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A student of Islam

Islamic Refutation of Communism (Marxism)

Compiled By Suranimala

(Source: Dr. Abdallah Omar Naseef; Dr. Mustafa Mahmoud)

Islam does not instinctively respond to Communism (Marxism) nor accept its ideology. Communism does not have a place in the lives of Muslims. Islam is, basically, in such a headlong collision with Communism that the two ideologies never meet. The most significant reason for Muslims’ rejection of Communism is that all Muslims believe in Almighty God, the Angels, the divinely revealed Books, God’s apostles and the Day of Judgment. Such a strong belief is neither marginal nor accidental. It is true and deep-rooted, unique, genuine and distinctive, a belief which constitutes the dynamic and propelling force of a Muslim’s life and projects itself in all matters of life and living, significant and insignificant alike.

The second reason for our rejection of Communism lies in the fact that Islam is a comprehensive religion in the sense that it is not only concerned with life after death, the spiritual or the metaphysics. Islam embraces life in the Here and the Hereafter, the body and the soul, the natural and the supernatural.

The third reason why Muslims reject Communism is that Islam provides far better solutions for all problems and ambiguities of life and living, be they political, social, economic, ideological etc than all other solutions artificially worked out by Communism or any other doctrine.

Communism is in the sense a product of European intellectual reaction to the rigidly narrow interpretation of life and nature that the Christian Church in the Middle Ages had imposed on people. In the midst of acute and irreconcilable conflicts in medieval Europe, things were not harmonized and balanced, and naturally they did not lead to stable results. Europe was in a state of reaction to an existing aberration, and consequently was carried to the opposite extreme. The Church imposed so many restrictions on the mind and all intellectual freedom. The result was an insatiable desire to exercise man’s intellectual power paying no heed to the benefit of mankind. The Church waged a severe war against science with the inevitable result that there grew among the people an insatiable hunger for acquisition of knowledge and the accumulation of scientific information so much so that science far exceeded its limited scope and significance and was turned into a man-made god worshiped by many scientists and knowledge seekers. The Church condemned all worldly pleasures and instigated people to live only for the life to come. In response to the Church’s overdose of spirituality there was a great thirst for the physical pleasures of life on earth and an obvious neglect and indifference to the Hereafter. The Church belittled and denied the physical aspect of life for the sake of spiritual purification. The inevitable result was an ardent adoration of the matter and a derogatory deprecation of the spirit. Thus Europe began to take long but gradual strides towards overall materialism which was later maximized in communist dialectic materialism.

The Buddhist society is no different from the extremist experience undergone by the European. Present day Buddhism teaches that to attain eternal redemption (Nirwana) it is imperative to give up ALL desires. One may well question the logic in this as we are taught by Buddhism to give up ALL desires to fulfill the desire to attain Nibbana. As a result desire is not annihilated and the desire to attain Nibbana yet remains.

All Buddhists would agree that Buddha’s development from infancy through childhood and adolescence to adulthood to the age of 29 to be precise was abnormal. In fact, he is the only person, perhaps in the whole history of mankind, who was deliberately kept away from the fact of suffering until he was 29 years of age. He was kept away from the view of old age, sickness, death and asceticism. And, to make matters worse, this abnormality was supplemented with another abnormality. He was fed up to his throat, so to say, with joys of this world-dancing and singing girls, good food and drink, luxurious clothes, joyful sports, and as pleasant and beautiful an abode and environment as the royal purse could afford. He was, in fact, confined in a cage of happiness! According to the Anguttara Nikaya, a canonical text from the sutta pitaka, Buddha himself is reported to have said later about his upbringing.

“Bhikkus (monks), I was delicately nurtured, exceedingly delicately nurtured, delicately nurtured beyond measure. In my father’s residence lotus ponds were made; one of blue lotuses, one of red and another of white lotuses, just for my sake…. Of kasi cloth was my turban made; of Kasi my jacket, my tunic and my cloak… I had three palaces; one for winter, one for summer and one for the rainy season. Bhikkus, in the rainy season palace, during the four months of the rains, entertained only by female musicians, I did not come down from the palace”.

At the age of 29 he came in contact with the real world-with the fact of suffering which he never knew before, and, what is just as important, with the temporary nature of the joys and happiness which he, up till then, believed to be real and permanent. It was only natural that this should give rise to an abnormal impact of the reality of suffering and the unreality of happiness on the mind of the disillusioned young man. I believe this to be the fundamental psychological explanation for the over emphasis on suffering on which Buddha founded his religion! Buddhism teaches that ‘all is suffering’ and to be redeemed one has to give up all desires as enumerated above. We would like you to visualize the scenario of whole of or a major portion of mankind choosing to attain salvation (Nibbana) through this method. If the whole of mankind choose this method, the life will come to a stand still and the human race will be wiped off from the face of the earth completely within about 100 years, as no human reproduction will take place from the time of choosing this path, due to annihilation of desire. From these extremist teachings we are observing a very sensuous, atheistic society emerging, having very scant respect for moral values and rejecting all such unnatural and abnormal precepts. Concepts similar to Marxism could easily breed under these circumstances.

In theory and practice, Communism is based on a cluster of hypotheses which are not truly scientifically proven though Communism assumes that it is the first doctrine based on scientific data. The first hypothesis in the Communist theory is that matter is everlasting and imperishable. Communism assumes that matter preceded thought and that thought is but a product of matter. Matter, Communism alleges, is the maker which made everything including man, and that the laws of matter apply to human life. Secondly, there is a certain determinism which Communists believe governs human life: materialistic, economic and historical determinism which is epitomized in dialectic and materialistic interpretation of history. Thirdly, there is the Communist assumption that individual ownership is inconsistent with basic distinctive human nature and that it is, basically and solely, the cause of all conflicts in human life. In order that human life be stabilized and human conflicts be wiped out from the earth, individual ownership should be abolished. Fourthly, Communism predicts that a day will come when people will do without the state and live like angels on the earth only when they fully apply the principle of “From everyone according to his ability, to everyone according to his need”.

Let us now discuss briefly each and every hypothesis upon which Communism (Marxism) is based in order to find out how it can fit in genuine scientific thinking.

Communists assume that matter had always been in existence and that it is imperishable. Therefore, they attribute everything to matter on the assumption that the laws of matter are unalterably permanent, stable and inevitable.

From the purely scientific point of view, geologists and physicists are unanimously in agreement that the physical universe has a specific and a definite date of birth. They may disagree on the accurate and precise date on which the universe, in its physical sense, was created. But they unanimously agree that the universe did really exist at a certain time and did not exist before. Geologists and physicists, out of sheer courtesy to the data of science itself, cannot precisely predict anything about the future-and cannot say definitely the matter is imperishable. If this hypothesis disintegrates and collapses, all dependent hypotheses, theories and applications will inevitably collapse.

Dialectical materialism and materialistic interpretation of history are both based on the concept of determinism which combines materialistic, economic and historical determinism. In the light of and in consistency with this concept, human history falls into five inevitable stages: 1. Early tribal partnership, 2. Slavery, 3. Feudalism, 4. Capitalism and, 5. Communism. Each one of these five stages is inspired by specific material causes. It has its unique economic and social aspects, its own institutions which convey and reflect its basic concepts and ideologies. For Communists, no idea or convictions can be built on non-materialistic, non-economic basis. Ideas and convictions are inextricably linked to the materialistic and economic environment of which they are but faithful reflections. The prevailing ideas and beliefs are always those of the economically dominating social class. These are always sectarian in nature confined to the specific class which has inspired them. The ideas and beliefs will never change unless some material or economic changes take place. To round off these three-dimensioned concept of determinism and Communist philosophy asserts that the world will for ever live in class conflicts until Communism comes along and rids it of inter-class conflicts by the extermination of all classes with the exception of one class only, the proletariat.

We would take up much time and space if we discussed in greater detail these entire concepts one after the other. Let us deal with one case which will, I am sure, blow up at once this collective mass of Communist ideas. The emergence of Islam and its dissemination across vast territorial stretches in the course of centuries will undoubtedly refute all allegations provided by the Communist philosophy with regard to man and matter. We shall then pose the following questions and queries to be answered by the Communist ideology.

Communism asserts that historical changes are determined solely by material and economical factors. Dialectical materialism and the materialistic interpretation of history spring mainly from the materialistic concept of man. But the emergence of Islam was not conditioned by certain traceable economic or material changes in the Arabian Peninsula. Islam carried with it a group of beliefs, ideas, principles and economic, social, political and moral disciplines completely inconsistent with those prevailing in pre-Islamic Arabia and in the whole world at that time. Islam is still distinguished from most of the currently existing disciplines in the world.

What was the material or economic changes that led mankind to the belief in the existence of One God, the Maker and Sustainer of all creation? Islam emerged and flourished in Arabia which was distressingly torn between heathenism, atheism, agnosticism. Even Christianity and Judaism which are still incapable of working out a decisive, unambiguous and clearly intelligible concept of monotheism similar to what Islam presents.

What were the material and economic changes which led to the emergence of a religion that divested the rulers from their long sustained holiness and re-established them as servants of the One and Indivisible God whom people should all worship irrespective of class, colour or race? The religion of Islam ordained that the assumed holiness with which rulers had been invested should no longer exist on both the secular and religious planes. Rulers should not be authorized to fundamentally legislate for their subjects. In fact all mankind are, from the Islamic point of view, unauthorized to devise their legislations. Allah alone, the Lord of the Worlds, is the divine legislator and Law-giver for all mankind and all people are equal before His Law. Allah organizes their rights and duties and enjoins on everyone to abide by them. Islamic law does not permit social distinctions. The entire mankind is a composite body of individuals. Each individual is independent, unique and self-responsible. But all individuals combine into one self-contained, self-sustained, harmonious, loving and compassionate community.

No material or economic change could lead to the emergence of a religion which called for the freeing of slaves either by manumission or ‘Mukatabat’. Islam allows a contract to be signed by the slave and his master according to which a certain sum of money is paid by the former to the latter within a limited period of time. When such a contract is signed the slave is allowed full freedom to do business with whomsoever he likes. If at the expiration of the assigned period the slave could pay the amount of money to his master as agreed upon in the contract signed by them, he should gain his freedom. This procedure is what is called ‘Makatabat’ in Islam. Islam abolished all sources of slavery that existed on earth with its divine teachings. Slavery by birth, slavery by race, slavery by colour, slavery by poverty……etc.

No material or economic changes could ostensibly or logically lead to the emergence of a religion which called for the immediate emancipation of women in Arabia where they were looked down upon and maltreated in pre-Islam times. Islam equalized the relations between man and woman in human rights and allowed woman the right to learn, own and sell her property. Islam gave woman the right to approve or disapprove of her marriage and claim divorce if she is not justly, decently and humanely treated by her husband. Islam gave woman other rights which non-Muslim women did not possess except only during the last two centuries after a series of feminist movements and rebellions in which women as well as morals were victimized.

More than one thousand years before the emergence of capitalism, no natural or economic changes could bring fourth a religion forbidding usury and monopoly which were the instruments of enforcing social injustice, human bondage and deprivation. No material or economic change could inspire a religion which bases all human relations: social, political and economic, on moral principles to which the poor and the rich, men and women are equally committed. Muslims, in their relations with their brother Muslims, are fully committed to these moral principles. Also in their relations with non-Muslims, Muslims abide by these moral principles in war and peace. Islam was not revealed for a particular class of people. Islamic concepts, beliefs and morals were not confined to one specific people or class. Islam was revealed to all mankind.

Therefore, we defy all Communist thoughts implied in the second hypothesis to interpret the emergence of Islam in terms of dialectical materialism. Communist determinism, material, economic and historical will inevitably fail to provide a sufficiently convincing and logical interpretation for the emergence of Islam with all its beliefs, concepts, values, principles and social, economic and moral disciplines. Islam thus emerges triumphant over all the determinism of dialectical materialism because it is a God-given religion.

They (the disbelievers, the Jews and the Christians) want to extinguish Allah’s Light (with which Muhammed (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has been sent-Islamic Monotheism) with their mouths, but Allah will not allow except that His Light should be perfected even though the Kafirun (disbelievers) hate it.

It is He Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammed sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) with guidance and the religion of truth, to make it superior over all religions even though the Musrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) hate (it). (Quran 9: 32, 33)

“Invite (all) to the Way of your Rabb (Only God, Cherisher and Sustainer) with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious, for your Rabb knows best, who have strayed from His Path, and who receive guidance” (Qur’an 16:125)

“You are the best of people chosen for mankind because you command righteousness, forbid evil and believe in Allah” Qur’an 3: 110.

Communists (Marxists) assume that individual ownership is not a natural instinct but an accidental novelty in human life attributed solely to material and economic complexities in contemporary life. Early humanity, Communists allege, lived happily in a state of collective ownership and hence suffered no conflicts. When individual ownership appeared inter-personal and inter-class conflicts prevailed in the form of slavery, feudalism and capitalism. The Communism is only a return to the healthy and early life where collective ownership replaces individual ownership. All conflicts based on individual ownership are eliminated in an attempt to achieve the promised (or lost) paradise on earth. Neither science nor experiment can prove the validity or durability of this hypothesis.

In this context I would like to discuss four main points:

· a). There is no evidence that these primitive tribes did not suffer from any conflict, personal or tribal, and that sexual freedom was prevalent among all males and females. It has been proved that conflicts arose sometimes among the young men of the same tribe for the possession of a certain woman who was more beautiful, attractive and sexually appealing to some of them. Conflicts occasionally arose for the leadership of the tribe.

· b). These tribes were in a constant state of war amongst themselves. Tribal wars and invasions were launched for the usurpation of land, arms, women or all. If we contend that individual ownership did not exist among the members of these tribes, inter-tribal wars arose for the possession of land, property, arms, women…..etc. Instead of the individual or the class in recent history, the tribe constituted the unit which owned and fought for sovereignty.

· c). The existence of collective ownership within the tribe is not sufficient proof that the spirit of individual ownership did not exist among the members of the tribe. The apparent non-existence of individual ownership may be ascribed to the absence of anything to owned or destined to be owned by the individual. But with the emergence of something that can be owned by the individual, individual ownership arose. Communists admit that individual ownership arose with the discovery of agriculture. Individual ownership had been latent in the tribal community. It appeared when circumstances became favourable for its emergence.

· d). Practical experiment proved that collective ownership failed to replace individual ownership as incentive to work. The continuous decrease in the production of wheat in the old Soviet Union is an example in point. Russia, prior to Bolshevik revolution, which used to export wheat, began to import from USA, despite the fact that the richest wheat fields in the world are found in the Ukraine in USSR. Wheat production has always been decreasing. This has led Russia to change its agricultural policy and allow a reasonable portion of individual ownership as an incentive to encourage more production of wheat.

With the abolition of individual ownership which Communists believe is the principal and only cause of all conflicts, the Communist block is continually exposed to ideological and political conflicts. Between Trotsky and Lenin, Stalin and Beria, Khrushchev and the members of the Central Committee and the Political Bureau, there were eternal conflicts. Even after the establishment of collective leadership there arose a conflict in which one of their leaders was ousted. Afterwards, emerged a serious conflict between Russia and China for the ideological leadership of the Communist world. Communism thrives on conflicts and is a root cause of all conflicts.

After Gorbachev, emerged a new economic order in Russia and we are witnessing a rapid growth and prosperity due to the open economic policy implemented successfully. China gradually stepped in to the open economic policy of private ownership and has proved to be a tremendous success after years of setbacks. Communism is part of history and does not appear to be a valid currency in any social setup.

Marx gave a public statement about religion when he said that, “Religion is the opium of peoples”, Marx may have referred to a particular reality which Europe has witnessed when feudal lords and capitalists used to provoke in the minds and hearts of the working masses a long-desired dream for eternal bliss in the Hereafter to make up for the humiliation and repression inflicted upon them in this world.

Marx made a public statement about religion in general and in all circumstances. We need not discuss Marxian concept of religion but we only mention this fact, that Communism, which considers religion as an intoxicant and opium to all people, is now using more serious intoxicants to divert the minds of the working class into acceptance of hardship, humiliation, suppression and dehumanization.

Now Communists promise unrealizable dreams. They create a dream land to divert the masses from expressing their dissatisfaction with the bitter living conditions they face. From the very outset, Communists used to attract the masses by stimulating and provoking class conflicts among them. They hate religion because it endeavours to eliminate hatred, envy and anger among all people. Communists used to promise the downtrodden working masses that once Communism became a reality, workers will own their factories and farmers will take possession of their land and capitalism and feudalism will be completely wiped out.

Collective ownership proved to be a big fallacy. No one owns anything in fact, nor does anyone feel this ownership. All are but humiliated slaves. The state is the only master. The state authorities particularly the party leaders, political bureau, central committee, have all the power in their hands. They live in villas, palaces and own luxurious and expensive cars, whereas the proletariats, the working class, in whose name the state authorities rule, have to toil and work. The working masses are mere cogs in the huge state machinery. They live in poor houses, wear uncomfortable clothes and eat indecent food. In such worsened living conditions, Communism had to use intoxicants to extinguish the flames of rebellion among the working masses, to make the masses tolerate and put up with the social and economic afflictions imposed upon them. Communists assume that the working masses suffer hardship because national production is relatively insufficient to meet the local requirements. If production increases the law of “From each according to his ability to each according to his need” will be fully applied. Communists assume that they live under the heavy pressure of the state and in the tight grip of espionage circles because they have to confront their enemies. Once they crush their enemies, Communists will form a unified universal government which will uphold and spread justice among all peoples and put an end to all forms of humiliation and oppression. Not only that, eventually the day will come when government will not have to exercise its functions. People will live as angels with no conflicts, disputes, prisons, police force, or suppression among them. What a ridiculous dream, what a utopian expectation. With such foolish illogical assumptions and fabrications, Communism appeals to young men and women inside and outside the Communist camp to believe in Marxist philosophy. When they are caught into the net of Communism they will not be able to escape. History tells us that the Hungarians and Czechoslovakians were crushed under Communist tanks when they tried to break off the Communist orbit and regain their freedom. Communist Russia gave Hungarians and Czechoslovakians an unforgettable lesson so that they would never claim their freedom.

Communism states unequivocally that one who owns is one who rules. Hence one rules for his own interests and those of the class to which he belongs. Therefore, he devises and originates all the concepts and beliefs which are compatible with his own interests and the interests of his class. This unmistakably applies to the laws and legislations conceived and introduced throughout the ages. In the age of feudalism feudal lords owned large stretches of land and exercised their own power on the land serfs. They ruled against the interests of the “people” who were but the masses of the land serfs. Capitalists did the same thing. They possessed everything and ruled for their own interests and not for the interests of the working class. Communists raise up a big fallacy when they assume that they are an exception to the rule. They say that Communism has been introduced to fight and defeat all forms of oppression, social, economical, or ideological. The proletariat rule and own everything. Its supremacy is mainly directed to safeguard its own interests against “none” for it will have dissolved and liquidated all other social classes. The proletariats do not rule in the true sense of the word. A group of individuals rule in the name of the proletariat. They crush, oppress and subjugate the proletariat in their capacity as individuals or as the “state” which own, rule and suppress all others. As long as the rulers devise and apply their own legislations, oppression on earth will remain and humanity will remain divided into masters and slaves into the powerful and the powerless into the rich and the poor.

In one case only this rule does not apply. Injustice will be uprooted from the face of the earth if people do not devise and implement their own basic legislations. When the Divine Law of God replaces the man-made law all owners and non owners, the rulers and the ruled will be subject to the God given Law and all forms of injustice will be ruled out from the earth. This is ISLAM.

Islam is not merely a set of beliefs rooted in the hearts of Muslims though faith constitutes a basic and an indivisible part of it. Islam is a Divine comprehensive system of life in all its aspects, political, economical, social, ideological and moral. Therefore it is the only religion which actively responds to the requirements of the human body and soul and of life at large. Faith in God is indispensable for man. Man is naturally and instinctively a worshipper. The difference between one man and another does not lie in that this man is a worshipper and that one is not. The difference lies in that one man worships God Almighty and the other worships something else, an idol, a star, a human being, or even nature. Man may worship his own self, the state, the leader, the political party, an ideology, materials of production, the dollar, or even science, or intellect or the base human instincts. All these are stray forms of worship which will lead man into all indecencies and divert him from his honourable decent human nature. The real worth of man is inspired by the god he worships. If he worships the true God, man will be duly honoured and respected. Allah says in the Holy Quran: “We have honoured the sons of Adam, provided them with transport on land and sea, given them for sustenance things good and pure and conferred on them special favours above a great part of Our Creation” )Chapter 17:Verse 70). If man worships another god, he will degenerate himself with his own man-made god and sink into the lowest of the low.

There can be no doubt that Marx founded his theory on the backward industrial situation of the nineteenth century. Workers were in the main manual; they toiled for bread, were greatly exploited and suffered endlessly. Marx could never have anticipated the changes brought about by the scientific and technological revolution of the twentieth century. Workers today enjoy the luxury of sitting at panels with push-button switches, factories are run by computers, and instead of an army of tired workmen, we see comfortable employees protected by many trade unions and social insurance laws (against disability, old age and illness) and having every chance of education and medical treatment. Marx could never have foreseen the flexibility of capitalism and its capacity for developing a new industrial situation in which workers have stakes in the capital, as has happened in many Japanese, Italian, French and British firms. Hence the dissociation of Marxist thought from the reality of our century. Indeed, in the prevailing conditions of today, Marxism may be regarded as reactionary.

All Marx’s predictions, based on his dialectical method have proved to be wrong.

Marx has predicted that the Communist Revolution would break out not in a backward society but in an advanced, capitalist, industrial one, such as the British or the German. He was wrong: Communism struck root in a backward, agricultural society, as happened in Russia and China.

He had predicted that the gap between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat in capitalist states would consistently grow and that the situation would deteriorate so much that a revolution would break out to destroy the entire capitalist system. In fact the reverse of this actually occurred in capitalist countries: thanks to a series of reforms and trade unionist activity the gap has narrowed and class differences have diminished, while it is in Communist states that a conflict has broken out and intensified.

Marx had predicted that capitalism would lead to more concentration of money in colossal monopolies, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. What actually happened was that capital has tended to split up through the establishment of joint stock companies and that through inheritance, land ownership also tended to split up naturally.

Marx has predicted that a devastating economic crisis would practically crush the capitalist system following an imbalance between supply and demand, (namely that as a result of extreme poverty the rate of demand and purchasing power of workers would be too low for ever-rising levels of production). However all economic crises in capitalist countries have so far been temporary. Furthermore, according to Marx’s theory of ‘surplus value’ workers’ wages in capitalist countries should merely fulfill their minimum living requirements, but, thanks to new legislation, trade unionist activity and capitalist self-modification, workers’ wages in many European countries rose to remarkable levels of affluence, thus entirely refuting Marx’s theory.

The most serious flaw in Marxism is, perhaps, that it insists on being a comprehensive system of thought which has an answer to every question and a solution to every problem. He who does not accept this comprehensiveness has no claim to Marxism. Indeed, Marxists believe their worst enemies to be the eclectic-those who accept (or reject it) partially. This rigidity is the weakest aspect of Marxism. In contrast, there is an obvious intellectual flexibility in capitalist states, as well as an ability to absorb the ideas of their opponents and benefit by them regardless of ideology. Many capitalist states have adopted nationalization in an attempt to defeat the evils of exploitation and monopoly.

For all its ideological fanaticism, Marxism has not been comprehensively applied anywhere. Whenever it came to actual application, ‘comprehensive’ Marxism has always been rejected, the reason being a basic weakness in Marxism which we may term ‘methodological arbitration’.

Such arbitrariness of method as is found in historical materialism, may be illustrated by its very dialectic, based as it is on the idea of a single factor in operation down human history, namely the economic factor, which Marx regards as the root cause of all historical phenomena. This mode of thought has come to be rejected as unscientific. The accepted view today is that we cannot interpret social phenomena in terms of a sole, independent and externally isolable factor; we cannot even regard one factor as principal and another as secondary or subordinate in as much as the relation between ’cause’ and ‘effect’ is complex and changing. Instead, we may mark out numerous factors which affect one another and observe the changes in this dynamic process, for what may seem principal today may prove to be secondary tomorrow and so on.

The economic factor cannot be regarded as primum mobile, there are national, psychological, racial and ideological factors which may play an even greater part in shaping history than the economic.

Because Marx did not found his theory on the evidence of the entire history of man but on that of a few, carefully selected historical stages, the laws which he deduced cannot be valid for a reading of all history; indeed, they cannot be regarded strictly as laws. His materialistic interpretation of history, namely that it had always been production methods and employer-worker relationships that built up the social superstructure (including art and thought and religion), constituted a naïve simplification of many interconnected and highly complex processes. Any modern theory is ineluctably based on multiple factors and the principle of reciprocal causality, so that a given factor may be seen as both cause and effect at once. Thought and invention are likely to introduce changes in methods of production and worker-employer relations but the latter two can hardly produce any system of thought; religion can change social relations while social relations cannot create a religion, as amply evidenced by the birth of ISLAM itself.

Islam was not the creation of a class-based community. It was neither a reactionary religion designed to protect the property of tyrants and oppressors nor a drug to induce the poor to accept their poverty. It called on people to enjoy life in moderation and to fight all forms of oppression and exploitation. Nor was it the result of a revolution in the methods of production and worker-employer relations in Quraish. It was a super structural phenomenon independent of environmental factors. From the start Islam established the principles of equal opportunities for all, a guaranteed and adequate level of income for each citizen and an economic balance between the individual and society. It also introduced a system of private ownership, public ownership, and a guided but free economy. All this was introduced in the Arabian Peninsula at a time when neither production conditions nor employer-worker relations called for any change. Consequently, Islam cannot be seen to have sprung out of a particular economic situation. Thus the historical logic of Marxism is defeated and the materialistic theory that a revolution in the production system and worker-employer relations is followed by a political revolution is utterly defeated.

One of the worst excesses of Marxism is its bestowal of a mythical aura of purity and virtue on the proletariat (the working class), as though they were the ‘chosen people’ or an alien race of Martians. Today, as a result of a discrepancy in income between skilled and unskilled labour, this class has itself split into two opposed ones. It is not surprising, therefore, that in view of such obvious gaps in the theory and practice of Marxism many writers and politicians who had once adopted it have now turned away from it. Disenchanted with it, many old socialists today criticize and even oppose it. To state in this context that we belong neither to capitalist ‘right’ nor to Marxist ‘left’ is not to imply that ours is an ideological mean between the two extremes. Ours is an independent contribution to political thought – all our own. We have rejected the dictatorship of the proletariat and substituted a method based on the alliance of the working forces of the population, covering all sectors and classes. We do not regard religion as a reactionary force but as a moving force, as a constructive energy and as a progressive thought – more progressive than all available theories.

