Imam Abu Hanifa’s View on Tawassul/Waseelah and the Position of the Hanafi Math-hab

Question: Asalaamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuhu Maulana Sahib,

Recently, I received a mail by a Ghayr-Muqallid who rejected Waseela or Tawassul even in its permissible concept claiming that Imam Abu Hanifah and his student Imam Muhammad (rahmatullah alayhim) have prohibited even the correct form of Tawassul, I would like to produce the mail here as follows:

“It occurs in Durr ul Mukhtar (the famous book on Fatwa in the Hanafi Madhab) (2/630), ‘From Abu Hanifa: “It is not fitting at all that anyone should supplicate to Allah except by Him (Allah), and using such supplications have been permitted and ordered in the like of the Saying of Allah, the Most High, “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call upon Him by them.”

In al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya (5/280), and al-Quduri (d. 428/1037) said in his large book of Fiqh called Sharh ul Kharkie in the chapter of detested matters: “Bishr Ibn al-Walid said: ‘Abu Yusuf (the students of Imam Abu Hanifa) narrated to us that Abu Hanifa said: ‘It is not right that anyone should supplicate to Allah except by Him, and I hate that anyone should say: ‘By the right of so and so’ or ‘By the right of your Prophets and Messengers’ or ‘By the right of your sacred house and the sacred area (of Muzdalifah).”

Murtada Az-Zabidi (d. 1205/1790) says in Sharh ul Ihya (2/285): “Abu Hanifah and his two companions hated that a person should say, ‘I ask You by the right of so and so’ or ‘By the right of Your Prophets and Messengers’ or ‘By the right of the sacred house and sacred area (of Muzdalifah)’ and the like, since no one has any right upon Allah. Likewise, Abu Hanifah and Muhammed Ibn Hasan ash-Shaybani hated that a person who made supplication should say: ‘O Allah I ask you by the glory of Your Throne.”

Al-Quduri (d. 428/1037) also said: “Asking Him by His creation is not allowed since the creation had no right over the Creator, therefore it cannot be allowed.”

Similar statements can be found in many Hanafi Fiqh books like;

-Al Ikhtiyaar of Imam Mawsili (d. 683/1284)

-Molla Husraw’s (d. 885/1480) ; Durar al-hukkam fi Sharh Ghurar al-Ahkam

-Multaka-Al Abhur of of Ibrahim al-Halabi (d. 956/1549)

-Al Hidaya of Imam Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani (d. 593/1197)

From these quotes it is clearly that Imam Abu Hanifa and his students hated these kinds of Waseelah. (End of the mail).

Maulana Sahib please comment on this issue, 

1. Did Imam Abu Hanifa and his student really prohibit Tawassul? If yes then is it permissible to cite the later Hanafi scholars who justified a specific form of Tawassul?

2. Which principle should be applied if the main Imam of the Math-hab and his student has ruled prohibition on a mas’alah and some later scholars of the same Math-hab had given permissibility for the same mas’alah?

Maulana Sahib, please guide me regarding this issue as I am very confused and feeling guilty regarding this Issue.

Jazakallahu Khayr

Answer: (by Mujlisul Ulama):

The makrooh view is one view of the Hanafi Fuqaha. The other view is of permissibility and this is according to Imaam Abu Yusuf, Faqeeh Abu Layth, and obviously innumerable Fuqaha and Ulama subscribe to this view of permissibility in the same way as numerous subscribe to the karaahat view. Add to the above the consensus of all the Auliya of former times and all our Akaabireen of recent times.

This brief explanation suffices for claiming that there is no absolute certitude for the view of prohibition.

The only reason for karaahat stated on the basis of the narration pertaining to the Waseelah of the Arsh is possibility of the idea of the annihilation of Allah Ta’ala’s Izzat (Greatness and Glory) because the Arsh itself is a creation which can be annihilated. Therefore, there is the possibility of people understanding that Allah’s Glory can also be annihilated. From this perspective the karaahat view is pure figment of human opinion. It is unsubstantiated by Nass.

It appears that the primary difference pertains to the word ‘Haqq’ in view of the possibility of the idea of divinity stemming from the word Haqq which is the attribute of Allah Ta’ala, especially when there is such a great prevalence of shirk by the Ahl-e-Bid’ah. It is advisable and best to refrain from using the term Haqq in supplications involving Waseelah. But to understand that the concept of Waseelah is impermissible on the basis of the ibaarat of Shaami and other kutub is unintelligent and not valid. It is not possible for all the Auliya and innumerable Fuqaha and Ulama of all ages confirming permissibility if there was absolute certitude for karaahat.

