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A student of Islam

NABI ISAA – HIS MIRACULOUS BIRTH

Question: A friend says that the birth of Nabi  Isaa  (Alayhis  salaam) was not miraculous because according to the scientists it is possible for a woman to give birth asexually, i.e. without the normal and natural way of reproduction. What is the status of this friend? In Ma’aariful Qur’aan there is corroboration for the asexual theory expounded by the scientists.

Answer (By Mujlisul Ulama):

Your friend has committed kufr. He should repent and renew his Imaan. Regardless of something being the effect of Allah’s created natural laws, if that thing comes into existence at  the command of Allah Azza Wa Jal, without the operation of the natural laws, it will be a miracle. For example: A woman is barren and cannot beget children. She has been married for more than 30 years, but no children. Then a Buzrug made Dua for her or gave her a Ta’weez. As a result, she conceived and gave birth to a child. This child is the effect of a miracle although medicine did not have the ability to cure her barrenness.

The possibility of a woman giving birth to a child without the intervention of a male is contrary to the natural laws created by Allah Ta’ala. Human beings are not asexual. Thus, there are no recorded asexual births. And, if there is any such record it will be extremely rare, and it will be classified as abnormal.

Regarding Hadhrat Nabi Isa (Alayhis salaam), he was not the product of any asexual trait in his mother, Hadhrat Maryam (Alayhis salaam). Prior to being conceived, his mother was informed by the Angel that she will be giving birth to a child by Allah’s command. Thus, regardless of the extremely rare existence of the asexual factor in human beings, the birth of Hadhrat Isaa (Alayhis salaam) is Miraculous in view of it being by the direct command of Allah Ta’ala.

It is normal and natural for rain to fall from the sky. However, during a severe drought when there is no hope whatsoever for rain, if a Buzrug makes dua and the rain pours suddenly in torrents in response to his dua, it will be said that it is a miracle despite rain falling from the sky being a natural phenomenon.

What is written in Ma-aariful Qur’aan and other Tafaaseer is merely to show to the atheists that such a birth is not an impossibility even according to natural laws, hence rejection of Hadhrat Isaa’s miraculous birth is an exhibition of gross moronity, and scientists who are among the worst morons are in rejection of even the Existence of Allah Azza Wa Jal.

THE INFLUENCE OF SECULAR EDUCATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT IT IS TAUGHT IN

One of the biggest Trojan horses to infiltrate our beautiful deen and imaan is undeniably the secular education system that we are exposed to. Even the slightest exposure to it has shaped our mindsets to have the Western concepts and ideologies within us, robbing us of our Islamic identity.

Modern ‘secularism’ was established to unite all people in a single movement and introduce global ideologies, with the concept of religion removed from the environment. Feminism, socialism, liberalism, nationalism, etc are all intertwined by this idea well.

These ideas are slowly introduced to us from the time we start school and gradually build up. As we minimally spend more than a decade in this education system, there is plenty of time to systematically brainwash us and reform our minds. The syllabus includes concepts that attack a person’s imaan. Subconsciously, whatever of this venom is read and taught is transferred into the heart and mind of a person. Poison is poison, no matter the amount; it will always have an effect if there is no antidote for it, which in this case is to abstain from it or to have deeni knowledge regarding these matters and disregard it all.

In this way, they are able to form our world view and thereafter it is hard to change.

Here is a brief analysis of a few of the subjects that are taught in school:

LIFE ORIENTATION (OR LIFE SKILLS)

In my opinion, it is the most useless subject; because nothing in this subject orientates you about the correct things in life nor do you learn any true life skills; with the most rubbish in it.

Prevention of teen pregnancies and usage of contraceptives in a “healthy (haraam – premarital) relationship” that are brought to topic can only ignite desires and encourage teens to ‘explore’ and irresponsibly lose their dignity. No wonder so many single teen mothers around.

HIV (STD) is a topic that is taught every single year. While the entire “transmission and prevention” is only taught later, the slow build-up on the topic does nothing but prepare the young child for a topic more disgusting and immoral.

So, in a world where it is regarded normal to do and normal to talk about, what is the way the child starts viewing it?

Sexuality is explained to be natural and normal, when this repulsive idea goes against the fitrah of mankind and even logic. While it may not necessarily be out rightly stated, it is opening the mind to accept LGBT UVWXYZ (I may just as well add the other alphabets because there are so many terms being introduced all the time).

(Recently the above has been included in the syllabus of the younger grades as well)

“Gender equality” and “roles” is a discussion, being a basis of introduction to feminism and a warped idea as to the role we have been created to fulfill. Along with all the careers that are mentioned, it would explain why many girls ‘liberally’ walk out of school with a determination to ‘have a career’ and be ‘(financially) independent’.

LITERATURE

While literature itself is not the problem, it is the content that is chosen for it that causes the havoc.

If it’s not present-day novels that are laced with haraam and modernism, or authors that have made a mockery of Islam, or stories that may seem harmless but in reality have disgusting and evil origins, then it is stories with backgrounds of centuries ago that contain satanic or Christian elements.

Many stories and novels portray a life that is deemed ideal, yet are filled with immorality that is portrayed as beautiful and rosy – and the most common themes are premarital/extramarital love and a story line stripped of any hayaa. All these things subconsciously enter the mind on a regular basis over time and become acceptable, starting from the Rapunzel-who-had-a-secret-lover fairy tale in preschool to Romeo and Juliet over a decade later.

In the 1990s the government held a seminar to re-evaluate the education system and a question arose, why should Shakespeare (as it is one of the most common literature works – almost like it is mandatory) be taught to the children if they want to study law or medicine, whereas everything is in modern English? The answer was, when a child is given a matric certificate, they want to be satisfied that the children have developed a western, modern Christian mind-set.

CREATIVE ARTS

In SA, up till grade 9, this subject consists of 4 sub-parts and schools have the choice to choose 2 of the 4 as part of their curriculum, whereafter they are separate subjects: Music, visual arts, dance or drama.

Nothing more needs to be said regarding music besides that this pollutant of the heart and soul has become so normal that tracks will be found in the houses and on the phones of Muslims.

Instead of reading and learning the Qur’aan Majeed, children are drawing musical notes on the bar; singing, drumming their heads and shaking their bodies to the voices of the Illuminati and devil-possessed pop stars and singers.

In Visual Arts, many times animals and humans are drawn,whereas Rasoolullah Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam has cursed the one who makes such pictures.

At the same time, nearly all textbooks contain these pictures, and Rasoolullah Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said that the angles of mercy do not enter a place where such pictures are displayed. How misfortune to be for such extended hours over years in such an environment without rahma!

Dancing may be seen as a cultural tradition to some people, but this is against the behaviour and morals of a Muslim to move the body in such seductive ways that shamelessly attract attention to oneself.

Following in the footsteps of more kuffaar actors, drama classes are one of the places where the girls are taught to raise their voices and show their splendour and beauty, and children taught that it is fine to passionately kiss a non mahram woman all for an ‘act’. This builds a perception that there is nothing wrong in deceiving people simply for them to view things for their own pleasure and (useless) entertainment, making the watching of movies and videos seem acceptable to one.

BUSINESS

We won’t deny that some parts of this education system is needed to understand certain environments around us. Such is with Business, where legal topics and regulations of a country are discussed.