Ahadith On the Virtues of Masjid al-Aqsa

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Infograph source: Islamiclandmarks.com

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The Second House of Allah on Earth
1, Abu Dharr (radhiyallahu anhu) reported that he asked the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), “O Messenger of Allah, which Masjid was built first on earth”? The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied, “The Sacred Masjid of Makkah”. Abu Dharr (radhiyallahu anhu) again asked, “Which was next”? The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Masjid Al-Aqsa”. Abu Dharr (radhiyallahu anhu) further asked, “How long was the period between the building of the two Masjids”? The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Forty years”. Apart from these, offer your prayer anywhere when it is time to pray, although excellence is in praying in these Masjids”. (Bukhari)

The Importance of Visiting Masjid Al-Aqsa
2, Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “You should not undertake a special journey to visit any place other than the following three Masjids with the expectations of getting greater reward: the Sacred Masjid of Makkah (Ka’bah), this Masjid of mine (the Prophet’s Masjid in Madinah), and Masjid Al-Aqsa (of Jerusalem)”. In another narration the words are, “For three Masjids a special journey may be undertaken: The Sacred Masjid (Ka’bah), my Masjid and Masjid of Jerusalem (Al-Aqsa). (Muslim, Bukhari, Abu Dawud)

Greater Virtue of praying in Masjid Al-Aqsa
3, Abu Darda (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallqm) said, “A prayed in Makkah (Ka’bah) is worth 1000,000 times (reward), a prayer in my Masjid (Madinah) is worth 1,000 times and a prayer in Al-Aqsa Sanctuary is worth 500 times more reward than anywhere else”. (Tabarani, Bayhaqi, Suyuti)

4, Anas Ibn Malik (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, ” The prayer of a person in his house is a single prayer; his prayer in the Masjid of his people has the reward of 27 prayers; his prayer in the Masjid in which the Friday prayer is observed has the reward of 500; his prayer in Masjid Al-Aqsa (i.e. Al-Aqsa Sanctuary) has a reward of 5,000 prayers; his prayer in my Masjid (the Prophet’s Masjid in Madinah) has a reward of 50,000 prayers, and the prayer in the Sacred Masjid (Ka’bah) has the reward of 100,000 prayers”. (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)

The Importance of Donating to Masjid Al-Aqsa 
5, Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) relates, I asked the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), “Apostle of Allah, tell us the legal injunction about (visiting) Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem).” The Apostle of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, ”Go and pray there. If you cannot visit it and pray there, then send some oil to be used in the lamps”. (Bukhari)

6, Maymunah Bint Sa’d (radhiyallahu anha) relates that she asked the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), “O Messenger of Allah, inform us about Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem)”. He said, “Visit it for prayer “. She further asked, “If one of us cannot visit it, what should we do”? He said, “If you cannot go for prayer then send some oil to be used for its lamps, will be as if he has prayed in it”. (Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud, Tabarani)

The Virtues of Wearing Ihram From Masjid Al-Aqsa
7, Umm Salamah (radhiyallahu anha) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “If anyone puts on Ihram for Hajj or Umrah from Masjid Al-Aqsa and then proceeds to the Sacred Masjid (Ka’bah), their past and future sins will be forgiven, or they will be entered into Paradise”. (Abu Dawud)

The Blessed Land of Masjid Al-Aqsa
8, Zaid Ibn Thabit (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “How blessed is Al-Sham”! The Companions (ra) asked, “Why is that”? The Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied, “I see the Angels of Allah spreading their wings over Al-Sham”. Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) added, “And the Prophets lived therein. There is not a single inch in Al-Quds (Jerusalem) where a Prophet has not prayed or an Angel not stood”. (Tirmidhi, Ahmad)

9, The Prophet Mohammed (saw) said, “Allah has blessed what lies between Al-‘Arish (in Egypt) and the Euphrates and has made Palestine particularly Holy”. (Kanz Al-Umal)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The First Qiblah (direction of prayer)
10, Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates, “We prayed along with the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) facing Al-Quds (Jerusalem) for 16 or 17 months. Then Allah ordered him saw) to turn his face towards the Ka’bah (in Makkah). (Bukhari)

11, Al-Bara (radhiyallahu anhu) added, “Before we changed our direction towards the Ka’bah in prayer, some Muslims had died or had been killed and we did not know what to say about them (regarding their prayers). Allah then revealed: And Allah would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. the prayers of those Muslims facing Bayt Al-Maqdis were valid) {2:143} (Bukhari)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The Station of Al-Isra and Al-Miraj
12, Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “On the night journey Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu alayhi wasallan) was taken on a night journey (Al-Isra and Al-Miraj), two cups, one containing wine and the other containing milk were presented to him (saw) at Al-Quds (Jerusalem). He looked at them and took the cup of milk. Angel Gabriel said, “Praise be to Allah, who guided you to Al-Fitrah (the right path); if you had taken (the cup of) wine, your Ummah would have gone astray”. (Bukhari)

13, Regarding the statement of Allah in the Holy Quran, “And We granted the vision (ascension to the Heavens) which we made you see (as an actual eye witness) was only made as a trial for the people”. (17:60) Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “The sights which Allah’s Apostle was shown on the Night journey where he was taken to Bayt Al-Maqdis (i.e. Jerusalem) were actual sights, (not dreams). And the Cursed tree (mentioned) in the Quran is the tree of Zaqqum. (Bukhari)

14, Jabir Ibn Abdullah (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “When the people of Quraysh did not believe me (i.e. the story of his Miraculous Night Journey), I stood up in Al-Hijr and Allah displayed Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem in front of me, and I began describing it to them while I was looking at it”. (Bukhari)

15, Abdullah Ibn Hawwala (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “I saw on the night of Al-Isra and Al-Miraj (the Night Journey) a white column resembling a pearl which the Angels were carrying . I asked them, “What are you carrying”? They said, “The Column of the Book, we have been ordered to place it in Al-Sham. Later in my sleep, I saw the Column of the Book being taken away from under my headrest. I began to fear lest Allah the Almighty had abandoned the people of the earth. My eyes followed the Column of the Book. It was a brilliant light in front of me. Then I saw it was placed in A;-Sham. (Tabarani)

16, Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “I was brought the Buraq, a tall white beast, bigger than a donkey, smaller than a mule. It could place his hooves at the farthest boundary of his gaze. I mounted it until I arrived at Bayt Al-Maqdis. I tied it at the ring where the Prophets tied it before (i.e. Buraq Wall or the Western Wall). I entered Masjid Al-Aqsa Sanctuary and prayed 2 rak’ah there…” (Muslim)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The Place for Major Events
17, Mujamma Ibn Al-Harith (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Ibn Maryam (Jesus) will kill Al-Dajjal (the Anti-Christ) at the door of Ludd (a town in Palestine)”. (Ahmad, Tirmidhi)

18, The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said regarding Al-Dajjal: “He will stay in the land forty days; he will enter every place on earth except the Ka’bah, the Prophet’s Masjid, Al-Aqsa Sanctuary and Mount Sinai”. (Ahmad)

19, Nahik Ibn Suraym Al-Sakuni (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “You will fight the pagans until the remnant of you fights on the river of Jordan, you to the east of it (present day Jordan) and they to the west of it (occupied Palestine)”. (Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani)

20, Maymunah Bint Sa’d (radhiyallahu anha) reports that she asked the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), “O Messenger of Allah, give us a pronouncement about Al-Quds (Jerusalem)”. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied, “It is the land where they will be raised (Al-Hashr) and gathered (Al-Mahshar)”. (Ahmad, Tabarani)

21, Muadh Ibn Jabal (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “The Flourishing state of Al-Quds (Jerusalem) (under the non-Muslims) will be taken when Yathrib is in ruins, the ruined state of Yathrib will be when the Great War comes, the outbreak of the Great War will be at the conquest of Constantinople and the conquest of Constantinople when Al-Dajjal (Anti-Christ) comes forth”. He (the Prophet) struck his thigh with his hand and said, “This is as true as you are here or as you are sitting (meaning Muadh Ibn Jabal). (Abu Dawud)

22, Awf Ibn Malik (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “The rest of the world will be destroyed forty years before Al-Sham is”. (Ibn Asakir)

23, The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said regarding the inhabitants of the blessed land, “They and their wives, children and slaves (male and female) are in ribat (guardians, literally a fort) in the cause of Allah”. (Tabarani)

24, Al-Nawwas Ibn Saman Al-kalbi (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “If Al-Dajjal comes forth while I am amongst you then I shall dispute with him on your behalf, but if he comes after I am not with you, a man must dispute on his own behalf, and Allah will take to protecting every Muslim. Those of you who live up to his time should recite over him the opening verses of Surah Kahf, for they are your protection from his trial”. We asked, “How long will he remain on earth”? He (saw) replied, “Forty days, one like a year (1 day will be equivalent to 1 year), one like a month, one like a week and the rest of his days like yours”? We asked, “Will one day’s prayer suffice us in the day which will be like a year”? He replied, “No, you must estimate of its extent. Then Isa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Virgin Mary) will descend at the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will then catch Al-Dajjal up at the gates of Ludd and kill him”. (Abu Dawud)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The place of Mujahideen
25, Umamah Al-Bahili (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “A group of my Ummah will remain on truth, they will vanquish their enemy and those who disagree with them will not be able to harm them until Allah commands”. “Where are these people”? The Companions (ra) asked. The Prophet (saw) said, “In and around Al-Quds (Jerusalem). (Ahmad)

26, Mu’awiyah Ibn Sufyan (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “There is a group among my followers who will continue to be openly on the truth. No one who opposes them can harm them until the coming of the Hour”. The Companions (radhiyallahu anhum) asked, “Where will they be”? The Messenger of Allah said, “They will be in and around Bayt Al-Maqdis (i.e. Jerusalem)”. (Ahmad)

27, Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “A group of my Ummah will not cease to fight at the gates of Damascus and at the gates of Al-Quds (Jerusalem) and its surroundings. The betrayal or desertion of whoever deserts them will not harm them in the least. They will remain victorious, standing for the truth, until the Final Hour rises”. (Tabarani)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The Best Place of Residence
28, Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, There will be migration upon migration. The best of the inhabitants of earth will reside where Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) migrated (Jerusalem)”. (Abu Dawud)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The Desired Site of Musa (Moses)
29, Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “The Angel of death was sent to Musa. When he came to Musa, Musa punched him on the eye. The Angel returned to Allah and said, “You sent me to a servant who does not want to die”. Allah ordered the Angel, ‘Return to him and tell him to put his hand on the back of an ox and for every hair that will come under it, he will be granted one year of life’. Musa asked, “O Lord! What will happen after that”? Allah replied, ‘Then death’. Musa decided, let it be now’. Musa then requested Allah to let him die close to the Sacred Land (near Masjid Al-Aqsa) so much so that he would be at a distance of a stone’s throw form it”. Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) added, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) then said, “If I were there, I would show you his grave below the red sand hill on the side of the road”. (Bukhari)

Liberation of Masjid Al-Aqsa Prophesied
30, Awf Ibn Malik relates, “I went to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) during the battle of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, ‘Awf, Count six signs, between now and the approach of the Hour (Qiyamah/Doomsday): my death, the conquest of Al-Quds (Jerusalem); a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep; the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given 100 hundred Dinars (Arabian currency), he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape; and then a truce between you and Banu Asfar (i.e. Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers”. (Bukhari)

31, Shadad Ibn Aws (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Sham will be conquered and Al-Quds (Jerusalem) will be conquered and you or your sons will be Imams there, if Allah will”. (Tabarani)

The Preference of Masjid Al-Aqsa
32, Once the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) advised Abdullah Ibn Hawwala (radhiyallahu anhu) to join the army in al-Sham, over any other. However, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), noticing Ibn Hawwala’s indifference said, “Do you know what Allah says about Al-Sham? Allah said, ‘Al-Sham you are the quintessence of My lands (safwati min biladi) and I shall inhabit you with the chosen ones among My servants’”. (Tabarani)

33, Abdullah Ibn Amr (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) repeated the following statement three times: “When the dissension takes place belief shall be in Al-Sham”. One version of hadith states, “safety will be in Al-Sham”. (Tabarani)

34, Abdullah Ibn Hawwala reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “At some point you will be (split into) standing armies: one army in Al-Sham, on in Yemen and one in Iraq”. Abdullah Ibn Hawala asked he Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), “Choose for me, Messenger of Allah in case I live to see that day”. The Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) replied, “You must go to Al-Sham, for it is the chosen land of Allah in all His earth. He protects, by sending them there, the chosen ones among His servants. If you do not wish to go there, then go to Yemen. Allah has given me guarantee concerning Al-Sham and its people. (Abu Dawud, Ahmad)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The Site of the Future Caliphate
35, Abdullah Ibn Hawwala Al-Azdi (radhiyallahu anhu) reported, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) put his hand on my head and said, “Ibn Hawwala if you see that the Caliphate has taken abode in the Holy Land then the earthquakes and tribulations and great events are at hand. The last Hour on that day will be closer to people than my hand is to your head”. (Ahmad, Abu Dawud)

36, Yunus Ibn Maysarah  relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “This matter (the Caliphate) will be after me in Madinah, then Al-Sham, then Al-Jazira, then Iraq, then in Madinah, then in AL-quds (Jerusalem). If it is in Al-Quds, its home country is there, and if any people expel it, it will not return there forever”. (Ibn Asakir)

37, Al-Numan Ibn Bashir (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Prophethood will last with you for as long as Allah wants it. Then Allah will end it if He wishes to end it. Then there will be the Rightly Guided Caliphs according to the method of Prophethood and things will be as Allah wishes them. Then Allah will end it if He wishes it. Then there will be a voracious kingdom and things will be as Allah wishes them. Then Allah will end it if He wishes. Then there will be Khilafah (Caliphate) according to the method of Prophethood. Thereafter the Prophet (saw) fell silent”. (Ahmad)

38, Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Abi Umayrah (radhiyallahu anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “There will be an oath of allegiance according to guidance in Al-Quds (Jerusalem)”. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – The Place Where Allah’s Revelation Descended
39, Abu Umama (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said, “Prophethood descended upon me in three places: Makkah, Madinah and Al-Sham. Once it is brought out from any of them, it shall never return to it”. (Abu Dawud) In another narration it states, “The Quran was revealed in three places – Makkah, Madinah and Al-Sham”. (Tabarani) Ibn Kathir, the great scholar of Islam, said, “Al-Sham here means Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). (Abu Dawud, Tabarani)

Masjid Al-Aqsa – Mentioned By Name In The Holy Quran
40, Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) reports that the Prophet (saw) used to recite Surah Al-Isra every night in his prayer:
Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allah) Who took His slave (Muhammad Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) for a journey by night from Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah) to the farthest mosque (in Jerusalem), the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him (Muhammad SAW) of Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. (17:1)

May Allah Ta’ala protect Masjid al-Aqsa and protect its surroundings from the enemies. Aameen.

Ulama-E-Ummati

All  praises  are  due  only  unto  Allah,  Most  High.  All  Glory  be  unto  Him  Whose  Knowledge  encompasses  every  granule,  atom, leaf,  drop,  particle,  speck  and  spot.  Exalted  is  He  in  Whose  Knowledge  lies  the  creation’s  silent  thoughts  and  unborn  ideas,  quiet  whispers and  hushed  hopes,  unspoken  wishes  and  unvoiced  fears.  All  Magnificence  belongs  to  Him and  Him  Alone  who  has  paved  the  Way  to  His  Doors  with  the  valuable  gems  of  Knowledge. 

Peace  and  Salutations  be  upon  our  Beloved  Nabi Muhammed  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam,  the Leader  of  mankind,  whose  rays  of  Knowledge  are  reflected  in  the  radiance  of  the  sun.  Had  the water  of  the  oceans  been  ink,  the  forests  of  the  world  pens,  and  the  surface  of  the  earth  a  slab,  it  would  not  be  possible  to  do  justice  to  the  inscribed  vast  treasure  of  the  Knowledge  of  Rasullullah Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam.  

Indeed,  his  Knowledge  confounds  the  intelligent,  shames  the  intellectuals  and  smothers  philosophers,  theorists  and  logicians.  Wrapped  up  in  his  Blessed,  Sacred  words  are  secrets,  which, like  an  oyster,  contain  pearls  of  indescribable  Wisdom.  In  the  reflection  of  these  pearls  and  the glow  of  its  light,  misguided  souls  are  unerringly  led  towards  guidance  and  salvation.  Thus,  did Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  encapsulate  his  mission  by  stating:  “I  have  been  sent  as  a  teacher.”

The Ulama as a Bridge…  

Between  The  Creator,  Allah  Azza  Wajal  and  His  creation  that  is  born  in  ignorance,  lies  the  bridge  of  Knowledge.  This  is  the  bridge  which  an Aalim  spans.    The  scope  and  purpose  of  this mission,  being  none  other  than  “Ibtigha  li  Wajhillah”  (Seeking  the  Divine  Pleasure  of  Allah). Success  in  this  worthy  mission  is  based  upon knowing  with  conviction,  understanding  with clarity  and  unreservedly  practising  with  sincerity  upon  that  which  invites  the  Divine  Pleasure. 

Between  The  Creator,  Allah  Azza  Wajal  and  His  creation  that  is  born  in  ignorance,  lies  the  bridge  of  Knowledge.  This  is  the  bridge  which  an Aalim  spans.  The  scope  and  purpose  of  this  mission,  being  none  other  than  “Ibtigha  li  Wajhillah”  (Seeking  the  Divine  Pleasure  of  Allah). Success  in  this  worthy  mission  is  based  upon knowing  with  conviction,  understanding  with  clarity  and  unreservedly  practising  with  sincerity  upon that  which  invites  the  Divine  Pleasure. 

Through  the  agency  of  an  Aalim,  mankind  is  guided  to  the  Friendship  of  Allah  Ta’aala.  An Aalim’s  knowledge  lights  up the  pathway  to  Jannah.  His  Knowledge,  if  practised  upon,  is  a  shield  against  the  torments  of  Jahannam.  He  can instantaneously  inform  one  about  deeds  which  illuminate  the  dark  Qabr  and  actions  that  ward  off  the  Athaab  of  the  Qabr.  His  heart  and  mind is  a  treasure  trove  of  the  Sunnah.  In  the  glow  of the  lamp  of  his  knowledge  of  The  Shariah,  the  Ummah  distinguishes  Haqq  from  Baatil,  right  from  wrong;  Halaal  from  HaraamPaak  from  Napaak.  This  knowledge,  accumulated  systematically  over  many  years,  is  a  sacred  Amaanah  (Trust)  of  Allah  Ta’aala  and  His  Beloved  Rasul  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam,  a  Waajib  Amaanah to  be  discharged  without  fear  or  favour  to  the  Ummah.  But  what  are  the  makings  of  an  Aalim, you  may  rightfully  ask?

The  Definition  of  the  Ulama   

Extremism  is  a  nasty  sounding  word.  Nay, worse  than  the  word  are  the  implications  governing  it.  A  person,  who  loses  the  art  of  balancing  his  faculties,  is  sooner  or  later  bound  to  display  erratic  characteristics.  In  the  process  he  harms  himself  and  is  a  constant  threat  to  others. It  is  amongst  the  Ni’mats  of  Allah  Azza  Wajal  that  he  has  made  all  forms  of  extremism  Haraam in  Islam.  Our  Deen  teaches  us  moderation  in  every  aspect  of  our  lives.  This  Ummah  has  been  crowned  with  glory  by  being  branded  as “Ummat-aw-Wasat”  in  the  Glorious  Qur’aan.

We  are,  unfortunately,  living  in  an  era  of  extremism.  Whilst  some  people  elevate  the  Ulama to  the  status  of  Popes  and  even  grant  their  statements  and  views  preference  over  The  Nusoos, (Explicit  Laws  of  The  Shariah),  others  salivate with  pleasure  and  find  a  weird  lustful  joy  by  loathing  and  spitefully  bad-mouthing  them. Whilst  the  former  are  in  a  perpetual  trance  of star-gazing  –  deaf,  dumb  and  blind  to  any wrongs  perpetrated  –  the  latter  cannot  even  tolerate  the  word  “Moulana”.  The  mere  usage  of the  word  “Moulana”  is  sufficiently  abhorrent  to  them  to  make  them  cringe  with  envy,  flinch  with  jealousy  and  recoil  with  spite.  They  enviously question  the  validity  of  such  a  title  and  ignorantly  question  the  validity  of  its  usage. 

This  despite  the  fact  that  Hadhrat  Umar  Radiallahu  Anhu  once  addressed  Hadhrat  Bilaal  Radiallahu  with  the  word  “Moula”:  “Bilaal  is  our  Moula”.  “Moulana”  is  derived  from  the  Arabic word  “Moula”  which  inter  alia  means  “Respected  one,  a helper,  a  friend,  a  leader.”

The  “Na”  is  a  possessive  adjective  meaning  “our”.  Thus  the  word  “Moulana”  would mean  “Our  respected  leader,  friend,  and  helper”. The  word  marvellously, not  only  accords  a  deep   sense  of  honouring  for  a  learned  person,  but  also depicts  the  responsibilities  which  a  Moulana  has  to shoulder.  A  friend, a  helper  and a  leader  for   any  occasion a Moulana  indeed  is!

Another  word  commonly  used  for  a  ‘Moulana’  is  the  word “Aalim.” Mind  you,  though  sounding  very  unlike  “Moulana”,  there  is  not  much  difference  between  the  two.  A  person  completing  the  studies  of  a  set  of  Kitaabs,  commencing with  a  small  kitaab  called  “Meezan”  and  concluding  with  the  “Most  Authentic  Kitaab  after the  Holy  Qur’aan”,  the  Bukhari  Sharief  is  considered  to  be  an  Aalim.  The  plural  of  “Aalim”  is  “Ulama”.  After  becoming  an  Aalim  over  a  span of  six/seven  years,  a  “Moulana”  may  further  his  quest  for  knowledge  by  obtaining  expertise  in  Islamic  Jurisprudence.  Upon  successfully  completing  such  a  course,  he  is  conferred  with  the  title  of  Mufti.  Without  ever  having  studied  the relevant  Fatwa  kitaabs  under  the  tutelage  of  an  authentic  Ustaad,  for  one  to  refer  to  himself  as  a  QUALIFIED Mufti  is nothing  but  deception.

Other  than  Islam,  there  is  not  a  single  religion  that  has  managed  to  survive  the  onslaught  of  “times”  and  the  convulsions  of  an  ever  changing  social  landscape.  Jews  and  Christians  chopped and  changed,  cut  and  sliced,  added  and  subtracted  from  their  original  religion,  that,  sad  to  say,  though  they  have  billions  of  adherents  and  mind  boggling  wealth  and  military  power,  they  do  not  have  a  SINGLE  authentic  heavenly script.  Their  religion  is  devoid  of  any  spirituality  and  evolves  upon  politics  and  commercialism.  Celebrations  and  festivities  are  the  cornerstones  of  the  existence  of  their  religions.  Minus  the Christmas  and  Sunday  mass, what’s  left?  

Distortions by previous Ulama of their Shariah

The  architects  of  this  appalling  state  of  affairs  are  none  other  than  the  rabbis,  priests  and  popes.  There  is  simply  nothing  left  to  protect  in  these heavenly  ordained  religions.  Everything  has  been  wiped  off,  even  the  very  humble  act  of making  Sajdah  which  the  Bible  makes  mention of.

In  sharp  contrast  to  this  pathetic  situation,  we find  the  Deen  of  Islam,  alive  and  vibrant,  in  its  original  form. 

Not  a  dot  of  the  Qur’aan  Majeed  has  been  tampered  with,  and  it  is  impossible  for  anyone  to  fabricate  even  a  line  from  the  sayings  of  Sayyidina  wa  Nabiyyina  Muhammed  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam.  

The  differences  between  the  Ulama  and  the  various  schools  of  thought  are  based,  not  upon  whimsical  desires  and  political  necessities,  but  upon  rock-solid  foundations  from  which  rivers  of  knowledge  flow  systematically  for  its  adherents.

Yes,  the  Deen  of  Islam,  whilst  being  as  vast  as  the  desert,  is  constricted  enough  for  one  not  to get  lost.  Yes,  the  Deen  of  Islam,  whilst  gigantic  enough  to  encompass  the  needs  and  requirements  of  each and  every  individual  upon  the  surface  of  the  earth, is  unlike  a prostitute,  free  to  be  taken advantage  of,  used,  abused,  dumped  and  substituted  at  will. 

Though centuries have passed by wherein mankind bred and killed, laughed and grieved, invented and devised, evoluted, progressed and scaled dizzying heights with technological advancements, Islam adapted without losing its values; embraced without allowing itself to be squeezed; accepted without being swarmed out of existence. Though seeded in a desert fourteen centuries ago, the strong tree of our beautiful Deen will continue to provide shade for a frail and weak mankind until Qiyamah.

How the Ulama affect our daily lives

It is the Ulama who are the keepers of this tree, the water bearers of its roots. The watering of that tree is not dependent upon wealth and treasures of the wealthy, nor upon the blood spilled of a soldier or warrior. The water of that tree is ‘Ilm, the nutriments the Khashyat and fear of Allah.  And that is the essence of an Aalim.

Birth to death; Nikaah to Talaaq; trade to in-heritance – it is the Moulana with “the long beard” whom people of Imaan seek out. Look again at him – that simple Moulana, who will in all probability be in charge of our last earthly rites. The Ghusl of our dead body, the wrapping of it in a Kafn, and our Janaazah Salaah will be his lasting favour upon us. In be tween living and dying, he selflessly taught us how to recite the Holy Qur’aan and how to make Wudhu, explained to us how to make Salaah and Sajdah and even at times shared his knowledge by casting light upon the meaning of the name for our new born baby! 

Lawyers, doctors, architects, surgeons, the humble layman – somewhere along the journey of life – all of them had an Aalim as a tutor who paved and lit up the road for them to the Creator and greatest of Creation – Rasullullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. Just as the Aalim opened the door for our understanding of Allah in this worldly life, so is he the informant of the everlasting life. For, from whom else were the details of the splendours of Jannah and the particulars of the horrors of Jahannam sourced? Who else informs us every Friday about issues which we will be confronted with on the Day of Qiyamah? True, the Aalim never dwelled upon how we could enrich our-selves with worldly wealth. Instead he imparted unto us the greatest treasure imaginable – the treasure of Imaan. 

Becoming an Aalim

The Deen finds its roots in the Arabic language. Thus the Aalim has to understand and acquaint himself with the subjects of Nahu and Sarf.  Within a few months, he would be enlightened to a simple “baa” has seventeen meanings and a “kaaf” four meanings! The Aalim has to study an in-depth ex-planation on the principles governing the Tafseer of the Holy Qur’aan, the intricate principles through which the Ahaadeeth are categorised and the complex principles upon which Islamic Jurisprudence is based. 

There are more than a dozen branches of ‘Ilm penned by such Ulama whose piety and purity are more dazzling than the midday sun. Each branch has been expounded and Allah Ta’aala has blessed the Ulama with such powerful ‘Ilm that never will this entire Ummah be united on falsehood. Rasullullah Sallallahu Alyhi Wasallam said: “Forever, there will be a group amongst my Ummah on Haqq, criticism will not harm them.”

With all these tools of ‘Ilm at his disposal, the Aalim has to filter Kufr from Imaan, sift the Sunnah from Bid’ah, judge Fisq (sin) from Birr (piety), weigh Fujoor (trangression) against compliance (Ittibaa), differentiate Ibaadah from rituals, umpire Hikmat from foolishness and distinguish Shaytaanic deceptions from reality. Upon the scales of the Shariah, the Aalim shall separate Nifaaq (hypocrisy) from Ikhlaas (sincerity), and Haqq from Baatil.

Indeed, it can be easily imagined just how deep an Aalim has to dive into the oceans of knowledge in order to gather and search for those oysters which will yield precious pearls that will adorn his existence with ‘Ilm and Khashyiyat (fear of Allah) which ultimately will take him towards his objective of Ma’arifat. He will only become a well of the water he has drank.

Moulana  Maseehullah  Khan  Saheb (Rahmatullahi  alayh)  narrated  the  following  incident: 
Once,  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah (Rahmatullahi  Alayh),  saw  a  small  boy  about  to slip  in  the  rain.  Grabbing  the  boy’s  hand,  Imaam  Saheb  steadied  him  and said:  “Be  careful,  do not slip!” 

The  boy  spontaneously  responded:  “Hadhrat, You  need  to  be  more  careful,  for  if  you  slip  the whole  world slips  with  you!”

The  words  of  that  little  boy  was  appropriate enough  to  be  narrated  down  the  corridor  of  time. It  may  have  been  addressed  to  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah   Rahmatullahi  Alayh  but  its  meaning and essence are  applicable  until  Qiyaamah  to  all  Ulama.  That  the  Ulama  are  the  brains  of  the  Ummah  is  beyond  dispute.  The  Mimbar  they  mount  is  indicative  of  the  awesome  power  they  hold.  If they  proclaim  the  Haraam  to  be  Halaal,  everyone  eats  Haraam.  If  they  proclaim  Riba  to  be legitimate  profits,  everyone  indulges  in  Riba.  In short,  if  they  slip, everyone  slips.

The  Office  of  the  Ulama  has  been  honoured  in  a spectacular  fashion  by  none  other  than  Allah Ta’aala  in the  Holy  Qur’aan.  The  word  “Ulama” is  used  by  Allah  Ta’aala  in  numerous  verses  and  referred  to  in  the  same  grand  spirit,  by  words such  as  “Ulul-‘Ilm”,  (people  of  knowledge), “Utul-‘Ilm”  (those  who  have  been  granted Knowledge),  Aalimoon  and  Aalimeen.  Hundreds  of  thousands  of  Huffaaz  memorise  these  titles  and  fear  forgetting  them,  millions  of  Muslims  throughout  the  World  recite  these  Words  in enchanting  tones  and  more  than  a  billion  and  a  half  bring  faith  and  Imaan  upon  the  Divinity  of these  sacred  words  and  titles.  Truly,  after  the Ambiya,  no  segment  of  mankind  has  been  honoured  by  Allah,  Most  High  in  The  Holy  Qur’aan in  the  manner  as  the  Ulama  have  been,  as  is  apparent from the following: 

The  Ulama in  the  Holy Qur’aan

1)  The  Ulama  and  the  Angels  attest  to  the  Tauheed  which  Allah  Ta’aala  bears  witness  to: “And  verily  Allah  bears  witness  that  there  is none  worthy  of  worship  besides  Him,  and  the Angels  and  those  who  have  been  given ‘Ilm…”

2)  The  Ulama  are  unequal  to  others:  “Are those  who  know  equal  to  those  who  do  not know ?”  Their  limbs  and  their  bodies  etc.  are  just  like  ours.  But  yet,  they  are  unequal  to  us!  There  is  something  different  in  that  heart,  in that  brain  and  on  that  tongue!  The  walking,  eating,  sleeping,  thinking,  actions  and  reactions  of  an  Aalim  are  different  from  an  ignoramus.   

3)  Allah  Ta’aala  honours  the  speech  of  the Ulama:  “And  the  Ulul-‘Ilm  said  “Woe  to  you, the  Thawaab  of  Allah  is  better  for  those  who bring  Imaan  and  do  good deeds”  The  words  of the  Ulul-‘Ilm  were  so  pregnant  with  meaning and  laden  with  reality  that  Allah  Ta’aala  preserved  them  in  His  Holy  Scripture  until  the  day  of  Qiyaamah.  The  Ulama’s  gaze  fall  far  beyond the  world  and  material  merits  of  pomp,  power, competitions  and glory.

4)  Allah  Ta’aala  boasts  of  the  Deeds  of  the  Ulama:  “Verily  when  the  Aayaat  were  recited to  the  Ulul-‘Ilm of  before,  they  fell  prostrate whilst  sobbing.”

Such  are  the  humble  qualities  of  the  Ulama  – Sajdah  and  Sobbing  –  which  keeps  them  in proximity  unto  Allah  Ta’aala! 

5)  Allah  Ta’aala  quotes  the  Ulama’s  speech  on  the  Day  of  Qiyamah:  “And  you  did not  live  but  for  a  few  moments  in  your  worldly life.”

Here  we  find  the  Ulama’s  intelligence  being  acknowledged  and  their  analysis  of  the  worldly  life  being  quoted  even  before  Qiyaamat  takes  place!  

6)  Allah  Ta’aala’s  promise  to  the  Ulama:  “And those  who  were  granted  ‘Ilm ,  for  them  there are  stages…”

Positions  and  rank  –  a  Promise  from  Allah, Most  True  to  the  Ulama  who  are  the  viceroys and inheritors  of  the  Prophets  (Peace  be  upon all of  them)!  

7)  The  Ulama  –  a  solid  shield  against  criticism of  Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam: “And  they  (the  hypocrites)  say  (sarcastically)  to those  who  were  granted  Knowledge “What did  he  (Muhammed  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam)  say  just  now?”
Since  the  hypocrites  could  not  decant  and  discharge  their  hatred  directly  at  Rasullullah Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam,  they  chose  the  Messenger’s  messengers  –  the  Ulama  as  their  targets.  The  hearts  of  the  Ulama  are  regularly  pierced  by the  arrows  of  criticism  meant  for  their  Chief  and their  Leader,  Muhammed  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam.  Such  is  the  love  they  possess  for  Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam,  that  each striking arrow  is  worthy  of  a  kiss  (couplet):

“An arrow  meant  for  him  (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)  struck this  fortunate one

O for  the  joy  and the  luck of  this  sinful  one,

The  secret  message  of  Love  shall  be  written with flowing  blood

If  only  but  the  flow  would turn into an everlasting flood” 

8)  Another  quote  of   The  Ulama  on  the  day  of Qiyamah:  “And  those  who  were  given  ’Ilm and  Imaan  will  say:  “And  verily  this  is  the  day of  resurrection  but  you  did  not  want  to  know about  it.”   

Today,  people  yawn  out  of  boredom  and  incomprehension  when  the  Ulama  speak;  they  mock and  jest.  However  tomorrow  when  the  wax  is left  behind  in  the  Qabr  and  they  stand  under  the scorching  sun  of  Qiyamah,  will  they  indeed  wish that  they  had listened!  

