him alone – because, deprived is he who has been deprived of the reward of enduring distress.

After having said these words, when the visitor departed, Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) said, ‘he was al-Khidr (alayhissalaam).”

This narrative has also been reported by Ibn al-Jazri in his al-Hisn al-Hasin where the compiler is particular about including nothing but what is authentic.

And in Sahih Muslim, it appears that Dajjal (Imposter) will reach a point close to Madinah when a man of Madinah will come out to confront him. He will be the best of men during that time, or among the better ones. Abu Ishaq said, ‘this person will be al-Khidr (alayhissalaam). [Qurtubi]

And Ibn Abi ad-Dunya has reported in Kitab al-Hawatif with necessary chains of authority that Sayyidina ‘Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) met al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) who told him about a Du’a’ which, if recited by anyone after every Salah, would bring for him great reward, forgiveness and mercy. That prayer is given below:

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O He whose hearing of one thing does not hamper His hearing of the other,

And O He who never errs in responding to (millions of) requests simultaneously,

And O He who never becomes weary of the plaints made repeatedly by those who make them in prayers, let me, in Your  mercy, have a cool taste of Your forgiveness and sweetness of Your pardon. [Qurtubi]

Then, within the same book, exactly the same event, the same prayer and the same incidence of meeting with al-Khidr has been reported from Sayyidina ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) as well. [Qurtubi]

Similar to this, there are countless events relating to al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) that have been attributed to the community’s men of Allah (awliya’).

As for those who do not accept the likelihood of al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) being alive, their major argument comes from the Hadith of Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) appearing in Sahih Muslim. He says, ‘one night, the Holy Prophet ﷺ led the ‘Isha’ prayer for us during the latter days of his blessed life. After having turned for salaam, he rose and said these words:

Do you see this night of yours? And after a hundred years from this night, not one of those present over the land will be alive!
 
After having narrated this report, Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said, ‘people say different things about it. But, what the Holy Prophet ﷺ meant to say was that this age will be over after hundred years.’

This narrative has been reported in Sahih Muslim also from Sayyidina Jabir  Ibn ‘Abdullah (radhiyallahu anhu), almost in the same words. But, after having quoted this report, Allamah al-Qurtubi said, ‘it offers no conclusive argument for those who hold that the notion of al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) being alive is false because, in this narrative, the words used for the entire progeny of Sayyidina Adam (alayhissalaam) are general with a strong emphasis on the generality. Yet, it contains no decisive authority (nass) to prove that this generality covers the entire progeny of Sayyidina Adam (alayhissalaam) necessarily. The reason is that Sayyidina ‘Isa (alayhissalaam) too is among the progeny of Sayyidina Adam (alayhissalaam) who has not died, nor was he killed. Therefore, as obvious, the letters:  الف لام (alif lam) in the words: الى الارض (‘ala al-ard: over the land) is the alif-lam  of  ‘ahd,’ (which points out to something familiar to the addressees), and means the land of Arabia. It does not include the whole land mass of the world out of which the Arabs had never heard even the names of the land of Gog and Magog (Ya’juj and Ma’juj), the far East and the Islands of the West.’ This was the view of ‘Allamah al-Qurtubi.

Similarly, some people have taken the issue of the Finality of Prophethood as contrary to the notion of al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) being alive. The answer to this is also clear. It can be said that the way the ‘life’ of Sayyidina ‘Isa (alayhis salaam) is not contrary to the Finality of Prophet-hood, the ‘life’ of al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) can also be quite similar.

Some people have raised a doubt about the ‘life’ of al-Khidr (alayhissalaam). They say, if he were present during the blessed period of the Holy Prophet ﷺ, it would have been mandatory for him to come to him and to serve the cause of Islam under him. Because, it was said in Hadith: “Had Musa (alayhissalaam) been alive [today], he would have had no choice but to follow me [for my coming has resulted in the abrogation of the Faith of Musa (alayhissalaam)” But, not far out is the possibility that the ‘life’ and prophethood of al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) may be different from that of the usual Shari’ah-bearing Prophets. Since he is charged with the duty of carrying out certain affairs of creation (takwin) entrusted with him by Allah Ta’ala, He takes care of this appointed duty staying aloof from people at large. As for  following the Shari’ah of the Last Prophet, it is not a far out proposition that he may have started acting in accordance with it after the advent of the prophet-hood of Sayyidina Muhammad al-Mustafa ﷺ (Allah knows best)