Our Akaabireen were all branded kaafir because of their resolute opposition to bid’ah and to the slightest vestige of shirk.

Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alayh) was faced with the peculiar shirki situation of the Khawaarij and Mu’tazilah. For this reason certain of the views of Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alayh) ostensibly appear in conflict with the views of the other Fuqaha. Hadhrat Thaanvi (Rahmatullahi alayh) mentions that the Mu’tazilah’s brains are deranged for they consider that makhlooq has a right over Allah Ta’ala. Imaam Abu Hanifah’s proscription of using the words Bihaqqi Fulaan was thus in this context.

As far as the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa’ah are concerned, wherever the words Haqqan Alallah, etc. appear it means that Allah Ta’ala will treat it like a Haqq, not that Allah Ta’ala is now bonded and compelled to fulfil the right. Since the deviant sects treated the word Haqq as an obligation upon Allah Ta’ala Imaam Abu Hanifah (Rahmatullahi alayh) thus proscribed its use.

And Allah Ta’ala knows best.

Was-Salaam

(Mufti) AS Desai

Mujlisul Ulama of SA

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Are Hanbali and Athari Aqeedah the same??

Question: Are Hanbali and Athari Aqida the same?? Was Athari `aqida ever a school like the Maturidi or Ash’ari??

Answer: Inside Islam Athari, Sunni, and Ahl al-Hadith are all synonymous with each other and with each of the Four Sunni Schools in contradistinction with those non-Sunnis that are defined, in Sunni heresiographical discourse, as denying part or all of the Athars (reports) and Hadiths that define the principles and practice of Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a.

Inside Sunnism, however, the above terms differ in various ways due to further polemical meanings according to the emphasis desired by the speaker and the guidelines of his own self-definition.

For example, when Ahl al-Hadith define themselves in contradistinction of Ahl al-Raiy then the first term tends to be synonymous with Hanbalis (and Shafi’is) and the second term with Hanafis (and Malikis) although they are all Ahl al-Raiy wal-Hadith in the larger sense since, on the one hand raiy – qualified juridical opinion – is the soul of ijtihad and fiqh without which the Shari’a becomes impaired; and, on the other hand, the source-texts are no less essential to the Shari’a. Hence Imams Abu Hanifa and al-Shafi’is famous saying comparing the muhaddith to the pharmacist and the jurisprudent to the physician.

When defining ‘aqida, the distinctions similarly reflect the self-perceived and self-representating emphases of each school. In this respect the Hanbalis perceive and represent themselves as the most focused of the Sunni Schools on source-texts. In reality, insofar as those Schools are defined by their founding Imams, then all four of them are equally source-text-focused. But most self-definitions of who Ahl al-Sunna are or what Sunna and Jama’a consist in, are actually formulaic responses which are not meant to be all-comprehensive but are part of a timely, practical arsenal to help dispatch deviations to their graves.

For example, Imam Abu Hanifa said: Sunna and Jama’a are defined by loyalty to the Two Shaykhs [Abu Bakr and `Umar as Caliphs], love of the Two Sons-in-Law [`Uthman and `Ali], and [the permissibility of] wiping over leather socks [in ablution]. Yet, elsewhere (as in his Wasiyya and Fiqh al-Akbar) he also made belief in Divine foreordained destiny (qadar) and the un-createdness of the Qur’an as essential, defining articles of Sunni doctrine also. The discrepancy is moot since each definition is dictated by context and the needs of the time in which it was uttered.

Similarly, the emphasis of the Hanbali School on textualism is a legacy of the heroic stand taken by Imam Ahmad in defense of that self-defining principle of Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama`a against Mu’tazilism: We stick to all the authentic reports narrated from the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, and his Companions that define his and their way because this is the Prophet’s own definition of the Saved Group. That legacy became embedded in Hanbali discourse and methodology even though there are, in the `aqidas narrated from the mouth of Imam Ahmad by his students, many Ash’ari and Maturidi truisms. This is the strain that a few Hanbalis embraced in their own positively Ash’ari creeds such as Ibn `Aqil, Ibn al-Jawzi, and al-Saffarini.