9)  In  the  heart  of  an  Aalim  lies  a  treasure  trove of  Nabuwwat:  “But,  there  are  open  Aayaat (signs)  which  are  in  the  hearts  of  those  who have  been   granted  ‘Ilm .”   

10)  Who  recognises  the  signs  of  Allah  Ta’aala? “And  verily  in it  there  are  signs  for  the  Ulama. ”

In  this  Aayat,  Allah  Ta’aala  specifically  singles out  The  Ulama  for  being  worthy  of    recognising His Signs!

11)  Who  can  foremostly  distinguish  the  parables  mentioned in  the  Holy  Qur’aan?    
“And  these  are  the  parables  mentioned  which we  make  mention  of  to  Mankind.  And  none  can understand it  except  the  Aalimoon ”.

12)  The  Ulama  are  the  ones  who  fear  Allah Ta’aala:  “And  verily  the  Ulama are  the  ones fear  Allah Ta’aala”.  

The  Ulama  are  a  mine  of  Khashiyat  (Divine Fear).  Their  knowledge  guides  them  as  to  why, when  and  how  much  fear  one  should  have  of Allah  Ta’aala.  Anyone  wishing  to  be  endowed  with  Divine  Fear,  will  undoubtedly  gain  this treasure from the Ulama. 

From  the  above  quoted  verses  it  is  as  clear  as  daylight  that  after  Nabuwwat,  there  is  no  greater  honour  than  the  office  of  the  Ulama.  Love  them  or adore  their  good  fortune;  loath  them  or  abhor  their influence  –  it  simply  does  not  matter  to  an  Aalim who values what he has acquired! 

The  Ulama in  the  Hadith

The  high  regard  in  which  the  Chief  and  The  Leader  of  all  mankind,  Rasullullah  Sallallahu Alayhi  Wasallam  holds  the  Ulama  of  his  Ummah, can  be  judged  from  the  immense  glad-tidings  he  has  given  them.  Thus,  we  find  the  following  honours  emanating  from  nowhere  other  than  the  sacred  lips  of  Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam.  Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam anointed  them  as  his  successors  –  “The  Ulama  are the  Heirs  of  the  Ambiya”;  he  saluted  the  very  ink of  their  pens  —    “The  ink  of  the  scholar  will  be weightier  than  the  blood  of  the  martyr  on  the  Day of  Qiyamah”;  he  informed  us  of  the  brutal  danger they  pose  to  Shaytaan  —  “A  single  Faqeeh  is sterner  on  Shaytaan  than  a  thousand  worshippers”;  he  acclaimed  their  status  in  the  Court  of Allah  —  “That  person  whom  Allah  Ta’aala  desires  good  for,  He  makes  him  an  Aalim  and  a Faqeeh  of  the  Deen”;  he  defined  their  rank  in  the hereafter  —  The  Ulama  will  be  the  neighbours  of Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  in  Jannah;  he  elevated  them  to  dizzying  heights    –  “The Ulama  of  my  Ummah  resemble  the  Prophets  of  the Bani  Isra’il”;  he  exhorted  the  Ummah  to  pay  tribute  to  them  —  “Honour  the  Ulama  and  the  Huffaaz,  for  whosoever  has  honoured  them  has  honoured  me  and  whosoever  has  honoured  me  has honoured  Allah.  Therefore  do  not  be  complacent in  fulfilling  the  rights  of  The  Ulama  and  The  Huffaaz,  for  verily  they  have  such a rank  by  Allah they are  close  to  being  Ambiya  with  the  exception  of  Wahi  being  sent  to  them.”  (Daaru  Qutni;  Dailami; Munaawir,  p. 91)  

Just  as  they  disseminated  the  teachings  of  Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  in  this  world  by quenching  the  spiritual  thirst  of  the  Ummah,  so too  will  they  assist  him  in  quenching  the  thirst  of the  Ummah  on  the  Day  of  Qiyamah  by  assisting him  in  the  distribution  of  the  waters  of  the  Haudh-e-Kauther!  

From  the  above  it  is  abundantly  clear  that  there simply  exists  no  greater  a  Ni’mat  after  Imaan  than to  be  blessed  with  the  ‘Ilm  of  Nubuwwat.  The  extraordinary  virtues  and  merits,  mentioned  and  narrated  by  both  Allah  and  His  Rasul  Sallallahu Alayhi  Wasallam,  are  due  to  the  immense  task  upon  the  shoulders  of  an  Aalim.  The  preservation of  the  pristine  Shariah  for  the  next  generation, defending  it  from  dilutions  and  distortions  from  both  the  enemy  within  and  without,  the  propagation  of  it  without  fear  of  enemy  or  favour  of  friend  —  this  is  the  continuous  fixation  and  passion  of  an  Aalim-e-Rabbani!  This  monumental  task  would  weaken  mountains,  distress  angels,  and  cause  giants  to  tremble.  Failure  in  this  task is  not  an  option  for  failure  is  nothing  less  than  a  spectacular  disaster  and  a  tragic  catastrophe,  not  only  for  him,  but  for  the  entire  Ummah  —  for  when  an  Aalim  slips,  the  whole  Ummah  slips!

The Warnings

The  great honour,  unique  tributes  and fantastic  rewards  that  have  been  promised  to the  uprighteous  Ulama  which  were  explained  in  our  previous  issue,  is  matched  by  the  direst warnings,  severest  of  admonitions  and  the  most dreadful  of  punishments  that  is  reserved  for them.  In  the  absence  of  the  Ambiya,  it  is  the Ulama  who  have  inherited  the  torch  of  Hidayat. It  is  they  to  whom  Allah’s  innocent  ones  turn  towards  for  guidance.  It  is  them  whom  the  Ummah  repose  their  trust  in.  The  Shari’ah  has clearly  defined  the  role  and  responsibilities  of the  Ulama  which  evolves  around  Amr  bil  Ma’roof and Nahi-anil-Munkar

Depicting  the  lamentable  state  of  the  Ulama  of previous  Ummah’s, Allah  Ta’aala  informs  us: “And  why  did  their  Rabbi’s  and  their  Priests  not thwart  them  from  evil  speech  and  eating Haraam .  Evil  indeed  is  what  they  have done.” (Parah 6)

From  the  above  we  deduce  that  the  prime  responsibility of  the  Ulama  is  not  to  exert  themselves  in  finding  solutions  to  extract  people  from evil  but  to  instead  thwart  people  from  committing  evil  such  as  eating  Haraam

Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  has  in many  Ahaadith,  warned  the  Ummah  to  be  alert  and  cautious  of  Ulama  who  abdicate  their  responsibilities  without  valid  Shar’i reasons. 

Some  of  the  Rasullullah’s  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  dire  warnings  to  the  Ulama  hereby  narrated:

1) “The silent Aalim is a dumb Shaytaan.”

2)  “The  worst  of  people  are  the  worst  of  Ulama amongst them”  

3) “Soon  a  time  will  dawn  upon  people  –  a  time when  nothing  will  remain  of  Islam  besides  its name,  and  nothing  will  remain  of  the  Qur’aan besides  its  words.  Their  Masaajid  will  be adorned  but  devoid  of  guidance.  Their  Ulama will  be  the  worst  of  creation  beneath  the  sky.  FITNAH  WILL  EMANATE  FROM  THEM AND IT WILL FALL BACK ONTO THEM.” 

4)  A  man  who  studied  and  imparted  Ilm  and  a Qari  of  the  Qur’aan  will  be  brought  before  Allah Ta’aala  on  the  Day  of  Qiyamah.  Allah  Ta’aala will  remind  him  of  His  bounties  which  the  man will  acknowledge.  Then  Allah  Ta’aala  will  ask: “So  what  did  you  do  in  gratitude  of  those  bounties?”

The  Aalim  will  reply:  “I  studied  and  imparted ‘Ilm  and  I  recited  for  your  sake  the  Qur’aan.”

Allah  Ta’aala  will  issue  an  instruction  and  the Aalim  (Moulana)  will  be  dragged  on  his  face and flung into Jahannum.     

Yes,  how  terrible  for  an  Aalim  whose  Nafs  hankers  for  acclaim  and  who  fears  the  ridicule  of the  masses.  Amongst  the  first  to  give  accounting  will  be  such  an  Aalim!  Dragged  on  his  face and  flung  deep  into  the  bowels  of  Jahannum…

The  Moulana  who  will  rotate  around  his  own intestines in Jahannum…

5) Rasullullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said:

“On  the  Day  of  Qiyamah  a  person  will  be  thrown  into  Jahannum  and  his  entrails  will  come  out  of  his  body.  He  will  go  round  his  entrails  as  a  mule  donkey  goes  round  while  turning  a  mill.  The  inhabitants  of  Jahannum  will  crowed  around  him  and  ask  him:  ‘What  has  happened  to  you?  You  used  to  command  us  to  do  good  deeds  and  forbid  us  from  committing  evil  deeds.  He  will  say:  ‘I  enjoined  you  to  do  good  deeds  but did not practice them myself.” 

6)  Rasullullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  is  also  reported  to  have  said:  “On  the  night  of Mi’raj,  I  saw  a  group  of  men  whose  lips  were being  clipped  with  scissors  made  of  Fire.  On asking  who  they  were,  Jibra’eel  alayhi  salaam told  me  they  were  those  preachers  of  my  Ummah who  commanded  others  to do  good  deeds  but  did not do so themselves.” 

7)  Still  another  Hadith  narrates  that  Rasullullah Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  once  said:  “The guards  of  Jahannum  will  apprehend  the  wicked  Ulama  even  before  apprehending  the  non-believers.  When  they  say:  ‘How  is  it  that  we  are  being  punished  even  before  the  non-believers, they  will  be  told  thus,  ‘The  learned  and  the  ignorant  cannot  be  treated  alike  (i.e.  you  committed all  these  misdeeds,  inspite  of  the  fact  that  you had knowledge  of  Deen.” (The  Zabaaniyah  are  the  elite  forces  deputed  by Allah Ta’ala for casting people into Jahannum)

8)  In  a  Hadith  appears  the  following  narration: ‘Some  of  the  inhabitants  of  Jannah  will  visit  the inhabitants  of  Jahannum  and  ask  them:  “What has  happened  to  you  that  you  are  here?  Indeed we  have  been  granted  entry  into  Jannah  by  virtue  of  what  we  learnt  from  you.” They  will  reply:  “We  did  not  practice  ourselves what we preached to others.”

9)  Maalik  bin  Dinar  reports  on  the  authority  of  Hasan  Basri  Radiallahu  Anhu  that  Rasullullah Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  said:  Whoever  delivers  a sermon  will  be  questioned  by  Allah Ta’aala  about  the  motive  behind  his  sermon. (i.e.  He  will  have  to  explain  whether  it  was  done for  gaining  worldly  advantages  such  as  wealth, jobs,  glory,  name  and  fame).

After  relating  the  Hadith  Hadhrat  Maalik  would  weep  so  bitterly  and  that  his  voice  would  choke with  tears.  Then  he  would  say:  “You  think  I  take joy  in  delivering  sermons.  Though  I  am  aware  of the  fact  that  on  the  Day  of  Qiyamah  I  will  have  to  explain what motivated  me.” 

10)  In  another  Hadith  Rasullullah  Sallallahu Alayhi  Wasallam  said:  “The  one  who  would have  to  suffer  the  severest  punishment  on  the Day  of  Qiyamah  will  be  the  learned  man  (an Aalim) who did not profit from his knowledge.

11)  A  man  will  be  brought  on  the  Day  of  Qiyamah  and  flung  into  the  Fire.  His  intestines  will be  extracted  and  he  will  rotate  and  grind  his intestines  like  a  donkey  rotating  a  mill.  The  inmates  of  the  Fire  will  converge  upon  him  and say:

“(Moulana),  what  has  befallen  you?  You  used  to  command  us  with  righteousness  and  prohibit  us from  evil?”

He  will  reply:  “I  would  command  you  with righteousness  whereas  I  would  not  act  upon  it and  I  would  prohibit  you  from  evil  whereas  I  would  perpetrate  it.”

12)  In  another  Hadith  it  is  mentioned that  an  Aalim  who  does  not  practice  upon  his  knowledge  will  be  cast  into  Jahannum  and  that  such  a  foul  and  putrid  smell  will  emit  from  them  that  the  inmates  of  Jahannum  will  say:  “What  misdeeds  did  you  commit that  the  evil  effect  of  it  has  caused  you  to  give  off such  an  offensive  odour?  We  were  already  in  untold  misery  and  you  have  added  to  our  torment.” They  will  reply:  “We  did  not  put  to  use  our  knowledge.” 

Umar  Radhiallahu  anhu  said:   “The  person  I  fear  most  for  in  this  Ummah  is  the hypocritical  Aalim.”  

He  described  a  hypocritical  Aalim  as  “One  who  acts  like  the  ignorant  people  but  talks  like  the  Ulama.” 

Ziyaad  Bin  Hudair  reports  that  Hadhrat  Umar (Radhiallahu anhu)  said to him:
“Are  you  aware  of  what  is  the  cause  for  the  demolition  of  Islam?  Hadhrat  Ziyaad  replied  in  the negative.  Hadhrat  Umar  (Radhiallahu  anhu)  then said:  

“The  cause  for  Islam’s  demolition  is  the  slip  and error  of  an  Aalim,  the  dispute  of  a  Munaafiq  utilizing  the  Qur’aan  and  the  verdicts  of  the  Imams  who are astray.” 

Sufyaan Thauri Rahmatullahi  alayh said:   “He  who  acts  upon  his  knowledge  is  allowed  to retain  it,  while  he  who  does  not  act  upon  it  is  not allowed to retain it.”   

Hadhrat  Hasan Basri  Rahmatullahi  alayh said:  
The  Ulama are  punished when  their  souls  become dead;  and  death  of  the  soul  consists  in  seeking worldly  compensation  for  acts  of  virtue,  against the rewards in the hereafter.”    

Imaam  Ghazali  Rahmatullahi  Alayh  said: “An  Aalim  will  be  punished  more  severely  than  an ignorant  person  in  the  Hereafter.”  [Fadaa-il-e– A’amaal part two p.416] 

By  Allah!  Which  Aalim  can  sleep  peacefully  and enjoy  unbridled  laughter  after  reading  the  above admonishments.  Being  branded  by  Rasulullah  Sallallahu  Alayhi  Wasallam  as  dumb  Shayaaten,  the  worst  of  people,  fitnah  makers,  liars,  must  surely weigh  heavily  on  the  minds  of  anyone  who  has  the  slightest fear  of  Allah  Ta’aala. 
Chastisements  of  being  dragged  upon  the  face,  rotating  around  one’s  intestines,  lips  being  clipped with  scissors  of  fire,  being  apprehended  even  before  non-Muslims,  stinking  with  an  odour  which will  cause  distress  to  the  inmates  of  Jahannum, being  questioned  about  the  motives  for  each  Bayaan  given  –  all  of  these  warnings  in  the  Ahaadith  should serve  as  a  warning to  the  Ulama.  

The  reason  for  this  precise  description  staring  us from  the  pages  of  Kitaabs  we  study  is  meant  to  jolt us  out  of  our  slumber.  It  is  meant  to  cause  us  to stop  and  seriously  reflect  whether  Shaytaan  perhaps  has  a  hand  in  planning  our  destruction.  

Be  careful,  for  we  are  being  watched  and  followed. Our  words  are  recorded  and  our  motives  noted. Our  intentions  will  be  scrutinised  and  our  deeds  analysed.  

Alone  we  shall  stand  in  the  Divine  court  to  answer to  an  angry  Rabb  who  will  lay  bare  our  evil  souls for  the  entire  creation  to  witness.  Shaytaan  at  that time  will  laugh despite  his  own  predicament.  

May  Allah  Ta’aala  have  Mercy  upon  one  and  all. (Ameen)

[Fadaa’il-e-A’amaal, part two p.416]

Consumption of Camel Urine and Clarification from the Islamic Tradition

Originally taken from: http://www.ilmgate.org/consumption-of-camel-urine-clarification-from-islamic-tradition/

By Mawlana Abu Asim Badrul Islam

Introduction

In some countries of the Muslim world, camel urine is believed to contain extraordinary medicinal value. It is drunk and used in various ways. Companies have come into existence, which produce camel urine drinks and other products from camel urine. Although, this practice is found amongst a tiny minority of – almost insignificant – Muslim populations confined to a few cultures, it is nevertheless causing some confusion and raising questions (not to speak of the derision by some non-Muslims, who have their own multiple other questionable practices). Some are drawing a parallel between this practice by some Muslims and the consumption of, and supposed blessings derived from, cow urine by some Hindus.

Scientific Research

As far as we are aware, there is no conclusive scientific research available yet on the benefits or harms of camel urine. Some laboratory research seems to indicate that camel urine may contain anti-cancer properties[1]. Following the outbreak of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS‐CoV), the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recently (2017) issued warnings about the consumption of raw camel milk or camel urine by those who are at high risk of contracting the virus[2].

Why Are Muslims Drinking Camel Urine?

The question arises as to why Muslims, who have always been known for their extraordinary diligence in cleanliness and purity, which is at the very core of the teachings of their faith, are drinking camel urine. As surprising as it may sound, those minority of Muslims who are drinking camel urine, are doing so out of religious conviction. That conviction stems from their understanding of an incident during the blessed lifetime of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ. This incident has been reported in several places by Imām al-Bukhāri in his Ṣaḥῑḥ (ḥadῑth 233)[3] and Imām Muslim in his Ṣaḥῑḥ (ḥadῑth 1671)[4]. It has also been reported by various other imams of ḥadῑth in their respective collections.

The Ḥadῑth of Camel Urine

The ḥadῑth is narrated by Anas ibn Mālik (may Allāh be pleased with him). He describes how a group of people from the tribe of ῾Ukl or ῾Uraynah[5] arrived in Madῑnah. In the commentary of the ḥadῑth, Shaykh al-Islām Ibn Ḥajar al-῾Asqalāni, in his monumental Fatḥ al-Bāri, states that they embraced Islām[6], but fell very ill due to the climate, food and flu of Madῑnah. Ibn Ḥajar mentions that there is indication that when they arrived in Madῑnah, they were already ill. Their illness was extreme malnutrition and weakness. Their colour had turned pale. They came to the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ and complained about their critical condition. He told them to go to a herd of milch camels that were kept in the plains outside Madῑnah and drink their urine and milk. In his commentary on Ṣaḥῑḥ Muslim, ῾Allāmah Mufti Muḥammad Taqi ῾Uthmāni mentions various narrations that state that the camels belonged to the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ, or that amongst the camels were some that belonged to the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ. Some narrations of the ḥadῑth state that the camels were of ṣadaqah[7]. When these individuals went, and drank the urine and milk of the camels, they regained good health. They then killed the shepherd of the Messenger of Allāh [8] and stole the camels. According to some narrations, they put on weight and regained strength.

Verdicts of the Legal Schools

Imām Badr al-Dῑn al-῾Ayni, in his commentary on Ṣaḥῑḥ al-Bukhāri, states that, based on this ḥadῑth, Imām Mālik maintains purity (ṭahārah) of the urine of all animals whose flesh is ḥalāl. This view is also shared by Imāms Aḥmad, al-Sha῾bi, ῾Aṭā̕, al-Nakha῾i, al-Zuhri, Ibn Sῑrῑn, al-Ḥakam, al-Thawri[9]. From amongst the imams of the ḥanafi school of sacred law, Imām Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybāni also holds this view[10]. When asked about it, he argues with this ḥadῑth in his pivotal work, Kitāb al-Aṣl. Imām Abu Yūsuf, the other main student of Imām Abu Ḥanῑfah, maintains the permissibility of drinking the urine of animals whose flesh is ḥalāl (like camels), but states that the same will render water impure, even if a small quantity mixes with water[11]. However, the established view in the ḥanafi school, upon which fatwa is given, is that all urine is filth (najis)[12], although a small amount, which has been deemed negligible,[13] is excused in prayer.

Imāms Abu Ḥanῑfah, al-Shāfi῾i, Abu Yūsuf, Abu Thawr and many others maintain the impurity or filth of all urine[14](irrespective of whether it is the urine of a human – baby or adult, ḥalāl animal or ḥarām animal).

Explanations for the Ḥadῑth of Camel Urine

As for the ḥadῑth of the people of ῾Uraynah, from which this disagreement stems, imāms Abu Ḥanῑfah, al-Shāfi῾i, Abu Yūsuf, Abu Thawr and many others argue that the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ permitted them to drink the urine of camels due to necessity (at the time, and for those particular individuals). Therefore, this incident cannot be taken as evidence where such a necessity does not exist. There are many other instances in the Sharῑ῾ah when, due to necessity, an impermissible thing is allowed. For example, the wearing of silk is unlawful for men. It is permitted in the battlefield, due to certain skin conditions and extreme cold, when an alternative cannot be found.

The most satisfactory explanation for the incident of the people of ῾Uraynah is that the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ knew through revelation that their cure lay in the drinking of camel urine. Using ḥarām substance as medical remedy is permissible when there is certainty of cure[15], in the absence of a ḥalāl alternative[16]. For example, eating of a carcass when one fears death due to extreme hunger; drinking of wine due to extreme thirst or in order to clear food that is stuck in the throat, in the absence of anything else. Allāh Most High says,

وَمَا لَكُمۡ أَلَّا تَأۡكُلُواْ مِمَّا ذُكِرَ ٱسۡمُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡهِ وَقَدۡ فَصَّلَ لَكُم مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ إِلَّا مَا ٱضۡطُرِرۡتُمۡ إِلَيۡهِۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرٗا لَّيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهۡوَآئِهِم بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعۡلَمُ بِٱلۡمُعۡتَدِينَ ١١٩

Why should you not eat of (meats) on which Allah’s name has been pronounced, when He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you – except under compulsion of extreme necessity? (Al-An῾ām: 119)

Shams al-A̕immah al-Sarakhsi states:

“The ḥadῑth of Anas (may Allāh be pleased with him) has been narrated from him by Qatādah, in which he reports that they were permitted to drink the milk of camels. He did not mention urine. Only in the narration of Ḥumayd al-Ṭawῑl is there mention of urine[17]. When the evidence of a ḥadῑth in any matter is questionable, it no longer remains an evidence. Moreover, we say, the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ granted them exclusive permission to drink camel urine, as he knew through revelation that their cure lay in its drinking. The same cannot be found in our age. This is similar to his granting Al-Zubayr exclusive permission to wear silk due to the rash on his skin or presence of parasitic insects. [We further say,] they were granted permission to drink camel urine, as they were disbelievers in the knowledge of Allāh and His Messengerﷺ [18]. He knew through revelation that they would all die apostates. It is not unimaginable that the cure of a disbeliever be found in filth.”[19]

Imām Badr al-Dῑn al-῾Ayni further presents the generality of the ḥadῑth reported by imams al-Ḥākim, Aḥmad, Ibn Mājah, al-Dāra Quṭni and al-Ṭabarāni:

استنزهوا من البول ، فإن عامة عذاب القبر منه.

“Cleanse yourselves from urine. For, most punishment of the grave is due to [carelessness in this regard].”

A similar ḥadῑth, warning that punishment of the grave is often due to carelessness in properly cleansing oneself from urine, has also been reported by imāms al-Bukhāri and Muslim in the Ṣaḥῑḥ.

Imām Shams al-A̕immah Al-Sarakhsi also presents this ḥadῑth and another narration in his Al-Mabsūṭ[20] to prove the impurity of urine in general. He points out that when the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ warned against negligence in regard to keeping oneself clean from urine, he did not limit it to just human urine, as he did not specify the type of urine.

῾Allāmah Mufti Muḥammad Taqi ῾Uthmāni argues that the ḥadῑth of the people of ῾Uraynah was abrogated by later ḥadῑths, which established the filthiness of urine. He states:

“Even though, in the absence of certainty of dates, abrogation cannot be proven by mere possibility, it can[21] be sufficient to prevent the ḥadῑth from being used as an evidence (for the alleged purity of camel urine) in direct contradiction to general [established] principles and popular reports of ḥadῑth, when such a possibility is corroborated by various other strong indicative evidences. In this matter, there exist some strong indicative evidences, which corroborate the possibility of abrogation. These evidences include the fact that the incident of the people of ῾Uraynah occurred during the 6thyear of the hijrah and the ḥadῑth of the filthiness of urine was narrated by Abu Hurayrah, who embraced Islām during the 7th year of the hijrah. When the Islām of a narrator occurs at a later date, even though it does not always definitively imply the lateness of what he has narrated, it is[22], nevertheless, indicative evidence of lateness. This is especially so, if we consider the fact that had the filthiness of urine been abrogated in the 7th year of the hijrah, none of the Companions would have related the ḥadῑth of its filthiness to Abu Hurayrah without pointing out that it had been abrogated. It is obvious that the incident of the people of ῾Uraynah occurred in clear view of the Companions and it was popularly known to people. Had the incident been abrogative of the filthiness of urine, it would not have remained hidden from the Companions. The issue is one that is faced by the general populace – especially, in the case of the Companions, many of whom herded camels and milked them.

It is well-known in the science of ḥadῑth that commandments in the matter of filth were gradually escalated from leniency to strictness. There are examples of many things, which, during the early days of Islām, were considered clean (or pure) and not affecting the validity of ṣalāh. Later, commandments relating to these very things were escalated to that of filth[23]. An instance of this is the ḥadῑth of Ibn Mas῾ūd, reported by al-Bukhāri, regarding the dumping by Abu Jahl of entrails and intestines of a camel on the back of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ while he was in prostration, praying. He did not interrupt his ṣalāh due to this. Rather, he continued praying, as al-Ḥāfiẓ[24] has mentioned in Fatḥ al-Bāri. Ibn Ḥazm has claimed that this ḥadῑth has been abrogated by the ḥadῑth of faeces and blood.

Thus, the above indicative evidences corroborate the possibility of abrogation. In the existence of such a strong possibility, it is not correct to infer from the ḥadῑth under discussion the purity of urine – regarding the filthiness of which there are many ḥadῑths.  

A third explanation for the ḥadῑth under discussion is that the command was to drink camel milk and snuff[25] camel urine, while urine has been put in conjunction with milk by way of inclusion in expression [only]. […] This has been elaborated by Ibn Hishām[26] in Mughni ‘l-Labῑb (2:193, 2:169, 1:32) in the beginning of the fifth chapter of the second volume.[27]

[What I have stated above] is proven by other variant transmissions of this ḥadῑth. For instance, in the Sunan of al-Nasā̕ i, there is no mention of urine. The precise wording is:

فبعث بهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى لقاح ليشربوا من ألبانها ، فكانوا فيها … إلخ

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ sent them to some milch camels so that they may drink their milk. They did this […]”

Similarly, the word ‘urine’ has not been mentioned in the narration of Anas [ibn Mālik] that has been reported by al-Ṭaḥāwi through the transmission of ῾Abd Allāh ibn Bakr, from Ḥumayd, from Anas. This has been mentioned by our shaykh, al-Binnori[28], in his Ma῾ārif al-Sunan (1:275). He then says:

“Based on this, it is very likely that the mention of urine with milk in the context of the command of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was the handiwork of one of the transmitters of the ḥadῑth. The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ may have commanded them to drink camel milk and to wash their nostrils with camel urine, but they may have also drank the urine. Thus, they were both mentioned together [by a transmitter] in the context of drinking of milk, in view of what actually happened – and not because the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ had commanded them to drink camel urine.

In summary, it is not correct to use the ḥadῑth under discussion to prove the purity of camel urine, in the presence of these strong possibilities.

As for the proofs for the filth of all urine, they are very many. [We shall mention a few here.]

Al-Tirmidhi has reported the ḥadῑth of Ibn ῾Umar:

نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن أكل الجلالة وألبانها.

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ prohibited the eating of the flesh, and drinking of milk, of animals that eat animal faeces.”

The reason for the prohibition is its eating of animal faeces. Thus, we know that the flesh of such an animal is impure, as the filth [from the consumed faeces] would have spread to its flesh.

The ḥadῑth of Abu Hurayrah that has been mentioned by Ibn Mājah, al-Dāra Quṭni, al-Ḥākim in his Mustadrak – and he said: [it is] authentic according to the conditions of the two shaykhs (al-Bukhāri and Muslim). Al-Dhahabi has concurred with this:

استنزهوا من البول ، فإن عامة عذاب القبر منه.

“Cleanse yourselves from urine. For, most punishment of the grave is due to [carelessness in this regard].”

[…]”[29]

Imām Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh Kashmῑri in his Arabic transcribed commentary lectures on Ṣaḥῑḥ al-Bukhāri, entitled Fayḍ al-Bāri (1:429), questions how, when the context of the ḥadῑth and the precise words used by the transmitters is so clear in that the permission to drink camel urine was for medical purposes, it can be used to prove general or absolute purity of urine. There is absolutely no indication in the wording of the ḥadῑth that it is referring to purity of urine.

Imām Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh Kashmῑri then questions the assumption that the medicinal application of camel urine was through oral administration. Rather, he argues that it was actually through nasal administration, without drinking it. This is inferred from variant narrations of the ḥadῑth reported by imāms al-Ṭaḥāwi and al-Nasā̕ i. The transcriber-editor of Fayḍ al-Bāri, ῾Allāmah Muḥammad Badr ῾Ālam Miruthi[30], in a footnote, adds another ḥadῑth from the Sunan of Imām Abu Dawūd, which has been reported in a most unlikely chapter, in which the narrator, the Companion Abu Dharr, states that he is unsure as to whether the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ also instructed him to drink camel urine when he instructed him to drink its milk due to illness. He says that Imām Abu Dawūd declares it unauthentic.[31] In the report of Imām al-Nasā̕ i, in the narration that has been transmitted through Sa῾ῑd ibn al-Musayyib[32], there is mention of drinking camel milk, but no mention of urine. There is also another narration that has been reported by Imām al-Nasā̕ i, wherein drinking of milk and urine is mentioned, but there is no mention of whether they drank the urine upon instruction from the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ or of their own accord.[33] The matter is further blurred by the fact that the narration found in the Muṣannaf ῾Abd al-Razzāq mentions nasal administration, instead of drinking.[34]

As for the proof of the filthiness of urine, Imām Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh Kashmῑri argues that it can be inferred from the Noble Qur̕ān. Allāh Most High states:

وَإِنَّ لَكُمۡ فِي ٱلۡأَنۡعَٰمِ لَعِبۡرَةٗۖ نُّسۡقِيكُم مِّمَّا فِي بُطُونِهِۦ مِنۢ بَيۡنِ فَرۡثٖ وَدَمٖ لَّبَنًا خَالِصٗا سَآئِغٗا لِّلشَّٰرِبِينَ ٦٦

Indeed, there is a lesson for you in the cattle. We provide you, out of what lies in their bellies, between faeces and blood, the (drink of) milk, pure and pleasant for those who drink. (Al-Naḥl: 66)

He has mentioned, in this verse, faeces with blood. A ḥadῑth states:

نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن أكل الجلالة وألبانها.