In Tafsir al-Bahr al-Muhit, Abu Hayyan has reported events of several pious elders having met al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) but, along with it, he has also said:

As for the majority of religious scholars, they hold the position that al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) has  died. [al-Bahr al-Muhit, p. 147, Vol. 6]

In Tafsir Mazhari, Qadi Thana’ullah of Panipat has said, ‘the resolution of all these difficulties lies in what Sayyid Ahmad al-Faruqi al-Sarhandi (rahmatullahi alayh), known as the reviver of the second Islamic millennium (Mujaddid Alf-Thani), said on the basis of his mukashafah (discovery through induced illumination). His words are: ‘I personally asked al-Khidr (alayhissalaam) about this matter in a state of kashf. He said’, “I and Ilyas (alayhissalaam) are both not alive. But, Allah Ta’ala has  granted us the ability to appear in the guise of living men and help people in different ways.” (Allah, the Pure, the Exalted, knows best)

Conclusion

To conclude, none of our articles of faith or problems of religious practice is connected with the death or life of al-Khidr (alayhissalaam). Therefore, no clarification or explanation was given in the Qur’an and Sunnah about it. So, there is just no need to enter into unnecessary discussion or debate in it, nor have we been obligated to believe in any one of the sides of the issue. But, as this problem has found currency on a wider level, details have been provided.

SALMAN NADWI’S HINDU BOOT-LICKING HARAAM ‘FATWA’

QUESTION

Asalaamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuhu

Yesterday, the Muslim Personal Law Board held a meeting in Hyderabad (India) related to the Babri Masjid and they concluded that they won’t compromise on the land of Babri Masjid and they will fight the case in the courts.

On the contrary Maulana Salman Nadwi after meeting with a kaafir boet (idol) pujari endorses that there should be an “out of court” settlement, and even if it means that we should compromise on the land of the Babri Masjid for the sake of a temple, we should do so, so that we can build another Musjid “in a land allotted somewhere else”.

There has been a huge uproar in the Media and the Muslims are divided in their own opinion. While some supporting the stance of Maulana Salman Nadwi, others are supporting the stance of the Muslim personal law board.

Please comment on this issue. What is the actual stance of the Shariah?

ANSWER [By Mujlisul Ulama]

The stance of the Shariah on the issue of Musjids is clearer than daylight at the zenith. A Musjid is termed, The House of Allah. Once a land has been made Waqf for a Musjid, it will remain a Musjid even after the Day of Qiyaamah. All the plots of land on which Musjids have been built will be incorporated into the land of Jannat.

There is absolutely no way of desanctifying and de-Musjidizing a Musjid. It will remain a Musjid forever even if a temple or a brothel has been built on it by the worshippers of Shaitaan. A Musjid can never ever be sold or bartered away or alienated in any way whatsoever.

What the character Salman Nadwi disgorged about an ‘out of court settlement’  to make way for the construction of an abode for idol-worship – for kufr and shirk, is pure, unadulterated bootlicking – licking the boots of the Hindu boet-pujaaris. Whatever this chap’s satanic motive for his bootlicking stupidity may be, is known to only Allah Ta’ala. If he is a ‘maulana’, he appears lamentably stupid for disgorging the haraam flotsam of exchanging the Babri Musjid for land somewhere else. The worst satanistic aspect of his stupid ‘fatwa’ is that he agrees for constructing a temple to worship idols on the Musjid’s site. He appears to be a hidden Hindu.

A Musjid built on any other allotted land will be a new Musjid. It will not be the Babri Musjid which the idol-worshippers have usurped by force and violence with the active connivance of India’s Hindu government. These worshippers of Satan have forcibly usurped and wrenched the Babri Musjid from the Muslim community. Although this was a punishment from Allah Ta’ala for Muslims, we are not in a position to comment on that aspect. Our comments are restricted to the ostensible law of the Shariah.

It is the incumbent obligation of the down-trodden, weak and morally degenerate Muslim community of India to adopt all lawful methods, such as the courts, in a bid to reclaim the Babri Musjid land. There should be absolutely no compromise. It is haraam to accept any other land in exchange for the Babri Musjid land. That Land will remain a Musjid and shall, Insha-Allah, reclaim its status in Jannat.