Al-Saffarini (d. 1188) notably gave the following definition in his Lawami` al-Anwar: Ahl al-Sunna consist of three groups: the textualists (al-Athariyya), whose Imam is Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the Ash`aris, whose Imam is Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari, and the Maturidis, whose Imam is Abu Mansur al-Maturidi. and they are all one sect, the saved sect, and they are Ahl al-Hadith.

Perhaps a more satisfactory expression of the Sunni self-definition of Ahl al-Sunna is given by the great Ash’ari Imam known in absolute terms as the Ustadh: Abu Mansur `Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi (d. 429) in his Farq bayn al-Firaq (The Difference between the Sects). This entire book is in fact an elucidation of the hadith of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, of which the central part says: … and my Community shall divide into 73 sects… At the end of the book he defines Ahl al-Sunna thus:

Those that have completely mastered and codified the principles of belief [=Ash`aris and Maturidis], the Mujtahid Scholars of the four Schools of Law and their followers, the Scholars of hadith that steered clear of deviation, the Scholars of Arabic grammar that steered clear of deviation, the Scholars of tafsir that steered clear of deviation, the Sufis, the people making jihad, and the general masses of the Muslims.

Similarly al-Iji (d. 756) in the Mawaqif:

The Saved Group which is excepted from the Prophet’s hadith All of them are in the Fire except one: Those that adhere to what I and my Companions follow – these are the Ash’aris, the Salaf of the scholars of hadith, and [generally speaking] Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama`a.

While al-Haytami, al-Baydawi, and al-Saharanfuri say: When we use the term Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama`a, what is meant are the Ash’aris and the Maturidis.

Imam `Abd Allah ibn `Alawi al-Haddad (d. 1132) said:

If you look with a sound understanding into those passages relating to the sciences of faith in the Book, the Sunna, and the sayings of the Salaf… you will know for certain that the truth is with the party called Ash’ari, named after the Shaykh Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari, Allah have mercy on him, who systematized the foundations of the creed of the people of the truth and recorded its earliest versions, these being the beliefs which the Companions and the best among the Successors agreed upon. The Maturidis are the same as the Ash’aris in the above regard.

Answered by Gibril F. Haddad

What is Bahaism and what is their Theological belief??

The founder of Baha`ism

Baha`ism or Babism is a sect attributed to Mirza Ali Mohammed who was known as al-Bab. He initiated his call in 1260 AH (1844 AD), announcing his aim to reform the corrupted conditions of Muslims. He made his call public in Shiraz—south of Iran—where he gained some followers. Later, he sent a group of his followers to different parts of Iran to announce his advent and spread his claims, mainly that he is a messenger sent by Allah. 

Mirza Ali Mohammed authored a book entitled Al-Bayan, and claimed that it contains a divinely revealed code of laws. Moreover, he claimed that his message abrogates the laws of Islam and innovated rulings for his followers similar to those of Islam. He instituted a 19 day fast that ends with the spring equinox, so that ‘Eid al-Fitr always coincides with the day of Nawruz (Coptic New Year). In the Baha`i faith the fast starts from sunrise and ends at sun-set. In Al-Bayan, he said: “We have enjoined upon you fasting for a fixed number of days, and designated for you Nawruz as a feast after completing them.” 

The founder of the Baha`i faith called for the conference of Badasht which was held in Iran in 1264 AH-1848 AD. In this conference, he outlined the faith and declared its independence from Islam and its laws. Scholars of his time resisted this call; they proclaimed its corruption and issued fatawa declaring him a disbeliever. He was incarcerated in Shiraz and then in Isfahan. After wars and clashes between his followers and Muslims, Mirza Ali Mohammed was sentenced to death and was crucified in 1265 AH. 

His successor, Mirza Hussein Ali, called himself Baha`ullah and authored a book entitled Al-Aqdas, in which he followed the footsteps of his late leader and founder of this belief, Miraz Ali Mohammed, as outlined in his book Al-Bayan. 

In Al-Aqdas, Mirza Hussein Ali contradicted the principles of Islam and the other faiths. He annulled the doctrine of Islam and its laws by prescribing nine prayers to be performed each day and night and designating the place of his residence as their qibla [direction of prayer]. In Al-Aqdas, he said: “When you wish to perform prayer, turn your faces towards my holy direction.” He further annulled pilgrimage and commanded the destruction of the sacred House of Allah (Ka’ba) after the advent of an able and brave man from among his followers. 