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ prohibited the eating of the flesh, and drinking of milk, of animals that eat animal faeces.”

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ commanded in a ḥadῑth:

من دخل المسجد ، فليمط الأذى عن نعليه.

“He who enters the masjid, should remove from his shoes that which causes discomfort (i.e. faeces and urine).” 

To limit the definition of faeces, mentioned in the above ḥadῑth, to human faeces is far-fetched. Also, another ḥadῑth states:

وأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن الصلاة في المزبلة.

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ prohibited praying at landfill sites (i.e. where refuse is dumped).“

وأنه ألقى الروث وقال: إنها ركس.

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ threw dung and said, ‘Indeed, this is filth’.”[35]

Conclusion

Had camel urine been permissible to consume or indeed a cure, it would have been widely used by the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ and his Companions and all the generations thereafter to our time. It would have been a very popular method of medication, regarding which every Muslim community in the world, in every age, would have known – almost like the way all Muslims know about Zam-zam water and its virtues. In fact, Muslims throughout history would not have let a single drop of urine from their camels go to waste. However, the reality is quite contrary. To most Muslims, the drinking of camel urine is unheard of and, when told, they find even the thought of it abhorrent and distasteful.

 
Abu Asim Badrul Islam
Northampton, ENGLAND
19th Ramaḍān 1438/14th June 2017

 

Bibliography:   

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فهرس المصادر والمراجع :

الإختيار لتعليل المختار ، لعبد الله بن محمود الموصلي ، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط وآخرين ، الرسالة العالمية ، بيروت ، ط1\1430. 
الأصل ، لمحمد بن الحسن الشيباني ، تحقيق د. محمد بوينوكالن ، دار ابن حزم ، بيروت ، ط1\1433.
تقريب التهذيب ، لشهاب الدين أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني ، تحقيق محمد عوامة ، دار المنهاج ، جدة ، ط9\1433.
تكملة فتح الملهم بشرح صحيح الإمام مسلم ، لمحمد تقي العثماني ، دار القلم ، دمشق/بيروت ، ط1/1427.
الجامع الصحيح ، لمحمد بن إسماعيل بن إبراهيم بن المغيرة البخاري ، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط وآخرين ، الرسالة العالمية ، بيروت ، ط1\1432.
الجامع الصحيح ، لمحمد بن إسماعيل بن إبراهيم بن المغيرة البخاري ، دار المنهاج ، جدة ، ط2\1429.
الجامع الصغير ، لمحمد بن الحسن الشيباني ، تحقيق د. محمد بوينوكالن ، دار ابن حزم ، بيروت ، ط1\1432.
عمدة القاري شرح صحيح البخاري ، لبدر الدين أبي محمد محمود بن أحمد العيني ، دار الكتب العلمية ، بيروت.
شرح مشكل الآثار (تحفة لأخيار بترتيب شرح مشكل الآثار) ، لأبي جعفر أحمد بن محمد بن سلامة الطحاوي ، تحقيق وترتيب أبي الحسين خالد محمود الرباط ، دار بلنسية ، الرياض ، ط1/1420.
صحيح الإمام مسلم ، لأبي الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم القشيري النيسابوري ، دار المنهاج ، جدة ، ط1\1433.
فتاوى قاضي خان (الفتاوى الخانية) ، لفخر الدين خان أبي المحاسن الحسن بن منصور الأوزجندي الفرغاني ، المعروف بقاضي خان ، مطبوع بحاشية الفتاوى الهندية ، دار النوادر ، دمشق ، ط1\1434.
فتح الباري بشرح صحيح البخاري ، لشهاب الدين أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني ، دار طيبة ، الرياض ، ط1\1426. 
فيض الباري على صحيح البخاري ، لمحمد أنور الكشميري الديوبندي ، دار الكتب العلمية ، بيروت ، ط1\1426.
اللباب في شرح الكتاب ، لعبد الغني الغنيمي الميداني الدمشقي ، تحقيق د. سائد بكداش ، دار البشائر الإسلامية ، بيروت ، ط1\1431.
المبسوط ، لأبي بكر محمد بن أبي سهل السرخسي ، المعروف بشمس الأئمة ، دار المعرفة ، بيروت.
مختصر القدوري ، لأبي الحسين أحمد بن محمد القدوري ، تحقيق د. سائد بكداش ، دار البشائر الإسلامية ، بيروت ، ط1\1431.

(انتهى)

——————————

Footnotes:

[1] For instance, the National Center for Biotechnology Information in the United States of America has published the findings of one such research (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22922085 – accessed 06 June 2017). See also:http://www.scidev.net/global/disease/news/trials-needed-to-test-camel-urine-cancer-drug-claims.html(accessed 06 June 2017).

[2]http://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/faq/en/(accessed 06 June 2017).

[3] باب أبوال الإبل والدواب والغنم ومرابضها

[4] باب حكم المحاربين والمرتدين

[5] Ḥammād – one of the transmitters of the ḥadῑth – is unsure which of the two mentioned tribes it was. Some narrations state that there were four individuals from ῾Uraynah and three from ῾Ukl, while others give other numbers (Fatḥ al-Bāri, 1:574).

[6] وفي رواية أبي رجاء قبل هذا : بايعوه على الإسلام

[7] Takmilah Fatḥ al-Mulhim bi Sharḥ Ṣaḥῑḥ Muslim, 2:177.

[8] Ibn Ḥajar al-῾Asqalāni, quoting from Ibn Isḥāq in hisMaghāzῑ and Al-Ṭabarāni, names this shepherd as Yasār. The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ had received him as booty after the battle of the Banu Tha῾labah, which took place in the year 6AH. He set him free after seeing how well he prayed and sent him to herd his camels outside Madῑnah, in Ḥarrah. (Fatḥ al-Bāri, 1:578)

[9] ῾Umdat al-Qāri Sharḥ Ṣaḥῑḥ al-Bukhāri, 3:225.

[10] Kitāb al-Aṣl, 1:57, 1:24; Al-Jāmi῾ al-Ṣaghῑr, p. 64.

[11] Kitāb al-Aṣl, 1:24.

[12] ῾Umdat al-Qāri Sharḥ Ṣaḥῑḥ al-Bukhāri, 3:230. Also, see:Al-Mukhtār li ‘l-Fatwā with its commentary by the author,Al-Ikhtiyār li Ta῾lῑl al-Mukhtār, 1:117; Mukhtaṣar al-Qudūriwith its commentary, Al-Lubāb fi Sharḥ al-Kitāb, 2:105;Fatāwā Qāḍi Khān, 1:19.    

[13] Takmilah Fatḥ al-Mulhim bi Sharḥ Ṣaḥῑḥ Muslim, 2:177. The verdicts of the three imams of the ḥanafi school regarding urine of animals whose flesh is ḥalāl are as follows: Imām Abu Ḥanῑfah and Imām Abu Yūsuf – light filth (najāsah mukhaffafah); Imām Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybāni – pure (ṭāhir) (Fatāwā Qāḍi Khān, 1:19).

[14] ῾Umdat al-Qāri Sharḥ Ṣaḥῑḥ al-Bukhāri, 3:230. For the opinion of Imām Abu Ḥanῑfah, see Al-Mabsūṭ, 1:54.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Takmilah Fatḥ al-Mulhim bi Sharḥ Ṣaḥῑḥ Muslim, 2:180.

[17] It ought to be pointed out here that the mention of urine can actually be found in the narrations of several narrators from Anas ibn Mālik (may Allāh be pleased with him). Imām Abu Ja῾far Ṭaḥāwi, in his amazing Sharḥ Mushkil al-Āthār, transmits ḥadῑths with the mention of urine from the following narrators from Anas ibn Mālik: Yaḥya ibn Sa῾ῑd (3223), Abu Qilābah al-Jarmi (2340), Qatādah (3243), Thābit (3243) and ῾Abd al-῾Azῑz ibn Ṣuhayb (3245) (Tuḥfat al-Akhyār bi Tartῑb Sharḥ Mushkil al-Āthār, 5:135-). The same ḥadῑths have also been reported by the authors of the most popular six books of ḥadῑth and others.

[18] That is, although, they feigned faith, Allāh and His Messenger ﷺ knew that they were actually disbelievers.

[19] ῾Umdat al-Qāri Sharḥ Ṣaḥῑḥ al-Bukhāri, 3:231.

[20] 1:54.

[21] My italics.

[22] My italics.

[23] That is, what was previously deemed clean was now unclean and filth.

[24] Ibn Ḥajar al-῾Asqalāni.

[25] This is based on a variant of the ḥadῑth, in which they were commanded to drink camel milk and rinse or wash their nostrils with camel urine. This is also explored by Imām Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh Kashmῑri in his superb Arabic transcribed commentary lectures on Ṣaḥῑḥ al-Bukhāri, entitled Fayḍ al-Bāri (1:429).

[26] The grammarian.

[27] I have omitted much of this point made by ῾Allāmah Mufti Muḥammad Taqi ῾Uthmāni, due to its grammatical technicality of Arabic. Scholars may refer to the original Arabic work. This and some other points may have been taken from Imām Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh Kashmῑri’s Fayḍ al-Bāri ῾alā Ṣaḥῑḥ al-Bukhāri (1:429), wherein the points are elucidated in more detail. It is worth pointing out here that ῾Allāmah Sayyid Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Binnori was the student of Imām Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh Kashmῑri, and ῾Allāmah Mufti Muḥammad Taqi ῾Uthmāni is a student of ῾Allāmah Sayyid Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Binnori.  

[28] That is, ῾Allāmah Sayyid Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Binnori. It is worth mentioning here that it is equally correct to call the shaykh ‘al-Binnori’ or ‘al-Banūri’. The book being referred to is his famous 6-volume Arabic commentary on the ῾ibādāt portion of the Sunan of Imām al-Tirmidhi.

[29] Takmilah Fatḥ al-Mulhim bi Sharḥ Ṣaḥῑḥ Muslim, 2:178. In view of brevity, I have omitted the remainder of the discussion on ḥadῑth evidences by ῾Allāmah Sayyid Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Binnori.

[30] Student of Imām Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh Kashmῑri.

[31] قال العلامة بدر عالم الميرتهي: قلت: ورأيت عند أبي داود رواية في باب الجنب يتيمم ، وفيها: فقال أبو ذر: إني اجتويت المدينة ، فأمر لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بذود وبغنم ، فقال لي: اشرب من ألبانها – وأشك في أبوالها – … إلخ: وحكم عليه أبو داود بعدم الصحة ، وقال: ذكر البول فيه ليس بصحيح ، وليست زيادة في (أبوالها) في حديث أنس رضي الله عنه ، تفرد به أهل البصرة ، فهذه أيضا مهمة ، وإنما نبهت عليها لأنها في غير بابها ، ربما تضلها عند الحاجة. (فيض الباري على صحيح البخاري – 1\429) –-

يقول كاتب هذه المقالة: قال الإمام العلامة خليل أحمد السهارنفوري في كتابه النافع العظيم (بذل المجهود في حل سنن أبي داود – 2\521) عند شرح قوله (وأشك في أبوالها): والشاك حماد بن سلمة أو موسى بن إسماعيل ، فإنه شك هل قال شيخه لفظ ابوالها أو لا؟

[32] ‘Musayyib’ or ‘Musayyab’ – both are correct (see theḍabṭ in Taqrῑb al-Tahdhῑb, 2396, p.275).

[33] Fayḍ al-Bāri, 1:429.

[34] Ibid, 1:430.

[35] Fayḍ al-Bāri, 1:433.

Hadith Matn Criticism – A Closed, Haraam and Kufr Enterprise

[Majlisul Ulama]

REFUTATION OF A MORON JAAHIL’S VIEW ON HADITH CRITICISM

“Verily, those  who dispute  in  Our Aayaat  without  any  proof having come  to them, in  their hearts there  is nothing but a pride  (whose  objective)  they  will  not  attain. Therefore  seek refuge  with  Allah. Verily,  He  is The  Hearer, The  See-er ”   (Aayat  56 Surah  Al Mu’min)

Some  jaahil  groveling  in  his  quagmire  of  jahl-e-murakkab (compound  ignorance), cunningly  in  an  article  peddles  the  haraam  view  that “criticism  of  Hadith  is  not  a  new  enterprise.”  In  this  statement  he  subtly  implies  that  every  modernist  Tom,  Dick  and  Harry  moron  has  the  right  to  submit  the  Ahaadith  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam)  to  the  vagaries  of  his  wildly  fluctuating  nafs  in  whose  grip  labours  his  brains.

The  moron  seeks  to  acquit  himself  as  an  authority  of  the  Shariah  by  disgorging  some facts  which  he  has  gleaned  from  some  academic  kutub.    His  jahaalat  constrains  him  to drive  a  wedge  between  the  Qur’aan  and  the  Ahaadith  of  Nabi-e-Kareem  (sallallahu alayhi  wasallam).  Whilst  the  buffoon  concedes  that  there  does  exist  a  concept  such  as  ‘Sunnah’,  he  perpetrates  the  kufr  of  denying  that  Allah  Ta’ala  has  defined  the  Sunnah.  This  is  indeed  a  subtle  rejection  of  the  Qur’aan  itself,  for  Allah  Azza  Wa  Jal  states  in  His  Kalaam:

“Verily, for  you  (O  Muslimeen!)  there  is  in  Rasulullah  a  Beautiful  Uswah  (lifestyle), for    him  who  has  hope  in  Allah  and  the  Last  Day.”

Then  Allah  Ta’ala  states  a  dozen  times  “Obey  Allah  and  obey  the  Rasool.”  The  theme  of  strict  obedience  to  the   Sunnah  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  is  a  solid, conspicuous  thread  permeating  the  entire  Qur’aan  Majeed.  Allah  Ta’ala  warns  of  severe  punishment –  the  punishment  of  the  Fire  –  deprivation  from  Jannah  for  those  who  do  not    obey  His  Commands  and  Prohibitions, viz.,  His  Shariah.  The  absolute  severity  of  the  Divine  Warnings  mentioning  of  the  roasting  bodies  in  Hell  fire;  being  cast  upside  in  Jahannam;  being  force-fed  boiling  water  and  the  thorns  of  Zaqqoom  in  Jahannam,  etc.,  etc.,  totally  preclude  the  slightest  ambiguity  in  the  Sunnah,  that  Sunnah  which  the  Ummah  has  to  follow  meticulously  to  secure  Najaat  (Salvation)  in  the  Aakhirah.

THE  SUNNAH  IS  NOT  AMBIGUOUS
Most  assuredly,  Allah  Ta’ala  after  having  imposed  the  Sunnah  lifestyle  on  us  and  after  issuing  dire  warnings  and  threats  of  the  severest  consequences  for  disobedience,  did  not  leave  us  to  dwell  and  grope  in  the  darkness  of nafsaani  vacillation  in  the  endeavour  to  discover  the  Sunnah.  The  Sunnah  is  not  a  concept  which  is  the  consequence  of  our  discovery,  its  not  a  discovery  developing  from  the  application  of  man’s  opinion  bogged  down  and  contaminated  by  a  variety  of    inimical  forces.  The  Sunnah  is  the  lifestyle  created  by  Allah  Azza  Wa  Jal  for  His  Makhlooq,  and  defined  meticulously  by  the  practical  example  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  and  his  noble  Sahaabah,  hence  he  declared:

“Honour  my  Sahaabah,  for  verily,  they  are  the  best  of  you;  then  those  who  followed  them (the  Taabieen),  then  those  who  followed  them  (Tab-e-Taabieen).  Then  after  them  kithb (falsehood  and  lies,  especially  modernist  lies  disgorged  by  morons)  will  prevail.”

The  Qur ‘aan-e-Hakeem  does  not  deal  with  modernist  fiction.  It  expounds  incumbent facts  for  us  to  compulsorily  adopt  in  practical  life  in  the  precise  way  exemplified  by Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  and  his  illustrious  Sahaabah.  The  Sunnah  is  not  a stupid  conundrum  which  has  been  left  for  extrapolating  concepts  of  life  in  kufr evolutionary  style  in  the  way  the  Yahood  and  Nasaara  have  mutilated  and  transmogrified the  Shariahs  of  Nabi  Musa  (alayhis  salaam)  and  Nabi  Isa  (alayhis  salaam).  There  is  no ambivalence  in  the  Sunnah.  The  attempt  to  convey  the    devilish  idea  that  the  Sunnah  is  a  riddle  to  be  solved  by  the  brains  of  the  modernist  juhala  by  way  of  submitting  the Ahaadith  to  their  personal  opinion  is  kufr.  Such  ‘believers’  are  zindeeqs.  They  seek  to scuttle  Islam  in  subtle  and  cunning  ways  by  retaining  the  name  ‘Islam’  for  the  hotch  potch  of  which  is  the  quotient  of  their  wild  conjecturing. 

There  is  no  ambiguity  and  no  conundrum  in  the  Sunnah.  Allah  Ta’ala  did  not  command us  to  submit  to  a  conundrum    or  to  a  concept  stricken  with  ambiguity  and  darkness,  then threaten  us  with  the  severest  punishment  for  acts  which  are  in  conflict  of  the  Sunnah despite  our  unawareness  of  what  that  Sunnah  actually  is.

THE QUR’AAN AND THE SUNNAH The  modernist  jaahil  concedes  that  the  Qur’aan  unequivocally  proclaims  that  whatever Muhammad  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  spoke  was  divine  inspiration – Wahi  from  Allah Ta’ala.  How  then  can  his  Sunnah  be  an  ambiguity  consigned  to  posterity  for  unraveling?  What  then  was  the  purpose  of  the  Rasool?  Nabi  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  did  not  indulge  in  mental  gymnastics,  riddles  and  crossward  puzzles.  The  Sunnah  is  a  serious  way  of  life  ordained  for  the  Ummah  by  Allah  Ta’ala.  It  is  inconceivable  that  the  definition  of  the  Sunnah  was  left  for  the  pastime  hobby  of  modernist  morons  who  mushroom  in  this age  in  close  proximity  to  Qiyaamah.  What  does  the  jaahil  seek  to  achieve  by  engaging  on  a  topic  which  has  already  been  solved  and  settled  many  centuries  ago? What  sinister  plot  does  the  moron  conceal  with  his  satanic  attempt  to  fault  Bukhaari  Shareef,  etc.  in  this  age  in  which  the  Ummah  should  be  concerned  with  only  the    practical  Sunnah  lifestyle  as  it has  been  reliably  transmitted  to  us  down  the  long  corridor  of  Islam’s  history  by  means  of authentic  narration  and      practice  of  the  Sahaabah?

There  is  absolutely  no  scope  for  adjusting  and  reinterpreting  the  Shariah  which  has  come down  to  us  most  reliably  from  the  Sahaabah  and  Taabieen.  The  focus  of  these  modernist morons  is  on  the  production  of  a  new  ‘shariah’ – Yahood  and  Nasara  style,  hence  the  devious  and  pernicious  idea  of  the  validity  of  criticizing  the  Ahaadith  on  which  the  entire edifice  of  the  Shariah  is  structured.  In  fact,  without  Ahaadith  there  is  no  Qur’aan.  The  very  authenticity  and  immutability  of  the  Qur’aan  are  firmly  based  on  Ahaadith.  There  is  absolutely  no  other  avenue  for  corroborating  the  Qur’aan’s  authenticity  other  than  Ahaadith.

IMPUGNING  THE  HADITH HADITH CRITICISM
The  attempt  to  impugn  the  lofty  status  of  the  Ahaadith  by  citing  differences  of  Ulama  is contemptible  and  satanic.  The  authorities  – the  true  Ulama  of  bygone  times  were  not  like these  modernist  juhhaal.  They  were  qualified  in  all  sciences  of  the  Shariah.  It  is  ludicrous and  laughable  that  modernist  morons  of  this  age  are  seeking  to  arrogate  to  themselves  the  authority  of  the  Ulama,  Fuqaha,  Muhadditheen  and  Mufassireen  who  were  the  Heirs  of the  Ambiya  occupying  the  highest  station  in  the  concept  of Waraathat-e-Ambiya.

The  sole  repositories  of  the  highest  degree  of  Shar’i  Authority  were  the  Sahaabah, Taabieen  and  Tab-e-Taabieen.  This  was  a  demarcation  enacted  by  Rasulullah  (sallallahu alayhi  wasallam)  himself,  hence  it  is  the  divine  demarcation  which  excludes  all  conflicting  concepts,  views  and  theories  which  developed  beyond  the  boundaries  of  this  sacred demarcation.  Making  explicit  reference  to  this  fact,  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam)  branded  all  post Khairul  Quroon  ‘religious’  innovations  and  ideas  as  Kithb (falsehood)  which  are  the  effects  of  simaanah  (obesity). 

It  is  indeed  the  epitome  of  jahaalat  to  assault  the  Ahaadith  with  stray  opinions  of  scholars  who  had  appeared  on  the  scene  6,  7,  8  and  10  centuries  after  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).  No  one  is  the  Muqallid  of  Imaam  Suyuti  (rahmatullah alayh).  Hence,  if  there  is  some  anomaly  in  a  view  of  Imaam  Suyuti,  it  may  not  be  imposed  on  the  Ummah  as  a  valid  opinion  despite  its  glaring  conflict  with  the  Opinion  which  has  flourished  in  the  Ummah  since  the  epoch  of Khairul  Quroon,  for  this  is  the  boundary  cast  in  solid  divine  Rock  by  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).  Consider  the  following  stupidity  attributed  to  Ibn  Qayyim  and  trumpeted  by  the  modernist  jaahil  in  his  abortive  bid  to  substantiate  his  baseless  idea  of  meddling  and  fiddling  in  the  Ahaadith  with  the  objective  of  scuttling  the  Shariah:

“Ibn  Qayyim  said  ahadith  that  says:  “He  who  loves,  keeps  chaste  and  dies,  does  a martyr”  are  forged.  Even  if  the  narrators’  chain  was  as  bright  as  the  sun.,  he  said  it  would still  be  wrong.”  

Undoubtedly  there  is  something  drastically  wrong  with  the  brains  of  the  one  who  had  propounded  this  ludicrous,  irrational  and  haraam  view.  The  very  authenticity  of  the  Qur’aan  is  established  on  the  basis  of  such  Ahaadith  whose  narrators’  chains  are  as  “bright  as  the  sun”.  This  innovated  theory  attributed  to  Ibn  Qayyim  in  the  belated  age  of  several  centuries  after  Khairul  Quroon  is  pure  ghutha  (rubbish)  which  the  modernist  juhhaal  find  most  palatable.

THE  ISNAAD AND THE MATAN The  fundamental  basis  of  authenticity  of  Hadith  is  the Isnaad,  not  the  Matan.  Thus, regardless  of  perceived  irrationality  and  apparent  contraction  in  Hadith  narrations,  these  elements  will    never  be  factors  for  the  rejection  or  denigration  of  a  Hadith  whose  authenticity  is  corroborated  by  a  Chain  of  Narrators,  “bright  as  the  sun”.    Reason  and  rationality  are  relative  concepts.  What  may  appear  unreasonable  to    someone,  may  be  reasonable  to  another.  Ahaadith  with  Isnaads  “as  bright  as  the  sun”  are  in  entirety  independent  of  the  test  of  rationality.  All  the  raka’ts  of  Salaat  are  based  on  Ahaadith  whose  authenticity  is  “as  bright  as  the  sun”.  No  one  may  tamper  with  these  raka’ts  or  doubt  their  correctness  on  the  basis  of  rationality,  moreover  if  such  rationality  is  an  aberration  of  the  modernist  juhhaal  who  proliferate  Muslim  society  of  this  age.

Relative  to  the  Authorities    who  flourished  during  Khairul  Quroon,  the  likes  of  Ibn  Qayyim  recede  into  the  realm  of  oblivion.  It  is  laughable  to  even  cite  Ibn  Qayyim  or  any post  Khairul  Quroon  Scholar  in  negation  of  the  entrenched  beliefs,  practices  and  concepts which  had  existed  during  that  early  era  in  which  the  Divinely  Sealed  Shariah  was  delivered  to  the  Ummah.

Expounding  his  jahaalah,  the  modernist  Ghabi  says:

“It  is  clear  from  these  and  other  verses,  and  there  is  no  doubt,  that  Muhammad  (s)  is, for  us,  an  exemplar  and  a  model.  Nor  should  there  be  doubt  that  rejecting  his  Sunnah  is  a  grave  error.  No  wonder,  then,  that  it  is  generally  accepted  among  most  Muslims  that  his  Sunnah  is  the  second  most  important  source  of  legislation  and  guidance.”

This  moron  with  his  smattering  of  ‘academic’  knowledge’,  suffering  from  the  disease  of oblique  mental  vision,  just  does  not  know  what  he  has  blurted  out.  Alternatively,  his disgorgement  is  a  subtle  stunt  to  dislodge  the  Sunnah  and  the  Shariah,  hence  the  ghutha of  the  “secondary  nature”  of  the  Sunnah  which  according  to  the  Qur’aan  is  the  primary  and only  way  of  life  for  Muslims.  The  Sunnah  embodied  in  the  Ahaadith  being  the  second source  of  legislation  should  not  be  confused  with  the  Sunnah  which  has  been  ordained  to  be  the  practical  lifestyle  of  the  Ummah.  The  Sunnah  which  is  confirmed  and  corroborated  by  either  the  First  or  the  Second  or  the  Third  or  the  Fourth  Source  of  legislation  is  the only  Sunnah  for  practical  implementation – implementation  which  is  Waajib.  Nothing detracts  from  the  incumbency  and  the  imperative  importance  of  any  Sunnah  act  confirmed  by  any  one  of  the  Four  Sources  of  legislation.  What  has  been  confirmed  as  the  Sunnah  in Khairul  Quroon,  is  the  Sunnah    whose  practical  adoption  the  Qur’aan  commands  regardless  of  the  status  of  the  confirmatory  source.

The  averment  that  rejection  of  the  Sunnah  is  “a  grave  error”  is  grossly  erroneous.  Rejection  of  Sunnah  is  kufrkufr  which  expels  the  rejector  from  the  fold  of  Islam.  Observance  of  the  Sunnah  is  commanded  by    the  Qur’aan.  In  this  Sunnah  there  is  no  ambiguity,  and  this  Sunnah  is  not  subservient  to  the  reasoning  process  of  the  dumb  modernist  juhhaal.

The  modernist  ghabi  peddling  his  haraam  kufr  wares,  seeks    assistance  from  a  Scholar  who  is  in  relation  to  the  Sahaabah  and  Taabieen  a  veritable  non- entity.  Thus  he  says:

“Jalal  al-Din  Suyuti’s  statement  on  matn  criticism  is  now  axiomatic:  “If  you  encounter  a  hadith  contrary  to  reason,  or  principles,  then  you  should  know  that  it  is  forged.”

This  statement  carries  absolutely  no  weight – it  is  devoid  of  Shar’i  substance  in  the  face  of  a  Hadith  whose  authenticity  is  based  on  a  Chain  “as  bright  as  the  sun”.  It  is  a  forgery  attributed  to  Imaam  Suyuti  (rahmatullah  alayh).  The  moron  or  whoever  has  schooled  him  in  his  lamentable  smattering  of  hadith  knowledge,  has  torn  the  principle  from  its  context. The  manner  in  which  the  jaahil  has  presented  Imaam  Suyuti’s  statement  has  been  deliberately  or  ignorantly  calculated  to  convey  the  spurious  notion  that  this  statement  is  a general  principle  for  scrutiny  and  acceptance  of  Hadith  narrations  when  in  fact  this  idea  is baseless – a  figment  of  the  moron’s  hallucination.  The  axiom  mentioned  by  the  moron  has  applicability  only  if  the  narration’s  chain  is  of  a  dubious  nature  or  uncorroborated  by  the  requisite  evidence  for  establishing  authenticity.  In  such  an  event,  the  narration  will  not  be  entertained  even  in  the  domain  of  Fadhaaila  domain  which  allows  room  for  Dhaeef Ahaadith.  Furthermore,  the  moron  did  not  even  understand  what  he  has  read  or  heard about  the  alleged  ‘axiom’.  The  aforementioned  statement  has  been  torn  from  its  context  by the  moron  who  has  failed  to  understand  either  the  statement  or  the  context.

The  statement  mentioned  above  applies  to  such  Maudhoo’  (Fabricated)  narrations  which cannot   be  interpreted  to  reconcile  with  the  Shariah.  It  does  not  even  apply  to  Maudhoo’ in  general. 

The  ghabi  has  attempted  to  pass  himself  off  as  an  authority  by  citing  the  name  of Imaam  Suyuti  (rahmatullah  alayh)  to  impress  other  juhhaal  of  his  ilk.  He  has  attributed  a calumny  against  Imaam  Suyuti.  Imaam  Suyuti’s  statement  does  not  mean  what  the  jaahil  is bandying  out.

It  is  indeed  the  height  of  ghabaawah  to  even  suggest    the  rejection  of  a  Hadith  of  the  Mutawaatir  class  on  the  basis  of  a  moron’s  reasoning  or  simply  because  the matan  of  the  Hadith  militates  against  the  density  of  the  moron’s  brains. Every  jaahil  will  find  almost  every  juz’i  mas’alah of  every  Shar’i  Institution  to  be  in  conflict  with  his  defective reasoning.  Innumerable  ahkaam of  Hajj  will  be  found  to  be  in  conflict  with  ‘reason’ – the  reason  of  ghabis.  Must  we  then  reject  all  these  ahkaam  substantiated  by  Ahaadith  simply  because  morons  perceive  a  conflict  with  their  reasoning  process?  The  ghabaawah  of  the modernist  juhhaal  is  indeed  axiomatic.

WHAT IS THE SUNNAH? Flaunting  his  jahaalah ,  the  moron  asks: 

“After  that  acknowledgement,  however,  it  gets  tricky.  The  question  that  follows  is:  how  do  we  know  what  his  Sunnah  is.”  

The  Imaan  of  this  moron  appears  to  have  been  extinguished  hence  this    ludicrous  question  bordering  on kufr.  Every  Muslim  is  aware  that  the  Sunnah  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  has  been  acquired  from  the  Sahaabah  who  had  transmitted  it  to  Taabieen  who  in  turn transmitted  it  to  the  Tab-e-Taabieen  who  in  turn  transmitted  it  to  the  succeeding  generation,  and  so  on  by  way  of  reliable  transmission  the  Sunnah  has  reached  us  intact,  and  so  shall  it  be  transmitted  intact  until  the  Day  of  Qiyaamah  from  generation  to  generation.