If the community fails in its bid in the court, they should accept it as Allah’s Decree, increase Istighfaar and Taubah, and reform their absolutely rotten moral condition, and this has greater applicability for the Ulama. If Muslims are unable to reclaim the Babri Musjid by lawful means, let the followers of the Devil keep it. But never should Muslims settle and compromise.

Salman Nadwi, the Hindu bootlicker should hang his head in shame. If he happens to be associated with a Madrasah, the authorities should give him the boot for his Hindu-bootlicking.

The Meaning of Salah (Durood) and Salaam

By Mufti Muhammad Shafi’ Usmani (rahimahullah)

Surely, Allah and His angels send blessings to the Prophet. O those who believe, do pray Allah to bless him, and send your Salam (prayer for his being in peace) to him in abundance. [Surah al-Anzab: 56]

The real purpose of the verse was to obligate Muslims to send Salah (durood) and Salaam upon the Holy Prophet ﷺ. But the command was given in a manner that, first of all, Allah Ta’ala pointed out that He Himself and His angels perform the act of Salah for the Holy Prophet ﷺ. After that, common Muslims were ordered to follow suit. By doing so, it is indicated that the station of the Holy Prophet ﷺ is so high that the act asked to be done by common Muslims in his respect is something already done by Allah Ta’ala Himself as well as angels with Him. Now then, common believers who are indebted to so many favours done to them by as their noble Prophet ﷺ should certainly give high priority to making this act their essential concern. Then there is yet another good outcome of this modality of expression. It proves the great merit accredited to Muslims who send Salah and Salaam as Allah Ta’ala makes them share in doing what Allah Ta’ala Himself does and so do His angels.

The word: صلوة (Salah) is used in the Arabic language to convey the sense of: Mercy (rahmah), prayer (du’a) and praise (madh and thana). The Salah attributed to Allah Ta’ala in the cited verse means His sending of mercy, but Salah from the angels denotes their prayer for him, and thesense of Salah (durood) from common believers is a combination of dua’ (prayer) and thana’ (praise). Most commentators have given these very meanings and Imam Al-Bukhari has reported from Abu-l-‘Aliyah that the Salah of Allah Ta’ala means the honor accorded to him and the praise showered on him before the angels. As for the honor bestowed on him by Allah Ta’ala within this mortal world, it translates as the high rank he was blessed with when, on many an occasion, his mention was joined with the mention of Allah Ta’ala in adhan (the initial call for prayers) and iqamah (the call announcing the immediate start of the prayer) and elsewhere, and that Allah Ta’ala made the religion brought by him spread and prevail throughout the world, and that He enjoined upon all people to keep acting in accordance with the Shari’ah brought by him right through the last day of al-Qiyamah and, along with it, He has undertaken to keep his Shari’ah stand perennially protected. Then, as for the honor bestowed upon him in the Hereafter, it can be said that his station was made to be the most exalted of the entire creation and, at a time when no prophet or angel could dare intercede on behalf of anyone, it was right at that time that he was blessed with the celebrated station of intercession called: مقام محمود (Al-ma’qam-ul-mahmud:  Praised  Station).

Given the interpretation that Allah’s Salah in favour of the Holy Prophet ﷺ means praise, someone may raise a doubt that, according to the narrations of Hadith, Salah and Salaam are also offered to the family and companions of the Holy Prophet ﷺ. If so, how can anyone other than him be made to share in the honor bestowed and praise done by Allah Ta’ala? This doubt has been answered in Ruh-ul-Ma’ani etc. by saying that the degrees of such honor and praise are many. The Holy Prophet ﷺ has it at its highest, while his family and companions and believers in general are included with him only to a certain degree.

As for the word: سالام (Salaam), it is an infinitive in the sense of السلامة (as-salaamah) and means staying in peace. And السلام عليك (As-salamu-‘alaik: conveniently taken as ‘peace on you’) means: May the state of peace and security from losses, defects and calamities be with you. And since, according to the rule of Arabic grammar, this is not the occasion to use the word: علي (‘ala: on, upon), but since the word ‘Salaam’ implies praise, hence the word: علي is appended with it.

And some other early commentators have taken the word: Salaam here to mean the sacred Being of Allah Ta’ala, because Salaam is among the beautiful names of Allah Ta’ala. According to this view the sentence will mean that Allah is enough to take care of your security and well-being.