However, we give so much of preference to secular education and neglect our deeni education, to such an extent that many Muslims aren’t aware of even simple, basic things like the impermissibility of insurance and interest – and the likes of such business topics and dealings that would be contrary to Islamic ethics and teachings. These things are whole topics to which an ignorant person will see the benefits of, as portrayed by the West, and follow these plans while being oblivious that their records of sin are piling up.

SCIENCE

This is actually a very long topic on it’s own, with many things to understand in it, so it won’t really be discussed here. Especially since the scientific field is so vast.

The fact that a lot of science isn’t 100% accurate and merely based on ever-changing theories, estimations and mathematical calculations should say enough of the untruths in Western science, be it in astronomy, biology, chemistry, geography, physics, archaeology, just to name a few. One thing may even have several theories.

And seriously, some things just don’t make sense.

While we don’t deny all of science, we don’t completely make it the means to understand things we don’t comprehend.

Science is a force of (atheistic components) and explanations to the natural world that humans cannot understand. During the renaissance it was used as a means to weaken the conviction the people had in their holy scriptures, especially that of the Muslims in the Qur’aan. “Scientific errors” have been found in the Qur’aan according to some scientists. Rather, science contains the error as Allah Ta’aala in His Infinite Glory is nothing but Perfection, and His Kalaam and creation of everything we see in the universe are flawless.

Some things in science coincide with what the Qur’aan mentions while other things are completely contrary to our beliefs.

If one uses some insight, one will see that parts of science are used as a tool of Dajjaal, to entrap us into shaitaani things that take us away from deen.

Western science amazes us and fills us with admiration – we admire the kuffaar ‘advancements’, but how many of us are amazed at the perfect way Allah Ta’aala has created the entire universe, so perfectly in sync even to the finest detail?

HISTORY

No school history textbook will show the truth of the matter of the events that happened.

Only the surface of the topics are touched on, and more often than not – or nearly all the time – the storyline will portray the heroes as the Western powers want it to be shown, whether it is local, American or world history.

Never will one be taught the behind-the-scenes agendas of a war or revolution, what happened after Mandela took reign, why certain people were actually assassinated, what the Great Depression and American Dream actually was or how and why certain parties came to power.

And of course the attack on Islam, Muslims and our aqeedah that some historical events were about will never be brought up! As a result, Muslim students view these historical incidences as something that brought on profound and beneficial changes to the world, while being completely oblivious to how it has caused destruction to their deen!

There are so many agnostic, satanic and shirki things being indoctrinated into a person through secularism, without one even realising it. A person can be brainwashed through this system to believe that what is haraam and makrooh is permissible, thus developing a modern mindset just as the West wants us to do.

If one has to study and school at these kinds of places, then all the twisted ideologies in their education should be taken with a pinch of salt, and protect oneself from falling in these traps through deeni ‘ilm in the tarbiyah of a person and madrassahs/makaatib.

There are many other points that can be added here, but then this would become a book. While all this is merely a brief impact of modern education, the way modern education is being taught is simply ineffective as well, but that is another, less important topic.

THE ENVIRONMENT

The example of a man who walks into a perfume shop, spends some time looking around and then walking out without touching anything, yet he walks out smelling pleasant from all the fragrances that were lingering in the air can be likened to the effect the environment a person is in has on one.

If the environment is good, the goodness of it is most likely to rub off onto a person, while the opposite would be if the environment is bad.

The fact that secular schools are diverse in people of religion, mixing with the kuffaar is impossibly unavoidable. This unavoided company of kaafir classmates and friends influences a person’s way of doing and viewing things as the pressure, talks and actions coming from them may become too much to avoid and the glamour of what they do blinds one from seeing the destruction behind it.

Since teachers are generally respected and looked up to, they will be taken as an example to follow. The way these mushrik teachers behave and do things, will be especially sucked in by very young, naive minds who are still in the stage of formation, deeming their teachers’ actions as appropriate and correct. They then innocently follow in the footsteps their teachers left for them.

In any place where Muslims mixed with non Muslims a lot, they had forsaken their Islamic identity and adopted the lifestyle and concepts of the kuffaar around them.

Such an environment is one of immorality that starts at the preschool ages when girls and boys are made to dance together. This is actually encouraged (as said earlier) through all the content of the things that are taught. Zina is thus a norm in these environments, be it of the mind, as the education leaves a lot of space for imagination, or of the eyes, as the dress code of people today are so shameless and there is no control of the eyes, or the act itself. And if this isn’t bad enough, then the sickening act of self-pleasure that is so widespread today satisfies the unfulfilled desires that are created. Not only that, but all this has been included into curriculum, or is slowly being introduced.

This environment of intermingling leaves a lot of room for haraam relationships and ‘friendships’ between girls and boys where there is casual chatter and hugging.

In such environments of rijs – hearing music, dancing and seeing people dance, singing along with kuffaar singers and destructive songs, intermingling and zero observation of all the aspects of hijaab, movies and books filled with shamelessness and many other things, all bereft of hayaa – the mercy of Allah is deprived and His wrath is incurred.

Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Umar (Radiyallahu ‘anhu) narrated that Nabi (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Verily hayaa and imaan are companions. When one of them is lifted, the other leaves as well.”

Sadly these are the very places people spend the majority of their time so that they can receive the education that is needed for them to ‘prosper’ in life, forgetting that life compared to the Hereafter is extremely short. This life is the preparation for the Hereafter, and the ones that truly prosper are those who succeeded in their deeni duties even if their worldly life was tough.

Preference is given to these institutions of darkness and depression, that are devoid of the blessings and rahma of Allah Ta’aala, where a person can be lost so easily, over the gatherings and places of nur that are a means of guidance for us.

May Allah Ta’aala open our eyes to the reality of this life, guide us to be firm in our deen and protect our imaan in these times where holding onto imaan is like holding onto burning coals.

[E-Book] Manzil – Qur’anic Verses for Protection

Manzil E-Book:- DOWNLOAD LINK

This is a collection of Verses and short Surah’s from the Qur’an that are to be recited as a means of protection and cure from Black Magic, Jinn, Shayateen, Witchcraft, Sihr, Sorcery, Evil Eye and the like as well as other harmful things. Shaykh  Muhammad  Zakariya  al‐Kandhlawi (May Allah have mercy upon him) collected these verses in book form, which were already in use in his family as an antidote to witchcraft.

This collection is popularly referred to as Manzil. The collection has been recommended by the likes of Allama Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (May Allah have mercy upon him) and Shaykh Muhammad Zakariya  al‐Kandhlawi (May Allah have mercy upon him). It is recommended that it should simply be recited once in the morning and once in the evening.

These are 33 verses of the Qur’an which eliminate the affects of Magic and become a means of protection from Shayateen, thieves and harmful beasts and animals. (Al-Qawl al‐Jameel by Shah Waliullah Rahmatullah Alayh)

“These are verses of the Qur’an which are known as “Manzil” in our family and elders of our family used to practice  / read these assiduously and ensure  that all the children learned them in their childhood.”  (Hadhrat Maulana Muhammad Talha  al‐Kandhlawi, the son of Hadhrat Shaykh Maulana Zakariya al‐ Kandhlawi (Rahmatullah Alayh).