The Baha’is [followers of Baha’ism] followed the opinion of former philosophers. They stated the eternity of knowledge saying: (Baha’ teaches that the universe is without beginning in time. It is a perpetual emanation from the First cause. God and creation are co-eternal 

Opinions on Baha’ism 

Generally speaking, Baha’ism is a fabricated faith; it includes elements from Buddhism, Brahmanism, idolatry, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and beliefs from the Baatini school of thought. 

Baha’i beliefs

– Baha’is do not believe in the afterlife, Paradise or Hellfire. In this respect, they imitated the Dahriyyahs. 

– The first Baha’i leader claimed in his interpretation of Surat Yusuf that he is better than Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and his book Al-Bayan is better than the Qur`an. 

– They do not acknowledge the prophethood of our master, the Messenger of Allah, Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) or that he is the seal of all Prophets. Hence, they are not Muslims since all Muslims believe that the Qur’an is the Book revealed by Allah and believe in the words of Allah Almighty: 

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah, and the seal of the Prophets. [Qur`an 33:40)

In his interpretation to this verse, the luminary Al-Alusi said, “There were a group of Shi’a extremists at this time who called themselves as al-Babia and who authored works on this belief. Any sane person who believes in this [sect] is a kafir [disbeliever]”. 

The ruling

Based on this, Muslims have unanimously agreed that Bahai’sm or Babism is not an Islamic doctrine and that whoever believes in it is not a Muslim but an apostate from Islam; an apostate is a person who abandons Islam for another faith. Allah Almighty says, 

And if any of you turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their deeds will ear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter they will be Companions of the fire and will abide therein [Qur’an 2:217).

There is a scholarly consensus on the obligation to kill an apostate if he insists on his disbelief due to the words of the Prophet (pbuh) who said: “Whoever changes his faith, kill him” [Bukhari and Abu Dawud).

Allah Almighty says:

If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah) never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost [Qur’an 3:85].

Allah Almighty knows best. 

HEALTH TIPS FOR THE HUJJAAJ

By Jamiatul Ulama Gauteng

(FROM PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE) 

Hajj is moving towards the middle of the Arabian desert summer. A number of factors that impact ones health & well-being, need to be considered:

1. There is going to be a major, sudden temperature change & acclimatization is a gradual process

2. Most South Africans are extremely unfit & suddenly find themselves forced to walk long distances, in the heat, multiple times a day

3. Clothing must be appropriate for the climate

4. Appropriate footwear is a must & must be ‘worn in’ at least a month or 2 before departure

5. Disruption in ones sleep patterns usually start even before departure

6. We are not in the habit of drinking sufficient amounts of good quality water

7. Chronic health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, asthma, arthritis etc. don’t miraculously disappear on reaching the Haramain

8. Interfering with/stopping the normal menstrual cycle using hormonal preparations such as the pill etc. given the circumstances, often have unpredictable, unwanted effects that create more challenges

9. Vitamin supplements, cough syrups, probiotics etc. that we are accustomed to are usually not available & adequate supplies must be taken from home

10. Given current circumstances, very old, frail, mentally unstable individuals, individuals with severe medical ailments etc. invariably experience added difficulty which usually impacts negatively (much takleef) on the group they travelling with, prepare adequately

➡ There is going to be a major, sudden, temperature change & acclimatisation is a gradual process. This usually has a dramatic effect on the individual especially those coming from countries experiencing winter.  Air conditioning, while necessary, usually delays the acclimatization process, which usually has its major impact during the actual Days of Hajj, when aircons are not available. Other factors such as only wearing light coloured cotton clothing, avoid walking in direct sunshine (umbrella) etc. also play a role. Given the large number of individuals, especially women that suffered from heat exhaustion etc. in the recent past, it is strongly recommended that the Ihraam be made of white cotton material as this is most efficient in terms of reflecting heat & facilitating the body’s cooling mechanisms. Black clothing made of synthetic materials/polyester invariably cause problems especially during the Days of Hajj.

➡ Given current circumstances, very old, frail, mentally unstable individuals, individuals with severe medical ailments etc. invariably experience added difficulty which usually impacts negatively on the group they travelling with. Psychiatric patients & those with significant disabilities invariably face added challenges in terms of completing the rites of Hajj. They & their caregivers should seriously consider these as significant challenges/inconveniences have been faced by fellow Hujaaj by these patients in the recent past.