The method of Salah and Salaam

There appears a Hadith in the Sahih of Bukhari and Muslim, as well as in other books of Hadith, where Sayyidina Ka’b Ibn ‘Ujrah (radhiyallahu anhu) has been reported to have said: ‘(When this verse was revealed), someone asked the Holy Prophet ﷺ: “(The verse orders us to do two things, Salah and salaam.) We already know the method of saying salaam, (being السلام عليك ايها النبي that is, may peace and safety be on you. O Prophet) now tell us the method of Salah also.” He said: Say these words:

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“O Allah, send mercy on Muhammad and on the progeny of Muhammad, as You sent mercy on Ibrahim and on the progeny of Ibrahim. Verily, You are Praised, Glorious. O Allah, send blessings on Muhammad and on the progeny of Muhammad as You sent blessings on Ibrahim and on the progeny of Ibrahim. Verily, You are Praised, Glorious.”

Some other words in this respect have also been reported in other narrations of Hadith.

As for the reason why the noble Sahabah asked this question, perhaps it is that they had already been taught the method of offering their Salaam in the تشهد: (tashahhud or saying of: التحيات At-tahiyyat) where it is said: السلام عليك ايها النبي ورحمةالله وبركاته (as-salamu ‘alaika aiyuhannabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh: Peace and safety on you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings). Therefore, they did not like to determine, on their own, the precise words in the case of the saying of Salah. Instead of that, they wanted the exact words of saying the Salah to be determined by the Holy Prophet ﷺ himself. It is for this reason that صلوة (Salah) has generally been adopted in these very words as part of the prescribed prayers, Namaz or Salah. But, it does not mean that the obligation of sending Salah (durood) is restricted to these specific words, because many different forms of Salah (durood), have been authentically reported from the Holy Prophet ﷺ himself. The requirement of sending Salah and Salaam can be fulfilled by every such sentence that has the words of Salah and Salaam in it. Then, it is also not necessary that those words should have been reported exactly as said by the Holy Prophet ﷺ. In fact, the obligation may be discharged and the reward of sending Salah may be achieved by any style of address that conveys the words of Salah and Salaam. But, it is obvious that the exact words reported from the Holy Prophet ﷺ are certainly much more blessed and are the cause of bringing many more rewards. It was for this very reason that the noble Sahabah had asked the Holy Prophet ﷺ himself to determine the words of صلوة (Salah).

In the Qa’dah (sitting position) of the prescribed prayer (Salah or Namaz), the saying of the words of Salah and Salaam exa’ctly in the manner reported above is masnun (per Sunnah) right up to the last day of Qiyamah, (even though these words are meant to address the Holy Prophet ﷺ by saying ‘Salaam on you, O prophet’) As for occasions  outside the prescribed prayers (Salah or Namaz), these exact words should have been employed when the Holy Prophet ﷺ  was addressed during his lifetime. When, after his departure from this mortal world, one has the good fortune of standing before the sacred Rawdah (the holy tomb) of the Holy Prophet ﷺ and submitting his Salam to him, then, there too, it is masnun to employ the form of second person: السلام اليك (as-salamu ‘alaik). Other than that, wherever Salah and Salaam is recited in absentia, then, the use of the third person form has been reported from the Sahabah, Tabi’in and the Imams of the Muslim Ummah – for example: … (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam i.e. May Allah send mercy and peace to him).- as fully demonstrated by books of Hadith at large.

The wisdom behind the aforesaid method of Salah and Salaam

The outcome of the method of Salah and Salaam which stands proved from the blessed words spoken by him and demonstrated practically through his deeds is no other but that all of us in the Muslim Ummah should pray to Allah Ta’ala for mercy, peace and safety for him. At this point, a question is worth noting. Is it not that the verse required us to personally fulfill the right of the Holy Prophet ﷺ that he be revered and honored, but the method proposed was that we pray to Allah? Embedded here is the hint that fulfilling the due right of honoring and obeying the Holy Prophet ﷺ was not within the power and control of any of us, therefore, it was made mandatory for us that we should supplicate before Allah Ta’ala. (Ruh-ul- Ma’ani)

The injunctions of Salah and Salaam

In the last Qa’dah (sitting position) of the prescribed prayers, (namaz or Salah), the saying of درود شريف (Salah, that is, the noble durood) is Sunnah Mu’akkadah (emphasized Sunnah) according to the majority of the Imams. But, with Imam Shafi’i and Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, it is wajib (necessary). If abandoned, it becomes necessary, according to them, to make namaz or Salah all over again.