Manzil E-Book:- DOWNLOAD LINK

ﻫﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ؟

ﻫﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ؟ *

‏ ﮐﻤﺎ ﺯﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﯿﺦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﯿﻨﺠﻞ ﺍﺣﺪ ﮐﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﯽ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﮐﺴﺘﺎﻥ

ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ

ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ، ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ، ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻟﺨﺼﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺼﺎ :

ﺍﺩﻋﺎﺀ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ – ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ – ﻋﻦ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺗﻪ، ﺑﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ، ﻛﻼﻡ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ، ﻭﻃﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻩ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﻮ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻴﺔ، ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ، ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﺮﻫﻢ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻟﺤﻈﺔ ﻣﻮﺗﻬﻢ، ﻭﻻ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺳﻮﻯ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺳﻴﻤﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ !

ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻳﻨﻲ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻗﻼﻧﻲ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﻟﻲ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺯﻱ ﻭﻋﻦ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ؛ ﻷﻧﻬﻢ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺴﻴﻐﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻣﺦ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺞ ﺃﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ !

ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻢ ﻫﻨﺎ : ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ – ﻭﻣﺜﻠﻪ – ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ؟ !

ﺇﻥ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ – ﺭﺣﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ – ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻥ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺠﻪ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ، ﻭﻫﻞ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﻴﻨﺔ ﺛﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺒﻬﻮﺍ ﻟﺨﻄﺌﻪ ﺇﻻ ﻟﺤﻈﺔ ﻣﻮﺗﻬﻢ؟ ! ﻣﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ! ؟

ﺧﺎﺏ ﻭﺧﺴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﻄﻦ ﻟﻠﺤﻖ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺤﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺕ ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺿﻞ ﻭﺃﺿﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ !

ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ” ﺍﻹﺑﺎﻧﺔ ” ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻪ، ﻭﺑﻪ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺭﺟﻮﻋﻪ، ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻛﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ، ﺑﻞ ﻣﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ، ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺪﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﻒ، ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻼﻣﺬﺗﻪ ﻭﺗﻼﻣﺬﺓ ﺗﻼﻣﺬﺗﻪ ﻛﺎﺑﻦ ﻓﻮﺭﻙ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻭﻩ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ، ﻭﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺦ ” ﺍﻹﺑﺎﻧﺔ ” ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻏﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻃﻲ ﻭﻣﺤﻘﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ .

ﻭﺍﻷﻗﺮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻟﻪ، ﻭﻳﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺿﻴﻒ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻨﻪ، ﺃﻟﻔﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﻖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺣﺠﺎﺝ ﻭﻻ ﺩﻓﺎﻉ، ﻓﻘﺪ ﺃﻟﻔﻪ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻦ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻟﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻱ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺮ …

ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺽ . ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ . ﻓﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ، ﻭﺷﻌﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ” ﺟﻮﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ :”

ﻭﻛﻞ ﻧﺺ ﺃﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺒﻴﻬﺎ * ﺃﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻮﺽ ﻭﺭﻡ ﺗﻨﺰﻳﻬﺎ

ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺭﺟﻮﻋﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻲ، ﺑﻞ ﻣﻴﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ، ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ، ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮﻭﻧﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺏ ﻣﻮﺗﻬﻢ ! ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺇﺧﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﺗﻪ، ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ ﻳُﺴﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ .

ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﻨﻒ ﺍﻷﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﻤﺎﻫﺎ ” ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ” ، ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ ﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؛ ﻷﻥ ” ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ” ﻋﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ .

ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ، ﻓﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺔ ﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ . ﺃﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺤﻨﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧﻮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻒ ﻭﺣﺴﺐ، ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻔﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ، ﺑﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻮﺽ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺋﻀﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ .

ﻭﻟﻸﺳﻒ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺴﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ، ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻏﻤﻂ ﻟﻠﺤﻖ .

ﻓﻴﺤﻤﻞ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺗﻤﻨﻮﺍ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ – ﺇﻥ ﺻﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ، ﻭﺃﺧﺎﻟﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻩ – ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ : ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ، ﺇﻻ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﺷﻌﺮﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ .

ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺼﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎ ﺃﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﺟﻬﺎﻟﺘﻬﻢ، ﻓﺎﻟﻠﻪ ﻳﺘﻘﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻬﻞ، ﻭﺃﻱ ﺧﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺎﺋﺰ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ؟ ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﻧﺎ ﻗﻮﻳﺎ ﻛﻘﻮﺓ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺠﺎﺋﺰ، ﻻ ﺗﺰﻋﺰﻋﻪ ﺃﻱ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ .

ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺽ ﺑﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﺎﻋﺮﺓ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺟﺔ، ﺑﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺞ ﻭﺗﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻬﺎﺕ … ﻭﻫﻮ ﻓﺮﻉ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻳﺾ .

ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻢ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﻴﻘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ

Does Artificial Intelligence Undermine Religion?

By Hamza Andreas Tzortzis

Artificial intelligence (AI) has developed rapidly over the past few years. We have computers, phones and other hardware that can now display abilities and intelligence that makes humans look primitive. With this fast-moving area of technology many are postulating that AI can become conscious, and the implications are that it undermines religious narratives. If AI can be conscious then there is a physicalist explanation for what makes us human.1 The soul, the immaterial thing that animates the body, can now be replaced with a physical, materialistic explanation.2 Religion is therefore undermined.

The physicalist may argue that consciousness and the ability to experience subjective conscious states (also referred to as phenomenal states) can be explained by artificial intelligence—consciousness becomes analogous to a computer programme. However, there is a difference between weak AI and strong AI. Weak AI is a computer system’s ability to display intelligence. This can include answering complex mathematical equations or beating multiple opponents at a game of chess in less than an hour. Strong AI refers to computer systems actually being conscious. In other words, having the ability to experience subjective conscious states—which includes attaching meaning to things. Weak AI is possible and has already been developed. Strong AI is impossible. What follows are the reasons why.

The first reason, which is more of a general point, is that computers are not independent systems with the ability to engage in reasoning. A thing characterised as conscious implies being an independent source of rational thought. However, computers (and computer programmes) were designed, developed and made by human beings that are independently rational. Therefore, computers are just a protraction of our ability to be intelligent. William Hasker explains:

“Computers function as they do because they have been constructed by human being endowed with rational insight. A computer, in other words, is merely an extension of the rationality of its designers and users; it is no more an independent source of rational thought than a television set is an independent source of news and entertainment.”3

The second reason is that humans are not only intelligent—their reasoning has intentionality. This means that our reasoning is about or of something and that it is associated with meaning.4 Conversely, computer programmes are not characterised as having meaning. Computer systems just manipulate symbols. For the system, the symbols are not about or of something—all computers can “see” are the symbols they are manipulating, irrespective of what we may think the symbols are about or of. Computer programmes are just based on syntactical rules (the manipulation of symbols), not semantics (meaning).

To understand the difference between semantics and syntax, consider the following sentences:

I love my family.

αγαπώ την οικογένειά μου.

আমি আমার পরিবারকে ভালবাসি.

These three sentences mean the same thing: I love my family.

This refers to semantics, the meaning of the sentences. But the syntax is different. In other words, the symbols used are unalike. The first sentence is using English ‘symbols’, the second Greek, and the last Bangla. From this the following argument can be developed:

Computer programmes are syntactical (based on syntax);

Minds have semantics;

Syntax by itself is neither sufficient for nor constitutive for semantics;

Therefore computer programmes by themselves are not minds.5

Imagine that an avalanche somehow arranges mountain rocks into the words ‘I love my family’. To make the claim that the mountain knows what the arrangement of rocks (symbols) mean would be untenable. This indicates that the mere manipulation of symbols (syntax) does not give rise to meaning (semantics).