➡ Pregnant women from 7 months onwards should avoid air travel. The sentimental claim of giving birth in the Haramain must be weighed against to potential harm to mother & child & major challenges caused should the women deliver anytime during the journey. Experience over the past few years has shown that dehydration especially during the days of Hajj, is not only a significant risk for both mother & child, but prevents the mother from engaging in ibaadat as well.It is not advisable for women who are beyond 7 months to undertake the journey

➡ Most South Africans are extremely unfit & suddenly find themselves forced to walk long distances,in the heat, multiple times a day. One needs to start walking 2-3 months before Hajj. Start over a short distance & build up slowly. One should also practice walking up & down hilly terrain. InshaAllah this along with appropriate footwear that are ‘worn in’ & comfortable, should go a long way in minimising much of the swollen, aching feet & legs, blisters etc.that Hujaaj often complain of.

➡ Get used to drinking large amounts of good quality, alkaline water weeks before departing for the Haramain. This will make it easy to switch to Zam-Zam which has both physical & spiritual shifa. In the Haramain, Zam-Zam should constitute the major part of ones fluid intake as it is also best constituted to replace the minerals lost in the heat due to perspiration etc. Avoid synthetic juices, carbonated drinks & caffeine containing beverages as these stress the body & encourage water loss from the body.

➡ In order to avoid using the toilets in Mina, Arafah & Muzdalifah, many Hujaaj, especially women avoid drinking sufficient amounts of fluid. This coupled with wearing black synthetic clothing & choosing to walk during the Hajj, in the summer heat, has resulted in the large numbers that required resuscitation with drips etc. as was seen during the past few years. Not wanting to use public toilets is not a valid excuse to risk serious harm to one’s health, which is also an amaanat.

➡ Chronic health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, asthma, arthritis etc. don’t miraculously disappear on reaching the Haramain. One needs to take the medication as prescribed, the dosage however might need to be adjusted. Hujaaj should take sufficient supplies from home to last for the duration of their stay, as not all medication is freely available and if they are, costs are high. These include insulin (which must be correctly transported), sticks for glucose machines, & strong pain killers for arthritic patients, creams for skin conditions etc.

➡ Vitamin supplements, cough syrups, probiotics etc. that many are accustomed to, are usually not available during the Hajj journey and adequate supplies must be taken from home.

➡ Interfering with/stopping the normal menstrual cycle using hormonal preparations such as the pill etc. given the circumstances, often have unpredictable, unwanted effects that create more challenges in terms of unpredictable spotting/ bleeding etc. which, given all the physical & psychological stresses due to heat, sleep deprivation, travelling etc. becomes difficult to treat & creates further stress as it inteferes with ibaadat schedules etc. Experience has shown that the best is not to attempt cycle manipulation at all & instead book the return flight accordingly, which can facilitate the performance of Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarah/Ifaadah with ease, once tahaarah is attained again. Sanitary towels, along with other toiletries should be taken in sufficient quantities from home. These are difficult to obtain especially during the 5 days of Hajj, in Mina & Arafah.

TARIQ JAMIL’S ‘ONE UMMAH’ DECEPTION

By Mujlisul Ulama

TARIQ JAMIL- THE DAJJAAL’S SHAITAANI ‘ONE UMMAH’ SHI’I PROPAGANDA REJECTED BY ALLAH TA’ALA

“Never will your families nor your progeny benefit you on the Day of Qiyaamah. He will distinguish (and separate) among you. And, Allah sees whatever you are doing.

Verily, there is a beautiful code of conduct in (the conduct) of Ibraaheem and those with him. (Remember) when they said to their people: ‘Verily, we dissociate (and are free) from you and from the (idols) you are worshipping besides Allah. We have rejected you. Hatred and enmity (adaawat) have become manifest between us and you (kuffaar) forever until you believe in Allah, the One……O our Rabb! We repose trust on You, and unto You do we refer, and unto You is the return.”

(Al-Mumtahinah, Āyaat 3&4)

“Verily, for you (O Muslimeen!) there is a beautiful conduct (Pattern of life) in them (in Ibraaheem and his followers) for those who have hope of (gaining the pleasure of) Allah and the Last Day. Whoever, deflects (turns his back on this Beautiful (conduct), then (know) that verily, Allah is Independent and Praiseworthy)”.

(Al-Mumtahinah, Āyat 6)

These Qur’aanic verses sum up in a nutshell the action and reactions of true Muslims when confronted by the Satanism of the Satanist agents of Iblees and Dajjaal such as the Tariq Jamil Dajjaal and the Shiah Cape Town baboonic accord fabricators.