Related Rulings on Durood and Salaam

1. When someone mentions the name of the Holy Prophet ﷺ, or hears someone mentioning it, reciting the words of sending Salah (the noble durood) becomes wajib (obligatory) on him or her. This is a point of consensus among the majority of Muslim jurists. The reason is that there are warnings in Hadith against not reciting the noble durud when his blessed name is being referred. According to Jami’ of Tirmidhi, the Holy Prophet ﷺ said: “Disgraced is the man before whom I am mentioned, yet he does not send Salah (Durud) on me”. (Tirmidhi calls this Hadith ‘Hasan’, and Ibn-us-Sunni reports it with strong authorities).

And in another Hadith it has been said: “A miser is he before whom I am mentioned yet he does not send Salah (Durood) on me”.   (reported by Tirmidhi who rated it as ‘Hasan Sahih’).

2. If his blessed mention is made repeatedly in a single sitting, reciting the Salah (Durood) only once may discharge the obligation. But, the desirable (mustahabb) thing is to recite the noble Durood every time one makes his blessed mention himself, or hears someone else make it. Who can claim to mention the name of the Holy Prophet ﷺ more frequently than the scholars of the Hadith? Their function is nothing but to narrate the ahadith of the Holy Prophet ﷺ in which they have to mention his name repeatedly. Still, their consistent practice was to recite or write the Salah each and every time. All books of Hadith bear testimony to this fact. In doing so, they never bothered about this incidence of repetition of Salah and Salaam which would increase the volume of the book in a sizable measure, because fairly often, there come very short ahadith in which his blessed name finds mention after every one or two lines – and at places, it appears more than once within one single line – still, these respected scholars and experts of Hadith never abandon or ignore Salah and Salaam anywhere.

3. The way it is Wajib (necessary) to say Salah and Salaam vocally at the time one makes his blessed mention verbally, similarly, it is also wajib to write Salah and Salaam with the pen when one uses it at the time of writing. In this case, there are people who would abbreviate its words and get away by writing صلعم (of which, “SAW” is a counterpart). This is not enough. One should write the full Salah and Salaam (that is: صلى الله اليه وسلم: Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). [Read here: Ruling on Writing Abbreviations like S.A.W, R.A, PBUH, A.S, RAH, etc ]

4. At the time his blessed mention is being made, the better, higher and more desirable choice is no other but that both Salah and Salaam be recited and written. But, should someone take one of these, that is, only Salah or only Salaam, as sufficient, then, it is no sin in the sight of the majority of Muslim jurists. Shaykh-ul-Islam Nawawi and others have declared it as makruh (reprehensible) to take only one as sufficient. Ibn Hajar Al-Haithami said that by Karahah (reprehensibility) they mean its being Khilaf-ul-awla (contrary to the ‘preferred choice) which is known as Makruh Tanzihi (not desirable). And the consistent practice of the ‘ulama’ of the Muslim Ummah bears testimony to the fact that they invariably put these together while, on some occasions, they would go by only one as well.

5. Using the word: صلوة (Salah) for anyone other than prophets عليهم السلام is not permissible in the sight of the majority of ‘Ulama’. In his Sunan, Imam Baihaqi has reported the fatwa of Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) as  follows: “Salah is not sent upon any one except the Holy Prophet  but prayer is made for Muslim men and Muslim women to seek forgiveness for them.”

With Imam Shafi’i, using the word: صلوة (Salah) for any one other than a prophet is perennially Makruh (reprehensible, repugnant). Imam Abu Hanifah and his pupils also hold the same view. However, it is permissible that after saying Salah for the Holy Prophet, some other people are also included in the same sentence, like his family members, Companions and all believers.