Computer programmes are based on the manipulation of symbols, not meaning. Likewise, I cannot know the meaning of the sentence in Bangla just by manipulating the letters (symbols). No matter how many times I manipulate the Bangla letters, I will not be able to understand the meaning of the words. This is why for semantics we need more than the correct syntax. Computer programmes work on syntax and not on semantics. Computers do not know the meaning of anything.

John Searle’s Chinese Room thought-experiment is a powerful way of showing that the mere manipulation of symbols does not lead to an understanding of what they mean:

“Imagine that you are locked in a room, and in this room are several baskets full of Chinese symbols. Imagine that you (like me) do not understand a word of Chinese, but that you are given a rule book in English for manipulating the Chinese symbols. The rules specify the manipulation of symbols purely formally, in terms of their syntax, not their semantics. So the rule might say: ‘Take a squiggle-squiggle out of basket number one and put it next to a squiggle-squiggle sign from basket number two.’ Now suppose that some other Chinese symbols are passed into the room and that you are given further rules for passing back Chinese symbols out of the room. Suppose that unknown to you the symbols passed into the room are called ‘questions’ by the people outside the room, and the symbols you pass back out of the room are called ‘answers to questions.’ Suppose furthermore, that the programmers are so good at designing the programs and that you are so good at manipulating the symbols, that very soon your answers are indistinguishable from those of a native Chinese speaker. There you are locked in your room shuffling your Chinese symbols and passing out Chinese symbols in response to incoming Chinese symbols… Now the point of the story is simply this: by virtue of implementing a formal computer program from the point of view of an outside observer, you behave exactly as if you understood Chinese, but all the same you do not understand a word of Chinese.”6

In the Chinese Room thought-experiment the person inside the room is simulating a computer. Another person manages the symbols in a way that makes the person inside the room seem to understand Chinese. However, the person inside the room does not understand the language; they merely imitate that state. Searle concludes:

“Having the symbols by themselves—just having the syntax—is not sufficient for having the semantics. Merely manipulating symbols is not enough to guarantee knowledge of what they mean.”7

The objector might respond to this by arguing that although the computer programme does not know the meaning, the whole system does. Searle has called this objection “the systems reply”8. However, why is it that the programme does not know the meaning? The answer is simple: it is because it has no way of assigning meaning to the symbols. Since a computer programme cannot assign meaning to symbols, how can a computer system—which relies on the programme—understand the meaning? You cannot produce understanding just by having the right programme. Searle presents an extended version of the Chinese Room thought-experim

ent to show that the system as a whole does not understand the meaning: “Imagine that I memorize the contents of the baskets and the rule book, and I do all the calculations in my head. You can even imagine that I work out in the open. There is nothing in the ‘system’ that is not in me, and since I don’t understand Chinese, neither does the system.”9

Lawrence Carleton postulates that Searle’s Chinese Room argument is invalid. He argues that Searle’s argument commits the fallacy referred to as the denial of the antecedent. Carleton maintains that Searle commits the fallacy because “we are given no evidence that there is only one way to produce intentionality”

.10 He claims that Searle is assuming that only brain’s have the processes to manipulate and understand symbols (intentionality), and computers do not. Carleton presents the fallacy in the following way:

“To say, ‘Certain brain-process equivalents produce intentionality’ and ‘X does not have these equivalents’, therefore ‘X does not have intentionality’, is to commit the formal fallacy, ‘Denial of the antecedent.’”11

However, Dale Jacquette maintains that Searle does not commit the formal fallacy if an interpretation of Searle’s argument is:

“If X is (intrinsically) intentional, then X has certain brain-process equivalents.”12

Jacquette believes that Searle’s argument is a concession to functionalism. He argues that functionalists “maintain that there is nothing special about protoplasm, so that any properly organized matter instantiating the right input-output program duplicates the intentionality of the mind.”13 Searle also seems to admit that machines could have the ability to understand Chinese. However he states that “I do see very strong arguments for saying that we could not give such a thing to a machine where the operation of the machine is defined solely in terms of computational processes over formally defined elements….”14

If computers cannot attach meaning to symbols, then what kind of conscious machine is Searle referring to? Even if one would postulate a robot (something that Searle rejects), it would still present insurmountable problems. Machines are based on “computational processes over formally defined elements”. It seems that the mere possibility of a machine having understanding (attaching meaning to symbols) would require something other than these aforementioned processes and elements. Does such a machine exist? The answer is no. Could they exist? If they could, they probably would not be described as machines if something other than “computational processes over formally defined elements” is required.

According to Rocco Gennaro, many philosophers agree with Searle’s view that robots could not have phenomenal consciousness.15 Some philosophers argue that to build a conscious robot “qualitative experience must be present”[16], something that they are pessimistic about. Others explain this pessimism:

“To explain consciousness is to explain how this subjective internal appearance of information can arise in the brain, and so to create a conscious robot would be to create subjective internal appearance of information inside the robot… no matter how advanced, will likely not make the robot conscious since the phenomenal internal appearances must be present as well.”17

AI cannot attach meaning to symbols, it just manipulates them in very complex ways. Therefore there will never be a strong version of AI. Religion is not undermined.

References

1 Physicalism is the view that consciousness can be reduced to, explained by, or identical to physical processes in some way.

2 In the philosophy of the mind physicalism or materialism are synonymous terms, even though they have different histories and meaning when used in other domains of knowledge.

3 Hasker, Hasker. Metaphysics(Downer’s Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1983), 49; also see “The Transcendental Refutation of Determinism,” Southern Journal of Philosophy 11 (1973) 175–83.

4 Searle, John, Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 160.

5 Searle, John. (1989). Reply to Jacquette. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 49(4), 703.

6 Searle, John. (1984) Minds, Brains and Science. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, pp. 32–33.

7 Searle, John. (1990) Is the Brain’s Mind a Computer Program? Scientific American 262: 27.

8 Ibid, 30.

9 Ibid.

10 Carleton, Lawrence (1984). Programs, Language Understanding, and Searle. Synthese, 59, 221.

11 Ibid.

12 Jacquette, Dale. “Searle’s Intentionality Thesis.” Synthese 80, no. 2 (1989): 267.

13 Ibid, 268.

14 Searle, John. (1980b) Minds, Brains, and Programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3, 422.

15 Gennaro, Rocco. Consciousness. (London: Routledge, 2017), p. 176.

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid

The Islamic Roots of the Modern Hospital

by David W. Tschanz ]

Did you Know? The earliest documented general hospital was built in 805 in Baghdad.

Below is the translation of a young Frenchman’s letter from a Cordóba hospital in the 10th century:

You have mentioned in your previous letter that you would send me some money to make use of it in my medicines costs. I say, I don’t need it at all as treatment in this Islamic hospital is for free. Also there is something else concerning this hospital. This hospital gives a new suit and five dinars to every patient who has already got well lest he should find himself obliged to work in the period of rest and recuperation.

Dear father, if you’d like to visit me, you will find me in the surgery department and joints treatment. When you enter the main gate, go to the south hall where you will find the department of first aid and the department of disease diagnosis then you will find the department of arthritis (joint diseases). Next to my room, you will find a library and a hall where doctors meet together to listen to the lectures given by professors; also this hall is used for reading. The gynecology department lies on the other side of the hospital court. Men are not allowed to enter it. On the right of the hospital court lies a large hall for those who recovered. In this place they spend the period of rest and convalescence for some days. This hall contains a special library and some musical instruments.