Nothing  of  the  Sunnah  has  been  omitted  in  the  process  of  transmission.  He  who  ventures such  a  kufr  claim  of  the  Sunnah  being  imperfect  or  incomplete  or  that  part  of  it  has  been lost  in  the  transmission  process  is  in  abnegation  of  the  Qur’aan.  Allah  Ta’ala  Himself  has undertaken  the  responsibility  of  safeguarding  this  Deen  of  Islam.  It  will  remain  in  its pristine  purity  until  Qiyaamah  regardless  of  the  deviation,  baatil,  bid’ah  and  kufr  which modernist  morons  and  other  types  of  juhhaal  innovate  from  time  to  time.  Thus  the  Sunnah has  been  extant  since  the  time  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).  Islam  is  the final  DeenNubuwwat  has  been  terminated.  No  new  code  of  life  will  be  revealed.  This  pre-supposes  the  perpetual  existence  of  the  original  Sunnah  and  Shariah  in  their  pristine  purity.  The  attempt  to  cloak  the  Sunnah  with  ambiguity  is  underlined  with  a  satanic  motive,  and  that  motive  is  to  disfigure  the  Sunnah  and  the  Shariah  to  accommodate  the  concepts  of  kufr  of  the  modernist  juhhaal  such  as  the  moron  who  deems  himself  qualified  enough  to  masquerade  as  an  ‘authority’  on  Hadith.

The  moron  further  exhibits  his  gross  ignorance  by  saying  that   the  Ahaadith  merely  “contain  clues  of  what  the  Sunnah  was,  but  they  are  not  the  Sunnah” To  him  the  Sunnah  “was”.  It  is  something  antique,  no  longer  in  existence.  The  Ahaadith  are  not  mere  clues  of  the  Sunnah.  The  entire  structure  of  the  Sunnah  is  the  Qur’aan  and  the  Ahaadith.  There  is  no  other  source  of  the  Sunnah  other  than  the  Qur’aan  and  Ahaadith.  That  certain  Ahaadith  do  not  form  part  of  practical  Sunnah  notwithstanding  their  authenticity,  does  not  detract from  the  fact  that  the  foundation  of  the  Sunnah  is  the  Ahaadith..  Only  a  moron  has  the  audacity  and  who  is    sufficiently  stupid  to  believe  that  in  the  Ahaadith  are  only  ‘clues’  of  the  Sunnah.  We  wonder  if  the  jaahil  possesses  adequate  expertise  in  the  Sunnah  style  of  Istinja.

The  Ahaadith  do  not  provide  only  a  ‘glimpse’  of  the  Sunnah  as  the  moron  alleges.  It provides  the  whole  of  the  Sunnah,  hence  the  Qur’aan  commands:  “Obey  Allah  and  obey  the  Rasool.”   The  Sunnah  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  is  preserved  in  the minutest  detail  in  the  Ahaadith,  and  all  the  Ahaadith  which  constitute  the  Sunnah  have  already  been  authenticated  and  documented.  Ijtihaad  in  the  field  of  Hadith  is  a  closed  book.  There  remains  not  the  slightest  scope  for  revision  and  revisiting  the  Ahaadith  to structure  a  new  ‘sunnah’  to  conform  to  the  brains  of  modernist  morons.  The  Sunnah remains  unadulterated.  It  exists  as  it  had  existed  during  the  age  of  the  Sahaabah,  albeit very  little  of  it  is  being  practically  implemented  by  Muslims  of  this  era.  But  the  Sunnah  is  not  hidden.

AHAADITH  TOO, PROTECTED BY ALLAH TA’ALA
Disgorging  another  figment  of  his  satanic  hallucination,  the  Ghabi  says: “……the  Qur’ an has  been  protected  by  Allah;  the  ahadith  have  not.”  Here  the  moron  implies  that  Allah’s Shariah  is  the  victim  of    change,  interpolation  and    disfigurement  in  the  way  the  Shariahs  of  previous  Ambiya had  suffered  at  the  hands  of  their  respective  followers.  The  averment  is  a  veiled  rejection  of  the  Finality  of  Nubuwwat    and  of  the  Qur’aan’s  proclamation  of  the completion  and  perfection  of  this  Deen  of  Islam.  In  the  Qur’aan,  Allah  Ta’ala  declares:

“This  Day  have  I  perfected  for  you  your  Deen,  and  I  have  completed  for  you  My  Bounty (of  the  Perfect  Deen),  and  have  chosen  for  you  Islam  as    (your)  Deen.”   (Aayat  4,  Al-Maaidah)

On  what  basis  does  the  jaahil claim  that  the  Ahaadith  on  which  the  edifice  of  the  Shariah  has  been  raised  are  not  protected  by  Allah  Ta’ala?  The  Divine  Protection  of  the “Thikr”  mentioned  in  the  Qur’aan  brings  within  its  purview  the  whole  of  the  immutable  Deen  whose  perfection  and  completion  Allah  Ta’ala  has  announced  in  the  Qur’aan.  The  protection  is  not  confined  to  the  text  of  the  Qur’aan  Majeed.  Allah’s  promised  Protection  extends  over  the  entire  Deen  which  He  says  He  has  completed  and  perfected.  But  the  jaahil  with  vermiculated  brains  speculates  that  the  Ahaadith  on  which  is  based  the authenticity  of  the  Qur’aan  and  which  constitute  the  bulwark  of  the  Shariah  have  remained  unprotected  to  be  fodder  for  the  corrupt  interpretations  of  the  modernist  juhhaal.

If  the  Ahaadith  did  not  enjoy  Divine  Protection,  then  today there  would  have  been  no Qur’aan  and  no  immutable  Shariah.  The  compilation  of  the  Qur’aan  Majeed  during  the  age  of  the  Sahaabah  was  a  sacred  Task  accomplished  on  the  foundation  of  Ahaadith. Narrations  which  do  not  form  part  of  the  Shariah  should  not  be  cynically  and  deceptively confused  with  the  Protected  Ahaadith  which  constitute  not  only  the  foundation,  but  also the  super  edifice  of  the  Shariah.  For  the  protection  of  the  text  of  the  Qur’aan,  Allah  Ta’ala  has  created  the  Institution  of  the  Huffaaz.  For  the  protection  of  the  Shariah,  Allah  Ta’ala  has  created  the  Institution  of  the  Ulama.  This  Institution  is  divided  into  several  categories.  For  the  protection  of  the  Ahaadith,  Allah  Ta’ala  has  created  the  Jamaat  of  the  Muhadditheen.    After  the  accomplishment  of  their  sacred  Task  of  compiling  the  Ahaadith, the  Institution  of  the  Muhadditheen  was  terminated  since  the  objective  had  been  achieved.  Hence,    after  the  era  of  the  Muhadditheen,  we  no  longer  find  Ulama  of  the Muhadditheen  calibre.  The  ‘muhadditheen’  of  later  centuries  were  not  Muhadditheen  in  the meaning  of  the  Institution  as  it  existed  in  the  era  of  Khairul  Quroon. Thus,  the  averment  that  the  Ahaadith  has  been  left  unprotected  is  kufr.  It  is  a  plot  of  the  modernist  juhhaal  plot  to  introduce  and  innovate  kufr  views  and  ideas  into  Islam.  The  motive  underlying  this  stupid  averment  of  kufr  is  to  leave  open  a  window  through  which  baatil  and  kufr  could  be introduced  by  stealth.

Regardless  of  the  classification  of  Ahaadith  by  the  Muhadditheen  of  the  post Aimmah Mujtahideen  era,  the  Sunnah  and  the  Shariah,  were  already  well  defined  and  entrenched  in  the  Ummah,  long  before  the  appearance  of  the  Muhadditheen.  The  Sunnah  as  it  was  handed  to  the  Ummah  by  the  Sahaabah  to  the  Taabieen  is  independent  of  and  not  in  need of  the  Hadith  classification  science  of  the  later  Muhadditheen.  The  Sahaabah  and  the  Aimmah  Mujtahideen  did  not  need    Imaam  Bukhaari  (rahmatullah  alayh)  and  Imaam Muslim  (rahmatullah  alayh)  for  establishing  the  Edifice  of  the  Sunnah  with  its  concomitant  Shariah.  The  Muhadditheen  could  not  and  did  not  discard  any  aspect  of  the  inherited  Sunnah  on  the  basis  of  their  classification  of  Ahaadith.  On  the  contrary,  they  would  make amal  on  (practically  implement)  the  inherited  Sunnah  even  it appeared  to  be  in  conflict  with  the  text  of  any  Hadith  which  they  had  classified  Saheeh.

The  Sunnah  is  not  subservient  to  the  Science  formulated  by  the  later  Muhadditheen.  The modernist  Juhhaal  are  making  baboons  and  donkeys  of  themselves  with  their  stupid  attempts  of  shoving  their  ludicrous  snouts  into  this  sacred  Domain.  The  Domain  of  Hadith  does  not  admit  any  dalliance  with  the  stupidities  of  morons  who  attempt  to  project  themselves  as  authorities  of  the  Shariah.  The  moron’s  superficial  mention  of  the  Hadith  classes  is  simply  an  exercise  to  flaunt  ‘expertise’  in  the  Science  of  Hadith.  But  the  moron  is  bankrupt  in  this  sphere.

HADITH  CLASSIFICATION?
The  modernist  zindeeq  moron  avers:  “An  examination  of  these  classifications  is  sufficient  indication  that  hadith  criticism  is  not  new.  Indeed  hadith  criticism  has  existed  from  the  time  the  first  ahadith  were  narrated.”

The  Ghabi  has  only  exhibited  his  scandalous  jahaalat  by  this  stupid  averment.  Criticism  of  Hadith  is  tantamount  to     criticism  of  the  Qur’aan.  There  never  existed  a  ‘science’  called  ‘Hadith  Criticism’.  The  Authorities  of  the  Shariah  did  not  indulge  in  the  kufr  act  of  criticizing  Ahaadith.  The  consequence  of  criticizing  Ahaadith  was  execution  in the  early  days.  Hadith  classification  is  not  Hadith  criticism.  Rejection  of  a  Hadith  due  to  its  spurious  chain  of  narration    or  lack  of  a  viable  chain  or  on  the  basis  of  any  other  principle  of  the  Muhadditheen,  is  not  to  be  confused  with  Hadith  criticism.  The  examination  of  the  chains  of  narration  by  the  Muhadditheen  was  for  establishing  the  authenticity  of  the  Ahaadith,  not  for  criticizing  the  Matan  (the  body  or  the  actual narration). The  Task  of  the  Muhadditheen  was  Hadith  Compilation,  not  Hadith interpretation  and  not  formulation  of  masaail  on  the  basis  of  Ahaadith.  That  was  a function  superbly  and  adequately  executed  by  the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen  centuries prior  to  the  age  of  the  Muhadditheen.

Therefore,  it  is  not  permissible  to  wrought  any  change  in  the  Sunnah  and  the  Shariah  on  the  basis  of  any  interpretation  of  the  much  later  Ulama  such  as  Imaam  Suyuti,  Ibn  Qayyim,  Shawkaani,  etc.  if  such  interpretation  conflicts  with  the    Sunnah  and  Shariah  which  have  been  handed  down  to  the  Ummah  from  the  era  of  Khairul  Quroon. These  later  Ulama,  comparatively  speaking,  are  non-entities  in  relation  to  the  Sahaabah  and  the  Aimmah  Muijtahideen  and  the  Fuqaha  Mutaqaddimeen.  Furthermore,  these  illustrious  later  Ulama  were  not  in  conflict  with  the  Sunnah  and  Shariah  expounded    and  practised  by the  Mutaqaddimeen  Authorities.  But  the  juhhaal of  these  times  bamboozle  the  ignorant and  the  unwary  by  citing  statements  of  these  Ulama  totally  out  of  context,  as  well  as  on  the basis  of  their  extremely  deficient  understanding  of    what  they  read  in  the  kutub.  The  Domain  of  Hadith  is  for  these  juhhaal foreign  territory.  It  is  dangerous  and  forbidden  for them  to  even  contemplate  traversing  the  Valleys  of  Ahaadith.  The  domain  for  the modernist  moron  is  the  pre-Maktab  class,  for  he  is  still  donning  the  diapers  of  infants.  If  he  has  any  idea  of  the  meaning  of  Imaan,  then  he  should  not  destroy  the  Treasure  with  reckless  disgorgement  of  kufr.

There  did  not  exist  any  Hadith  Criticism  branch  of  Knowledge  in  Islam.  To  say  that  “criticism  of  hadith  is  not  a  new  enterprise’  is  to  advertise  jahljahl  murakkab (compound ignorance)  or  jahaalat  piled  on  top  of  jahaalat – ignorance  consisting  of  multiple  of  layers.  Hadith  criticism  is  haraam.  It  is  kufr.  It  is  not  a  permissible  enterprise.  Criticism  of  the  Isnaad  is  not  criticism  of  the  Hadith.

The  moron  attempts  to  extravasate  capital  for  his  kufr  idea  from  the  rejection  of narrations  by  the  Muhadditheen.  In  the  rejection  of  narrations  by  Imaam  Bukhaari  and  other  Muhadditheen  there  is no  support  for  the  corrupt  view  of  the  jaahil.  The  setting  aside  of  narrations  was  determined  by  the  status  of  the  Isnaad  (chain  of  narration),  not  by  the Matan  as  the  moron  abortively  attempt  to  convey.  Matan  was  a  Scrutiny  of  the  principle  invoked  in  exceptional  cases  in  the  absence  of  a  viable  Isnaad.

IMAAM BUKHAARI’S METHODOLOGY
Commenting  on  Imaam  Bukhaari’s  methodology  of  Hadith  Compilation,  the  moron avers:

“It  is  said  that  he  (Imaam  Bukhaari)  had  collected  more  than  600,000  ahadith.  However, only  3,500  appear  in  his  collection;  he  rejected  the  rest  as  not  fulfilling  his  criteria  for authenticity.  For  him,  every  hadith  was  fake  until  it  was  proven  authentic.”

The  setting  aside  of  Ahaadith    which  did  not  conform  to  Imaam  Bukhaari’s  criteria  is  not a  daleel  for  such  narrations    being  fake  and  fabrications.  Many  other  Muhadditheen  had accepted  and  compiled     numerous  Ahaadith  which  are  not  to  be  found  in  Imaam Bukhaari’s  Compendium.  Furthermore,  he  had  set  aside  the  narrations  in  terms  of  his criteria  applicable  to  the Isnaad.  But,  his  acceptance  and  setting  aside  of  Ahaadith  did  not adversely  affect  the  Sunnah  and  the  Shariah  which  were  in  existence  and  practically implemented  by  even  Imaam  Bukhaari  (rahmatullah  alayh),  not  in  terms  of  his Hadith Compilation,  but  according  to  the  Inherited  Sunnah  and  Shariah.  The  objective  of  Hadith  collection  was  not  to  effect  change  in  the  Sunnah  and  Shariah..  On  the  contrary,  the  plot  of  the  modernist juhhaal  underlying  their  stupid  ‘hadith  criticism’  exercises is  to  scuttle  the  Sunnah  and  to  undermine  the  Shariah.

The  averment  that  Imaam  Bukhaari  (rahmatullah  alayh)  believed  every  Hadith  to  be ‘fake’  is  a  dastardly  slander  hurled  at  this  great  Authority  of  Hadith.  Truly,  we  are  living in  the  age  of Juhhaal.  The  density  of  the  brains  of  these  morons  is  indeed  shocking.  This  moron  believes  that  he  is  on  the  pedestal  of  Imaam  Bukhaari.  He  hallucinates  that  he  is  an  authority  of  Hadith  hence  capable  of  submitting  any  Hadith  to  the  scrutiny  of  his  nafs  and  stercoraceous  skull  to  enable  him  to  disgorge  his  skullduggery.  Thus  he  says: “….it  is  very  instructive  to  examine  (historical)  matn  criticism  before  we  ignorant  people decide  to  do  our  own.”   Here  His  jahaalat  boggles  the  imagination.

Here  we  have  a  modernist  moron  deficient  in  even  the  Sunnah  methodology  of  Istinja, believing  that  a  superficial  reading  and   ‘examination  of  matn  criticism’  qualifies  him  to be  a  Bukhaari  or  a  Muslim  or  a  Nisaai’,  etc.  We  must  concede  that  nothing  by  way  of  naseehat  is  capable  of  penetrating  the  layer  of  density  in  which  the  brains  of  a  modernist Juhhaal  is  ensconced.

NABI  AADAM’S  HEIGHT
In  his  endeavour  to  find  room  for  his  haraam  enterprise  of  hadith  criticism,  the  moron says:

“Bukhari’s  hadith  that  Adam’s  height  was  60  cubits  was  criticized  by  Ibn  Hajar,  arguing that  archeological  measurements  of  homes  of  ancient  people  show  they  were  not  abnormally  tall.”  

But  archeological  measurements  show  that  ancient  animals  were  extremely  massive.  Whilst  morons  are  swift  in  their  acknowledgement  of  the  ‘correctness’  of  the  huge  size  of  extinct  animals  such  as  dinosaurs,  they  react  with  kufr  at  the  size  of  Hadhrat  Aadam (alayhis  salaam)  stated  in  the  Saheeh  Hadith.  The  existence  and  massive  size  of  dinosaurs and  other  ‘pre-historic’  animals  of  huge  sizes  established  by  archeological  discoveries, dubious  calculations  and  spurious  theories  of  conjecture  and  guesswork  are  accepted  by the  modernist  juhhaal  as  if  these  are  effects  of  divine  revelation  (Wahi),  but  the  height  of  Hadhrat  Aadam  (alayhis  salaam)  substantiated  by  Wahi  is  not  only  frowned  on,  but  rejected  by  the  modernist  Zanaadiqah.  Whatever  the  western  atheists  excrete  into  their  mouths,  the  modernist  morons  ingest  it  with  relish.  This  confirms  their  kufr.

It  is  quite  logical – a  rationality  which  even  a  child  of  discernment  will  comprehend  that  to  ride  and  rein  in  huge  animals  of  the  massive  size  of  dinosaurs,  the  people  had  to  be  of  proportionate  size.  The  people  who  had  lived  in  that  age  of  huge  animals  must themselves  have  been  huge.  A  miniature  modernist  moron  of  this  age  would  not  have  been  able  to  sit  on  a  dinosaur  or  a  horse  of  that  size.  In  fact,  he  would  drown  in  the  animal’s  urine,  and  the  ton  of  faeces  let  out  with  force  would  annihilate  him  in  the  way  lava  is  shot  out  by  an  erupting  volcano.

The  moron,  in  citing  Ibn  Hajar,  has  either  perpetrated  chicanery  or  has  genuinely  stated  what  he  has  stupidly  understood  from  his  excessively  deficient  ‘research’  of  the  writings  of  moron  professors  of  universities,  or  from  some  crash  course  administered  by  his  ilk.  Ibn  Hajar  has  NOT  faulted  the  authenticity  of  Hadith  whose  Isnaad  is  beyond  the  slightest  vestige  of  reproach.  The  Hadith  in  question  is  of  the  highest  degree  of  Authenticity.  It  is  narrated  by  Bukhaari,  Muslim  and  all  Authorities  of  Hadith.  None  of  the illustrious  Muhadditheen  or  any  of  the  noble  Fuqaha  of  any  age,  had  ever  criticized  the  Hadith,  whether  Sanad  or  Matan.

The  criticism  of  Zindeeqs,  non-entities,  juhhaal  and  modernist  morons  is  of  no significance  and  no  consequence.  One  such  total  non-entity  is  Ibn  Khaldun  and  another  hardcore  modernist  murtad,  Fareed   Wajdi.  Commenting  on  Ibn  Khaldun’s  stupidity, Allamah  Anwar  Shah  Kashmiri  (rahmatullah  alayh)  said:  “What  has  constrained  this person  to  refute  a  Saheeh  Hadith  (which  is  Saheeh)  to  the  Nation  (i.e.  the  illustrious Conglomerate  of  Muhadditheen)…….What  would  be  appropriate  is  that  these  types  of  (kufr)  arguments  should  be  criticized  with  the  Saheeh  Hadith,  not  the  other  way  around,  i.e.  to  mutilate  the  Hadith  (with  arguments  of  kufr).”

Contrary  to  what  the  miserable  modernist  jaahil  has  peddled,  Ibn  Hajar  did  NOT  fault  the  authenticity  of  the  Hadith.  He  did  not  criticize  the  Sanad NOR  the  Matan  of  the  Hadith.  He  had  voiced  his  own  lack  of  understanding  in  the  light  of    the  spurious  archeological  facts.  It  is  indeed  surprising  that  an  authority  of  Ibn  Hajr’s  calibre  being  baffled  by  the  ambiguity  generated  by  archeological  facts  which  in  reality  are  the  effects of  conjecture  which  spawned  ambiguity  in  Ibn  Hajar’s  understanding  of  the  Hadith.

Ibn  Hajar  had  failed  to  understand  the  Hadith  in  the  light  of  archeological  discoveries  of  the  size  of  the  houses  which  were  assumed  to  be  the  homes  of  the  Thamud  nation.  This  is  not  the  occasion  to  present  a  detailed  refutation  of  the  spurious  nature  of  archeology.  It  will  suffice  to  say  that  a  Hadith  whose  authenticity  is  corroborated  by  Ijma’  of  the  Muhadditheen  can never  be  criticized  if  the  meaning  of  the  text  cannot  be  understood.  Or  if  its  meaning  appears  to  be  in  conflict  with  defective  human  reasoning.  When  a  fact  is  declared  Saheeh  by  the  Qur’aan  or  the  Hadith,  no  other  evidence  in  negation  will  be  acceptable.

Despite  Ibn  Hajar  having  accepted  the  authenticity  of  the  Hadith  in  question,  and  also  the  text  of  the  Hadith,    the  ambiguity  in  his  mind based  on  what  the  archeologists  say  is  corrupt,  spurious  and  mardood.  The  Hadith  of  Imaam  Bukhaari  on  this  issue  stands  while  the  trepidation  of  Ibn  Hajar,  which  is  bereft  of  Shar’i  daleel  must  necessarily  be  dismissed.

The  inability  of  an  Aalim  a  thousand  years  after  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  to understand  the  meaning  of  the  Hadith,  is  not  a  basis  for  justifying  criticism  of  the  Hadith  or  of  the  Shariah  by  modernist  morons.  Be  that  as  it  may.  Hadith  of  this  type  does  not  form  part  of  the  practical  Sunnah,  observance  of  which  is  compulsory  according  to  the  Qur’aan.  Whether  Hadhrat  Aadam  (alayhis  salaam)  was  60  cubits  tall  or  10 cubits,  is  not  Sanad  nor  the  Sunnah.  The  Sunnah  is  to  maintain  silence  on  such  issues  of  ambiguity.  Since  neither  the Matan  of  this  Hadith  has  been  criticized  by  any  Authority  of  the  Shariah,  the  moron  has  only  displayed  his  gross  jahaalat by  having introduced  this  Hadith in  defence  of  his  kufr  concept  of  hadith  criticism.

“IF  TWO  MUSLIM PARTIES FIGHT…”
In  another  abortive  attempt  to  peddle  his  kufr,  the  moron  says: “Another  hadith  in  Bukhari  that  the  Qur’anic  verse  ‘And  if  two  parties  of  believers  fall  into  fighting,  make  peace  between  them’  refers  to  the  conflict  between  the  Companions  and  Abdullah  ibn Ubayy  was  criticized  by  Ibn  Battal  who  said  Ibn  Ubayy  had  not  embraced  Islam  at  the time.”

A  minor  historical  discrepancy  or  error  of  this  nature  does  not  detract  from  the  validity and  enduring  nature  of  the  Sunnah.  The  occasion  of  the  revelation  of  the  specific Qur’aanic  verse  is  irrelevant  in  the  context  of  the  observance  of  the  Sunnah.  The  Sunnah, when  two  groups  of  the  Muslimineen  fight/dispute,    remains  static  and  immutable.  The  historical  error  or  the  ambiguity  of  the  occasion  of  the  revelation  does  not  result  in  any  change  of  the  Sunnah  command  of  resolving  mutual  disputes.  Regardless  of  when  the  aayat  was  revealed  or  who  the  disputing  parties  were  at  the  time  of  the  revelation,  the Sunnah  stated  in  the  aayat  remains  unchanged.  The  ambiguity  of  the  occasion  cannot  be  presented  as  a  basis  for  justifying  hadith  criticism  by  morons  more  than  14  centuries  after  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).

IBRAAHEEM, THE SON OF RASULULLAH (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)
Selecting  another  Hadith  for  baseless  criticism,  the  moron  avers: “Al-Nawawi,  Ibn  Abdul Barr  and  Ibn  Al-Athir  severely  criticized  the  hadith  that  if  Ibrahim,  son  of  Muhammad  had  lived,  he  would  have  been  a  nabi.  Shawkani  listed  it  as  a  forged  hadith.”

Notwithstanding  the  status  of  Imaam  Nawawi  and  Ibn  Abdul  Barr,  their  criticism  is  misplaced  and  utterly  baseless.  In  fact  their  decrepit  view   pertaining  to  this  Hadith  has  been  severely  castigated  by  the  Authorities  of  the  Shariah.  The  errors  of   even  the  greatest Aalim  are  set  aside  and  rejected.  Those  who  establish  the  errors  of  seniors  as  their  basis for  argument  display  their  lack  or  destruction  of  Imaan

Allamah Abdul  Wahhaab Sha’raani  (rahmatullah  alayh)  said:  “He  who  takes  to  the  obscurities  (and  errors)  of  the Ulama,  has  made  his  exit  from  Islam.” 

The  errors,  especially  the  glaring  errors  such  as  the error  of  Imaam  Nawawi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  and  Ibn  Abdul  Barr  (rahmatullah  alayh)  relevant  to  this  particular  Hadith,  are  to  be  incumbently  set  aside  and  discarded.  Only  a  moron  bereft  of  Imaan  justifies  an  argument  on  the  basis  of  such  baseless  views  structured  on  pure  error.

Commenting  on  this  glaring  error,  Mullah  Ali  Qaari  (rahmatullah  alayh)  states  in Mirqaatul  Mafaateeh: 

“Of  the  established  rules  in  Usool  is  that  the  Mauqoof  of  a  Sahaabi,  when  it  cannot  be  attributed  to  opinion,  is  in  the  category  of  Mar’foo’.  Thus  the rejection  of  Nawawi  similar  to  that  of  Ibnul  Barr,  is  either  on  account  of  them  both  being  uninformed  (on  this  issue)  or  due  to  their  inability  to  effect  (a  suitable)  ta’weel  (interpretation).  And  Allah  knows  best.”

Allaamah  As-Sindhi  (rahmatullah  alayh)  states  in Kifaayatul  Haajat  fi Sharhi  Sunan Abu  Maajah:

“Such  a  statement  (which  is  mentioned  in  this  specific  Hadith)  is  not  the effect  of  opinion.  Verily  a  Jamaat  of  Sahaabah  has  maintained  it.  However,  rejection  of  the  Hadith  of Anas  (radhiyallahu  anhu)  by  Ibn Abdul Barr…………..(this  view  of  Ibnul Barr)  is  not  a  necessary  corollary  of  the  aforementioned  Hadith.”  (We  have  omitted  the view  of  Ibnul  Barr  at  this  juncture – the  author). “It  appears  that  Nawawi  had  followed  Ibn  Abdul  Barr  (in  his  baseless  view).  This  is indeed  strange  (ludicrous)  in  view  of  it  (this  Hadith)  being  narrated  by  three  Sahaabah. He  (Ibn  Hajr)  said  in  Al-Fath:  ‘It  is  probable  that  he  (Nawawi)  did  not  remember  the narration  from  three  Sahaabah,  hence  he  rejected  it.”

In  simple  terms,  the  above  means:

➡ A  Hadith  whose  Isnaad terminates  at  a  Sahaabi,  is  termed  Mauqoof.  If  the  content matter  of  the  Hadith  is  not  the  opinion  of  the  Sahaabi,  then  according  to  the  established  principles  of  Hadith,  the  narration  is  in  the  class  of Marfoo’.

Marfoo’  is  a  Hadith  whose Isnaad  links  up  with  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam).

➡ The  particular  Hadith  in  question  states  that  if    Ibraaheem  (Rasulullah’s  son  who had  died  in  infancy)  had  lived,  he  would  have  been  a  Nabi.  This  statement  made  by  at  least  three  Sahaabah    cannot  be  attributed  to  the  opinion  of  the  Sahaabah.  It  is  similar  to  Rasulullah’s  statement  reported  in  a  Saheeh  Hadith:  “If  there  had  to  be  a  Nabi  after  me,  it would  be  Umar.”

➡ Imaam  Nawawi  in  all  probability  was  unaware  of  the  Hadith  attributed  to  three Sahaabah  or  he  had  forgotten  this  fact,  hence  he  simply  latched  on  to  the  view  of  Ibn Abdul  Barr  who  had  preceded  him.

➡ Imaam  Nawawi  had  not  presented  a  single  basis  or  evidence  for  arbitrarily  saying that  the  Hadith  is  ‘baatil’.

➡ Ibn  Abdul  Barr’s view  is  likewise  spurious  which  the  Authorities  have  highlighted.

SELECTIVE  CITATION
These  modernist  juhhaal are  quick  to  selectively  cite  views  of  tenth  century  Ulama  –  views  which  appeal  to  their  nafs.  They  swiftly  adopt  views  which  developed  a  thousand  years  after  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  while  rejecting  the  decrees  of  the  Sahaabah  and  the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen.  They  adopt  an  eerie  silence  regarding  the  orthodox  views  of  even  the  tenth  century  Scholars,  but  project  some  seemingly  ‘liberal’  aspects  of  these  Ulama  in  the  nefarious  attempt  to  eke  out  support  for  their  vile  opinions  of  kufr

The  ‘liberal’  views  which  the  modernist  morons  cite  appear  ‘liberal’  when  presented  deceptively  beyond  the  confines  of  their  respective  contexts.