Muslims should apply their intelligence constructively when reading the aforementioned Aayaat of the Qur’aan-e-Kareem. Let us peruse, analyse, reflect on and give practical expression to Allah’s commands emanating from these Aayaat.

1) In this world there are only two groups – Muslim and kaafir. The Aayat states with clarity that on the DAY OF QIYAAMAH Allah Ta’ala will separate the Muslimeen from the kaafireen. Any accord struck up here on earth to create the false impression of a homologous whole will be exposed as a baseless fiction on the DAY OF QIYAAMAH. Muslims should therefore not embroil themselves in destructive futility in this dunya.

2) In these Qur’aanic verses, Allah Ta’ala informs the Ummah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) of the Beautiful code of life of Nabi Ibraaheem (Alayhis Salaam) and of his followers. In addition to apprizing us of this Beautiful Pattern of life, these Aayaat in fact commands us to adopt Nabi Ibraaheem’s beautiful Sunnah.

3)  These verses highlight a very salient feature of this beautiful code, and that is the reaction of the Muslimeen to kufr and shirk. The first reaction was total dissociation from the kuffaar and their kufr ideology/religion.

It is thus, clear that Muslims are not permitted to strike up any accord with baatil. The Muslimeen unambiguously stated their dissociation from any accord with the kuffaar.

4) The Muslimeen and Nabi Ibraaheem (Alayhis Salaam) furthermore, declared their Bughdh and Adaawat for the kuffaar.

Bughdh means hatred. This is the ‘hatred’ which Tariq Jamil and the Shiahs of the cape baboon accord urge Muslims to expunge from their hearts in order to replace it with love for Allah’s enemies despite the explicit command in the Qur’aan to foster this Bughdh for the sake of Allah Ta’ala.

Regarding the virtue of this Bughdh, Rasulullah (Sallallah Alayhi Wasallam) said:

“Hatred is for the sake of Allah.” Love for Allah Ta’ala and his Rasool inspires Bughdh in the hearts of Mu’mineen for Kufr and the proponents of kufr.

According to the Ahaadith, a heart bereft of Bughdh fillaah is contaminated with the pollution of kufr.

Adaawat means to be an enemy. The kuffaar can therefore never be the friends of the Muslimeen. The Aayat delivers this lesson explicitly and emphatically.

5) The Bughdh and Adaawat will remain as long as the kuffaar do not embrace Imaan. There is no basis whatsoever for hammering out an accord as long as the destructive disease of kufr remains. Belief in Allah and the Last Day- being Mu’mineen – is the vital requisite and pre-condition for accord.

6) Muslims are commanded in these Aayaat to adopt Tawakkul (Trust) in Allah, and to ignore the threats and plots of the kuffaar. In another Aayat, the Qur’aan says:

“Allah will protect you against the people.”

The Qur’aan also assures us:

“If you adopt Sabr and Taqwa, then their plots will not be able to harm you in any way whatsoever. Verily, Allah is well aware of what they are doing (by way of their plots).”

7) The basis for dissociation, Bughdh and Adaawat commended in these Aayaat, is the hope of gaining Allah’s Pleasure and Salvation on the Day of Qiyaamah.

These seven facts are the commands stated in the aforementioned Qur’aanic verses and also corroborated by other verses and Ahaadith. 

It should be well understood that the consequence of the Bughdh and Adaawat commanded in the Qur’aan is not strife and violence against the kuffaar. The effect is hatred for the treason of the kufr of the kuffaar. As far as the kuffaar are concerned, it is the obligation of Muslims to invite them to Islam, the intention being to save them from everlasting perdition in Jahannam. Since Islam is the sole repository of Salvation, Muslims have the duty to endeavour saving the kuffaar from everlasting ruin and destruction.

The harmonious co-existence with kuffaar in the lands conquered and ruled by Muslims since the age of the Sahaabah adequately testifies that the Bughdh and Adaawat commanded by Allah Ta’ala do not promote violence, injustice and oppression. But, Shayateen of Tariq Jamil’s ilk who came to South Africa to sow the seeds of discord and crass hatred abortively attempt to promote the idea that the Qur’aan advocates violence and negates harmony with our kuffaar neighbours. The more than three centuries of sojourn of Muslims in this country is ample evidence to reject and debunk the sinister nation which the Dajjaal had attempted to create in his wicked plot of promoting the Shiah religion of hatred for the Sahaanah.