And Imam Juwaini said that the rule about the word: صلوة (Salah) is the same as the rule about the word: سلام (Salaam), since it is not correct to use it for someone other than a prophet – except that one says السلام اليكم (as-salaamu-‘alaikum) as a greeting while addressing someone. This is permissible, and Masnun. But, saying or writing: اليه السلام (‘alaihissalaam) with the name of someone absent is not correct in the case of someone other than a prophet (Al-khasa’is-ul-kubra, by  Suyuti, v.2, p. 262)

‘Allamah Liqa’i has quoted Qadi ‘Iyad saying: Major authentic scholars of the Muslim Ummah have gone by this view, and this is the view of Imam Malik, Sufyan and many Muslim jurists who hold that its use is not permissible for anyone other than a prophet. This is similar to the case of the use of الله سبحانه و تعالى (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) which is particular to Almighty Allah. Thus, in the case of common Muslims – with the exception of prophets – there should be a prayer for forgiveness and pleasure from Allah. This is as it appears in the Qur’an: “Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him” – 5:119, 9:100,  28:22, 98:8). (Ruh-ul-Ma’ani)

The Hadith of Hadhrat Musa (Alayhissalaam) Punching Malakul Maut

By Mujlisul Ulama

Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhiyallahu Anhu): The angel of death was sent to Musa (alayhissalaam) and when he went to him, Musa (alayhissalaam) slapped him severely, spoiling one of his eyes. The angel went back to his Lord, and said, “You sent me to a slave who does not want to die.” Allah restored his eye and said, “Go back and tell him (i.e. Musa alayhissalaam) to place his hand over the back of an ox, for he will be allowed to live for a number of years equal to the number of hairs coming under his hand.” (So the angel came to him and told him the same). Then Musa (alayhissalaam) asked, “O my Lord! What will be then?” He said, “Death will be then.” He (Musa alayhissalaam) said, “(Let it be) now.” He asked Allah that He bring him near the Sacred Land at a distance of a stone’s throw. Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said, “Were I there I would show you the grave of Musa (alayhissalaam) by the way near the red sand hill.” [Sahih Bukhari]

The acceptance of this Hadith as authentic by the greatest authorities of Hadith negates the slightest shad­ow of doubt regarding the authenticity of the Hadith which is nowadays being subjected to blasphemous ridi­cule and criticism. The authenticity of the Hadith is established and has been upheld by all authorities of Ahadith. For the past fourteen hundred years, ijma’ (Consensus of the Ummah) has existed on the authenti­city of this Hadith – on the fact that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) did make this statement. Who then are those in this belated age to reject and ridicule this authentic Hadith – the sacred utterance of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam)? Only those whose hearts have become sealed to the Noor of Hidayah can venture to undertake the peril of mocking and ridiculing the authentic and sacred words of Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

Hadhrat Imaam Nawawi (rahmatullah alayh), the great authority of the Shafi Math-hab, states in his Sharhul Muslim (Commentary of the Saheeh of Imaam Muslim):

“AI-Maazari said: ‘Verily, some atheists have refuted this Hadith and have rejected its probability. They say that how is it permissible for Musa to break the eye of Malakul Maut?”

This self-same argument which the mulaahidah (atheists) of Imaam Nawawi’s time advanced is today being propounded by some people who align themse­lves with the people of knowledge. Thus, in considering their reason or intelligence to be the standard for the acceptance of a hadith, they have grouped themselves together with the mulaahidah  mentioned by Imaam Nawawi (rahmatullah alayh).

Since this Hadith has been reliably attributed to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and there is not the slightest vestige of doubt in its authenticity, the question of its refutation does not occur to men grounded in Knowledge and Imaan. If logic conflicts with the sacred utterance of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayh wasallam), we shall and must necessarily abandon such logic as defective and crooked and uphold the correct­ness and validity of the Hadith. Every statement of Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was made on inspiration and revelation from Allah Ta’ala, hence the Qur’aan Shareef declares categorically:

“He [Muhammad] does not speak by his desire. It [his talk] is nothing but Wahi which is revealed.”

Hence, those who deny the validity and correctness of the proven and sacred words of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) do so at the peril of their Imaan.

In their rejection of this Saheeh Hadith they present another utterly fallacious argument. They cite the Qur’­aanic ayat:

“They [i.e.the Angels] do not disobey Allah regard­ing that which He has commanded them. And, they do as they are commanded.”