Dear father, any place in this hospital is extremely clean; beds and pillows are covered with fine Damascus white cloth. As to bedcovers, they are made of gentle soft plush. All the rooms in this hospital are supplied with clean water. This water is carried to the rooms through pipes that are connected to a wide water fountain; not only that, but also every room is equipped with a heating stove. As to food, chicken and vegetables are always served to the extent that some patients do not want to leave the hospital because of their love and desire of this tasty food.

“The hospital shall keep all patients, men and women, until they are completely recovered. All costs are to be borne by the hospital whether the people come from afar or near, whether they are residents or foreigners, strong or weak, low or high, rich or poor, employed or unemployed, blind or signed, physically or mentally ill, learned or illiterate. There are no conditions of consideration and payment; none is objected to or even indirectly hinted at for non-payment. The entire service is through the magnificence of God, the generous one.” (policy statement of the bimaristan of al-Mansur Qalawun in Cairo, c. 1284 ce)

* * *

The modern West’s approach to health and medicine owes countless debts to the ancient past: Babylon, Egypt, Greece, Rome and India, to name a few. The hospital is an invention that was both medical and social, and today it is an institution we take for granted, hoping rarely to need it but grateful for it when we do. Almost anywhere in the world now, we expect a hospital to be a place where we can receive ease from pain and help for healing in times of illness or accidents.

We can do that because of the systematic approach—both scientifically and socially—to health care that developed in medieval Islamic societies. A long line of caliphs, sultans, scholars and medical practitioners took ancient knowledge and time-honored practices from diverse traditions and melded them with their original research to feed centuries of intellectual achievement and drive a continual quest for improvement. Their bimaristan, or asylum of the sick, was not only the true forerunner of the modern hospital, but also virtually indistinguishable from the modern multi-service healthcare and medical education center.

The bimaristan served variously as a center of treatment, a convalescent home for those recovering from illness or accident, a psychological asylum and a retirement home that gave basic maintenance to the aged and infirm who lacked a family to care for them.

Asylum of the Sick

The bimaristan was but one important result of the great deal of energy and thought medieval Islamic civilizations put into developing the medical arts. Attached to the larger hospitals—then as now—were medical schools and libraries where senior physicians taught students how to apply their growing knowledge directly with patients. Hospitals set examinations for the students and issued diplomas. The institutional bimaristans were devoted to the promotion of health, the curing of diseases and the expansion and dissemination of medical knowledge.

Figure 1. The Nur al-Din Bimaristan, a hospital and medical school in Damascus, was founded in the 12th century. Today it is the Museum of Medicine and Science in the Arab World. (Source)

The First Hospitals

Although places for ill persons have existed since antiquity, most were simple, without more than a rudimentary organization and care structure. Incremental improvements continued through the Hellenistic period, but these facilities would barely be recognizable as little more than holding locations for the sick. In early medieval Europe, the dominant philosophical belief held that the origin of illness was supernatural and thus uncontrollable by human intervention: As a result, hospitals were little more than hospices where patients were tended by monks who strove to assure the salvation of the soul without much effort to cure the body.

Muslim physicians took a completely different approach. Guided by sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (hadith) like “God never inflicts a disease unless He makes a cure for it,” collected by Bukhari, and “God has sent down the disease and the cure, and He has appointed a cure for every disease, so treat yourselves medically,” collected by Abu al-Darda, they took as their goal the restoration of health by rational, empirical means.

Hospital design reflected this difference in approach. In the West, beds and spaces for the sick were laid out so that the patients could view the daily sacrament of the Mass. Plainly (if at all) decorated, they were often dim and, owing to both climate and architecture, often damp as well. In the Islamic cities, which largely benefited from drier, warmer climates, hospitals were set up to encourage the movement of light and air. This supported treatment according to humoralism, a system of medicine concerned with corporal rather than spiritual balance.

Mobile Dispensaries

The first known Islamic care center was set up in a tent by Rufaydah al-Aslamiyah during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad. Famously, during the Ghazwah Khandaq (Battle of the Ditch), she treated the wounded in a separate tent erected for them.

Later rulers developed these forerunners of “mash” units into true traveling dispensaries, complete with medicines, food, drink, clothes, doctor and pharmacists. Their mission was to meet the needs of outlying communities that were far from the major cities and permanent medical facilities.

They also provided the rulers themselves with mobile care. By the early 12th-century reign of Seljuq Sultan Muhammad Saljuqi, the mobile hospital had become so extensive that it needed 40 camels to transport it.

Permanent Hospitals

The first Muslim hospital was only a leprosarium—an asylum for lepers—constructed in the early eighth century in Damascus under Umayyad Caliph Walid ibn ‘Abd al-Malik. Physicians appointed to it were compensated with large properties and munificent salaries. Patients were confined (leprosy was well known to be contagious), but like the blind, they were granted stipends that helped care for their families.

The earliest documented general hospital was built in 805 in Baghdad.

The earliest documented general hospital was built about a century later, in 805, in Baghdad, by the vizier to the caliph Harun al-Rashid. Few details are known, but the prominence as court physicians of members of the Bakhtishu’ family, former heads of the Persian medical academy at Jundishapur, suggests they played important roles in its development.

Over the following decades, 34 more hospitals sprang up throughout the Islamic world, and the number continued to grow each year. In Kairouan, in present-day Tunisia, a hospital was built in the ninth century, and others were established at Makkah and Madinah. Persia had several: One in the city of Rayy was headed for a time by its Baghdad-educated native son, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi.

In the 10th century five more hospitals were built in Baghdad. The earliest was established in the late ninth century by ‘Al-Mu’tadid, who asked Al-Razi to oversee its construction and operations. To start, Al-Razi wanted to determine the most salubrious place in the city: He had pieces of fresh meat placed in various neighborhoods, and some time later, he checked to determine which had rotted the least and sited the hospital there. When it opened, it had 25 doctors, including oculists, surgeons and bonesetters. The numbers and specialties grew until 1258, when the Mongols destroyed Baghdad.

The vizier ‘Ali ibn Isa ibn Jarah ibn Thabit wrote in the early 10th century to the chief medical officer of Baghdad about another group:

“I am very much worried about the prisoners. Their large numbers and the condition of prisons make it certain that there must be many ailing persons among them. Therefore, I am of the opinion that they must have their own doctors who should examine them every day and give them, where necessary, medicines and decoctions. Such doctors should visit all prisons and treat the sick prisoners there.”

Shortly afterwards a separate hospital was built for convicts, fully staffed and supplied.

Figure 2. This plaque on the wall of the Bimaristan Arghun in Aleppo, Syria, commemorates its founding by Emir Arghun al-Kamili in the mid-14th century. Care for mental illnesses here included abundant light, fresh air, running water and music. (Source)

In Egypt, the first hospital was built in 872 in the southwestern quarter of Fustat, now part of Old Cairo, by the ‘Abbasid governor of Egypt, Ahmad ibn Tulun. It is the first documented facility that provided care also for mental as well as general illnesses. In the 12th century, Saladin founded in Cairo the Nasiri hospital, which later was surpassed in size and importance by the Mansuri, completed in 1284. It remained the primary medical center in Cairo through the 15th century, and today, renamed Qalawun Hospital, it is used for ophthalmology.

In Damascus the Nuri hospital was the leading one from the time of its foundation in the mid-12th century well into the 15th century, by which time the city contained five additional hospitals.