Tariq Jamil’s talks are pure Satanism presented deceptively in deeni hues.

SPIRITUAL STAGES OF SALAAH

By HADHRAT MOULANA MASEEHULLAAH RAHMATULLAAHI ALAYHI

There are seven stages of Salaah, viz:

1. Salaah of the Body:

Salaah of the body is that all the Arkaan are meticulously conformed to, with relish and Shauq. The Faraa-idh, Wajibaat, Sunan, Mustahbbaat, Aadaab should be executed with the body in absolute humility and without any unnecessary movements. Qiyaam, Ruku, Qaumah, Sujood, Qaidah and even the Salaam should be performed with the body in such a manner that the body is totally in submission to Allah Azza Wajal.

The benefit of Salaah of the body is that the body will be trained to abstain from sin.

2. Salaah of the Nafs:

This stage is when the Salaah is performed in a manner that a person intentionally avoids any worldly thoughts. Just like a person should not scratch his body, so should he not scratch his brain and imagination, etc.

The benefit of Salaah of the nafs is that the nafs will dis-attach itself automatically from the love of the world. This person may be even a millionaire but his heart will be free from the negligible effects of wealth.

3. Salaah of the Heart:

Salaah of the heart means that a person avoids negligence. Hadhrat Rahmatullaahi Alayh said that if a person intentionally brings thoughts to his mind, he should punish his Nafs by repeating the Salaah. A Musalllee has a choice: He is either unmindful of negligence or he takes steps to avoid it.

The benefit of this little Mujaahadah is that the Nafs will avoid wrong worldly thoughts even when it is busy in its worldly affairs. The heart is trained in Salaah to avoid any and all forms of negligence.

4. Salaah of the Rooh:

The Salaah of the Rooh is a Salaah in which one only gazes at Allah Ta’ala. This Salaah prevents one from gazing at anything else.

The benefit of this Salaah is that one is trained NOT to gaze at any human for any benefit or to ward of any harm.

5. Salaah of the Sirr (inner self):

The Salaah of Sirr is that a person not only directs his gaze but he directs his thoughts only to Allah Ta’ala. Throughout the Salaah his Rooh cries out in bliss and yaad (remembrance) of his Rabb. Entertaining even a thought of a makhlooq is more repugnant to him then eating ghinzeer.

The benefit of this Salaah is that one is trained to immediately “connect” to Allah Ta’ala with the thoughts whether one is happy or grieved.

6. Salaah of Khafi (reality):

Salaah-e-Khafi means to perform the Salaah with total inaabat in body and soul. In this Salaah, a person has left the world, his family, his wealth, etc. He has returned to Allah Ta’ala in the condition of that of the day he was born.

The benefit of this Salaah is that a person’s soul is exposed to reality. There is no hindrance in his perception of reality and the realities cemented in him that everything is perishable. This stage propels him to Haqq and expels from him the delusions which spring forth from merely that which is visible. He sees what others see not. He hears what others hear not. He perceives what others perceive not. He feels what others feel not.

7. Salaah of Akhfaa (Spiritual vision):

This is a Salaah wherein a person “sees” Allah Ta’ala (Hadhith of Ihsaan). The person is gone for Me’raaj. This is the highest form and stage of Salaah. He is close to Allah Ta’ala by a span of a bow or two.

The delight of this Salaah is such that it cooled the eyes of Nabl Salallaahu Alayhi Wasallam.

The delight is such that Jannah pales into comparison.

Did Haji Imdaadulllah Saheb Rahmatullahi Alayh not say:

“If Allah Ta’ala asks me on the Day of Qiyaamah what I wish for, I will request a Musallaah to perform Salaah under His Arsh.”

Subhanallah! Not Jannat, not Hoors, not delicious food or exquisite clothing —just a Musallah.

May Allah Ta’ala grant us the taufeeq to make Fikr of Salaah our biggest Fikr in Life. (Aameen)

Madaaris Should Introduce Oral Examination System

By Mujlisul Ulama

Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (Rahmatullah alayh) was averse to written examinations which are customary in the Madaaris. Commenting on the system of written examinations  of the Madaaris, Hadhrat Thanvi said:

“My opinion in regard to Imtihaan (Examinations) is that the Imtihaan should be taqreeri (oral). The oral imtihaan quickly reveals the student’s ability and potential. The purpose is to see whether the student has understood what he has learnt, not whether he is a Haafiz of the Kitaab or not. Thus, in oral examinations there is ease for the student, and the objective of the Imtihaan is also achieved.