Ulama  such  as  Ibn  Hajar  and  Imaam  Suyuti  were  extremely  orthodox  and  at  one  with  the  Fuqaha  of  the  Khairul  Quroon. They  were  staunch  Muqallideen  of  the  Aimmah Mujtahideen.  They  were  not  aberrations,  deviates  and  morons  as  are  the  modernist  juhhaal.  If  a  view  here  and  there  of  these  great  Ulama  appears  to  be  in  conflict  with  the  entrenched  Sunnah  practice  of  the  Sahaabah  and  Taabieen,  the  solution  is  to  posit  a  suitable  interpretation  for  attaining  reconciliation.  The  isolated  view  of  conflict  of  some  10th  Century  Ulama  is  never  a  basis  for  the  kufr  fabrications  of  modernist  morons.  These  miserable  morons  have  no  licence  to  quote  Imaam  Suyuti,  etc.  They  are  too  stupid  and  dense  in  the  brains  to  understand  what  these  illustrious  Ulama  said.

FORGERIES
That  there  were  and  are  forged  narrations  is  not  denied.  But    such  forgeries  have  already been  sifted  out  and  labelled  by  the  Muhadditheen.  It  is  important  to  understand  that  nothing  of  the  forged  narrations  form  part  of  the  Sunnah  and  the  Shariah.  There  is  not  a  single  forged  hadith  which  constitutes  a mustadal  for  the  masaail  of  the  Shariah  formulated  by  the  Fuqha-e-Mutaqaddimeen.  The  job  of  the  Muhadditheen  was  to  sift  out  the  forgeries.  It  never  was  their  function  to  formulate  the  Shariah  and  to  establish  the  Sunnah. This  obligation  was  executed  par  excellence  by  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam)  and  the  Sahaabah.  The  Muhadditheen  were  cast  in  a  completely  different  role.

THE  STATIC  SUNNAH
Different  interpretations  of  Ahaadith  on  abstract  issues  do  not  create  latitude  in  the Sunnah  and  the  Shariah  for  intrusion  and  interpolation  by  modernist  morons.  The  Sunnah and  the  Shariah  are  immutably  static.  The  accommodation  of    future  and  new  developments  into  the  fabric  of  the  Sunnah  and  Shariah  is  likewise  a  static  exercise  since  such    incorporation  is  effected  on  the  basis  of  static  Usool  which  the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen  had  formulated  in  the  light  of  the  Qur’aan  and  Sunnah.  Thus  the  latitude  and  free  play  which  the  modernist  jaahil  searches  for  are  not  to  be  found  within  the  framework  of  the  Islam  which  Allah  Ta’ala  had  completed  and  perfected  during  the  very  lifetime  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  thereby  leaving  absolutely  no  scope  for  moronist  interference.  With  regard  to  these  modernist juhhaal,  the  Qur’aan  advises  us:

When  they  (the  Mu’mineen)  hear  laghw  (the  rubbish  and  nonsense  of  morons),  they turn  away  from  it,  and  they  say:  ‘For  us  are  our  deeds  and  for  you  are  your  deeds.  Salaam  on  you.  We  do  not  follow  the  jaahileen  (modernist  morons).

The  aim  of  the  aforegoing    brief  discussion  is  merely    to  highlight  the  ignorance  of  the modernist who  has  set  himself  up  as  a  ‘authority’  on  Hadith.  The  purpose  of  this article  is  not  to  present  a  detailed refutation  of  the  moron’s    spurious  arguments    pertaining to  the  several  Ahaadith  which  have  been  assailed  by  another  moron professor-– a  university in  his  writings  from  whence  the  local  moron  has  lapped  up  his  bunkum.

THE AIM OF THE MORON’S ESSAY The  plot  of  the  modernist juhhaal  is  to  scuttle  the  14  century  Shariah  of  Islam  and  to substitute  it  with  a  Yahood-Nasaara  type  concocted    religion  which  could  be  paraded under  the  name  of  ‘Islam’.  The  first  step  in  this  pernicious  plot  is  to  fault  and  denigrate the  Ahaadith  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam). To  achieve  this  goal,  the  morons of  our  age  have  latched  on  to  some  rare  criticism  by  some  recognized  Ulama  who  appeared  on  the  scene  many  centuries  after  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).

Warning  us  to  be  on  guard  against  these juhhaals Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  said:

“Verily,  I  have  been  given  the  Qur’aan  and  a  likeness  with  it.  Soon  will  there  be  an  obese man  reclining  on  his  couch  saying:  “Adhere  to  this  Kitaab  (the  Qur’aan).  Whatever  you find  halaal  in  it,  regard  it  to  be  halaal.  Whatever  you  find  haraam  in  it,  regard  it  to  be haraam.”  (Then  Rasulullah (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  added):  “Verily,  whatever  the Rasool  has  made  haraam  is  just  as  what  Allah has  made  haraam.”

This  Hadith  warns  us  of  the  likes  of  these  modernist  morons  whose  satanic  mission  it  is  to  debunk  the  Ahaadith  which  do  not  find  favour  with  their  western  kuffaar  orientalist masters.

The  morons  aim  to  arrogate  the  right  of  criticizing  Ahaadith  to  themselves,  arguing  that  the  rare  criticism  of  some  Ulama  as  well  as  their  personal  reasoning  are  evidence  for  the validity  of    their  stupid  kufr  theory  of  hadith  criticism.  But  criticizing  Hadith  is  like  criticizing  the  Qur’aan.  The  rare  and  obscure  views  of  a  couple  of  6th,  7th,  8th, and  9th  century  Ulama  have  to  be  dismissed  as  baseless  and  unauthorized.  In  the  face  of  the  rulings  and  views  of  the  Mutaqaddimeen  Muhadditheen  such  as  Imaam  Bukhaari,  Imaam Muslim  and  the  many  others  of  the  Khairul  Quroon era,  the  opinions  of  the  stragglers  who  appeared    hundreds  of  years  later,  have  absolutely  no  footing  and  no  significance.  It  is  gross  stupidity  to  cite  a  view  of  Imaam  Nawawi  or  of  Ibn  Abdul  Barr  or  of  the  deviate  Ibn Qayyim  in  either  negation  of  or  to  fault  the  narrations  of  the  Sihaah  Sittah.  It  is  indeed laughable  to  present  the  criticism  of  Shawkaani  or  of  Ibn  Qayyim  to  attack  the  authenticity  of  the  Ahaadith  of  Bukhaari.

The  views  of  Ulama  of  the  8th  and  9th centuries,  if  in  conflict  with  the  entrenched  views  of  the  Ulama  of  the  Khairul  Quroon  era,  have  to  be  incumbently  discounted  and  set  aside  as  errors.  The  rulings  of  the  Khairul  Quroon  era  are  authenticated  by  the  Qur’aan.  Qur’aanic  command  is  to  obey  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).  He  said:  “The  best  of  eras  is  my  era,  then  the  next  era,  then  the  next  era…..” (i.e.  the  age  of  the  Sahaabah, Taabieen  and  Tab-e-Taabieen).  The  Hadith  continues: “Then  after  them  will  be  people who  will  (make  haste)  to  bear  testimony  whilst  they  are  not  called  on  to  testify;  they  will betray  trust  and  cannot  be  trusted;  they  will  pledge  and  not  fulfil  their  pledges…….Then will  come  people  who  will  love  obesity.” (That  is:  they  will  become  fat,  lazy  and  stupid with  their  indulgence  in  luxuries).

In  another  Hadith,  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam)  said: “Honour  my  Sahaabah, for  verily,  they  are  your  noblest;  then  those  after  them;  then  those  after  them.  Thereafter kithb  (falsehood/lies)  will  become  prevalent.”

All  of  these  modernist  juhhaal are  among  the  progeny  of  the  obese  liars  mentioned  by Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).  Their  first  hurdle  in    the  execution  of  their  nefarious  conspiracy  of  scuttling  the  Divine  Shariah,  is  to  denigrate  and  negate  the  primary  basis  of  the  Shariah,  which  is  the  Ahaadith  on  which  the  Edifice  of  the  Sunnah  is  structured.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  the  moron  has  disgorged  his  article  of  hadith  criticism.  If  a  window    to  criticize  the  Ahaadith  is  opened  through  which  these  modernist  obese  liars  could  slink,  they  will  wrought  villainy  and  destruction  to  the  Deen.  But  Allah  Ta’ala  has  established  the  Institution  of  the  Ulama-e-Haqq  to  take  care  of  these  obese  liars  and morons  masquerading  as  Muslims  and  wellwishers  of  the  Ummah.  They  are  miserable  sewer  rats  gnawing  at  the  foundations  of  Islam.

Since  the  demarcation  for  the  Divine  Haqq  is  Khairul  Quroon,  we  are  not  interested  in  the tafarrudaat,  errors  and  obscurities  of  Ulama  who    flourished  many  centuries  after  the  termination  of  Khairul  Quroon.  The  Authority  of  the  Shariah  and  the  authentic Shariah  and  Sunnah  are  what  had  existed  in  the  Three  Golden  Ages  of  Islam  specifically  demarcated  by  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam).  Regardless  of  the  lofty  status  of  any  Aalim  who  existed  a  couple  of  centuries  after  the  Golden  Epoch,  any  view  of  his  which  conflicts  with  the  view  of  the  Sahaabah,  Aimmah  Mujtahideen  and  Muhadditheen  of  that  epoch  will  be  buried,  albeit  with  decorum.  It  shall  be  interpreted as  a  slip  or  genuine  error  of  the  Aalim.  Every  good  horse  also  slips.  No  man  is  beyond  commission  of  error –  in  fact  numerous  errors.

It  is  indeed  stupid,  in  fact  treacherous,  to  cite  Imaam  Nawawi  or  Ibn  Abdul  Barr,  and Ibn  Qayyim  who  has  no  rank  in relation  to  the  former  two  authorities,  in  negation  of  any Islamic  ruling  or  practice  which  had  existed  during  the  age  of  the  Sahaabah  or  the Taabieen.  We  are  not  the  muqallideen  of  Imaam  Nawawi  or  of  Ibn  Abdul  Barr  or  of  Shawkaani  or  of  Ibn  Qayyim.  We  are  the  Muqallideen  of  the  Aimmah  Mujtahideen  of  the  Khairul  Quroon  era.  The  moron  may  bamboozle  other  modernist  morons  with  these names  and  chicanery.  He  may  perhaps  succeed  with  his  skullduggery  in  the  ranks  of  his  likes.  But  for  those  of  true  Ilm, to  cite  feather-weights  and  non-weights  as  ‘authorities  with  the  power  of  abrogation’  is  ludicrous  and  laughable.  The  morons  simply  make  a  laughing  stock  of  themselves  when  they  disgorge  absolute  rubbish  which  they  attempt  to  pass  off  as  products  of  academic  study.

When  a  view  on  Hadith,  which  developed  300  years  after  Imaam  Bukhaari,  clashes  with    Bukhaari’s  authentication,  the  Deen  and  Intelligence  will  summarily  refute  that  view  as baatil.  That  belated  view  may  not  be  presented  in  negation    of  Imaam  Bukhaari’s accreditation  of  Ahaadith.  Why  did  this  later  view  not  exist  during  the  age  of  Khairul  Quroon?  Why  was  Imaam  Bukhaari’s  accreditation  valid  and  accepted  by  all authorities  during  the  300  year  gap  between  him  and  Imaam  Nawawi?  It  is  indeed  ridiculous  to  reject  Imaam  Bukhaari’s  accreditation  and  authentication  on  the  basis  of  a  baseless  view  which  developed  three  centuries  after  him.  Imaam  Nawawi’s  view  of  the  specific  Hadith  being  baatil,  It  is  an  arbitrary  opinion  unsubstantiated  by  any  evidence.  He  presents  no  daleel for  his  view.  Relative  to  Imaam    Bukhaari  and  the  Aimmah  Mujtahideen  of  the  Khairul  Quroon,  Ulama  who  appeared  many  centuries  thereafter  hold no  rank.  All  of  them  were  the  Muqallideen  of  one  of  the  Four  Mathhabs.  Their  isolated  and  decrepit  views  cannot  denigrate  the  Shariah  as  it  was  known  and  taught  by  the  Sahaabah  and  the  Aimmah  Mujtahideen.

Consider  the  statement  of  Ibn  Qayyim:  he  says  that  even  if  the  Isnaad  is  as  bright  as  the sun,  the  Hadith  is  not  acceptable.  We  are  constrained  to  say  that  something  had  gone  drastically  wrong  with  his  intellectual  grasp  at  the  time  when  he  was  blabbering  this gutha.  The  bedrock  of  Hadith  Autenticity  is  its  Isnaad, not  its Matan.  Regardless  of  how irrational  the  content  matter  of  the  Hadith  may  appear  to  modernist  morons,  if  the  Isnaad  is  Saheeh,  then  that  Hadith  is  authentic  whether  it  forms  part  of  the  Sunnah  or  not.  And,  rejection  of  a  Hadith  whose  Isnaad  is  as  bright  as  the  sun, is  not  tantamount  to  kufr.  It is in  reality  kufr.  The Asaaneed  of  Ahaadith  Mutawaatarah  and  Mashhoorah  are  in  fact  “as  bright  as  the  sun.”  They  are  in  the  category  of  Qur’aanic  aayaat.  Ibn  Qayyim  had  indeed  uttered  a  heinous  notriety  by  unthinkably    blurting  out  such  ghutha.

The  sinister  aim  for  propagating  the  haraam  theory  of  hadith  criticism,  and  citing  the  rarities  and  obscurities  of  some  10th century  Ulama  in  an  abortive  attempt  to  justify  the haraam  exercise,  is  to  arrogate  for  themselves  (i.e.  for  the  modernist  juhhaal)  the  right  to  submit  to  their  corrupt  opinion  any  Hadith  appearing  in  Sihaah  Sittah,  then  on  the  basis  of  their  understanding  heavily  contaminated  by  the  indoctrination  of  western  education,  they  desire  to  re-classify  the  Ahaadith  which  were  authenticated  by  the  Muhadditheen  and  Aimmah  Mujtahideen  of  the  noble Khairul  Quroon  era.  Thus,  if  a  modernist  moron  reasons  that  the  Hadith  on  which  is  based,  for  example,  the  Shariah’s  ruling  that  a  grandson  does  not  inherit  his  deceased  father’s  share  in  the  estate  of  his  father  (the grandson’s  grandfather)  since  the  father  (the  grandson’s  father)  had  pre-deceased  his  father,  is  unreasonable,  then  the  Hadith  may  be  excised  and  deposited  in  the  dirt  bin  to  enable  the juhhaal  to  issue  a  new  ruling  allowing  the  grandson  to  inherit  in  this  case.

Or,  if  a  modernist  moron  understands  in  terms  of  his    kufr  westernized  reasoning process  that  the  Hadith  on  which  is  based  the  ruling  that  the  father  has  the  right  to  have  his  minor  daughter  married,  is  irrational,  then  he  is  allowed  to  ‘attack’  the  Hadith  in  the  manner  in  which  Al-Ismaaili  or  Imaam  Nawawi  or  Ibn  Abdul  Barr  or  Shawkaani  had  ‘attacked’  some  Ahaadith.    In  short,  the  modernist  ignoramuses  indoctrinated  by  the  orientalist  enemies  of  Islam,  are  striving  to  arrogate    to  themselves  the  right  to  freely  criticize  just  any  Hadith  which  they  believe  is  in  conflict  with  western  rationalism.

In  fact,  the  ultimate  kufr  plot  is  to  subject  even  the  Qur’aan  Majeed  to  the  same  treatment  of  kufr  criticism.  This  process  has  already  been  subtly  and  devilishly  initiated.  Qur’aanic  verses  which  explicitly  declare  the  superiority  of  men  and  the  subservience  of  women,  especially  the  aayat  which  allows  for  the  grossly  disobedient  wife  to  be  beaten, are  being  subjected  to    interpretation  which  is  baseless  and  kufr.  The  initial  stage  is  to interpret  away  such  Qur’aanic  verses  which  do  not  conform  to  the  rationalism  of  the western  kuffaar.  The  next  phase  to  excise  these  aayat  from  the  Qur’aan  in  the  way  the  Yahood  and  Nasaara  have    mutilated  the  Tauraah  and  the  Injeel.  But,  as  far  as  the  Qur’aan  and  even  the  Ahaadith  are  concerned,  they  will  miserably  fail.  Allah  Ta’ala  Himself  has  undertaken  the  responsibility  of  guarding  this  Deen – every  aspect  of  it.

The  first  move  in  the  kufr  process  of  transmogrifying  or  destroying  the  Shariah  is  the pernicious  creation  of  a  vast  chasm  between  the  Qur’aan  and  the  Ahaadith.  Thus,  the modernist  moron  says:  ‘the  Qur’an  has  been  protected  by  Allah;  the  ahadith  have  not.”  

The  moron’s  brains  have  become  vermiculated  with  this  shaitaani  waswasah.  The  Hadith is  what  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi wasallam)  said  and  did,  hence  the  Qur’aan  says: “He (Muhammad)  does  not  speak  of  (his)  desire.  It  (i.e. whatever  he  says)  is  Wahi  which  is  revealed  to  him.”

Again  the  Qur’aan  says:    “Whatever  the  Rasool  gives  you,  accept  it  (resolutely),  and  whatever  he  forbids  you  of,  abstain  from  it.”

This,  in  fact,  is  Hadith  on  which  has  been  raised  the  superstructure  of  the  Sunnah.

What  is  truly  mind  boggling  is  the  naked  and  stupid  audacity  of  these  juhhaal  to  equate themselves  to  the  Aimmah  Mujtahideen  and  the  noble  Muhadditheen.  They  seek  to elevate  themselves  to  the  pedestal  of  Imaam  Bukhaari,  Imaam  Muslim,  etc.  Truly,  brains have  gone  haywire. 

While  the  “hadith  criticism  enterprise”  of  these  modernist  morons  is  pure  kufr  designed to  undermine  and  scuttle  the  Shariah,  the  enterprise  of  the  Muhadditheen  was  to  safeguard the  Shariah  for  posterity  by  compiling  and  codifying  the  Mustadallaat  of  the  Ahkaam  of the  Shariah.  The  obligation  of  the  early  Muhadditheen  was  merely  to  sift  out  fabrications and  to  compile  the  authentic  Ahaadith.  The  aim  was  to  safe guard  and  preserve  in  book form  the  authentic  Ahaadith  on  which  the  entire  Edifice  of  the  Shariah  has  been  constructed.

The  objective  of  the  modernist  desire  for  hadith  criticism  is  to  dismantle  the  Shariah.  On the  contrary,  the  purpose  of  the  Muhadditheen  was  to  solidify  and  safeguard  the  Foundation  of  the  Shariah  which  the  authentic  Ahaadith  constitute.  The  two  objectives  are  thus  self  repellant.  The  one  is  the  antithesis  of  the  other.

This  brings  us  to  the  Compilation  of  Saheeh  Bukhaari.

SAHEEH BUKHAARI – THE  MYSTERY OF THE 597,000  AHAADITH
Demonstrating  his  gross  ignorance,  the  moron  says:

“It  is  said  that  he  (Imaam Bukhaari)  had  collected  more  than  600,000  ahadith. However,  only  3,500  appear  in  his collection;  he  rejected  the  rest    as  not  fulfilling  his  criteria  for  authenticity.  For  him  every hadith  was  fake  until  it  was  proven  authentic.”

The  moron  has  lapped  up  this  rubbish  vomit  from  the  writings  of  another  moron  Professor  of  Moronism  of  some  maloon orientalist  university  in  Calcutta,  India.  It  is  indeed  a  vile  slander  to  accuse  that  Imaam  Bukhaari  (rahmatullah  alayh)  had  considered  every  Hadith  ‘fake’  prior  to  his  personal  scrutiny.  It  is  also  downright  stupid  to  claim  that  the  597,000  Ahaadith  which  do  not  form  part  of  Saheeh  Bukhaari  are    forgeries  and  unauthentic,  hence  Imaam  Bukhaari  did  not  include  them  in  his  Kitaab.

Bukhaari  Shareef  is  a  compendium  or  a  comprehensive  summary  of  a  vast  work  which  is  the  600,000  Ahaadith.  The  objective  of  compiling  this  Saheeh  was  not  to  encompass  all  the  authentic  Ahaadith.  The  objective  was  to  safeguard  the  Foundation  of  the  Sunnah  and  the  Shariah  covering  all  branches  of  the  Deen.  Commenting  on  Imaam  Bukhaari’s system  of  compilation,  Al-Ismaaili  (died  371  Hijri)  said: “I  have  heard  from  those  who n arrate  from  him  that  he  had  said:  “I  have  not  recorded  in  this  Kitaab  except  (Ahaadith  which  are)  Saheeh,  and  I  have  left  out  the  majority  of  the  Saheeh  (narrations).”  Thus, whatever  he  (Imaam  Bukhaari)  has  recorded  is  Saheeh.  Its  authenticity  is  categorical.  Whatever  he  has  left  out  is  not  because  he  has  negated  (their authenticity) …………..He  sufficed  with  a  small  quantity  from  a  large  quantity  (of  authentic  Ahaadith).”  (Taghleequt Ta’leeq)

In  Muqaddamah  fi  Usooli’ l deen it  is  mentioned:  “The  Saheeh  Ahaadith  are  not  confined to  the  Saheeh  of  Bukhaari  and  the  Saheeh  of  Muslim  nor  do  these  two  Kitaabs  encompass all  the  Saheeh  Ahaadith.  On  the  contrary,  these  two  Kitaabs  are  restricted  to  Saheeh Ahaadith.  Furthermore,  such  narrations  which  are  authentic    to  them  on  the  basis  of  their criteria,  (all  of  them)  have  not  been  included  by  them  in  their  two  Kitaabs,  leave  alone  that  which  (is  Saheeh)  according  to  other  (Muhadditheen).

Bukhaari  said:  “I  have  not  recorded  in  this  Kitaab  except  what  is  Saheeh,  and  I  have  left  out  numerous  of  the  Sihaah  (authentic  narrations).”  Muslim  said:  “What  I  have  recorded  in  this  Kitaab  (Saheeh  Muslim)  from  the  Ahaadith  are  Saheeh.  I  do  not  claim  that  whatever  I  have  left  out  is  Dhaeef  (Weak/unreliable).”

Al-Haakim  Abu  Abdullah  An- Naisaapuri  compiled  a  Kitaab  which  he  named Al-Mustadrak  (The  Emmender), in  which  is  recorded  authentic  narrations  which  Bukhaari  and  Muslim  have  left  out  (from  their  Compendiums).  Some  of  the  narrations  (recorded  in  this  Kitaab,  i.e.  Al-Mustadrak)  are  on  the  basis  of  the  criteria  of  Shaikhain  (i.e.  Imaam Bukhaari  and  Imaam  Muslim);  some  are  on  the  criteria  of  one  of  them,  and  some  (of  the recorded  authentic  Ahaadith  herein)  are  not  on  the  basis  of  their  criteria.

The  criticism  of  the  (existence  of)  paucity  of  Saheeh  Ahaadith  has  been  refuted  by  the fact  that  Imaam  Bukhaari  and  Imaam  Muslim  did  not  claim  that  there  are  no  other  Saheeh  Ahaadith  besides  what  they  have  recorded  in  their  two  Kitaabs.”

“Al-Haazmi  said:  ‘It  is    thus  clear  that  the  intention  of  Imaam  Bukhaari  was  to  compile  a brief  summary  in  Hadith.  He  did  not  contemplate  encompassment  (of  all  the  Saheeh  Ahaadith),  neither  regarding  the  narrators  nor  regarding  the  Hadith.  There  remains  a  huge  portion  of    Saheeh  Ahaadith  not  recorded  in  the  two  Saheeh  Kitaabs.”  (Al-Imaam  Ibn Maajah  Wa  Sunnanunu)

Innumerable  Saheeh  Ahaadith    not  to  be  found  in  Bukhaari  Shareef  are  record  in numerous  other  authentic  Hadith  Kutub  such  as  Mustadrakul  Haakim, Saheeh  Ibn Khuzaimah,  Saheeh  Ibn  Hibbaan, Al-Mukhtaaratu  lil  Muqaddisi,  Saheeh  Abi  Uwaanah, Al-Saheeh  Ibnus  Sakan,  Muntaqi  libnul  Jaarood,  Abu  Dawood,  Ad-Daaruqutni, Saheeh  Abi  Bakr  Al-Ismaaili, Al-Saheeh  Burqaani,  Saheeh  Abi  Nu’aim Al-Isbihaani, Musnad  Imaam  Ahmad,  Musnad  Imaam  Abu  Hanifah,  At Taqaaseem  Wal  Anwaa’,  and  many  more  Saheeh  Hadith  kutub.

The  moron’s  claim  that  Imaam  Bukhaari  had  abandoned  597,000  Ahaadith  because  he regarded  them  as  ‘fakes  and  forgeries’,  is  manifestly  and  slanderously  false.

THE  PLOT  OF THE  WESTERN ORIENTALIST
The  local  moron  who  has  written  his  silly  article  on  hadith  criticism,  has  simply regurgitated  what  he  has  lapped  up  from  a  book  written  by  a  moron  professor  on  the subject  of  Hadith  literature.  The  poor  moron  professor,  a  product  of  the  western orientalist  enemies  of  Islam,    clearly  lacks  understanding of  the  Shariah  in  general,  and  of    the  sanctity  and  status  of    Ahaadith  in  particular.  He  has  treated  Hadith  as  if  it  is simply  another  secular  topic  to  be  rendered  subservient  to  personal  whim  and  fancy.  He does  not  have  the  haziest  idea  of  the  prime  importance  and  significance  of  the  Sihaah Sittah.  He  believes  that  any  modernist  jaahil  qualification and  kaafir  orientalist  have  the  necessary  to  dissect  and  reject  any  Hadith  of  Rasulullah  (sallallahu  alayhi  wasallam) which  does  not  conform  to  the  reasoning  of  brains  colonized  by  westernism.  The  (Chain  of  Narration)  Isnaad  of  the  most  authentic  Hadith  on  par  with  the  Qur’aan  Majeed  is  of  no  significance  to  these  westernized  morons  if  in  their    opinion  the  Hadith  happens  to be  in  conflict  with  their  defective  reasoning,  or  if  in  their  opinion  of  kufr  the  Hadith  promises  massive  thawaab  for  acts  of  ibaadat.  What  do  those  wallowing  in  najaasat  and  janaabat  know  and  understand  of  the  value  of  ibaadat  or  the  value  one  Tasbeeh  of  Subhaanallaah  whose  effulgence  can  fill  the  space  between  the  earth  and  the  heaven?  Their  brains  and  hearts  are  bogged  in  the  quagmire  of  materialism  and nafsaaniyat.  In  the  words  of  the  Qur’aan: They  are  more  astray  than  the  dumb  animals. They  eat  and excrete  like  animals,  yet  they  deem  themselves  qualified  to  elevate  themselves  to  the  lofty  Pedestals  occupied  by  the  Sahaabah,  the  Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen  and  the Muhadditheen  of  Imaam  Bukhaari’s  calibre. 

It  should  be  clearly  understood  that  Hadith  criticism  is  haraam.  It  is  kufr.  It  has  been  designed  by  the  western  orientalist  enemies  of  Islam  to  undermine  and  dismantle  the  more  than  14  Century  Shariah  of  Islam  about  which  the  Qur’aan  declares:

“This  Day  have  I  (Allah  Ta’ala)  perfected  for  you  your  Deen, and  completed  for  you  My Bounty,  and  chosen  for  you  Islam  as  your  Deen.”

Salaam  on  those  who  follow  the  Hidaayat  of  Islam!

Isbaal — The Ruling of Wearing One’s Garment Below the Ankles

[By Muhammad ibn Suleman Chothia]

Our discussion will entail the following:

1. Introduction
2. Ahadith with prohibition due to pride
3. Ahadith with general prohibition (without mention of pride)
4. Aathaar (Narrations) of the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum)
5. The Grace of our Role Model’s garment ﷺ
6. Misconceptions and their clarifications

Introduction

Allah Ta’ala in enumerating His gifts upon us said, “O children of Adam, We have bestowed upon you clothing to conceal your private parts and as (a means of) adornment. However, the clothing of righteousness – that is best. That is from the signs of Allah that perhaps they will remember.” [Surah Al-A’raaf: 26]

One of the interpretations of “clothing of righteousness” is clothing which shows humility. (Qurtubi Vol.9 Pg.186, Ruhul Ma’aani Vol.9 Pg.72)

Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Whoever wears a garment of pride and vanity in this world, Allah will clothe him in a garment of humiliation on the Day of Resurrection, then set it ablaze.” (Sunan Ibn Majah #3607)

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Eat, give charity and clothe yourselves, without being extravagant, and without pride.” (Sunan Nasai #2559)

Therefore, in dressing, one should opt for clothing that expresses humility and refrain from clothing which has the hint of arrogance and pride in it. 

In doing so, it is also necessary to exercise caution. One should not hastily ascribe piety (humility) to himself and his choices (of clothing) and absolve himself of conceit and pride. Allah Ta’ala, who is fully aware of the hearts and their conditions, has prohibited us from claiming purity and piety. He says, “So do not claim purity for yourselves. He (Allah) knows best who are the (truly) pious.” [Surah Najam:32] 

One manner of dress which denotes pride and arrogance is the garment which hangs below the ankles of males. Below we will discuss this issue in light of the Quran, Hadith and opinions of the pious predecessors. I ask Allah to open the truth for us, help us to accept it and grant us the ability to follow it.

Before we start, we will like to point out the rulings which the scholars of the Ummah agree upon:

1. The scholars agree that wearing one’s garment up to mid-calf is a Sunnah of the Messenger ﷺ, which many Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) practiced.

2. They also agree that it is permissible for a male to wear his garment up to the ankles.

3. They also agree that it is Haraam and a major sin for a male to intentionally let his garments hang below his ankles out of pride.

4. They also agree that a woman is permitted to let her clothing hang below her ankles. (If she is in sight of a non-mahram, then they agree that she must cover her ankles.)

The one case, on which the scholars disagree, is when the male’s garment is extended below his ankles without pride. Many scholars are of the opinion that it is makrooh (reprehensible) while a large group still maintain that this is also haraam and totally prohibited.

N.B. This ruling of isbaal applies when a person is standing. If a person bends, for instance, into ruku, or a person sits and his garment goes below his ankles, then this is permissible and the ruling of isbaal does not apply.

The evidences for the above will be mentioned below along with a detailed discussion on the point upon which the scholars disagree.
The many authentic ahadith which have been narrated concerning ‘Isbaal’ or lowering the garments below the ankles, are of two types.