In the Iberian Peninsula, Cordóba alone had 50 major hospitals. Some were exclusively for the military, and the doctors there supplemented the specialists who attended to the caliphs, military commanders and nobles.

Figure 3. Fountains were central to the architecture of the Bimaristan Arghun: Three courtyards each held a fountain, around which patient rooms were arranged, while the central courtryard featured a large rectangular pool and well. (Since these photos were taken, unesco has listed the bimaristan as damaged by warfare.) (Source)

Organization

In a fashion that would still be recognizable today, the typical Islamic hospital was subdivided into departments such as systemic diseases, surgery, ophthalmology, orthopedics and mental diseases. The department of systemic diseases was roughly equivalent to today’s department of internal medicine, and it was usually further subdivided into sections dealing with fevers, digestive troubles, infections and more. Larger hospitals had more departments and diverse subspecialties, and every department had an officer-in-charge and a presiding officer in addition to a supervising specialist.

Hospitals were staffed also with a sanitary inspector who was responsible for assuring cleanliness and hygienic practices. In addition, there were accountants and other administrative staff to assure that hospital conditions—financial and otherwise—met standards. There was a superintendent, called a sa’ur, who was responsible for overseeing the management of the entire institution.

Physicians worked fixed hours, during which they saw the patients who came to their departments. Every hospital had its own staff of licensed pharmacists (saydalani) and nurses. Medical staff salaries were fixed by law, and compensation was distributed at a rate generous enough to attract the talented.

Funding for the Islamic hospitals came from the revenues of pious bequests called waqfs. Wealthy men and rulers donated property to existing or newly built bimaristans as endowments, and the revenues from the bequests paid for building and maintenance. To help make it pay, such revenues could come from any mix on the property of shops, mills, caravanserais or even entire villages. The income from an endowment would sometimes also cover a small stipend to the patient upon dismissal. Part of the state budget also went toward the maintenance of hospitals. To patients, the services of the hospital were free, though individual physicians occasionally charged fees.

Patient Care

Bimaristans were open to everyone on a 24-hour basis. Some only saw men while others, staffed by women physicians, saw only women; still others cared for both in separate wings with duplicate facilities and resources. To treat less serious cases, physicians staffed outpatient clinics and prescribed medicines to be taken at home.

Special measures were taken to prevent infection. Inpatients were issued hospital wear from a central supply area while their own clothes were kept in the hospital store. When taken to the hospital ward, patients would find beds with clean sheets and special stuffed mattresses ready. The hospital rooms and wards were neat and tidy with abundant running water and sunlight.

Inspectors evaluated the cleanliness of the hospital and the rooms on a daily basis. It was not unusual for local rulers to make personal visits to make sure patients were getting the best care.

The course of treatment prescribed by doctors began immediately upon arrival. Patients were placed on a fixed diet, depending on condition and disease. The food was of high quality and included chicken and other poultry, beef and lamb, and fresh fruits and vegetables.

The major criterion of recovery was that patients be able to ingest, at one time, an amount of bread normal to a healthy person, along with the roasted meat of a whole bird. If patients could easily digest it, they were considered recovered and subsequently released. Patients who were cured but too weak to discharge were transferred to the convalescent ward until they were strong enough to leave. Needy patients were given new clothes, along with a small sum to aid them in re-establishing their livelihood.

Figure 4. In Egypt, the al-Mansur Qalawun Complex in Cairo includes a hospital, school and mausoleum. It dates from 1284-85. (Source)

The 13th-century doctor and traveler ‘Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, who also taught at Damascus, narrated an amusing story of a clever Persian youth who was so tempted by the excellent food and service of the Nuri hospital that he feigned illness. The doctor who examined him figured out what the young man was up to and admitted him nevertheless, providing the youth with fine food for three days. On the fourth day, the doctor went to his patient and said with a rueful smile, “Traditional Arab hospitality lasts for three days: Please go home now!”

The quality of care was subject to review and even arbitration, as related by Ibn al-Okhowa in his book ‘Ma’alem al-Qurba fi Talab al-Hisba’ (The Features of Relations in al-Hisba):

“If the patient is cured, the physician is paid. If the patient dies, his parents go to the chief doctor; they present the prescriptions written by the physician. If the chief doctor judges that the physician has performed his job perfectly without negligence, he tells the parents that death was natural; if he judges otherwise, he tells them: Take the blood money of your relative from the physician; he killed him by his bad performance and negligence. In this honorable way, they were sure that medicine is practiced by experienced, well-trained persons.”

In addition to the permanent hospitals, cities and major towns also had first aid and acute care centers. These were typically located at busy public places such as large mosques. Maqrizi described one in Cairo:

“Ibn Tulun, when he built his world-famous mosque in Egypt, at one end of it there was a place for ablutions and a dispensary also as annexes. The dispensary was well equipped with medicines and attendants. On Fridays there used to be a doctor on duty there so that he might attend immediately to any casualties on the occasion of this mammoth gathering.”

Medical Schools & Libraries

Because one of the major roles of the hospitals was the training of physicians, each hospital had a large lecture theater where students, along with senior physicians and medical officers, would meet and discuss medical problems in seminar style. As training progressed, medical students would accompany senior physicians to the wards and participate in patient care—much like a modern residency program.

Surviving texts, such as those in Ibn Abi Usaybi’ah’s ‘Uyun al-anba’ fi tabaqat al-atibb’ (Sources of Information on Classes of Physicians), as well as student notes, reveal details of these early clinical rounds. There are instructions on diets and recipes for common treatments, including skin diseases, tumors and fevers. During rounds, students were told to examine the patients’ actions, excreta, and the nature and location of swelling and pain. Students were also instructed to note the color and feel of the skin, whether hot, cool, moist, dry or loose.

Training culminated in an examination for a license to practice medicine. Candidates had to appear before the region’s government-appointed chief medical officer. The first step required was to write a treatise on the subject in which the candidate wanted to obtain a certificate. The treatise could be an original piece of research or a commentary on existing texts, such as those of Hippocrates, Galen and, after the 11th century, Ibn Sina, and more.

Candidates were encouraged not only to study these earlier works, but also to scrutinize them for possible errors. This emphasis on empiricism and observation rather than slavish adherence to authorities was one of the key engines of the medieval Islamic intellectual ferment. Upon completion of the treatise, candidates were interviewed at length by the chief medical officer, who asked them questions relevant to problems of the prospective specialties. Satisfactory answers led to licensed practices.

Another key aspect to the hospital, and of critical importance to both students and teachers, was the presence of extensive medical libraries. By the 14th century, Egypt’s Ibn Tulun Hospital had a library comprising 100,000 books on various branches of medical science. This was at a time when Europe’s largest library, at the University of Paris, held 400 volumes.

Cradle of Islamic medicine and prototype for today’s hospitals, bimaristans count among numerous scientific and intellectual achievements of the medieval Islamic world. But of them all, when ill health or injury strikes, there is no legacy more meaningful.

The Islamic Scientific Supremacy. Ameer Gafar Al-Arshdy. 1990, Beirut, Al-Resala Establishment.

Source -Courtesy – muslimheritage.com/islamic-roots-of-hospital/

 

 

 

 

BRIEF ACCOUNTS OF SUSPENSION OF HAJJ IN ISLAMIC HISTORY

Around 40 times in history the Hajj was either cancelled or the number of pilgrims was extremely low according to the King AbdulAziz Foundation For Research And Archives, and this idea is not as unprecedented as perceived.