On the contrary, in the customary method, i.e. written Imtihaan, there is nothing but hardship. When I was studying in Deoband I had to spend the entire night in preparation for the Imtihaan. I would be deprived of sleep. My health would suffer. As long as the whole kitaab was not studied one could not write the examination. 

On the basis of these experiences, when I was in Kanpur I formulated simple rules and regulations for the Imtihaan. Outstanding results were obtained.

Now nothing is in my control. I can only prof-fer advice. I have explained to the Authorities of the Madrasahs about the (ills of the) current system of written Imtihaan in the Madaaris. The entire kitaab has to be swotted. Only then can a candidate confidently write his Imtihaan. However, no one is interested.” (End of Hadhrat Thanvi’s malfooth)

Entrenched customs blind even well-grounded Ulama who sometimes fail to under-stand simple realities to which their attention is drawn by even great luminaries. Hadhrat Thanvi laments the fact that none of the Madaaris was able to understand the benefits of the oral system of examinations. The Madaaris authorities due to custom fail to understand the disadvantages of the written form of examination and the advantages of the oral system. When viewing the bid’aat and the futility introduced in the Madaaris, especially of the current age, it is not at all surprising that no one will be able to understand the wisdom stated by Hadhrat Thanvi (Rahmatullah alayh).

THE ULAMA HAVE BECOME WORSHIPPERS OF FUTILE CUSTOMS

[By Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi]

The fraternity of the Ahl-e-Ilm (i.e. the Ulama) frequently labels people as worshippers of customs. However, I say that these Ulama are the worst worshippers of custom. They will not abandon old practices (i.e. practices which have outlived their utility, e.g. jalsahs and dastaarbandi customs) despite the need for abandoning the customs.

Hadhrat Maulana Gangohi (Rahmatullah alayh) had proffered some advice to a certain Madrasah (namely, Darul Uloom Deoband). He had advised that certain kitaabs be expunged from the syllabus (these were the books of philosophy). But no one (of the authorities of the Madrasah) had practically implemented his advice despite all of them being Hadhrat’s devotees. But they did not pay any heed to the mashwarah of Hadhrat Gangohi. This is the ‘value’ they attach to mashwarah the of the Buzrugs.

The condition of the Ahl-e-Madaaris is that whatever is entrenched in their minds, they will act accordingly. (In other words, their brains are fossilized). They will not listen to anyone. My opinion regarding examinations is that examinations should be oral. In oral examinations, the worth of the student is quickly ascertained……… Although I had   advised the authorities of the Madaaris in this regard, no one paid any heed……..

There is no proper system and principles in the Madaaris. The situation is extremely deplorable. How is it possible for these people to govern a country when they are unable to govern even a Madrasah?

Furthermore, the students too nowadays are such whose attention is not focused on Uloom. They consider it a great mi’raaj to be fitted with a huge turban and given a large printed   poster (the certificate). Thus they have become molvis and maulanas! This fossilization is the effect of worshipping customs. The fossilization is extreme.

For them progress is to join the khilaafat movement (a political movement of that era) or the Congress (i.e. the Hindu  Congress). They do not progress in Uloom. Yes, their progress in jahl (ignorance) is incremental.  

Truly, those who have not been in the suhbat (company) of the Ahlullaah, their hearts are incapable of com-prehending realities. Their hearts are totally dead.” (End of Hadhrat Thanvi’s comments)  

At one stage Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (Rahmatullah alayh) was the Sar Parast (Head) of Darul Uloom Deoband. However, he resigned because of the fossilized attitude of the authorities. He commented: “Of what benefit is it being the Sar Parast when they do not act in accordance with the advice offered? I therefore feel relieved of a burden by having resigned.”   
  
The Ulama should reflect and engage in some deep soul-searching to understand their deviation and the destruction they are wroughting to the Ummah with their baatil ta’weelaat for making halaal so many of the prohibitions of Allah Azza Wa jal.   

They should understand that the jalsahs, functions and conferences they are engaging in are all snares of shaitaan. These functions have outlived their utility. Not only this, but the hurmat is aggravated by the accretion of  multiple evils which always accompany the jalsahs of today. They should understand that they have become Signs of Qiyaamah. About such Ulama, Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:    

“Deen will be imparted for purposes other than the Deen. The dunya will be pursued with the a’maal of the Aakhirat.”

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