This ayat is cited by the rejectors of the Hadith as their proof. It is indeed unworthy of men of knowledge to resort to such baseless ways of argumentation. This fallacious arguments mirrors the lack of understanding of the rejectors of the Hadith and their inability to argue their case on the basis of the Shariah. Firstly, this ayat does not remotely refer to the Hadith or the subject of the Hadith in question. There is no relationship between the ayat cited and the Hadith which is being rejected and subjected to ridicule by some Sheikhs. The Malaaikah (Angels) being in perpetual obedience to Allah Ta’ala is not refuted or doubted. The Hadith pert­aining to Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam) and Malakul Maut in no way negates the obedience of the Malaaikah stated in the Qur’aanic verse.

There is absolutely no contradiction between the Hadith in question and the Qur’aanic verse cited by the rejectors. In returning to Allah Ta’ala after being expelled by Musaa (alayhis salaam), Malakul Maut did not disobey Allah Ta’ala because his (Malakul Maut’s) return was not due to disobedience, but was occasioned by helplessness. Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam) rendered him helpless. This may seem surprising to the logic of those who have rejected the authenticity of the Hadith without having the slightest Shar’i evidence. But, to people of firm Imaan there is nothing surprising in Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam) having rendered Malakul Maut helpless on this occasion. It should be well understood that the Ambiya (alayhimus salaam) are the chosen representatives and messengers of Allah Ta’ala. They have a superior rank than the Malaaikah.

The Sajdah which all Malaaikah made to Nabi Aadam (alayhis salaam) is indicative of the superiority of the Ambiya over the Malaaikah. In fact, it is the unanimous belief of the Ahl-e-Sunnah Wal jama’ah that the Ambiya (alayhimus salaam) are sup­erior in rank to the Angels. This fact is known to Malakul Maut and all the Malaaikah. Therefore, assuming that Malakul Maut had the power to retaliate when Musa (alayhis salaam) struck him, it is inconceivable that he would have retaliated and acted in opposition to the wishes of his superior, viz., Musa (alayhis salaam) in this case. Should Malakul Maut have acted in retaliation or take the soul of Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam) contrary to his wishes, he would have been acting in contravent­ion of the command which is stated in the ayat: “They do not disobey Allah.”, because it is Allah’s Command that Malakul Maut takes the soul of the Ambiya (alayh­imus salaam) with their permission. Hence, when Mala­kul Maut returned to Allah Ta’ala, he did so in obed­ience to the Divine Command since he was under the impression that Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam) refused to die at that time.

The authorities of the Shariah have also said that on that particular occasion, Malakul Maut visited Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam) in human form. He appeared unannounced and did not introduce himself. Musaa (alayhis salaam) mistook him for an intruder about to attack him, hence he acted in self-defence. But, when Malakul Maut returned the second time he revealed his identity, hence Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam) readily submitted inspite of the fact that Allah Ta’ala granted Musaa (alayhis salaam) the choice of remaining alive for as many years as he wished.

Allah Ta’ala has bestowed tremendous power to Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam). In one hadith, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam)-said:

“Verily, mankind will be in a swoon [of death on the Day of Qiyaamah after the Trumpet has been sounded]. will be the first to be revived [when the Trumpet is sounded the second time]. Then suddenly I will observe Musaa [alayhis salaam] holding onto the side of the Arsh [Throne of Allah]. I do not know if he was among those who had passed out [into non-existence when the Trumpet was sounded the first time] and was revived before me or was he among those who have been saved [from the destruction wrought by the Trumpet].”

Those who are holding up the Throne of Allah Ta’ala are Malaaikah of colossal power. Their size and power as described by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) boggle the human mind. Yet Musa (alayhis salaam) on the Day of Qiyaamah will be in that group of mighty Angels holding aloft the Arsh of Allah Ta’ala. This in itself indicates the enormous power which Allah Ta’ala has bestowed to Nabi Musaa (alayhis salaam). Lest the rejectors ridicule this Hadith as well, we furnish here­under the proof of its authenticity. Imaam Muslim (rahmatullah alayh) records this Hadith in his Saheeh with five Sanads.

We have, by the grace of Allah Ta’ala explained the proof and the subject matter of the Hadith which has been ridiculed and rejected in some quarters. Muslims who have been thrown into doubt should now under­stand that the Hadith is Saheeh (authentic) and has been accepted as such by the Ummah and all authorit­ies of the Shariah for the past fourteen centuries. The rejection of the Hadith presented by some Sheikhs is thus baseless and without substance. And, upon us is but to deliver the clear message: 

They follow nothing but baseless opinion,and they do nothing but conjecture. [Qur’an]

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