Among the many factors were:

• Epidemics/Diseases

• Political turmoil

• Economic turmoil

• Instability of security

• Conflicts

• Activities of bandits and raiders

Some years and events when Hajj was either suspended or interrupted:

1. 251 AH / 865 AD:

Ismail bin Yusuf Al-Alawi known as Al Safak and his forces led a rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate and massacred thousands of pilgrims who were gathered at the Arafat Mountain near Makkah, forcing the cancellation of the Hajj.

2. 317 AH / 930 AD:

Arguably the most infamous event was when a sect called Qaramitah who considered the Hajj to be a pagan ritual led by Abu Tahir Qaramitani carried out a vicious attack on Makkah during the Hajj season. According to historic accounts, the Qaramitans massacred 30,000 pilgrims while mockingly chanting verses of the Quran at them burying them in their places without bathing or shrouding or Janazah prayer. They dumped 3,000 bodies into the sacred well of Zamzam and then destroyed it completely. They also stole the Black Stone from the Ka’bah and took it to their base in the east of Saudi called Hajr (modern day Qatif) for 22 years. It is said that sadly for 10 years after this event the Hajj was not carried out.

3. 357 AH / 968 AD:

It is said that this year it was cancelled because of the spread of the so-called “Al-Mashiri disease” in Makkah, and because of it the pilgrims died, and their camels died on the way from thirst and only a few of them arrived in Makkah.

4. 390 AH & 419 AH / 1000 AD & 1028 AD:

Hajj was suspended due to extreme high costs and inflation. For the same reason nobody did Hajj from the East and from Egypt in 419 AH.

5. 492 AH / 1099 AD:

Hajj was not performed because of the turmoil and lack of security that befell the Muslims throughout their large state due to the raging conflict between themselves, and for five years before the fall of Jerusalem to the hands of the Crusaders.

6. 654 AH / 1256 AD:

Apart from Hijaz no other country performed Hajj for four years due to ongoing conflicts.

7. 1213 AH / 1799 AD:

Hajj trips stopped during the French Revolution due to the routes being insecure.

8. 1246 AH / 1831 AD:

In more recent accounts, a plague coming from India spread and caused the deaths of a staggering three quarters of the pilgrims.

9. Years 1252 AH to 1310 AH / 1837 AD to 1892 AD:

The epidemics spread in various years from 1837 AD until 1892 AD with thousands dying daily. In 1871 it struck Madinah. This outbreak known as Cholera spread during the Hajj season, as deaths spiked in Arafat and peaked in Mina.

10. Year 1441 AH / 2020 AD:

The Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) caused suspension of international pilgrims performing Hajj.

 

SATANIC SALAAT GAPS

By Mujlisul Ulama

THE JUHALA HAVE NOT VENTURED A SINGLE VALID DALEEL FOR JUSTIFYING KUFR-SATANIC SALAAT GAPS

Question

Those who say that the excessively wide ugly gaps between Musallis in Salaat is permissible, say that it is only Sunnah to stand shoulder to shoulder. But their strongest argument according to their understanding is that in most countries the unanimous or near unanimous opinion is that the gaps are permissible. They list the following countries in support of their contention: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, India, Britain, America, Australia, Canada and South Africa. They say that it is incumbent to make taqleed of this unified opinion of the Ulama. Please comment. Is there any validity in this argument?

Answer

Those who have issued the rubbish ‘fatwa’ of permissibility are not Ulama. They are Baboons, and only pongos make taqleed of Baboons. This argument is exceptionally putrid and stupid. It displays the gross stupidity and bootlicking attitude of the so-called scholars who are either scholars for dollars or bootlickers.

All so-called ‘scholars’ and molvis/sheikhs who plod the path of baatil have one evil trait in common. Thy will criticize the one who states the Haqq or holds an opposite view without even touching on the dalaa-il we present for substantiating the view of the Shariah.

We have published many publications on the issue of satanic ‘social distancing’, and in each booklet / article we have presented the Shar’i arguments. But these mudhilleen and illegitimate progeny of Iblees NEVER answer the dalaa-il. They talk drivel. Their ‘daleel’ is the majority of the modernists and mudhilleen which preponderate in this era in close proximity to Qiyaamah. And, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had predicted these scenarios. The time will still come when there will not remain a single Aalim of Haqq.

What happens today in the list of countries mentioned by the Baboon character is never Shar’i daleel. The only valid daleel is the Shariah. If  the world full of molvies, sheikhs and  scholars for dollars and  the myriad of bootlickers issue a stupid ‘fatwa’ in conflict with the Qur’aan and  Sunnah, it shall be deposited in the toilet. In these times as well as in times progressively leading up to Dajjaal and Qiyaamah, the Ulama-e-Haqq will disappear from this dunya. Then only the scum such as these Baboons masquerading as Ulama will remain to debauch, mangle and pillage the Shariah. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“The Saalihoon are disappearing (from this world) one after the other until there will remain only the Hufaalah (scum, flotsam, rubbish Baboons) such as the chaff of barely or dates. Allah will have no care whatsoever for them.”

All the countries mentioned in the stupid list are under the sway of real kuffaar regimes. The baboonery of the one who has presented this stupid ‘daleel’ is highlighted by the fact that he adds Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, India and the other kuffaafr countries. In all these countries, the so-called ulama are under the direct control of the kuffaar regimes. In India and Pakistan, the molvis, including the once-famed Madaaris such as Deoband and Binnuri Town, etc., have bartered away their souls for the dunya. They peddle the official policy and orders of the governments.

In Britain it is worse. A molvi dare not mention anything against this bogus ‘pandemic’ nor against homosexuality. The same applies to Australia and Canada where only junior moron molvies preponderate. In Turkey, just write it off.  Turkey has just emerged from a virulent type of anti-Islam atheism. What their scholars say have no Shar’i value.

In South Africa, while there are still a handful of Ulama-e-Haqq, the vast majority is of the Baboon type.

We defy these morons, Baboons and pongos to answer every daleel which we have published to prove that:

  • The large gaps in Salaat are haraam
  • The large gaps in the backdrop of the current context is kufr which invalidates not only the Salaat, but also Imaan.

We have explained these issues in detail. If the Baboons are unable to answer, they should seal their noxious mouths. They are of the type mentioned in the Qur’aan: Summum  bukmun umyun…… (They are deaf, dumb and blind. They will not return (to the Path of Allah).

And about the baboonic majority to whose taqleed the pongos submit, the Qu’aan Majeed says: “In fact, the majority does not know the Haqq. Thus, they turn away (from it).”

“If you follow the majority on earth, they will mislead you from the Path of   Allah.”

 

THE HISTORY OF SACRED RELICS IN TOPKAPI PALACE

By Murat Mert

Foremost among the relics preserved for centuries in Mecca are the Hacer-ul Esved and the Makam-ı Ibrahim. The former is the sacred Black Stone brought from Mount Ebu Kubeys and built into the southeastern corner of the Kaaba to mark the starting point of the circumambulation, and the latter is a rectangular slab of marble carved with “footprints” alleged to be those of Abraham, who is said to have stood on it either during construction of the Kaaba or when calling on the people to perform the pilgrimage. Since Muslims interpreted the Koranic verse reading, “Take as your place of worship the place where Ibrahim stood ” , as meaning that they should pray by this stone, it was moved by Omar from its original position next to the Kaaba so that those who were praying did not obstruct the circumambulation.