1. Those ahadith which prohibit lowering the garments due to arrogance and pride.

2. Those ahadith with general prohibition (without mention of pride).

Ahadith with the Prohibition Due to ‘Pride’

All the scholars agree that it is prohibited for a male to lower his garments below his ankles if he does such out of arrogance. It is counted as a major sin. (See ‘Zawajir’ of Ibn Hajr Makki Vol.1 Pg.164-165 #109, ‘Fathul Bari’ of Ibn Hajr Asqalani Vol.13 Pg.266)

This is due to the many ahadith which clearly prohibit it in the sternest manner.

Hadith 1:  
Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “Allah will not look, on the Day of Resurrection, at a person who drags his izãr [below his ankles] out of pride and arrogance.” (Bukhari #5788 and Muslim #2087).

• Imam Nawawi states, “The meaning of ‘not looking at him’ is not having mercy on him and not looking at him with mercy.” (Sharh Sahih Muslim Vol.14 Pg.61) 

Hadith 2: 
Abdullah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates from the Prophet ﷺ that he said, “Isbaal applies to the izãr (lower garment), the qamis (upper garment) and the a’mamah (turban). Whoever lets any of them drag out of pride, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Resurrection.”   (Abu Dawud #4094 and Nasa’i Vol. 8 Pg.208).

• Imam Nawawi (rahimahullah) states that its chain is sound. (Sharh Sahih Muslim Vol.2 Pg.116)
• From this hadith we learn that isbaal is not only restricted to the lower garment but it applies to any garment which is worn from above the ankle. (Socks and overall garments worn for protective purposes would not come under this ruling. See ‘Fathul Bari’ Vol.3 Pg.257)

Imam Tabari (rahimahullah) said that most narrations used the word ‘izãr’ or ‘lower garment’ because in that era most people used to wear izaars and ridaas.  (See ‘Fathul Bari’ Vol.13 Pg.264) However, it also applies to thawb, qamis, jubbah and jackets etc. 

Hadith 3:
“Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “While a man was walking, dragging his garment with pride, he was caused to be swallowed by the earth and will go on sinking in it till the Day of Resurrection.”  (Bukhari #3485 and Muslim #2088).

• The muhaddith Qurtubi (رهمح الله) writes in his commentary on ‘Sahih Muslim’, ‘Al-Mufhim’, “This hadith shows that a person should abandon feeling safe from an immediate punishment on sins and that it is haraam and a major sin for a person to feel proud of himself, his clothing and style.” (Vol.5 Pg.406)
 
Hadith 4 
Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “He who drags his clothing out of pride, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Resurrection.” I (Shu’bah) asked Muharib (رهمحام الله), “Did he mention the lower garment?” He replied, “He did not specify any lower or upper garment.” (Bukhari #5791 and Muslim #2085e).

• Shu’bah and Muharib (رهمحام الله) are both narrators of this hadith. Muharib (رهمح الله), the teacher, explicitly states that the word used was thawb (clothing or garment) and that there was no specification of any lower and upper garment. Therefore, the rule will apply to any type of clothing that is dragged below the ankles. 

Hadith 5
Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) said that I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) saying, “Whoever drags his izãr during the prayer out of pride, then he is not in any halaal with Allah or haraam.”  (Abu Dawud #6371.

• The narrators are all reliable, said Shaikh Shuaib Arnawut.

• The muhaddithun have differed whether it has been narrated as a hadith of the Prophet (ﷺ) or statement of Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu). Imam Tabarani (رهمح الله) narrates it as a statement of Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) with a sound chain. Since it is a statement which cannot be said based on one’s rational, it will still be in the ruling of a Prophetic hadith. (See ‘Fathul Bari’ Vol.13 Pg.256)

• This hadith has been explained in several ways:

i. ‘Any halaal’ means, ‘He (Allah) will not make it permissible for him to commit sin’, which is interpreted to mean ‘He (Allah) will not forgive him of the sins he commits’. ‘Any haraam’ means, ‘He (Allah) will not prevent him’, which is interpreted to mean, ‘He (Allah) will not protect him from committing sins’.

ii. Allah will not permit him into Jannah and He will not prohibit the Hell Fire on him.

iii. He is not doing a permitted action and Allah does not have any respect (ihtiraam) for him.

iv. He has left the halaal and haraam of Allah, meaning he has left the laws of Allah. (See ‘Bazlul Majhood’ Vol.3 Pg.573 and ‘Awnul Mabood’ for the first three Pg.313)

v. Allah does not care about him or his salah. (See ‘Sharh Aiyni’ Vol.3 Pg.170)

vi. He does not believe in the halaal and haraam of Allah.

vii. Allah has freed Himself from him and he has left the Deen. (See ‘Manhal Azb’ Vol.5 Pg.24)

• Regardless of whichever interpretation is taken, it denotes a very severe warning. 

Hadith 6
“Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “Whoever arrogantly drags his garment, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Judgement.” So, Umm Salamah said: “What should the women do with their hems?” He said: “Lower them a hand-span.” So, she said:  “Then their feet will be uncovered.” He said: “Then lower them a forearm’s length, and do not add to that.” (Tirmithi #1731 and Nasai #5338) .

• Imam Tirmithi (رهمح الله) said, “It is sound (and) authentic.”

• The lowering started from the mid-calf.

• After narrating this hadith, Tirmithi (رهمح الله) commented, “In this hadith, there is a concession for women to drag their izãr because it covers them better.”

• All the scholars agree on this concession for the women. (Sharh Nawawi on Muslim Vol.14 Pg.62)

• If she is in front of a non-mahram, then they agree she must cover her ankles. 

Ahadith with General Prohibition (without mention of pride) 

As for the one who lowers his garment below his ankle, without pride, then this is also haraam and is considered a severe sin according to the most correct scholarly opinion. (See ‘Faidhul Bari’ Vol.6 Pg.72-3, ‘Kitabul Nawazil’ Vol.16 Pg.344, ‘Fatawa Qasmiyah’ Vol.23 Pg.479, ‘Aap ke Masaail aur unka Hal’ Vol.8 Pg.361, ‘Fatawa Haqqaniyah’ Vol.2 Pg.416, ‘Hadith ke Islahi Madhameen’ Vol.10 Pg.77, ‘Tuhfatul Alma’i’ Vol.5 Pg.65 & 106, ‘Kifayatul Mufti’ Vol.9 Pg.156)

This is due to the many ahadith which prohibit this, in the harshest words, without any restrictions. Rather, many ahadith state that lowering the garments below the ankles is an act of pride and arrogance, in itself. And arrogance is a major sin. May Allah purify us from it. 

Hadith 1 
Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “The part of an izãr which hangs below the ankles is in the Fire.”  (Bukhari #5787). 

• The literal meaning is that the person’s foot below the ankles or his clothing will enter the Fire. The scholars have explained this in a few ways:

i. What is meant is the foot beneath the clothing will enter the Fire. Once a part of the person enters the Fire, obviously, his whole body will follow.

ii. Along with the person, even that part of his clothing will enter the Fire. This is like the statement of Allah, “Indeed, you [disbelievers] and what you worship other than Allah are the fuel of Hell…” [Surah Anbiyaa: 98]

So Allah will also throw the idols, which the kuffar worshipped into the Fire, along with them, as a means of intensifying their remorse and highlighting their stupidity, that those from whom they sought prosperity and honour cannot even save themselves from the Fire. (Tafsir Uthmani Vol.5 Pg.262)

Similarly is the case of the garments from which they hoped honour, it will be of no avail to them. (Fathul Bari Vol.13 Pg.256, ‘Hadith ke Islaahi Madhameen’ Vol.10 Pg.80)

• Therefore, this hadith clearly states that the one who hangs his lower garment below his ankle will enter the Fire of Hell.

• There is no restriction here of pride. Any act in which the Messenger (ﷺ) warns of entering Hell by committing it is considered a major sin. (Tafsir Ibn Jarir Vol.6 Pg.652-3 {Surah Nisaa: 31}, ‘Zawajir’ Vol.1 Pg.5-6)

Even if one was to consider it a minor sin, it would become a major one in either of the following two situations:

i. If it is accompanied with pride
ii. If one persist in doing it.

• Below, we will learn that dragging one’s garments below the ankles is almost synonymous with pride, if not pride itself.

• Sa’eed ibn Jubair (رهمح الله) reported that a man asked Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu), “How many major sins are there? Are there seven?” Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “They are closer to seven hundred than seven, but no sin is major if forgiveness is sought and no sin is minor if it is constantly repeated. (Tafsir Ibn Jarir Tabari Vol.6 Pg.651 {Surah Nisaa: 31}, ‘Tafsir Ibn Abi Hatim’ Vol.3 Pg.934 #5217, Hafiz Ibn Muflih authenticated its chain in ‘Aadaab Shar’iyah’ Vol.1 Pg.153)

• The muhaddith and faqeeh, Mufti Yusuf Ludhyanvi As-Shaheed (رهمح الله) considered lowering the garment below the ankles a major sin, especially in our times. (See his Fatawa collection ‘Aap ke Masail aur unka Hall’ Vol.8 Pg.361)

This will be explained later on, Allah willing. (See ‘Clarification of Misconception’ #5)

Hadith 2 
Abu Dharr (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Three are those with whom Allah would neither speak to on the Day of Resurrection, nor would look at them nor would He purify them and there is a painful chastisement for them.” The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) repeated it three times. Abu Dharr (radhiyallahu anhu) remarked: “They failed and they lost; who are these persons, O Messenger of Allah?” He replied: “The one who wears his lower garment below his ankles, the one who reproaches (on the favours he did to someone) and the seller of goods by false oath.”  (Muslim #106).

• This hadith mentions many extremely severe punishments for those who drag their garments below the ankles:

i. Allah will not speak to them. This means He will not speak to them in the manner that He will speak to the righteous people whom He will be pleased with. Rather, He will speak to them in anger. It can also mean that He will ignore them. Most commentators say it means He will not speak to them in a manner that will benefit them and please them. It can also mean He will not send the angels to them with greetings. It can also mean that Allah will not speak to them directly, which is an honour, in itself.

ii. He will not look at them. This means He will not look at them with mercy. Rather, He will look at them with anger.

iii. He will not purify them. This means Allah will not purify them from the filth of their sins. It also can mean He will not praise them. And whomsoever Allah does not praise, He punishes. (See ‘Sharh Nawawi’ on ‘Muslim’ Vol.2 Pg.116 and ‘Al-Mufhim’ Vol.1 Pg.302-3 for the explanations given)

iv. They will be given a painful punishment other than the above. 

• This person has been placed in the same row as a liar.

• He has been placed in the same row as the one, who is so evil in character, that he reminds people of the favours he did to them. 

Hadith 3 
Abdur-Rahman (رهمح  الله) said: “I asked Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri (radhiyallahu anhu) about the izãr, and he said: You have come to the one who knows about it. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: ‘The izãr of the Muslim is to mid-calf, and there is no sin if it comes between that and the ankle, but whatever is below the ankle is in the Fire. The one who lets his izãr drag out of pride, Allah will not look at him.”  (Abu Dawud #4093, Ibn Majah #3573, and Ahmed #11010). 

• The muhaddith, Shaikh Shuaib (رهمح الله) said, “Its chain is authentic on the condition of Muslim.”

• This hadith is the clearest in mentioning the distinction between two different sins: 

Sin 1; The one who lets his lower garment drag below his ankle without pride➡He will enter the Fire.

Sin 2: The one who intentionally drags his lower garment below his ankle out of pride➡Allah will not even look at him with mercy on the Day of Judgement.

Hadith 4
Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) reported: “I happened to pass before Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) with my lower garment trailing. He said: ‘Abdullah, tug up your lower garment,’ I tugged it up, and he again said: ‘Some more,’ and I tugged it further. Afterwards, I was cautious in practicing that. Some of the people said: To what extent? Thereupon he said: ‘To the middle of the shanks.’”  (Muslim #2086). 

• Again, this hadith has no restriction of pride. The Messenger (ﷺ) commanded Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) to raise it without accusing him of pride.

• Allamah Qurtubi (رهمح الله) writes, “This shows that it is such a sin that should not be allowed, rather, one should prohibit it, even if the person may have done it by mistake.” (Al-Mufhim Vol.5 Pg.406) 

Hadith 5
Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates, “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) clothed him with two garments of the garments of siyaraa, which Ferooz had gifted him. So, I wore the izãr and it drowned me in length and width. So, I dragged it on the ground. I then wore the upper garment and covered my head with it. So the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) held my shoulders and said, “O Abdullah lift your izãr, because whatever touches the ground of the izãr until below the ankles is in Hell.” Abdullah ibn Muhammad said, “So I never saw a person who was stricter in lifting his clothes than Abdullah ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu).”  (Musnad Ahmed #5713)

• Shaikh Arnawut (رهمح الله) said, “It is Sound.” 

• This hadith mentions more details. Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) heeded to the Messenger’s ﷺ command right away until his death. There is no mention of pride in any of these two narrations. 

Hadith 6
Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated: “Once, a person was praying, letting his lower garment trail. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to him: ‘Go and perform wudhu.’ He went, performed wudhu and then returned. He (ﷺ) again said: ‘Go and perform wudhu.’ He again went, performed wudhu and returned. (On witnessing this) someone asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah, why did you order him to perform wudhu?’ He (ﷺ) replied: ‘He was praying with the lower garment trailing, and Allah Ta’ala does not accept the prayer of a man who lets his lower garment trail.’”  (Abu Dawud #638 and ‘Musnad’ Ahmed #16628).

• Imam Nawawi (رهمح الله) said that its chain is authentic on the condition of Muslim. Hafiz Haithami (رهمح الله) said that Ahmed (رهمح الله) narrates it and the transmitters are those of the Sahih. (Riyadhus Saliheen Pg.373 #797, ‘Majmauz Zawaid’ Vol.5 Pg.126 Conversely, others have held that Abu Ja’far in the chain is unknown. Based on this, the chain would be slightly weak. See: ‘Sharh Aiyni’ Vol.3 Pg.169, ‘Kifayatul Mufti’ Vol.9 Pg.156 and Arnawut on ‘Musnad’. However, Tirmithi has graded one of Abu Ja’far’s hadith as ‘sound’ [#3442]. Hafiz Ibn Hajr graded him ‘maqbool’ (accepted) in ‘Taqreeb’. This means that his hadith is accepted if supported with a mutaabe’. Well, it is supported by the shaahid of Ibn Masud quoted above. Azim-Aabaadi also considered the hadith sound in ‘Awnul Mabood’ Pg.313. Allah knows best.)

• This hadith indicates to the prohibition of lowering the garments without any restriction of pride to the extent that the man was commanded to re-do his wudhu.

• The command to re-do the wudhu may have been to expiate for the sin committed, as wudhu washes away sins. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Whoever performs ablution as I have done, his previous sins will be forgiven.” (Ibn Majah #285 Busiri authenticated it in ‘Misbahuz Zujajah’ Pg.260)

• The salah did remain valid. This is why he wasn’t told to repeat it.

• However, a person will be deprived of the benefits of salah such as forgiveness of sins, purification of the heart, divine reward in the Hereafter, etc. This is what is meant by the salah not being accepted by Allah Ta’ala. (Dalilul Faliheen Vol.5 Pg.342, Shaikh Afzal Ismail, Commentary of Riyadhus Saliheen Vol.2 Pg.175) 

Hadith 7 
Abu Jurayy Jabir ibn Sulaim (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Lift your lower garment halfway up your shin; if you cannot do it, have it up to the ankles. However, beware of trailing the lower garment, for it is from pride and Allah does not like pride.”  (Abu Dawud #4084 and Tirmizi #2722, Bukhari in ‘Adabul Mufrad’ #1182).

• Imam Tirmithi said, “Its chain is sound and authentic.”

• This hadith clearly states that lowering the garments below the ankle is an act of pride in itself.

• Hafiz Ibn Hajr Asqalani says in ‘Fathul Bari’ Vol.13 Pg.267,

“In summary, letting down the garment (below the ankles) entails dragging it, and dragging the garment entails pride even if the person did not intend pride.” 

Hadith 8 
The Prophet (ﷺ) said to Sufyan ibn Abi Sahl (radhiyallahu anhu), “Do not trail your garments (below the ankles), because Allah does not like those who trail their garments.”  (Ibn Majah #3574 and Sahih Ibn Hibban #5442). 

• Hafiz Busiri authenticated its chain in ‘Misbahuz Zujajah’. (Pg. 467)

• This hadith again mention that Allah dislikes those who lower their garments below the ankles without any mention of pride. 

Hadith 9 
Huzaifah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated, “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) took hold of the calf of my shin – or his shin – and he said: “This is the place of the Izãr, if you must lower it, then a little below, and if you must lower it, then the lzar has no right to be on the ankles.”  (Tirmithi #1783 and Ibn Hibban #5448) . 

• Again, the Messenger (ﷺ) clearly states that the garment has no right on the ankle. Obviously, below is worst. There is no restriction of pride here either.

• Ibn Hibban (رهمح الله) said that this is the furthest limit on the male’s body which is wajib to practice on with regards to hanging the lower garment. 

Hadith 10
Abu Umamah (radhiyqllahu anhu) said, “Once we were with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and we met Amr ibn Zurarah Ansari (radhiyallahu anhu) (who was wearing) a lower and upper garment, which he had trailed below his ankles. The Messenger (ﷺ) took the corner of his garment humbly and started saying, ‘O Allah, Your bondsman, the son of your bondsman and bondswoman,’ until Amr ibn Zurarah (radhiyallahu anhu) heard him and turned to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, my shins are thin.’ He replied, ‘O Amr ibn Zurarah, surely Allah beautified the creation of everything. O Amr ibn Zurarah, surely Allah does not love the one who trails his garment below his ankles.’” Thereafter the Messenger (ﷺ) showed him that the izãr should be up to eight fingers below the knees.  (Tabarani in ‘Kabir’ #7909. Also, see ‘Fathul Bari’ Vol.13 Pg.267).

 
• Allamah Haithami and Hafiz Ibn Hajr (رهمحام الله) both said that the narrators are all reliable. (Majmauz Zawaid Vol.5 Pg.124)

• Once again, there is no restriction of pride in this hadith. Hafiz Ibn Hajr (رهمح  الله) comments, “It is clear that Amr (radhiyallahu anhu) did not intend to be arrogant by this lowering of his garment. Yet, the Messenger (ﷺ) prohibited him because it is from the actions which are most likely committed out of arrogance.”  (Fathul Bari Vol.13 Pg.267)

Hadith 11 
Sharid (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) saw a man trailing his izãr below his ankles so he hastened towards him or he jogged [until he lifted his garment]. He (ﷺ) then said, “Lift your izãr and fear Allah.” The man [exposed his knees and] said, “I am clubfooted. My knees collide with one another when I walk.” He remarked, “All of Allah’s creations are good.” That man was never seen after that but that his izãr was in the middle of his shin [until he died].   (Tabarani in ‘Kabir’ #7238 and Musnad Ahmed  Vol.4 Pg.390. The words between the brackets [] are Ahmed’s). 

• Hafiz Haithami (رهمح الله) said, “The narrators of Ahmed are narrators of the Sahih.” (Majmauz Zawaid Vol.5 Pg.124)

Allamah Munawi (rahimahullah) states that Imam Suyuti (rahimahullah) wrote the abbreviation of authenticity on this hadith.  (See ‘Faidhul Qadeer’ Vol.1 Pg.476)

• “Fear Allah” and refrain from that which Allah has made haraam. (See ‘Faidhul Qadeer’ Vol.1 Pg.475-6)

• This Sahabi had a defect in his legs, yet the Messenger (ﷺ) instructed him to lift his garments above his ankles. May Allah grant us the ability to practice on His commands in all circumstances. There is no mention of pride in this hadith. 

Hadith 12 
Samurah ibn Jundub (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates from the Prophet (ﷺ) that he said, “Whatever is below the ankles of the izãr is in the Fire.”  (Musnad Ahmed #20098). 

• Shaikh Arnawut (رهمح  الله) said, “Its chain is authentic.”

• N.B. When a hadith is narrated by a different Sahabi (radhiyallahu anhu), it is counted as a separate hadith. 

Hadith 13
Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) said that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Surely Allah will not look at the one who lowers his garment below his ankles.”  (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah #25308).

• The muhaddith, Shaikh Muhammad Awwamah (هظفح الله) graded it authentic. 

Hadith 14 
Abu Ad-Dardã (radhiyallahu anhu) said to Sahl ibn Al-Hanzaliyyah (radhiyallahu anhu), “Tell us something that will benefit us and not harm you.” He said, “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to us, ‘What a good man Khuraim Al-Asadi is, except that his hair comes down to his shoulders and his izãr hangs below his ankles.’ News of that reached Khuraim (radhiyallahu anhu) and he went and took a knife and cut his hair until it came to his ears, and he lifted up his izãr to mid-calf.”
(Abu Dawud #4089).

• Hafiz Ibn Hajr classified it sound in ‘Al-Amaali Mutlaqah’. (Pg.36 Also see Arnawut’s research on ‘Musnad Ahmed’ Vol.29 Pg.159-162)

• The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) did not mention anything about Khuraim (radhiyallahu anhu) being proud. Therefore, even if one was to hang his garment without pride, it is not allowed. 

Hadith 15
Abdullah ibn Abil Hudhail (رهمح الله) narrates that Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) asked the Messenger of Allah ﷺ concerning the izãr. So, he took hold of the middle of the calf of the shin. So, he requested, “Increase (it) for us, O Messenger of Allah.” So, he held the lowest part of the calf of the shin. So, he requested, “Increase (it) for us, O Messenger of Allah.” So, he ﷺ replied, “There is no good in anything lower than this.” (Musnad Abi Bakr’ #123)

• Shaikh Arnawut (رهمح الله) said that the narrators are reliable, however there is an uncertainty in whether Ibn Abi Hudhail heard from Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) or not. Abu Zur’ah said, “Ibn Abi Hudhail from Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) is mursal.” It is, however, supported by the narration of Huzaifah (radhiyallahu anhu) quoted above. (See Arnawut’s research on ‘Musnad Abi Bakr’ Pg.156, ‘Marasil’ of Ibn Abi Hatim #407)

Aathaar (Narrations) of the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) 

The following are narrations in which the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) instructed others to lift their garments above their ankles. Pride is an action of the heart and the traits of the heart are from the unseen. Obviously, the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) did not receive any revelation so they were not aware if someone is doing it out of pride or not. Yet, they instructed them to lift their garments. This shows that the prohibition applies in all cases. 

Athar 1 
Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) saw a person trailing his lower garment, whereupon he said: “From whom do you come?” He described his relationship (with the tribe he belonged) and it was found that he belonged to the tribe of Laith. Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) recognized him and said: “I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) with these two ears of mine saying: ‘He who trailed his lower garment with no other intention but pride, Allah would not look toward him on the Day of Resurrection.’”  (Muslim #2085f).

• Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhum) prohibited him from dragging his garments and used the hadith which mentions the restriction of pride. Obviously, he didn’t know what was in his heart. So, this shows that the ruling is general. There are other incidents where Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) reprimanded people for dragging their garments below their ankles. (See ‘Tamheed’ of Ibn Abdil Barr Vol.3 Pg.274-5)

One more will be mentioned below under the title of ‘Misconceptions and their Clarifications’. 

Athar 2 
Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) saw a person whose lower garment had been trailing and this person started to strike the ground with his foot. He [Abu Hurairah] was the governor of Bahrain and the person was saying: “Here comes the Amir, here comes the Amir.” He (Abu Huraira) reported that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Allah will not look toward him who trails his lower garment out of pride.” 
(Muslim #2087).

• Stamping one’s feet is not necessarily an act of arrogance. Rather in certain cases it is even praise worthy. For instance, to show the kuffar that the Muslims are strong and not weak. Even the Messenger ﷺ ordered the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) to march when doing tawaf in the Umaratul Qadhaa because the Kuffar of Makkah had said the fever of Madinah has weakened the Muslims. (Sahih Bukhari #1602)

Therefore this person most likely was stamping in that manner as Bahrain still had Jews and Majusis there. 

Athar 3
Kharashah (رهمح الله) said that Umar (Ibn Khattab) (radhiyallahu anhu) called for a blade and lifted the izãr of a man above his ankles. Then he cut what was below that. He (Kharashah) said, “It is though I am looking at the ends of his garment flowing down his heels.”  (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah #25326. Shaikh Shathri authenticated it in his ‘Ta’leeq’ on ‘Musannaf’ Vol.13 Pg.529)

• Some people say, why do scholars speak about such ‘minor’ issues as dragging the trousers below the ankles when the Ummah is in need of much greater advice? Subhaanallah, Allah forbid. This is the Amirul Mumineen, one of the most outstanding leaders this World has ever seen, taking out his precious time to personally cut the lower garment of one who was dragging it below his ankles. 

Athar 4
There is also another narration collected by Bukhari, which will be mentioned below, in which Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) commanded a youth to lift his garment above his ankles after Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) was stabbed by the Majusi. (Bukhari #3700).

• Once again, the leader of the super power of the time, was on his death bed, instructing someone to lift his garment above his ankles. May Allah Ta’ala give us the tawfeeq to honour and practice every single one of his commands. 

THE GRACE OF OUR ROLE-MODEL’S GARMENT 

Allah Ta’ala said in the Quran Majid that the one who wishes to please Allah and succeed in the Hereafter should follow in the way, method, style and Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) “Certainly, you have in the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) an excellent exemplar for him who hopes in Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much.”  [Surah Ahzab: 21]

The grace and style of the garments which the Messenger (ﷺ) and his companions wore is a well-known fact.  

1. Ubaid ibn Khalid (Or Ubaidah ibn Khalaf. The difference of name is a Sahabi does not cause any weakness to the narration). said, “I was walking and upon me was a sheet which I was dragging. So, a man said to me, ‘Lift your garment because it is cleaner (or more righteous) for you and long lasting.’ So I looked and it was the Prophet (ﷺ). I said, ‘It is a burdah malhaa (a black sheet with white lines).’ The Messenger (ﷺ) retorted, ‘Don’t you have a role model in me?’ He said, ‘When I looked I saw that his garment was up to the middle of his calf.’”
(Musnad Ahmed Vol.5 Pg.364, Tirmithi in ‘Shamail’ #114,  and Nasai Sunan Kubraa #9602).

• Hafiz Ibn Hajr classified its chain good (Fathul Bari Vol.13 Pg.266-7). Imam Suyuti indicated to its authenticity in ‘Jameus Sagheer’ and Munawi and San’ani (رهمحام  الله) did not disagree with him in their respective commentaries on ‘Jameus Sagheer’. (See ‘Faidhul Qadeer’ by Munawi Vol.1 Pg.476 and ‘Tanweer’ by San’ani Vol.2 Pg.287)

2. Salamah ibn Akwa’ (radhiyallahu anhu) said that Uthman ibn Affan (radhiyallahu anhu) used to wear his izãr until his mid-calf and would say, “This is how my companion, the Nabi ﷺ, used to wear his izãr.”
(Shamail Tirmithi #115).

• Even though the Sahabi, Salamah (radhiyallahu anhu) knew the style of the Messenger’s izãr himself, he spoke of Uthman’s style to point out that this Sunnah was established and practiced by the great Sahabah including the Khulafaa Rashideen (radhiyallahu anhum). (Sharh Munawi Vol.1 Pg.173, ‘Jamul Wasail’ Vol.1 Pg.173 )

3. Abu Sulaiman (His name is Ayub ibn Dinaar) [Jarh wat Ta’deel Vol.2 Pg.246 #877] narrates from his father that he said, “I saw Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) while he was wearing a najrani izãr up till mid-calf.”  (‘Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah #25329 Vol.12 Pg.503)

4. Abu Ishaq (رهمح  الله) said, “I saw people from amongst the companions of the prophet wearing their izãrs until mid-calf.” He then named, “Usamah ibn Zaid, Ibn Umar, Zaid ibn Arqam and Baraa ibnul Azib” (radhiyallahu anhuma). (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah #25327 Vol.12 Pg.503) 

In Summary, the Sunnah of the Messenger (ﷺ) and many of his companions (radhiyallahu anhum) was to wear the lower garments until mid-calf. Between mid-calf and the ankles is a permissible area. On the other hand, wearing any garments below the ankles is prohibited on males. The punishment for this is entrance into the Fire of Jahannam, may Allah protect us from it. If one knowingly does it out of pride, then he will be in a worst situation, as Allah Ta’ala will not even look at him with mercy on the Day of Judgment. This is the more precautionary opinion, for the outward purport of many strongly-worded Prophetic ahadith state such. 

MISCONCEPTIONS AND THEIR CLARIFICATIONS 

Misconception 1:
Why do some ahadith place the condition of ‘if it is done out of pride’? 

• Clarification: 
This is to show that the matter is more severe for the one who intentionally does it out of pride. Allamah Sindi (رهمح  الله) says in his ‘Hashiyah’ on ‘Sunan Ibn Majah’, “What is apparent is that this limit is there even if one does not do it out of pride. Yes, if pride is also added to hanging it below the ankle, then the matter is more severe.” (Vol.4 Pg.148) And Allah Ta’ala knows best. 

Misconception 2:
It is a case of (Mafhoomul Mukhalafah). That is, the prohibition mentioned a restriction of pride, therefore the opposite ruling will apply when the restriction is not found. 

• Clarification:
Many mujtahidun do not consider this (Mafhoomul Mukhalafah) a valid principle of deducing laws. Even those who use it as evidence, mention a condition that the restriction should not have been mentioned based on it being the norms of such situations. For instance, in the Quran Majid, Allah Ta’ala says, Haraam on you (to marry) are …. your step-daughters, whom are in your care.” [Surah Nisaa: 23]

The restriction of “in your care” here was mentioned because this is the norms of such a case. (The step-father usually takes care of his wife’s children from her previous marriage).

Therefore, its absence will not invert the ruling. It will still remain haraam on a man to marry his step-daughter even if he never took care of her. Similarly, Allamah San’ani (رهمح  الله) states that the restriction of “pride” in some of the ahadith is to indicate that those who usually let their garments below their ankles, do so out of pride. Therefore, if this restriction is not there, then it will not cause the ruling to turn around. (See ‘Istifaaul Aqwaal’ by San’ani Pg.42)

This is also supported by the hadith which called dragging the garments below the ankle, an act of pride in itself. And Allah Ta’ala knows best.

Misconception 3:
Applying the restriction to the general ahadith will apply in this case. That is, when certain ahadith are general and others are restricted, then one of the principles of Fiqh is to apply the restriction to the general ahadith. Accordingly, since some ahadith have the restriction of pride, it will also apply to those which are general. 

Clarification:
i. Indeed, this is one principle of Fiqh that is applied in some instances. However, another principle of Fiqh is that the general hadith is practiced on its generality and the restricted one with its restriction. So, we will practice on the general one without any restrictions. The hadith of Abu Saeed Khudri (radhiyallahu anhu), (“Whatever is below the ankle is in the Fire. The one who lets his izãr drag out of pride, Allah will not look at him.”), collected by Abu Dawud (رهمح الله) and others, strengthens the use of this principle here, as it mentions both the scenarios in one hadith, the general and the restricted, and they both were prohibited by mentioning different punishments. Allamah San’ani (رهمح الله) says, “The ahadith indicate that whatever is below the ankles is in the Fire, and this entails prohibition. Other ahadith indicate that whoever drags it out of pride, Allah will not look at him. This also entails prohibition. They also point out that the punishment for the arrogant is a specific punishment, which is Allah not looking at him. This is one of the things that falsifies the claim that it is only prohibited on the proud.” (Istifaaul Aqwaal Pg.26)

ii. One of the conditions for applying the restriction to a general text, for those who use this principle, is that it should not be concerning a prohibition. If the issue is one of prohibition, as is the case with the issue of isbaal, then it is not valid to apply the restriction of one text to the generality of the other. This is explained by Hafiz Ibn Daqeequl Eid in ‘Ihkamul Ahkaam’. (Vol.1 Pg.60 Also see: ‘Al-Bahrul Muheet’ by Zarkashi Vol.3 Pg.430-1). And Allah Ta’ala knows best. 

Misconception 4:
The Messenger (ﷺ) told Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) that since he is not letting his garment hang “out of pride”, there is no punishment for him. Therefore, this should also apply to us.  

• Clarification:
Below we will reproduce the complete hadith and then explain it:

Abdullah ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Allah will not look, on the Day of Resurrection at the person who drags his garment (below his ankles) out of pride.” On that Abu Bakr (هنع الله يضر) said, “O Allah’s Messenger, one side of my izãr hangs low unless I meticulously take care of it.” The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “You are not one of those who do that out of pride.”   (Bukhari #5784). 

• This narration is usually considered the strongest evidence put forward by those who wish to wear their garments below their ankles. From the following analysis, Allah willing, it will become crystal clear that this narration is actually evidence against their position.

From this hadith, the following points become clear:

i. Only one side was going below Abu Bakr’s (radhiyallahu anhu) ankle. So how can one use this to intentionally hang both sides down his ankles? (See ‘Tamheed’ of Ibn Abdil Barr Vol.3 Pg.247)

ii. Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) was not doing it intentionally. How can this be evidence for those who purposely and intentionally wear their trousers below their ankles? (Ibid)

Rather, the scholars wrote that Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) was very slim and his garments would not stay on him tightly. They would slip off of his hips. Allamah Kirmani (رهمح الله) said he had a slight hunch to his back which also caused his garment to slip off. (Kirmani Vol.21 Pg.53, ‘Umdatul Qari’ Vol.21 Pg.438, ‘Minhatul Baari’ Vol.9 Pg.76)

iii. When he realised it slipped off, he would lift it up. (Umdatul Qari Vol.21 Pg.438) These people never lift it up.

iv. Since Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) didn’t wear it below his ankles intentionally and he would ensure to lift it when he realized it slipped below, there was no question of him being arrogant. Yet, he asked the question concerning his situation. Therefore, this means that he understood it to be general and not restricted to pride. Otherwise, his question would not make sense. (Faidhul Bari Vol.6 Pg.72)

v. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) received revelation from Allah and by it he would know the state of the heart of a person. So, he had the right to testify of the purity of Abu Bakr’s (radhiyallahu anhu heart.

vi. Since the Messenger (ﷺ) is no longer amongst us, we are not able to claim purity for anyone. Allah alone knows who is pure at heart.

vii. Some scholars say that, out of all the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum), only Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) was given the reassurance that he is not doing it out of pride. Therefore, this was a specific permission for him. There is no other Sahabi who was afforded this, not even Umar, Uthman or Ali (radhiyallahu anhum). So how can we, who are drowned in sin, claim purity? (Tawdhehaat Sharh Mishkaat Vol.6 Pg.467)

viii. The scholars say that this hadith shows that if one’s garment was to unintentionally fall below one’s ankles, then he would not be taken to task for it. However, this in no way means that one should be careless about it.

ix. Even though this narration clearly negates pride from Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu), Imam Bukhari (رهمح الله) still mentioned it under the ‘Book of Clothing’, this is to point out that this hadith is a general guideline of wearing garments, without paying attention to the issue of arrogance. (Faidhul Bari Vol.6 Pg.72   

x. Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), the narrator of this hadith, used to always keep his garments at mid-calf. It is not narrated that he allowed letting the garments go below the ankles for anyone. 

xi. Rather, Hafiz Ibn Abdil Barr (رهمح الله) mentions a narration in ‘Tamheed’ in which Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) instructed Abdullah ibn Waqid to lift his garment above his ankles. Ibn Waqid said, “There are some sores on my legs.” Ibn Umar replied, “Even if.” Ibn Abdil Barr (رهمح الله) comments, “This is clear that Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) held it reprehensible for a person to drag his garments in all conditions.” (See ‘Tamheed’ of Ibn Abdil Barr Vol.3 Pg.247) And Allah Ta’ala knows best. 

Misconception 5:
All those who wear their trousers below their ankles claim that “We don’t do it out of pride.” 

• Clarification:
i. Allah Ta’ala says, “So do not claim purity for yourselves. He is most knowing of who fears him.” [Surah Najam: 32]

ii. Hafiz Ibn Hajr Asqalani (رهمح الله) writes in ‘Fathul Bari’, “[The faqeeh and muhaddith, Qadhi Abu Bakr] Ibnul Arabi (رهمح الله) said, ‘It is not permissible for a man to let his garment cover his ankles and say, ‘I am not dragging it out of pride’, because the prohibition includes this in its wordings. It is not permissible for he whom the text includes in ruling to say, ‘I am not following it because the primary reason is not in me’, because this is a claim that is not accepted. Rather his lengthening of his lower garment below the ankles is a sign of his pride.’” Then Hafiz Ibn Hajr (رهمح الله) states that this is supported by the hadith, “Beware of trailing the lower garment, for it is from pride.” (Fathul Bari Vol.13 Pg.267)

iii. Shaikh Ibn Ataullah Iskandari (Hafiz Ibn Hajr quotes Hafiz Zahabi (الله اهمحر) saying, “Ibn Ataullah had an extraordinary grandeur, lofty status in the hearts and contribution in virtue. I saw Shaikh Tajuddeen, when he returned from Misr, holding his advices and subtleties in very high regard. He used to speak in the Jame Azhar on a chair with such a speech that revived the hearts. He had combined the statements of the People (i.e. Zuhhad) with the narrations of the Salaf and other topics. So, he had a lot of followers. He had the signs of goodness on him.” ‘Durr Kaaminah’ Vol.1 Pg.274) said, “He who attributes humility to himself is really proud.” (Kitabul Hikam, ‘The Book of Wisdom’ Pg.215, ‘Ummul Amraadh’ by Shaikh Zakariyah Kandhelvi Pg.19)

Humility is the belief that one is the most contemptible and lowest person. The consideration of greatness in oneself is pride. So, the one who puts forth the claim that he is humble is in actual fact considering himself to be elevated. Thus, he is a man of pride. (‘Ikmalus Shiyam’ by Shaikh Abdullah Gangohi Pg.215 White Thread Press)

iv. If we were to assume that it is not always an act of pride, then Ibn Hajr (رهمح الله) says that it is still an action that has a high possibility of pride. (Fathul Bari Vol.13 Pg.267)

v. Ubaid ibn Khalid (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “I was walking and upon me was a sheet which I was dragging. So, a man said to me, ‘Lift your garment because it is more righteous for you and long lasting.’ So, I looked and it was the Prophet (ﷺ). I said, ‘It is a burdah malhaa (a black sheet with white lines).’ The Messenger (ﷺ) retorted, ‘Don’t you have a role model in me?’ He said, ‘When I looked I saw that his garment was till the middle of his calf.’” [  Shamail Tirmithi #114. Its chain is good. (‘Fathul Bari’ Vol.13 Pg.266-7)].

a. Some scholars explain that by saying it is a black sheet with white threads, the Sahabi was indicating that it was not a garment with which one can show off and be proud of. However, the Messenger (ﷺ) informed him of two things. One, there is more piety in lifting it above, as one may feel he is not proud but in actual fact he is. Another point is that we should not feel we are above following the style of the Messenger (ﷺ). This is why the Messenger (ﷺ) rebuked him in a stern manner and said, “Don’t you have a role-model in me?”

b. Another point the scholars derived from this is that one should lift his trousers high so as to prevent any possibility of it dragging below the ankles. This is called  or “closing the doors and means of sin”. (Sharh Munawi Vol.1 Pg.172, ‘Jamul Wasail’ Vol.1 Pg.172, ‘Mawaahib Ladunniyah’ by Baajuri Pg.235)

vi. The faqeeh and muhaddith, Mufti Yusuf Ludhyanvi (رهمح الله) states that in our times (20th and 21st century. The respected Mufti was assassinated in 2000 CE. May Allah accept his martyrdom) the people who are accustomed to wearing their trousers, pants and lower garments below their ankles consider it an act of honour, rather, they feel ashamed and disgraced in lifting it above the ankles. They look with utmost disdain at the Sunnah of the beloved Prophet (ﷺ), which is wearing the garments at mid-calf. Now you tell me, “Is the cause for this anything other than arrogance and pride?” This is why the respected mufti considered it a major sin, especially in our times. Rather, he went a step further and said, “Further than a major sin, there is a fear of losing one’s Iman by looking at the Prophetic Sunnah in a condescending manner.” (Aap ke Masaail aur unka Haal Vol.8 Pg.361)

vii. In many of the narrations mentioned above, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) had instructed many Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) to lift their garments above their ankles. Would we say (May Allah forbid), that those Sahabah were doing so out of pride? Obviously not.

viii. If anyone had the right to say, ‘I don’t do it out of pride,’ it was Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu), but he never made such claims of purification. So, who are we to profess such piety? And Allah Ta’ala knows best. 

Misconception 6:
Yazid ibn Abi Habib (رهمح الله) narrates that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to hang his izãr in front of him and lift it from the back. (‘At-Tabaqaat’ Ibn Sa’d Vol.1 Pg.395 ) 

• Imam Suyuti graded it mursal in ‘Jame’us Sagheer’. (Jame’us Sagheer with ‘Taweer’ Vol.8 Pg.563) 

• Clarification:
i. This hadith is mursal, which is one of the types of weak hadith according to the muhaddithun. A mursal hadith is when there is a break in the link of the chain of narration after the tabi’ee. Yazid ibn Abi Yahya (رهمح الله) was a tabi’ee, which means he did not meet the Messenger ﷺ. Therefore, there is a break in the link of this chain of narration. However, a mursal hadith is still used as evidence according to the majority of the mujtahidun, the likes of Abu Hanifah, Malik and Ahmed ibn Hanbal (رمهمح الله). Imam Shafi’ee (رهمح الله) also uses it as evidence when it fulfills a few conditions.

ii. When a hadith is vague, like this one, then it must be interpreted to coincide with the other explicit narrations. Many ahadith mention that the Sunnah and usual method of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was to wear his garments up to mid-calf.

iii. This is why, Allamah San’aani (رهمح الله) explains that this hanging in front was to the extent of the permission given, which is up to mid-calf. (Taweer Vol.8 Pg.563. Permission was given from between mid-calf to above the ankles). And Allah Ta’ala knows best. 

Misconception 7:
Ikrimah (رهمح الله) narrated that he saw Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) wearing an izãr; he let the edge of the izãr touch the top of his feet in front and he lifted it higher at the back. I said, “Why are you wearing the izãr in this manner?” He said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah wearing it like that.” (Sunan Abu Dawud #4096)

• Shaikh Muhammad Awwamah classified it as sound. (Ta’leeq ala ‘Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah’ Vol.12 Pg.503 #25328)

• Some people use this hadith to say that we can drag our garments below our ankles without any restriction of a particular style. 

• Clarification:
i. Firstly, if we were to assume this was the Messenger’s ﷺ regular style of wearing his izãr, it does not clearly state that the front part went below the ankles. The edge of the izãr can touch the top of the foot without going below the ankles, especially when the back part is clearly above the ankles. By taking all the other numerous ahadith on this issue in to consideration, we must interpret it to mean that it did not go below the ankles.

ii. Even if we were to assume it may have gone below the ankles at the front, it clearly did not go below from the back. Also, this manner would leave the ankles exposed and not covered. Therefore, if one was to prove permissibility from this hadith, the izãr would have to be worn in this exact manner. However, this is only possible if one is wearing a lungi or loincloth, which can be tied in such a manner that the front part reaches the top of the foot while the back part stays higher up. This style is impossible with a trouser and extremely difficult with a qamis or jubbah. Those who would like to use this hadith to permit wearing the trousers below their ankles, would never wear them in this manner. 

iii. This is the only hadith that mentions this method of wearing the izãr. All the other ahadith clearly state that the Messenger’s style ﷺ was to wear the garments up to mid-calf. Similarly, the other Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum) who followed the Messenger’s style ﷺ, wore it up to mid-calf. Therefore, this hadith will be explained in light of what is established.

iv. The great muhaddith and faqeeh, Mulla Ali Qari explains, “Maybe this occurred once from him (the Messenger ﷺ) and Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) happened to see it. This is why he is alone in this style of wearing the izãr from amongst the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum).” (Mirqatul Mafatih Vol.8 Pg.236, The muhaddith Shaikh Idris Kandhelvi also mentioned this interpretation in ‘Ta’liqus Sabih’ Vol.4 Pg.395)

v. Some scholars state that if one was to wear the loincloth in this manner, where the front part is on the top of the foot and the back part is above the ankles and they are exposed, then it would not come under the prohibition of isbaal. (See ‘Awnul Ma’bood’ Pg.1758, ‘Mazahir Haqq Jadid’ Vol.4 Pg.197 Maktabatul Ilm, ‘Khairul Mafatih’ Vol.5 Pg.154)

Refer to point ii of this clarification. And Allah Ta’ala knows best. 

Misconception 8:
It is narrated that Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) used to let down his izaar. He was asked concerning it, to which he replied, “I am a man whose shins are thin.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah #25313)

• Clarification:
i. If a person’s shins are slim then he will simply conceal them by letting the garment below the midway of his calves. There is no need to hang it below the ankles.

ii. Hafiz Ibn Hajr (رهمح الله) said, “This hanging narrated from Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) means below the preferable place (of half the calf). It should never be imagined that it went below his ankles.” (Alqamah said, “Ibn Masud was the most similar to the Prophet in his ways, style and mannerism.” [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah #32906])

How could one ever accuse such a great Sahabi, who was known to follow the Messenger (ﷺ) in all his ways, styles and mannerism, of defying the Messenger’s command? Ibn Masud (هنع الله يضر), himself, has narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ prohibited from dragging the izãr below the ankles. (Ibn Abi Shaibah #25303, Abu Dawud #4222, Sahih Ibn Hibban #5682-3 and Hakim in ‘Mustadrak’, who classified it authentic. As for the student of Ibn Masud, Abur Rahman ibn Harmalah, then he is truthful. See ‘Jarh wa Ta’dil’ Vol.5 Pg.222-3, ‘Thiqat’ Ibn Hibban Vol.5 Pg.95 and ‘Ta’leequl Awwamah’ on ‘Kashif’.) And Allah knows best.

iii. Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) also narrated that on the day Umar ibn Khattab (radhiyallahu anhu) was stabbed by Abu Luluah, the Majusi, with such a wound that subsequently took his life, a youth entered upon Umar (radhiyallahu anhu). The youth started to praise him. Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) saw that he was dragging his izãr. So he said, “O my nephew, lift your izãr because, in it, is more fear for your Rabb and cleaner for your garment.” Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) used to always remark, “Amazing! Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) saw the right of Allah upon him. So, the situation he was in did not prevent him from speaking about the right of Allah.”  (Ibn Abi Shaibah #25312 Ibrahim Nakhai’s Marasil from Ibn Masud are authentic. See ‘Tabribur Rawi’ Vol.3 Pg.166 and Shaikh Muhammad Awwamah’s Ta’lee).

Bukhari also collected it in his ‘Sahih’ but from a different Sahabi, Amr ibn Maimun (radhiyallahu anhu) #3700.

iv. Once Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) saw a man who was hanging his lower garment. So, he told him to lift it up. The man retorted, “And you, O Ibn Masud, lift your lower garment.” Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “My feet are slim and I lead people in Salah.” Umar ibn Khattab (radhiyallahu anhu) learnt about this and flogged the man saying, “You were rebuking Ibn Masud?” 
(‘Siyar A’laam Nubalaa’ Vol.1 Pg.491-2 Shaik Shuaib said, “Its narrators are reliable.”)

Above, two narrations of Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) were mentioned, which showed how strict he was on the issue of the garment hanging below the ankles. Therefore, this clearly shows that Ibn Masud’s garments were simply below the preferable limit and not below the ankles.

v. Rather, the following narration proves that he would never drag it below his ankles. Ibn Masud (radhiyallahu anhu) saw two men performing Salah, one had his izãr below his ankles and the other was not completing his ruku and sujood. So, he smiled. They asked, “What makes you smile, O Aba Abdir Rahman?” He replied, “I am surprised at these two men that one has his izãr below his ankles, so Allah will not look at him and as for the second, then Allah will not accept his salah.”  (Musannaf Abdur Razzaq #3735 and Tabarani in ‘Kabir’ #9366 Vol.9 Pg.314-5) And Allah Ta’ala knows best. 

Misconception 9:
Many scholars say the prohibition is based on pride, and if there is no pride then it is not haraam

• Clarification:
i. The truth is not measured by people, rather people are measured by the truth. The overwhelming evidences as explained above does not support this opinion of theirs. 

ii. Even though these scholars didn’t consider it haram when it is without pride, they still say it is reprehensible (makrooh) and blameworthy.  (See: ‘Fathul Bari’ Vol.13 Pg.266, ‘Fatawa Hindiyyah’ Vol.5 Pg.333, ‘Tamheed’ Vol.3 Pg.244, ‘Al-Muntaqa Sharh Muatta’ Vol.7 Pg.226, ‘Al-Majmoo’ Vol.4 Pg.338, ‘Al-Mughni’ Vol.2 Pg.298)

iii. Hafiz Ibn Hajr said that even if one was to consider it makrooh to drag the garment below the ankles then that would be in the case where the garment is not unnecessarily long. In other words, it would apply to the one whose garment is actually above his ankles but slips down, like in the case of Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu). If it is too long, then it would be considered prohibited from many aspects.

a. It would be considered extravagance, (Allah says, “…do not spend wastefully. Indeed, the wasteful are brothers of the devils…”) [Surah Israa: 26-27].

b. It would be considered imitating women. (All the scholars agree that women must hang their garments below their ankles. Kawkab Wahhaj Sharh Muslim Vol.21 Pg.376)

The Messenger (ﷺ) has cursed those men who imitate women and vice versa. [Bukhari #5885 ] He has also specifically cursed those men who wear the garments of women. [Hakim in ‘Mustadrak’ Vol.4 Pg.194, ‘Sahih’ Ibn Hibban #5751. Its chain is authentic on the conditions of Muslim.]

c. If the garments are dragging, then they can collect impurities from the ground. Ubaid ibn Khalid (radhiyallahu anhu) said, “I was walking and upon me was a sheet which I was dragging. So, a man said to me, ‘Lift your garment because it is cleaner for you and long lasting.’ So, I looked and it was the Prophet (ﷺ).” [‘Shamail’ Tirmithi in  #114. Its chain is good. [‘Fathul Bari’ Vol.13 Pg.266-7] 

d. Faqeehul Ummah Mufti Mahmud Hasan (رهمح الله) adds a fourth reason where it would become haraam. He says that nowadays those who wear their trousers below the ankles are doing so in following the style of the West. Therefore, they will come under the prohibition of emulating the kuffar and fussaq. (Fatawa Mahmoodiyah Vol.27 Pg.413-4)

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Whoever imitates a people, he is one of them.” [Abu Dawud collected this hadith in the chapter entitled, “Garment of Fame and Vanity”. #4031 Ibn Hajr states in ‘Bulooghul Maraam’ #1416, “Authenticated by Ibn Hibban.”]

iv. One should also note that everyone agrees that the Messenger (ﷺ) used to wear his garments above his ankles at half calf. Therefore, this is the Sunnah. The Sahabah, the likes of Uthman, Ali, Ibn Umar, Anas, Jabir and others (radhiyallahu anhu) also used to wear their garments at half calf. (See ‘Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah’ from narration #25327 to #25331)

So these scholars are in no way promoting wearing any garment below the ankles. Rather they all were strong in practising on the Sunnah.

v. Even though they say that it is not haram to hang the garments below the ankles, they do not claim that any person is free from pride. This is a hidden trait of the heart that is not easily discerned. Rather, Allah Ta’ala states, “So do not claim purity for yourselves. He is most knowing of who fears him.”  [Surah Najam: 32]

vi. After discussing this issue in his commentary of ‘Sahih Muslim’, Shaikhul Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (هظفح الله) concludes, “The original primary cause (illat) behind the prohibition of dragging the garments below the ankles is ‘pride’, as the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) explicitly mentioned in the hadith on the topic. However, establishing ‘pride’ is a hidden matter and the one who is afflicted by it does not realise it. Therefore, the cause (sabab) was placed in the position of the primary cause (illat). The cause (sabab) is hanging the garments below the ankles. This is like qasr (shortening the prayers) in travel. The primary cause (illat) is ‘difficulty’. However, ‘difficulty’ is an ambiguous matter which does not come under any rule. Therefore, the cause (sabab) was placed in the position of the primary cause (illat). The cause (sabab) is travel. (So, whenever anyone travels, he will shorten his prayers whether he is in any ‘difficulty’ or not.) Based on this, whenever the garments go below the ankles, the prohibition will apply unless it was unintentional, because in such a case the absence of ‘pride’ is definite. This is so because ‘pride’ is not established by an action in which the slave does not have an intention. It is from this angle that the Messenger (ﷺ) allowed Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) concerning his garment falling below his ankles. He said to him, ‘You are not one who does it out of pride.’ In this manner, all the narrations are reconciled. And Allah knows best.” (See ‘Takmilah Fathil Mulhim’ Vol.4 Pg.108) 

Misconception 10:
I am a person who likes my trousers below my ankles. I find it beautiful and the Messenger (ﷺ) had told a Sahabi, who had asked about beautiful clothing which he liked, it is not a problem as Allah loves beauty. 

• Clarification:
The hadith in question is as follows: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Whoever has a speck of pride (arrogance) in his heart, shall not be admitted into Paradise.” A man asked, “I like for my clothes to be nice, and my sandals to be nice?” So, he said: “Indeed Allah is Graceful and He loves beauty. Pride is refusing the truth and belittling the people.” [Muslim #91 ]

From this hadith, we learn that it is allowed for a person to wear permissible clothing even if it may be beautiful, expensive and valuable, once he does not belittle people by doing such. The other condition is once he does not refuse the truth. In other words, Shariah has placed some guidelines with regards to clothing which are part of the truth. Rejecting these guidelines is arrogance and pride. Below we mention a few guidelines as an example:

i. A man is not allowed to wear silk
ii. A man is not allowed to wear gold

• The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Wearing silk and gold has been made unlawful for the males of my Ummah and lawful for its females.” [Collected by Tirmithi #1720 He said it is sound and authentic. Also see Sahih Bukhari #5831].

iii. The thighs of a man are part of his awrah (private-parts) which is to be covered.

• Jarhad (radhiyallahu anhu) said that the Prophet (ﷺ) passed by him while his thigh was exposed, so the Prophet said, “Cover your thigh, for indeed it is awrah.” [Collected by Tirmithi #2798. He said it is sound]  From these guidelines, we see that the hadith concerning the permissibility of wearing beautiful clothing is not subjected to one’s whims and fancies. Rather, it is restricted to the guidelines set out by Shariah. Therefore, a man will not be allowed to wear silk, gold or expose his awrah simply because he considers them beautiful. In the same manner, Shariah has prohibited a man from dragging his clothing below his ankles and has considered this an act of arrogance itself. The evidences have been mentioned above in details. So, it will not be permissible for someone to drag his pants below his ankles, simply because he considers it beautiful. We ask Allah to beautify in our hearts and eyes the Sunnah of His Messenger (ﷺ). And Allah Ta’ala knows best.  

Misconception 11:
We are living in the twenty first century. The style and fashion of today dictates that we wear our trousers below our ankles. If we lift them above our ankles, people will laugh at us and ridicule us.

• Clarification:
The faqeeh, muhaddith and reviver of the Sunnah, Mufti Ahmed Khanpuri (rahimahullah) says in his commentary of ‘Riyadhus Saliheen’ that if you practise on the Deen, then you will be ridiculed and laughed at. Remember, the noblest humans, the Prophets of Allah (alayhimussalam), including our role model, the final Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) were all ridiculed and laughed at. Rather, if we are laughed at by the kuffar and fussaq for practising on the Sunnah, then that is a sign that we have passed the exam. It is not something that we should be grieved about. On the other hand, if we follow the fashion of the kuffar and fussaq, then they will not be able to save us from the punishment on the Day of Judgement. [Hadith ke Islaahi Madhameen Vol.10 Pg.82-83] And Allah Ta’ala knows best. 

CONCLUSION 

In summary, whether one hangs his garment below his ankles intentionally as an act of pride or without any such intention, it is still prohibited and a sin. There are severe punishments mentioned in many ahadith concerning both of these scenarios. We will list them below:
• Allah Ta’ala will not speak to him. 
• He will not look at him. 
• He will not purify him. 
• The man will be given a painful punishment. 
• He has been placed in the same row as a liar.
• He has been placed in the same row as one who reminds people of the favours he did to them.
• His salah is not accepted.
• Allah Ta’ala has lost respect for him.
• Allah Ta’ala does not care about him.
• He has left the laws of Allah.
• He does not believe in the halal and haram of Allah Ta’ala.
• Allah Ta’ala has freed Himself from him.
• He will enter the Hell Fire. 

We conclude with what Zhahabi said concerning those who fool themselves on this issue. In response to the one who lets his garment hang below the ankle and says ‘I am not doing that out of pride’ he said: 

“We see him behaving in an arrogant manner and purifying his foolish self. And you see him looking at a text (hadith) that is general in meaning, and he restricts it on the basis of another, separate hadith, in the meaning of pride. 

He allows a concession based on the words of al-Siddeeq (Abu Bakr) (radhiyallahu anhu), who said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, my izaar slips down,’ and he (ﷺ) said: “O Abu Bakr, you are not one of those who do that out of pride.’ 

We say: Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) did not tie his izaar in such a way that it hung below the ankles in the first place, rather he tied it so that it came above the ankle, but it slipped down after that. 

And the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “The izaar of the believer should come to mid-calf, but it does not matter if it comes between (that point) and the ankle.” The same prohibition applies to the one who lets his trousers cover his ankles, or makes his sleeves too long. All of that is from pride which is deeply hidden in the soul.”  [Siyar A’laam al-Nubala Vol.3 Pg.234]

Let us ponder over the following ahadith: The beloved Prophet (ﷺ) said, “One who holds an atoms weight of kibr (arrogance) within his heart will not enter paradise.” [Sahih Muslim 91c] 

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “Whoever leaves (certain) garments out of humility to Allah while he is able to (wear), Allah will call him before the heads of creation on the Day of Judgement so that he can select whichever garments of faith he wishes to wear.” [Collected by Tirmithi #2481 and He graded it sound. He also said, “’Garments of faith’ is the garments of Paradise which are given to the people of faith.”] 
May Allah purify our heart from pride and may He save our limbs from actions of pride. May He guide us to practice on each and every Sunnah of his beloved Messenger of Allah ﷺ.   

28 Rabiyul Akhir 1438 = 1/26/2017

Checked and Approved by Mufti Muhammad Mahdi

Refutation of the Belief of Reincarnation

[Allama’  Muhammad Idris Saheb Kandhlavi  (Rahmatullahi  Alayh)]

Just  like  the  Philosophers  and  the  atheists,  the  Brahmans  and  Hindu  also  refute  the  concept  of  resurrection.  However,  the Brahmans  and  Hindus  have  another  strange  belief.  They  say  that  there  is  no  such  thing  as Qiyaamah,  but  they  aver  that  after  death  the souls  change into  different forms.  They  say  that  the  souls  of  good people are  transformed  into  good bodies  and the souls  of evil  characters  are  transformed  into  bad  bodies,  like  dogs,  cats,  scorpions,  etc.,  etc.  This changing  of  bodies  by  the  souls  is  known  as  reincarnation.
Ahle-Islaam  say  that  this  belief  of  reincarnation  is  spurious  and  illogical.  The  reason  being  that  it  is  necessary  for  reward  or  punishment  that  the soul  be  made  aware  of  the  transgression  that  it  had  committed.  When  a  soul  knows  the  transgression  it  had  made  then  it  can in  future  abstain  therefrom  or  at  least  others  will  be  forewarned  thereof.  By  reincarnation,  the  soul  is  none  the  wiser  regarding  its  sin.  It  is  common  knowledge  that  if  a  person  lived  in  a  certain  village  for  many  years,  then  after  moving  to  another  village,  he  will  have  memories  of  his  previous  village,  in  that  he will  relate  to  others  regarding it.  So  now  the  Pundit  (Hindu  priest),  who  according to  his  own philosophy  has  lived  a  previous  (good!)  life  is  now  in  the  form  of  his  present  body,  but  he  cannot  relate  any  part  of  his  past  life  He  says  nothing,  nor  does  his  queen.  It  is  very  possible  that  in  the  previous  life  his  present  wife  was  his  mother,  sister  or  even  daughter! 

Or  maybe  Mahatma  or  Pundit  saheb  was  in  the  previous  life  the  father  of  this  girl  (present  wife)  and  now  he  comes  as  the  husband!  A  person  does  not  even  forget  a  dream  as  much  as  the  Pundit  saheb  forgot  of  his  70  odd  years  of  (previous)  life.  It  is  obvious  that  he  was  not  here in  a  previous  life.  This  sojourn of  his  life  is  the  first  on  earth  and  after  death  he  will  be  cremated  only  to  be  brought  in  to  the  second  stage  of   existence  (Barzakh),  and then  before  Allaah  Ta’ala. 

Even the  philosophers  regard  the   concept  of  reincarnation  as  being  stupid  and  illogical.