Another sacred relic at the Kaaba was a pair of horns thought to belong to the sacrificial ram sent to Abraham by God in place of his son (identified as Ishmael in the Koranic and Isaac in the Biblical version). According to Azraki, when Muhammed (peace be upon him) entered the Kaaba following the conquest of Mecca, these horns were hanging on the wall but subsequently disappeared during the siege of Mecca by Hajjaj.

Even during Muhammed’s (peace be upon him) lifetime his followers collected keepsakes. Following his death the desire for such objects, which were regarded as sacred, became even keener. There were those who declared that they would rather possess a hair from the Prophet’s head or beard than the entire world. When the controversy over the caliphate broke out, the Omayyads wished to possess some of the relics of Muhammed (peace be upon him) so as to gain public support, and Muaviye purchased the Prophet’s mantle for twenty thousand drachmas. This mantle was to become one of the most venerated symbols of the caliphate, and following the death of Muaviye was passed down from caliph to caliph, who wore it on feast days. Following the collapse of the Omayyads, the first Abbasid caliph Ebu’l-Abbas Seffah purchased the mantle.

With the conversion of the Turkic peoples, Islam expanded over a wide area, and when the caliphate passed to the Ottoman dynasty in 1517, Istanbul became both the religious and political hub of the Islamic world. The holy relics which are today kept at Topkapı Palace have been reverently preserved over the centuries. As well as those belonging to Muhammed (peace be upon him) himself, there are some which belong to other prophets or to companions of Muhammed (peace be upon him) another group associated with the Kaaba, and finally containers and wrappers in which the relics were transported.

The Ottoman sultans held all holy relics in respect, not only those associated with the history of Islam and fastidiously preserved them all for posterity. Following the conquest of Istanbul, Mehmed II ( 1451-1481) proclaimed that all the religious communities of the city were free to follow their own faith. The hand and fragments from the skull of John the Baptist kept in reliquaries in the Treasury are known to have first been brought to Topkapı Palace during the reign of this sultan. During the inventory of the relics carried out in 1924 after the palace became a museum, these were recorded as being amongst the other holy relics.

Among the exhibits in the Pavilion of the Holy Mantle are many other relics attributed to Biblical prophets, including the sceptre of Moses, the saucepan of Abraham, the sword of David, and a wooden panel carved in relief with the Temple of Solomon and an inscription in Hebrew.

The relics at Topkapı Palace for the most part were brought here between the 16th and early 20th centuries, with a notable spate during the 19th century due largely to the spread in Arabia of the Wahhabi sect, which denounced the idea of material objects being endowed with sanctity. The relics were therefore taken to Istanbul to protect them from destruction at the hands of the Wahhabis, who demolished the tomb of Hussein and in 1803 occupied and razed the city of Mecca. Despite security precautions, the tombs of Othman and Ali were looted in 1898, and a considerable amount of treasure taken from the tomb of Muhammed (peace be upon him) which was also badly damaged. In November 1818 Abdullah bin Suud surrendered in Dir’iyye to the forces of Mehmed Ali Paşa, Governor of Egypt, and was sent to Istanbul, so preventing further attacks on sacred buildings. Abdullah bin Suud relinquished to Mehmed Ali three Korans and a casket containing around three hundred emeralds, pearls and a gold band that his father had stolen from the tomb of Muhammed (peace be upon him) . When interrogated, he asserted that some of the other stolen items were in the possession of prominent Arabs, inhabitants of Medina, and even the Sheriff of Mecca.

The holy relics to be sent to Topkapı Palace were delivered, together with an inventory, to the official responsible for transporting them. Abdullah bin Suud and several others involved in the theft of many relics and valuables from Ravza-i Mutahhara (the tomb of Muhammed (peace be upon him) , which had been looted by his father, the tomb of Hussein and other holy places, were later executed.

Prior to the evacuation of Medina during the First World War, it was decided to send the holy relics of the city and the precious gifts sent during the Ottoman period to Topkapı Palace for safe keeping. This decision of the Ottoman command was notified to Fahreddin Paşa, commander of the Hejaz Forces, on March 2nd, 1917. Fahreddin Paşa consulted Ziver Bey, governor of Medina, as to whether there was any religious objection to removing the relics, and on learning that there was not, sent them off to Istanbul. The subject of the holy relics and gifts was discussed at Lausanne, and the Turkish delegation rejected a demand that these objects be returned. Consisting of eighty-one pieces altogether, they include large diamonds, candelabra, chandeliers, lamps, hanging ornaments, fans, rare manuscripts, Koran cases, caskets for the Holy Mantle, and other objects of priceless spiritual and material value.

The Ottoman sultans traditionally sent precious gifts to Mecca and Medina every year, as did other prominent figures from parts of the Islamic world, and in this way the number of holy relics expanded over the centuries. In all the collection of holy relics at Topkapı Palace today numbers 765. During the reign of Mahmud II (1808-1839) those relics which were kept at the palace were placed in the Hasoda, under the care of forty palace officers.

The Koran was recited day and night in the Pavilion of the Holy Mantle over the centuries by forty hafiz (one who has memorised the Koran), out of respect for the mantle of Muhammed. Sultan Selim I (1512-1520) was himself one of these forty hafiz who read by turns “for the triumph of good over evil”. This tradition is still maintained today. The respect in which the holy relics have always been held means that even the brooms, dustpans, candles, wood used to repair the Kaaba, sandalwood and agallch wood, prayer beads, spoons and other artefacts employed in the Hasoda or kept here have been carefully preserved. The Pavilion of the Holy Mantle was first opened to the public on August 31st, 1962.

Remembering our Dear ones even after their Demise

Imam Taqi ad-Deen al-Maqrizi (rahimahullah) [d. 845 H] was one of the greatest historians of his time. He wrote many books including one of the most detailed books on the life of the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) entitled “Imtaa’ al-Asmaa'” in 15 volumes. He was also an expert in many Islamic sciences.

Imam Al-Maqrizi is giving us a lesson about love in the following anecdote. His wife, Safra, the daughter of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd as-Samad, passed away at the young age of 20 in the year 790 H. He wrote a biography of his wife after her demise. He lived for 55 years after her death.

The following is a paragraph of the biography:

I was making much Istighfaar (seeking Allah’s forgiveness) for her after her demise. One night, I saw her in a dream and she was entering my place in the same state as she was shrouded. I said to her, knowing that she already passed away, “O Umm Muhammad, whatever I send to you, do you get it?”, that is, my Istighfaar for her.

So, she said, “Yes, O my master. Everyday your gift comes to me.”

Then, she started crying and said, “You know my master, I cannot repay for your gifts.”

I said to her, “You do not have to repay for them. Very soon, we will meet again.”

May Allah forgive her even though she was young, she was best of the women of our time in chastity, wisdom, religiosity, trustworthiness, sincerity and sagacity …

May Allah unite us in his paradise and cover us with his pardon and forgiveness.

[Durar al-‘Uqud al-Fareeda 2/99]

This is a lesson of ever-lasting and sincere love. True love continues even after death of the life partner. It also shows that Isaal ath-Thawaab (sending the reward of our good deeds) to the dead is very beneficial for them. Never forget our dear ones who passed away, in our Du’as.

Ifran Nauyock

Al-Kawthari Academy

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